Locomotive Magazine and Railway Carriage and Wagon Review

Volume 44 (1938)
Key file

Number 545 (15 January 1938)

Modern developments of the steam locomotive. 1.
Editorial comment: Not so very long ago it was fashionable to prophesy the early decease of the steam locomotive, and the major and minor prophets differed only as to whether its successor should be operated by electricity or the internal combustion engine. Much of this prattle was of course propaganda inspired by commercial or financial interests, and seconded in the lay press by non-technical. "experts" in search of sensational matter to tickle the fancy of those who believe that novelty must necessarily connote "Progress"
Absurd and exaggerated as were many of the claims put forward for the rivals of the steam locomotive, they may have had some value in fostering the rational and legitimate uses of the newer means of traction, and probably had a stimulating effect on those who, confident in the outstanding merits of the orthodox steam engine, had been content to let it develop merely by increasing size and weight rather than by seeking to enhance its general efficiency.
Whatever may happen in the distant future, it is now safe to affirm that, apart from special circumstances, the steam locomotive remains the most efficient source of locomotive power in the sense of giving the best return for money when everything is taken into consideration; but it is equally clear that this agent is still susceptible to improvement to an extent that becomes ever more apparent as scientific methods of research replace the crudities of rule-of-thumb experience.
The current trend of advance, so marked within the last few years, has mainly followed two distinguishable paths. On the one hand we have unprecedented improvements following strictly orthodox lines, and on the other, the creation of entirely novel systems which frequently represent attempts to introduce in the railway locomotive features known and approved in other fields of steam practice.
While it cannot be denied that many of these latter are fairly promising, it is just as well to restrain our enthusiasm, for many examples show that schemes of great merit in themselves, and highly successful in the spheres for which they were primarily intended, manifest all manner of difficulties and drawbacks when operating in the peculiar conditions of the railway locomotive. There is a strong temptation to believe that any arrangement known to give extraordinary efficiency in stationary engines must consequently prove economical in railway service; and this obsession is most likely to fall upon those whose acquaintance with actual. railway conditions is more or less remote. The problem is to ensure that the (usually) costly construction of the ultra-efficient machines shall be compensated by savings in fuel and possibly maintenance charges, though unfortunately the last generally tend to rise in proportion to the capital outlay. Briefly put, it is an excellent thing to reduce the fuel cost by, say, .one penny per mile, if no extra charge be incurred in so doing, but if this attractive saving be outbalanced by an expenditure of eleven pence on maintenance, or interest on capital, or both, the saving in fuel is but a mirage of economy.
It should never be forgotten that the railway engine is in many respects severely handicapped. Restricted space and axle loading, and imperative requirements for the utmost security in operation, make frequent overhaul and attention more necessary for locomotives than for most other machines; hence all and every ccomplication, never in itself desirable, needs be subject to close scrutiny, before acceptance by the locomotive engineer, in whose mind the principle of dependability must always hold the foremost place.
In the claims put forward by inventors and projectors it is singular how little information is vouchsafed as to cost of manufacture and maintenance. Exact estimates of fuel saving are prominently exhibited, but when the question of price is raised, it is commonly answered by saying that although the first machines are admittedly very expensive, quantity production will reduce all costs to a relatively modest outlay. No doubt there is a modicum of truth in this; but even so, "mass-production" methods, however suitable they may be for such things as cheap motor cars or radio sets, are not likely to be applicable to locomotive engineering, if only for the reason that in the former case the ratio of cost of material to cost of machining is much lower than with heavy locomotives, to say nothing of the far higher standard demanded by the latter in regard to length of life and reliability.
Another point to be noted from the mechanical aspect is that many devices which work well when mounted upon rigid foundations and with ample room for access, develop unforeseen troubles when subjected to severe and continuous vibration or are obliged to occupy congested spaces; and this may be one reason why the steam locomotive of conventional form, with all its rugged simplicity, has so long held its own despite a notorious thermal inefficiency, Our present belief is that the most profitable way of progress lies in the perfecting of existing forms and ameliorations in detail, especially those which help to reduce the cost of repairs, and co- relatively to keep ):he engine in activity. Improvements in methods of lubrication, of bearings, and facility of access to working parts, are for instance items which though they be unspectacular, may in the aggregate make a vast difference to the qualities of a locomotive in its primal duty as an earner of revenue.

Diesel electric locomotives, Southern Railway. 2-3. illustration
The Southern Railway Company had put into service three oil-electric locomotives, designed for shunting duties. The framing and mechanical parts were oonstructedat the company'sworks at Ashford, and all electrical equipment was supplied by the English Electric Co. and installed at Preston Works. In working order, each weighs 55¼ tons and has a maximum tractive force of 30,000 lb. The tank capacities were sufficient to enable the locomotives to remain in service for a week without replenishing, They were stationed at Norwood Junction and leave the shed at about 6.0 a.rn. on Mondays and return about 6.0 a.m. on the following Sunday, the shunting in the Norwood Yard being of a fairly continuous nature. It can be 'seen from the photograph that at one end there is a cab across the full width of the locomotive; ahead of this was the control cubicle. O.V.S. Bulleid acnowledged for information.

4-6-2 tank locomotives, Leopoldina Railway . 4. illustration .
Designed for mixed traffic on the metre gauge Leopoldina Railway of Brazil, two 4-6-2 type tank locomotives, as illustrated, had been built by Beyer, Peacock and Co. Ltd. to the specifications of H.E.T. Vogel, chief mechanical engineer of the railway, and inspection of Livesey and Henderson, the consulting engmeers.

Great Western Railway. 4
New 4-6-0 tender engines completed at Swindon include the following :-Nos. 6851 Hurst Grange, 6852 Headbourne Grange, 6853 Morehampton Grange, 6854 Roundhill Grange, 6855 Saighton Grange, 6856 Stowe Grange, 6857 Tudor Grange, and 0-6-0 tanks Nos. 3750-6. No. 7800, the first of the new 4-6-0 "Manor" class engines was to be named Torquav Manor. Engines withdrawn No. 226 (B.R. No. 26), 0-6-2 tank; No. 1488, 0-4-2 tank ;Nos. 1523 and 1620, 0-6-0 tanks; No. 4204, 2-8-0 tank.

E.A. Phillipson. The steam locomotive in traffic. III. The lay-out of locomotive depots. 5-6.
(a) Engines coming in to depot for requirements only.

  1. Take coal.

  2. Take water.

  3. Take sand.

  4. Turn.

  5. Empty smokebox.

  6. Clean fire.

  7. Engine examined by driver (coincidental with Item 6).

  8. Rake out ashpan.

  9. Minor running repairs, if any.

  10. Prepare engine.

(b) Engines coming in to depot to berth.

  1. Take coal.

  2. Turn.

  3. Empty smokebox.

  4. Clean fire.

  5. Engine examined by driver (coincidental with Item 4).

  6. Rake out ashpan,

  7. Wash out boiler.

  8. Clean wheels, motion and all other details below footplate.

  9. Engine examined by fitter and boilermaker.

  10. Repairs. (running and/or stopped work).

  11. Clean engine, other than details covered by Item 8.

  12. Prepare engine, taking water and sand.

London & North Eastern Railway. 6
New A4 Pacific type locomotives completed at Doncaster were Nos. 4462 Great Snipe (King's Cross), 4463, Sparrow Hawk (Gateshead), and 4464, Bittern. (Heaton Junction). New V2 2-6-2 type engines finished at North Road, Darlington, were Nos. 4793, 4794, 4795 and 4796, allocated ,to the Southern Area. Recent withdrawals included B15 class 4-6-0 Nos. 799 and 797; J23 0-6-0 No. 2518; and J71, 0-6-0, No. 811. In connection with the ManchesterJSheffield/Wath electrification scheme, a contract had been placed by the L.N.E.R. with the Metropolitan-Vickers Company Ltd., for the design, manufacture and erection of electric equipments required for seventy mixed traffic Iocomotives, suitable for the overhead line conductor system, using direct current at 1,500 volts. which was the higher voltage standard system authorised by the Ministry of Transport. These locomotives will be of the four-axle double-bogie type, and it is estimated that the weight will amount to 80 tons each, and that the horse-power will be approximately 1,850. The mechanical portion of the locomotives will be built by the railway in their own works.

2-10-4 heavy goods engine, South African Railways. 7-8. illustration
21 class built North British Locomotive Co. with 62.5 ft2; 4ft 6in coupled wheels, bar frames to design of G.A. Watson, Chief Mechanical Engineer. J.C. Swallow, advisory engineer in London.

Train of early rolling stock of the Western Railway of France at the Centenary of the Paris to St. Gaermain Ry. 8. illustration
Buddicom 2-2-2 No. 12.101 built in 1844

L.N.E.R. suburban services: abolition of second class. 8
From 1 January 1938; and third class ticket holders permitted to use second class carriages. Third class season tickets issued from all stations on Great Eastern Section.

Reed, K.H. and Fayle, H. Recent developments of Irish locomotive practice, Great Southern Railways. Section 5. Dubliin and South Eastern Ry. locomotive types. 9-11. 5 illustrations
Four Vulcan Foundry 4-4-0 of 1896/7 Nos. 55-8 became GSR Nos. 450-3, but only No. 453 survived: it had been rebuilt with a Belpaire boiler in 1915. Two Beyer, Peacock 4-4-0s had been delivered in 1906 and numbered 67-8, but No. 68 was scrapped following an incident in the Irish Civil War. No. 67 became GSR No. 454 (Class D8). DSER Nos 4 and 5 had been supplied by Kitson as 0-6-2T in 1896,, but were rebuilt as 0-6-0 in 1908. They were again rebuilt in 1924 and 1926 with larger Belpaire boilers and became GSR Nos, 448 and 449, the largest 0-6-0 on the GSR. The DSER standard 0-6-0 Nos. 14, 65, 66 and 18 became GSR Nos 443-6 and had been classified as J88 and left unaltered. Beyer peacock supplied two 2-6-0 in 1922 Nos. 15 and 16 which became GSR Nos. 461-2, classified K2. Three of the 2-4-0T built at Grand Canal Street remained: GSR Nos. 423-5, Class G1. The 2-4-2T, also built at Grand Canal Street had been broken into two classes: F2: Nos. 428; 430-3 and F3 Nos. 434-9. No. 428 was rebuilt with a  class T Belpaire boiler. Nos. 434-9 had been rebuilt with Class 101 boilers at Inchicore. Three 4-4-2T, Nos. 52-4 were built by Sharp, Stewart in 1893 mainly to work mail trains between Kingstown Pier and Kingsbridge. Nos. 52 and 54 were rebuilt by the DSER with larger boilers and became GSR Nos. 458/9, classified C3. No. 53 (GSR 460) was reboilered at Inchicore. A class of 4-4-2T consisted of No. 20 built at Grand Canal Street in 1911 and Nos. 34 and 35 from Beyer Peacock in 1924 and differed in having Belpaire boilers. They became GSR 455-7 Class C2. No. 456 was rebuilt with a class 351 round-topped boiler.

London, Midland & Scottish Railway. 11.
At the end of 1937 the latest 2-6-2 passenger tank engine ex Crewe was No.. 195. The rest of the series, numbered up to 209, were now well in hand. Armsrrong, Whitworth and Co. had completed delivery of the order for 227 two-cylinder 4-6-0 mixed traffic engines (class 5), the numbers of which were 5225 to 5451 inclusive (A.W. Nos. 1280-1506). The bulk of these engines were attached to the Western Division, on which they have proved themselves ·a very useful and efficient class. The last of ,the non-superheated 0-8-0s—G class No. 9134—was converted into G1 class (superheater) during December, thus completing a series of conversions which began in 1912. As now running No. 9134 was provided with a standard Belpair e boiler and piston valves in place of the former flat valves. The following engines were now running rebuilt with standard Belpaire boilers — G1 class Nos. 9042, 9277, 9350, 9388; G2 class Nos. 9417, 9443. Prince of Wales class 4-6-0 No. 25749 had left the shops fitted with a round ·top boiler. Only two ex N.S.R. locomotives remained at the end of Deoember — Nos. 1432 and 1434, .both M class tanks (0-4-4). The D class tanks Nos, 1567 and 1570 had been withdrawn for scrapping, whilst the New L tanks Nos. 2270 and 2271 had been sold to the Manchester Colliery Co. At Derby the latest 2-6-2 passenger tank completed was No. 170; 0-4-0 tank No. 1274 had been withdrawn.

The rehabilitation of China's railways. 11-14. 3 illustration

Recent industrial locomotives. 15-16. 3 illustrations
Tunnel Portland Cement Co. Ltd. had purchased two Peckett 1860 class outside-cylinder 0-6-0ST WN 1919 Jubilee and WN 1920 Coronation. This followed an inspection of the Peckett locomotives at Ford's Dagenham plant. Barrow Haematite Steel Co. ere in the process of acquiring four Peckett 1895 inside-cylinder 0-4-0STs of which one had been delivered. Other Peckett locomotives included four 0-6-0STs for the Tyne Improvement Commission; one for Courtaulds of Coventry where there were seven in service, and two 0--4-0ST for the Gas Light & Coke Co, at Beckton. Ruston & Hornsby had exhibited a diesel  locomotive at the Public Works, Road and Transport Exhibition. Hunslet had also exhibited at that event.

D[ewhurst], P.C. L.M.S.R. locomotives: a history of the Somerset and Dorset Joint Railway. 18-21.
See also  p. 98 for letter from Reginald Fellows

Vale of Rheidol Line. 21.
New passenger stock to be built with steel underframes

Institution of Locomotive Engineers. "Experimental locomotives for the Indian State Railways.,". 21-2.
At the meeting held on 15 December 1937, H.H. Saunders gave details of two experimental 4-6-0 locomotives, built in the early part of 1937 by the Vulcan Foundry Ltd. for the Grealt Indian Peninsula Railway, now part of the Indian State Railway system.
During recent years the Indian Railways had effected considerable improvements in locomotive working and whereas twelve years ago the G.LP. Railway averaged only 52.5 miles a day per engine, the figures had risen in 1935-6 to 72 — an improvement of 37 per cent. To still further improve these results by more intensive use of engine power, has given rise to a demand for locomotives that will require the minimum cgtention in sheds and give greater mileage between stoppings ; a regular 10,000 miles per month in pooled service, with a general overhaul in the region of 200,000 miles being aimed at.
To meet these requirements two locomotives were built by the Vulcan Foundry Limited, to the general specification of the Indian Railway Standards Committee and the Great Indian Peninsula Railway, the design being based on the existing 4-6-2 XB type passenger locomotives, first built for India in 1927. An illustrated description with the leading particulars appeared in our issue of July last, from which it will be gathered that although they are very similar in general.dimensions to the earlier engines, they are definitely experimental in detail, and, in addition differed from each other in a number of important details. Their most interesting features are probably the extensive use of roller bearings, on one engine Timken roller bearing axleboxes being fitted and on the other Skefko roller bearings to the driving crankpin as well as axleboxes. There were therefore considerable differences between the two engines. Apart from this it has generally been arranged that the more experimental features, not hitherto tried out, have been fitted to what might be termed the Timken engine; the Skefko engine being fitted with improvements on existing practice on more conservative lines.
The boilers were identical in both engines and followed normal Indian practice generally, except as regards the fireboxes. These are of all welded steel construction and are fabricated from four plates, the tube plate, the back plate, the throat plate and one plate forming the crown, side plates and combustion chamber; there being one longi- tudinal welded seam at the bottom of this to form the latter. The plates were of special firebox quality acid open hearth steel with a maximum phosphorous and sulphur content of .03 per cent. To increase the strength of the welded joints small half-round bridges ¾ in. by ½ in. by 3½ in. have been used. These were welded on all edges and fixed at right angles to the joint at the water side. Two Nicholson thermic syphons of British manufacture were fi.tted to each firebox, butt welded into the crown and lap welded to flanges pressed in the firebox throat plate. Flue and smoke tubes were beaded over and welded into the tube plate, a copper sleeve being inserted between the tube and plate. Water space and roof stays are of Longstrand steel, except in what may be termed the breaking zones where DL type Flannery flexible stays were fitted.
The ashpans were of the hopper type, which is normal Indian practice, with sloping sides arranged so that all ashes will fall into a central hopper. The hopper is fitted at the bottom with swing doors worked either by hand or steam from the ground enabling the contents to be completely discharged without the delay which has been generally inseparable from the earlier designs. Drenching pipes have been fitted on the right and left hand sides of the ashpan.
As an experimental measure both engines were fitted with Klinger reflex water gauges, with sleeve packed cocks for the steam, water and blow down connections, all in lieu of the standard gauge glasses and columns. In addition to this the Timken engine is also fitted for experimental purposes with Klinger seatless piston type valves for the injectors, ejector, soot blowers, turbo-generator, rocking grate and feed pump, and Klinger sleeve packed cocks for the lubricator, blower and pressure gauge. Klinger valves are of a patent design, and have no seating, the valve consisting of a plunger which moves between two renewable and flexible rings of non-metallic material, leakage being dependent on the fit of the rings on the plunger.
The cylinders were of normal design with Caprotti poppet valve gear, operated by a rotary drive from the main axle through a shaft fitted with Hardy Spicer flexible couplings.
Both engines have linered cylinders. In the Tirnken engine these were of Meehanite iron, grade C heat treated to give a Brinell of 240, and in the Skefko engine are of .5 per cent. low silicon iron. The slide bars of the Timken engine are also of Meehanite iron, but in this case grade A heat treated to give a Brinell of 3\0-330 is used. Although there were considerable differences in the design of the connecting and coupling rods, the rods were interchangeable. This is possible as the crank pins were identical, changing over of the rods, however, is not to be 'recommended as there are small differences in wheel balancing. The rods on the Timken engine were of standard design with bronze floating bushes grease lubricated. As an experimental measure, however, the fixed bushes of the connecting rods have been made of Skefko No. 3 steel heat treated after machining; this steel is similar to that used for ball races.
The rods on the Skefko engine, owing to thc necessity of keeping weight down, are made of 50-55 tons nickel chrome molybdenum steel; they are particularly interesting as the crank pin bearings are fitted with roller bearings. The crank pin is fitted with a self-aligning roller bearing both for the connecting rod and coupling rod; these each consist of a double row of rollers working in a spherical outer race common to both rows.
Grease is used for the lubrication of these bearings, being recommended on account of the protection afforded to the housing seals, and its freedom from leakage as compared with oil. The grease used is a soda soap grease suitable for maximum temperatures of 90 to 100 degrees centigrade, and should not, in normal circumstances, need replenishment between shoppings. Grease nipples are fitted, this has been done as sufficient experience has not been gained to say definitely whether they can be dispensed with or not. It should, however, be explained that the grease nipples fitted to the roller bearings of these engines are different to those used elsewhere on the engines for other qualities of grease. By this method it is hoped to hinder at least, the over industrious Indian Maistris (a not inappropriate name for some at least of the fitters employed in India) who might seek promotion by giving a charge of grease, irrespective of quality, to every grease nipple visible.

Victorian Railways  luxury train: "Spirit of Progress". 23-5. 3 illustrations

1938 railway centenaries. 25.

The steam locomotive export trade. 25-6.

O.J. Morris. Standardising Southern Railway locomotives, Central Section.. (8) Stroudley 0-4-2 tanks, classes D1 and D1/M. 26-9. 4 illustrations

Reviews. 29-30

Number 546 (15 February 1938)

Rebuilt 4-6-0 type engine, No. 2364, L.N.E.R. 32-3. illus., 2 diagrs. (s. & f. els.)

New streamlined trains: Italian State Rys. 38
from index

The rehabilitation of China's railways. 45

Reed, K.H. and Fayle, H. Recent developments of Irish locomotive practice, Great Southern Railways. 55

The Bishop's Castle Ry. 56
from index

Institution of Locomotive Engineers. Locomotive boiler design. 60
Precis of Paper 388

Self propelled portable compressors. 62

Number 547 (14 March 1938)

Steam suburban services. 65

G.W.R. "Manor" class, 4-6-0 mixed traffic engines. 66-7. illus., diagr. (s. & f. els.)
No. 7800 Torquay Manor illustrated which had been put to work on Banbury to South Wales section of Newcastle to South Wales through train. List of names selected for class.

Great Western Railway. 67
4-6-0 express locomotive No. 4016, had been named after the Somerset Light Infantry. The christening ceremony at Paddington on February 18 was performed by General Sir Walter Braithwaite, Colonel of the Regiment. The name plate carries the words, The Somerset Light Infantry (Prince Albert's). New engines completed at Swindon: Nos. 7800 to 7803, of the 4-6-0 Manor class; Nos. 4122 to 4124, 2-6-2 tanks; and No. 7243, 2-8-2 tank. Withdrawals were Nos. 1557 and 1819, 0-6-0 tanks, and No. 4382, 2-6-0 tender engine.
At the annual general meeting on February 23, the Chairman, Lord Horne, announced that in view of the increased cost of steam working, Messrs. Merz and McLellan, of Westminster, had been requested to prepare a scheme for the electrification of the section of line between Taunton and Penzance. It has been suggested that the substitution of electric traction may enable considerable economies to be effected. Any decision which may be arrived at will not be carried into effect during the current year.

Highgate-Edgware & High Barnet Lines. 67
Contract placed for the widening the L.N.E.R. line between East Finchley and Finchley Church End. The widening of this section of line is a preliminary to its electrification for Tube trains from the Northern Tube. This is being extended from Highgate to join the L.N.E.R. line at East Finchley and Tube trains will run between the West End and City and Edgware. At Edgware a "joint station" to serve both the existing Morderi-Edgware Tube trains and also the new services from Highgate over the L.N.E.R. line will be built. It is anticipated that the widening will be completed within the next year.

New express locos., Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway. 67-8. illustration
Delivery from the Baldwm Locomotive Works of six high-speed passenger locomotives of the 4-6-4 type, one of which was streamlined, for use in passenger service between Chicago and La Junta, Colorado, a distance of 992 miles. The tender carried 21,000 gallons of water and 7,000 gallons of fuel oil, and is mounted on two. six-wheel trucks. All the axles are fitted with roller bearings, to reduce frictional resistance. The streamlining of engine No. 3460  was designed to blend anto the contour of the train. It consists of a steel shroud built over the locomotive, with a "bullet nose" at the front end of the boiler. This shroud is so shaped that it does not cover the connecting rods and valve motion nor does it obstruct the view from the cab. It was painted in two shades of blue, while the underportions of the locomotive and tender, including the running gear, were painted black. The striping was in silver leaf, and the other faces of the driving wheel tyres and hubs were painted with aluminium paint, as also the tyres of all the engine and tender truck wheels. The hand rails  were stainless steel, and the hand rail columns, cab handles and certain other fittings chromium plated. The boiler was built of nickel steel plates, and carried a working pressure of 300 psi.

2-8-2 fast freight locomotive, German National Rys. 70. illustration
Designed by the Berliner Maschinenfabrik Actien Gesellschaft for the German Reichsbahn, and known as Series 41, for fast freight train service, the engine illustrated. It had two cylinders,520 mm. by 720 mm. driving the third pair of coupled wheels, with piston valves, 300 mm. diam., of the internal admission long-travel type, actuated by Walschaerts valve-gear, or Heusinger gear as it is known in Germany. The coupled wheels were  1,600 mm. diameter. The boiler carried a working pressure of 20 kgs. The heating surface of the tubes and flues was 186.12 m2 firebox, 16.1 m2; and of the superheater, 70 m2 The grate area was 4.05 m2. The sand dome was placed between the feed water and steam domes, and feeds to the front of all the coupled wheels by air operation. The cab was exceptionally roomy and well-ventilated, with comfortable seats, and sliding windows and high side doors. The bogie tender has a coal space of 353 cubic ft., and 'carries 7,000 gallons of water. When full it weighs 74.8 metric tons. The overall length of engine and tender is 78 ft. 9 in., and the maximum height 14 ft. O~ in.

Southern Railway. 70
On 23 February the Eastern Division Running Dept. held their annual dinner at the Strand Palace Hotel. D. Sheppy, Divisional Locomotive Running Superintendent, occupied the chair. A brief silence offered tribute to the late Locomotive Running Superintendent, A.D. Jones, who died recently. Following the loyal toast, Sheppy presented an "Emblem of Peace" to the Western Divisional Loco. Running Supt., Moore, and a sword with scabbard to Inspector Turner. W.J. England proposed the toast of the Department and referred to the problems which frequently occur, especially during the holiday times. As Assistant Superintendent of the Operating Department, England is in close touch with the Locomotive Running Department and its present chief, A. Cobb, who responded to the toast. After musical honours. Cobb referred to the activities of both departments and their increasing responsibilities. Some of the recent changes in office were also mentioned including  A.B. McLeod's appointmcnt to the Stores Dept. The revival of cleaning the locomotives was briefly alluded to as being an improvement which is appreciated by the staff as well as the general public. Cobb also referred to Maunsell's retirement and Bulleid succeeding him as Chief Mechanical Engineer. Chrimes called upon Marsh of the C.M.E. 's department to propose the toast of "The Chairman," and Sheppy responded. Talented artistes, including a fine pianist, contributed to this most enjoyable evening.

High-speed electric trains, Swiss Federal Railways. 70
Referring to the article on pages 37 and 38 of our February issue, we learn that the Ateliers de Construction Oerlikon manufactured and supplied the traction motors, the single axle drives, for train 501, and the brake resistances, pantographs, and various other material for both trains. This company also attended to the erection of the small transformer, the coach heating equipment, and other apparatus supplied by the Browrr-Boveri Company.

Locomotives for the Swedish private railways. 71-2 3 illustrations
The Halmstad-Nassjo Ry owned six three-cylinder 4-8-0 locomotives built by Nydqvist & Hom in 1931. The Grangesberg-Oxelosund (TGOJ) which operated brteen Berslag and Oxelosund on the Baltic possessed eight 2-4-4T engines with Krauss-Helmholtz leading trucks: these had been built at the Motala Works between 1915 and 1936.

L.N.E.R. 72
An additional coach accommodating 35 passengers had been added to the Silver Jubilee set since 7 March

E.A. Phillipson. The steam locomotive in traffic III. The layout of locomotive depots. 73-4.
Supplement plan of layout of Hither Green depot on Central Division of Southern Railway MISSING. Article lists tools, stores, items to store, ventilation, arrangement of smithy, etc..

Empire Exilil3ition, Glasgow. 74
Dctails have now been determined of the Railways Pavilion at which the four main line railway companies will be represented at the Exhibition. The Pavilion will occupy a site on the south side of the hill dominated by the Empire Tower. Exhibits will comprise a series of sectionised coaches of each of the four railways, and an electric model railway 140 feet long, passing through a diorama representative of typical English, Scottish and Welsh scenery. Running on the model railway will be scale-built trains, one for each company, comprising the Coronation Scot (L.M.S.), the Coronation (L.N.E.R.), the Cornish Riviera Express (G.W.R.) and the Southern Belle (S.R.). At one end of the model railway, which will run round a circular gallery, will be a complete model goods marshalling yard in which all the principal operations incidental to the working of goods traffic will be conducted in miniature. The model railway will be controlled from a switch-panel by a hidden operator, and it will be signalled throughout in accordance with rai'way practice. Externally the Railways' Pavilion will be conspicuous by its circular hall, nearly 40 feet in diameter, formed almost completely of glass, and by its tall mast encircled by four parallel lines symbolic of the tour railways and carrying their initials.

Electric trains, New Zealand Govt, Railways. 74-7. illustration
English Electric two car electric multiple units built at the Preston Works with electrical equipment and motors made in Bradford. 1500 volts DC. for services between Wellington and Johnsonville including 5 miles at 1 in 40

[Ceylon Government Railways]. 77  
See MISSING Februa rry Issue       

Retired Railway  Officers' Society. 77
Spring luncheon held at the Charing Cross Hotel on 10 Marrch. President S.L. Murgatroyd took the chair. Chief guest Viscount Horne. Gilbert S. Szlumper proposed toast to guests and C.J. Selway seconded           

O.J. Morris. Standardising Southern Railway locomotives, Central Section. 77-9. 2 illustrations, table
Begins with a correction to Section 7 concerning H2 Atlantics: cylinders were not cast in one piece, but were cast separately and the same pattern was used fir RH and LH cylinders. The junction between the saddle and the smokebox led to air drawing and had to be modified.
(9) Class B4 4-4-0: comprised 33 engines designed by Robert Billinton. Twelve were rebuilt almost entirely in the early 1920s see Locomotive Mag.1936, 42, 279. In spring 1902  Billinton fitted No. 45 Bessborough with firebox water-tubes and increased the tube heating surface to 1640 ft2.
In Dscember 1908 No. 72 was fitted with Allen segmental piston rings. K class 2-6-0 No. 339 was also fittted with segmental piston rings. No. 42 His Majesty throughout the umber period until repainted by the Southern in 1926. No. 26 Billinton retained its name until 1926. The Southern Railway provided a r earward extension to the cab roofs except to No. 2042. No, 2044 retained the 8 inch piston valves and 20-in diameter cylinders with which it was fitted in 1922 as a preliminary to rebuilding the whole class which did not take place. In 11935 No. 2068 received the frames from No. 59 which had been fitted with a Phoenix superheater which altered the appearance and is shown in this state in Figure 24.

D[ewhurst], P.C. L.M.S.R. locomotives: a history of the Somerset and Dorset Joint Railway. 81-3.
The S. & D. Rly. and its extensions were originally single line, but double line has existed between Midford and Templecombe (Upper) station since the early 1890s, as also between Blandford and Corfe Mullen J unction since the early 1900s; the portion of Midland line run over in entering Bath and that from Broadstone Junction to Bournemouth West on the L. & S.W.R. Rly. being also double. In recent years, the line between Corfe Mullen and Wimborne has been closed and the rails removed except a short piece used as a siding at the Code Mullen end. The crossing loops and other features connected with the locomotive service are given in the diagram reproduced on page 20 ante, passenger stations being shown in full capitals.
The single line sections are controlled on the electric tablet system, and the locomotives are all fitted with a tablet-exchanger of the pattern invented by the then Resident Locomotive Supt., Whitaker, and known by his name, by means of which tablets may be exchanged at speeds upwards of 60 m.p.h. Due, however to the necessity of banking all heavy freight trains over part of the Bath-Midford sectiori a special procedure is there adopted in conjunction with the tablet system; the banking engine at the rear carries a train staff, whilst the train engine carries the usual tablet. The train staff can only be taken out for the particular purpose of the banking, and no second tablet or staff can be got out either at Bath J unction Box or Midford until both the tablet and the train staff have been put back, the former may be returned into one or other of the instruments indifferently, but the staff can only be returned into the Bath Junction instrument. Thus the banking engine can return to its starting place at one end of the section and replace the staff, whilst the train engine proceeds and the tablet is put into the instrument at the other (Midford) end, thus freeing the line. The staff also serves to unlock certain sidings at the Bath end of the section, whilst the tablet unlocks the sidings on the single line SIde of Midford station.
The principal works were always at Highbridge where—until the taking over of the stock by the L.M.S.—all classes of locomotive and carriage and wagon repairs were carried out, up to the "rebuilding" of locomotives with new boilers' the boilers, however (except for certain special seconstructions, mostly of small locomotives made at Highbridge in the 1880-90s) being obtained from Derby. There are running-sheds at Highbridge, Bath, Radstock, Templecombe, Bournemouth West and Wells, whilst there is a turntable and water service at Evercreech Junct. There are additional water-stations at Chilcompton, Shepton Mallet, Sturminster Newton, Blandford and Glastonbury, also a limited supply at Burnham. Until recent years there were sheds at Wimborne and Bridgwater, but these are now closed and the shed and turntable at Wimborne removed since 1932; the turntable and water-service still remain in use at Bridgwater however. A view of the yard and surroundings of the relatively small shed at Radstock, noteworthy as the home of "banking" engines for many years appears in the illustration below.
In handling the main line passenger trains, and particularly the freight trains, on the Bath-Evercrecch Junction section, very heavy pulling is required there being ruling gradients of 1 in 50 in each direction in the 3¾ miles between Bath Junction and Midtord made more difficult of operation by single-line tunnels—one over a mile in length—whilst m reaching the much greater altitude in the 15¾ miles between Radstock and Evercreech Junction, the gradient can be considered as 1 in 50 to 1 in 75 almost half the way in each direction. In the early "Joint" railway days, loads—particularly passenger—were not heavy, nevertheless the locomotives supplied in the 1880s and 1890s seem at first sight considerably under-powered for their work, but as such heavy freight trains as there were then were banked on the worst gradients, in practice they were apparently adequate. With the coming of heavy "North to South-west" seaside traffic and the continued development of the collieries in the Radstock district, as also the important Mendip stone traffic from the various quarries, plus a very considerable increase in agricultural produce raised for markets outside its area of origin, the engines of that period had a struggle to cope with their duties. The writer has vivid recollections of the straits to which the enginemen were put to "get the train over the top" in the mid-1900s. The special banking between Bath Junction and Midford has already been referred to; it should be added that banking is also resorted to as required from Radstock.
Another unusual operating practice takes place at Ternplecornbe where owing to the station being onthe L. & S.W. Ry.line at a higher level than the S. & D. J. Rly. trains have a steep bank to climb. South-bound trains run, without stopping, up the loop-which is a double line-into the L. & S.W. Railway station (on a line adjacent to the up platform), and on leaving therefrom to continue the journey another engine, usually a tank engine belonging to Templecombe shed, is attached at the rear. This engine then draws the train backwards down the loop until the whole train and leading engine having cleared Templecombe No. 2 junction, the tank engine is uncoupled and the train proceeds southwards on to the single Iine section to Henstridge and beyond. Northbound trains run through from the single line until clear beyond No. 2 junction, at which place an engine is attached at the rear and draws the train (the train-engine giving assistance) up the loop into the station; being uncoupled there, the train is then ready to start away in due course without stopping at No. 2 junction. An interesting tablet-exchanger development is connected to No. 2 junction box; it is a "receiver," and its most convenient position for the service is in the six-foot way. It is so made that on receiving the impact from the tablet it subsides into a horizontal position at rail-level, thus avoiding fouling of the necessary loading-gauge and clearance; it is provided with means whereby the signalman can bring it to a vertical position from his box, but its action on receiving a tablet is entirely automatic.
At Wells there is an unusual complication of lines with the G.W.R—mentioned previously—where not only does the S. & D. Rly. form a short portion of the G.W. Rly. through line, but a certain number of S. & D. joint sidings cross the G.W.R. on the level. At Highbridge, where the S. & D. line crosses the G.W.R., the level crossing is an extraordinary "blind" one, from or of S. & D. Jt. trains proceeding across the G.W.R. lines from east to west. Midford station is another peculiarity in that although it is at the termination of a single line section, the station itself has only one platform, being situated actually in the single-line section with the double line commencing at the other end of the station.
The Locomotive Superintendent from 1862 to 1868 was R. Andrews, he being followed by F.G. Slesser until 1873; whilst from 1862 to 1864 J. Cleminson, who came from the Hatcham Ironworks and afterwards became connected with South American railways in respect to rolling-stock designs and patents, was assistant locomotive supt. B.S. Fisher was the locomotive superintendent at the time the line became a "Joint" one, having come from the Taff Vale Railway to succeed Slesser about 1874, whilst W. H. French who came from the Midland Railway at Leicester was locomotive superintendent from the time of Fisher's death in 1883 down to 1889, being in November of that year unfortunately killed at Highbridge by being crushed between the buffers of two wagons. During the latter part of French's superintendency, F.M. French, who had been on the Midland Ry. and on the Grand Trunk Ry. of Canada was asst. loco. supt. W. H. French's successor as resident locomotive supt. was . A. Whitaker, who came from the Midland Railway, having been latterly district loco. supt. at Leeds, and whose tablet-exchanging apparatus introduced on the line some years later, and in 1904-6 installed on the Midland & Gt. Northem Joint Rly., was of great advantage in single-line working. Whitaker was succeeded in 1911 by M. F. Ryan, who came from Derby and went to the L. & S.W. Rly. in 1913 and later became chief mechanical engineer, and is now general manager of the Buenos Aires and Pacific Rly., he being followed in 1913 by R. C. Archbutt, from the Midland Rly.Since the locomotive working and maintenance has been entirely taken over by the L.M.S., the old S. & D. Joint area is included with the Bristol district under the charge of A. H. Whitaker, son of the Whitaker previously mentioned.Illustrations: 19-24 class 0-6-0 on freight train on Blandford to Bailey Gate section in early 1890s (T.F. Budden);
 iocomotive shed, etc., at Radstock, S. & D.S&DR train crossing the GWR on the level at Highbridge stattion.

L.M. & S.R. 83
Latest 2-6-2 passenger tank ex Crewe was No. 203, this being the fourth of a series of ten, Of the preceding series, Nos. 185-189 had been allocated to the Northern Division, and Nos, 190-98 to the Central Division. A new series of 4-6-0 mixed traffic engines  would be be put in hand at Crewe. Engines recently repaired at Crewe with standard Belpaire boilers included the following: 4-4-0 superheated Precursor No. 25300 Hydra: 4-6-0 Prince of Wales class :No. 25694; 0-6-0 18-inch goods. No.. 8529 and 0-8-0 G1 class Nos. 9003, 9357 and 9387. Others repaired with round top boilers were 4-4-0 superheated Precursor No. 25272 Brindley; 4-4-0 George V class No. 25323 Henry Ward. arid 4-6-0 Prince of Wales class No. 25673 Lusitania , Recent withdrawals included Nos. 1296 and 1387 (0-4-4 tanks); Nos. 6961 and 6073 (4-6-2 tanks}, and No. 27475 (0-6-0 saddle tank). New construction at Derby comprised the last ten of an order for 2-6-2 passenger tank engines (class 3) Nos. 173-184. The 10.00 St. Pancras to Manchester express, together with its corresponding return train at  16.25 from Manchester (Central) had been named The Peak Express from the fact that the train passes between Derby and Manchester through the Peak District of Derbyshire, the highest point attained being nearly 1000 Ieet above sea level at Peak Forest Summit. The 10.00 from Manchester (Central) to St. Pancras, and corresponding return train from St. Pancras at 16.30 named The Palatine, in honour of the County Palatine, Lancashire.

Reed, K.H. and Fayle, H. Recent developments of Irish locomotive practice, Great Southern Railways. 83-6.
Fifty-eight locomotives were taken over from the Waterford, Limerick and Western Railway in 1901, and of these sixteen were still at work. They have not been materially altered with the exception that the funnels, boiler fittings and splashers are now of Inchicore pattern, and the vacuum brake has replaced the steam brake with which the engines were originally fitted. The oldest class comprised eight 2-4-0 passenger engines designed by J.G. Robinson, and built by Dubs & Co. The .dimensions were: cylinders 17 in. by 24 in., coupled wheels 6 ft. and leadmg wheels 4 ft. dia., wheelbase coupled 8 ft. 6 in., total 15 ft. 10 in. boiler 4 ft. 05/8in. by 10 ft. 35/8 in., 210 tubes of 1¾ in., height of centre line 6 ft. 8 in., length of firebox 5 ft. 10in., heating surface, 1,000 ft2. (tubes) plus 110 ft2. (,firebox), total 1110 ft2., grate area 18 ft2., weight of engine 36 tons  9 cwt. Tender with 2,000 gals. of water and 3½ tons of coal, 28 tons 5 cwt. -
Four of these engines are still at work; the boilers now fitted are 4 ft. 5 in. by 10 ft. 3 in., and the firebox 5 ft. 8 in. by 4 ft. 6 in., the heating surface is 918 ft2.(tubes) plus 99 ft2.. (frebox), a total of 1017 ft2., the grate area 19.8 ft2.., and the weight of the engine 38 tons  11 cwt. inI working order. The classification was G3.

Date. WLW No. GSW No. Withdrawn
1889 10 263


1892 20 273


1890 22 275


1892 23 276

1893 43 290

1893 44 291

1894 47 292


1894 48 293

Following these Robinson designed a somewhat similar class, but provided with a leading bogie, of which three were built by Kitson & Co. The dimensions were: cylinders 17 in. by 24 in., coupled wheels 6 ft., bogie wheels 3 ft. 6 in., wheelbase coupled 8 ft. 2 in., total 20 ft. 6 in.; heating surface 887.36 ft2. (tubes) plus 107 ft2.. (firebox), total 994.36 ft2., grate area 17.84 ft2.., weight of engine 40 tons in working order. Tender with 2,000 gals. and 3 tons coal 28 tons 5 cwt. Two of these engines are still running with the classification D15; they are provided with similar boilers to those fitted to the preceding class.

Date WLW No GSW No, Withdrawn
1896 53 296

1896 54 297


1897 55 998

Of the standard goods type of this line, also of Robinson's design, eight engines were built by Dubs and Kitson, and of these four are still at work with the classification J 25. The dimensions were: cylinders 17 in. by 24 in., coupled wheels 5 ft. 2 in., wheelbase 15 ft. 9 in., boiler 4 ft. 2 in. by 10 ft. 35/8 in., heating surface .873.2 ft2.(tubes) plus 108 ft2. (firebox), total 981.2 ft2.., grate area 17.84 ft2., weight of engine 38 tons 13 cwt. in working order. Tender with 2,000 gallons, 27 tons 8 cwt. The last of these engines,No. 2, had originally a Belpaire firebox, but is now similar to the other three, which are now running with a round topped boiler of the same dimensions as fitted to the passenger engines.

Date WLW No GSW No, Withdrawn
1893 45 233 1919
1893 46 234 1814
1895 49 235 1927
1895 50 236
1897 56 237
1897 57 238 1934
1897 58 239
1900 2 222

The first four mentioned above were made by Dubs, and the latter four by Kitsons).
Four 4-4-2 tank engines built by Kitson are still running. The dimensions were: cylinders 16 in. by 24 in., coupled wheels 5 ft. 6 in., bogie and trailing wheels 3 ft. 6 in., wheel- base coupled 7 ft. 6 in., total 26 ft. 1 in., heating surface 780 sq. ft. (tubes), plus 88 sq. ft. (fire- box), total 868 sq. ft., grate area 15 sq. ft., tanks 1,040 gallons, coal 1¾ tons, weight of engine 46 tons 19 cwt. in working order. These have been rebuilt with class S boiler, enlarged tanks and modified frames; boiler 10 ft. 3 in. by 4 ft. 3 in.,½ in. plates" 165 tubes of 1¾in., firebox 4 f t. 10in. by 4 ft. 4 in., centre line 7 ft. 2 in., heating surface 793 ft2. (tubes), plus 88 ft2.. (firebox) , total 881 ft2.., grate area 15.8 ft2., pressure 150 lb., weight of engine 50 tons 12 cwt. in working order. The classification was C5. 

1896 16 269
1896 17 270
1897 18 271
1897 21 274

No. 274 was illustrated in the Locomotive  for 15 January p. 11. The remaining two engines from this line are 0-4-4 side tanks; No. 279 (W.L.W.R. No. 27) has cylinders 16 in, by 24 in. and coupled wheels 5 ft. 3 in. It was rebuilt at Limerick in 1899 from a 0-4-2 tender engine built by the Avonside Engine Co. in 1876, and is now classified E1,  No. 295 (W.L.W.R. No. 52) was built by Kitson in 1895, and has cylinders 16 in. by 24 in. and coupled wheels 5 ft. 6 in.; the classification E2.
Twenty engines were taken over from the Cork, Bandon and South Coast Railway in 1925, and ten of these are still at work, the most numerous being a class of eight 4-6-0 side tanks built by Beyer, Peacock and Co. between 1906 and 1920, and now numbered 463 to 470. These engines will be fully dealt with in a succeeding article dealing with the locomotives of the Cork, Bandon and South Coast Railway and its subsidiary the Timoleague and Courtmacsherry Light Rly.
Five engines were taken over from the Cork and Macroom Direct Railway in 1925, all of which are now scrapped; they included three 2-4-0 tanks built by Dubs, a 0-6-4 tank built by Barclay, and a 2-4-2 tank built by Dubs in 1891 for the Waterford and Limerick Raiway, which formerly bore the number 266 on the Great Southern and Western Railway; it became No. 6, C. & M.D. Rly. in 1914, and No. 491 on the G.S.R. before being scrapped.
Of four engines taken over from the Waterford and Tramore Railway but one, a 0-4-2 tank built by Barclay, is still at work, bearing G.S.R. number 486 and classification L1The cylinders are 15 in. by 22 in. and the coupled wheels 4 ft. 6 in. As has been mentioned already two of the ex M.G.W.R. class E 0-6-0 tank engines- have been transferred to this section to take the place of the Tramore engines scrapped.
Of the narrow gauge engines taken over in 1925 several have been scrapped; two of the systems, the Cork and Muskerry, and the Cork, Blackrock and Passage, have been closed to traffic. There were seven locomotives- at work on the Cork and Muskerry system in 1925, one of which was scrapped in 1927, and the remaining six followed in 1935. The four engines at work on the Cork, Blackrock and Passage system, were transferred to the Cavan and Leitrim section in 1934, but one of these has since been scrapped. The total number of narrow gauge engines still at work is 28, comprising six types, all of which have been described in these columns previously. llustrations:
Fig. 24. 0·6·0  rebuilt goods engine No. 222, G.S. Rys, late No. 2, WLWR.
Fig. 25. 0·4·4 side tank loco, No. 279, G.S. Rys, ,
Fig. 26. 0-4-2 tank loco, No. 486, G.S. Rys, formerly No. 4 W. & T. Ry.
Fig. 27. 4-4-2 tank engine , No. 60, G.S. Rys., late No. 53, D. & S.E. Ry., as rebuilt at Inchicore in 1926.
Fig. 28. 4-4-2 tank engine , No. . 456, GS. Rys., late No.. 34, D. & S.E. Ry., rebuilt with 351 class boiler

Institution of Locomotive Engineers. Counterbalancing and its effect on the locomotives and on the briadges. 86-7.
Paper of more than ordinary interest was read by D.C. Brown, member, at the meetmg held on 23 February, in the Hall of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. The President, Lt.-Col F. R. Collins, D.S.O., took the chair. Following are brief extracts from the paper.
One of the principal causes of impact on railway bridges is the hammer-blow due to the counterbalancing arrangements on the locomotives. As unbalanced reciprocating masses tend to shake the locomotive, and as the balancing of them gives rise to hammer-blow, the requirements of the locomotive engineer and the civil engineer are mutually opposed. The whole subject of counterbalancing, therefore, is a matter of compromise, and the purpose of the paper is to examine the problem from both points of view. When investigating. the methods of balancing locomotives, the principal features to be borne in mind are:-
(i) To balance revolving parts in the pair of wheels to which they belong.
(ii) To limit the "overbalance" (i.e., the proportion of reciprocating parts balanced) to the minimum necessary to ensure smooth running.
(iii) To distribute the overbalance as evenly as practicable amongst the coupled wheels.
(iv) To reduce to a minimum the weight of the revolving and reciprocating parts, particularly the latter. Special grades of high tensile steel are available for the manufacture of coupling and connecting rods and the use of these materials in preference to straight carbon steel results in an appreciable saving in weight.
(v) To ensure that the wheels as cast do actually comply with the designer's instructions. It has been found that the balance weights are often light, due to the metal being porous. This difficulty can be overcome by checking each pair of coupled wheels after mounting on the axle, and then correcting for any discrepancy.
The parts of a locomotive which move relative to the frame can be divided into two classes those which revolve and those which reciprocate.
The revolving parts can be fully balanced by means of masses in the wheels, and the degree of . balance remams constant at all angular positions during rotation of the wheels.
The reciprocating parts, on the other hand, can only act in the plane of reciprocation, which for the sake of simplicity will be assumed to be hori- zontal. If the obliquity of the connecting rod is neglected, as it usually is in locomotive balancing problems, the reciprocatmg masses will behave in the horizontal plane exactly as if they were revolvmg masses centred at the crank pins. They can, therefore, be fully balanced in this plane by revolving balance weights situated in the wheels.
The reciprocating forces, however, have no component except in the horizontal plane. Hence, m the vertical plane, the revolving masses used to balance them will themselves be totally unbal- anced, and will give rise to hammer-blow on the track. As far as the vibration of the locomotive is concerned the balance for the reciprocating masses can be distributed In any convenient manner amongst the coupled wheels. Revolving parts, however, can only be balanced in the pair of wheels in which they occur. This has often led to difficulty, especially in America where there has frequently been insufficient room in the small driving wheels to balance the massive revolving parts, and as a result heavy hammer-blows due to the underbalance of the revolving parts are not uncommon. In 1935 the Central of Georgia R.R. found 710 bent rails in a distance of only about 100 miles, and this was attributed to underbalanced revolving masses in the driving wheels of their 2-10-2 locomotives. Not only had the engmes been underbalanced when built but in service some of the lead in the balance weight had been lost, thus accentuating the defect. In British built locomotives it is usual to bal- ance the whole of the revolving and a proportion of the reciprocating masses. The actual balance crescents in the wheels are therefore made up, in theory, of two components, the balance for the re- volving masses, and the "overbalance," that is, the part which balances a proportion of the reciprocating masses. . When a live load passes over a bridge at speed it Imposes on the structure, in addition to its own weight, certain forces due partly to the irregulanty of the track and partly to features inherent in the design of the locomotive. The additional forces are:-
(a) Hammer-blow caused by the balancing of the reciprocating masses of the locomotive, or by lack of balance of the revolving masses.
(b) The effects of rail joint and other irregu- larities of the track and wheels.
(c) Lurching due to transverse unevenness of the track or transverse variations of the relative stiffness of the two rails.
(d) A number of minor irregularities· too small to be treated separately. . Although the underlying principles governing Impact effect were not fully understood until quite recent years, the presence of impact forces had long been realised and various means had been adopted to allow for them in designing bridges. As early as 1849, at a time when even the ele- mentary theory of stresses in girders was in its mfancy, a Royal. Commission which had been ap- pomted to enquire mto some disastrous failures of cast iron bridges, singled out "impact" and "fatigue" as two of the principal factors to be investigated. As a result of the report of this Commission the Board of Trade specified that cast iron girders for railway bridges should be so designed that their breaking strength was equal to three times the dead load plus six times the live load. In other words, they called for an impact allowance of 100 per cent. on all spans. We now know that this allowance was excessive, especially for the longer spans. Subsequently as a result of Wohler's experi- ments on fatigue a number of bridges were designed by means of "range of stress" formulae, so-called because the allowable stress depended on the ratio of minimum stress to maximum stress. Although these formula- included no direct allowance for impact, generally speaking they took care of its effects. Apart from other considera- tions, however, they were inconvenient to use as the dead weight of the completed structure had to be assessed before the allowable working stress could be determined.
These difficulties were overcome by the well- known "Pencoyd" formula and others of the same general form. The "Pencoyd" formula is  
I=300/300 + L
where I = impact allowance, i.e., the proportion by which the static load is to be increased.
L = the span of the girder in feet.
This formula was frankly unscientific in origin as it had been evolved merely by plotting values obtained from a number of existing designs. On the other hand, it represented practice that had proved reliable in service, it provided an impact allowance which decreased with increase of span and it was, moreover, simple to use. Consequently it gained wide popularity, but as it was found to provide an excessive allowance a number of variations were adopted.
The Indian authorities have been keenly interested In research on problems connected with bridge design, and the method adopted in their bridge investigation of 1925-1926 was to work on the basis of the natural loaded frequency of the bndge. By this means a basic theoretical formula was evolved and this was substantiated by experimental results. Then, by substituting in this formula for limiting conditions, a covering curve was obtained, giving the general formula:
Impact factor (for single track bridges) = 65/45+L
with a maximum of unity.
Where L = loaded length in feet.
How does all this affect the locomotive engineer? Does it make it possible for him to run heavier locomotives? The question is not so SImple to answer as may appear at first sight. As previously stated, the "Pencoyd" and some of the other forrnulae of this type are now known to have given extravagant values for the impact, and bndges designed wIth these excessive allowances are found to be capable of carrying loads greater than those originally permitted. Thus the Indian Railway Board, due to the adoption of the impact formula which they now use, were able to allow appreciable increases in axle loads.
After describing the manner in which hammer-blow affects the bridge structure and showing how a reduction in hammer-blow may enable the CIvIl engmeer to permit an increase in the static weight of the locomotive, the author then examined the trend of modern counterbalancing, also the effects on the locomotive of the disturbing forces. Instances of low proportions of counterbalance were given, various existing methods of limiting the counterbalance proportions were descnbed, and these were analysed from the point of vIew of both the locomotive engineer and the civil engmeer. A method of limitation combining the two methods, was suggested. '

The Model Railway Club Exhibition . 87
To be held at the Central I-Iall , Westminster, April 19 to 23, will occupy the increased space which was so much appreciated by exhibitors and· visitors last year. Several new features are being arranged for and the model exhibits are likely to be of great interest.

London & North Eastern Railway. 87
New engines completed at North Road Works, Darlington, of the 0-6-0 type J39 class, and put into traffic were Nos. 1535 (Hull): 1537, 1538 and 1541 (Newport), also No. 1542. New V2 class, 2-6-2 class Nos. 4799 to 4802 for the North Eastern section. The latest streamlined A4 Pacifics were Nos. 4466 Herring Gull and 4467 Wild Swan, and not as given in our last Issue. No. 4468 Mallard had been fitted with a Kylchap double chimney. The last two of the ex N.B.R. Atlantics had been withdrawn, Nos. 9875 Midlothian and 9901 St. Johnston:

W.A. Tuplin. Mixed traffic locomotives. 88-9. table
Refers to the intermediate  type, such as the LNWR DX class of 0-6-0 with 5ft 2½in wheels; the 0-4-2 wheel arrangement and the great variety of Great Central Railway 4-6-0s and the high degree of standardisation in the Urie LSWR 4-6-0s for express passenger, freight and mixed traffic duties. Table includes most 4-6-0 type.

F.C. Hambleton. L.N.W. compounds. The "Teutonic" class. 89-90. illustration, diagram (side elevation), table
7ft 1in driving wheels. All named after White Star liners other than Jeannie Deans

Incline working on L.M.S. Rly. Historic stattionary winding engines. 91-3. 5 illustrations
At Middleton Top on the Cromford & High Peak Railway built by the Butterley Iron Works in 1825, and that on the Swannington Incline built by the Horsley (Coal and Iron) Co. in 1833

C.H.E. [Cuthbert Hamilton Ellis]. Famouus locomotive engineers. IV. Archibald Sturrock. 93-6. 2 illlustrations (including portrait)
Somehow, in his departure from active work, Sturrock reminds me of that shining example in Hilaire Belloc's Cautionary Tales who:

"... thus became immensely rich,
And built the splendid mansion, which
Is called-
The Cedars, Muswell Hill;
Where he resides in affluence still."

For having departed from Doncaster, Sturrock seems to have taken but little interest in railway work, He did not, like David Jones, keep up the railway atmosphere by adorning his house with pictures of railway engines. As for residing in affluence, he was to do that far no less than 43 years, occupying the whole of his time until he was 73, in hunting, shooting and fishing. He went an shooting until he was 85. He was a queer personality. He was a hard worker and a clever engineer with plenty of imagination, yet locomotive engineering certainly did not provide him with his ultimate goal in life. He wanted to be, not a famous engineer, but an English squire with a large country house, a large town house, and nothing to do beyond killing game.
And in this he achieved his ambition. Young Erchie Sturrock, the Scotch mechanic, gave place to a kind of synthetic John Bull, noted for courtly manners, an English accent, and skill in field sports. Even in his busiest engineering days, he was well-known for his love of appearing in sporting attire, and having once left the Great Northern he was able to live the part as fully as he looked it. In keeping with this, he fulfilled the part of a Justice of the Peace with a kind of decorous gusto, and is reported to have said that he continued to sit on the Bench until he was so deaf that he was unable to hear the witnesses. The last we see of him is a strange old man with little hair and an immense white moustache, dressed in vigorous-looking checks with a high white collar and an immaculate stock. He died in his ninety-third year, on January 1, 1909. As we have seen, his ability, originality and activity were outstanding, and his early retirement leaves one speculating on what he might have done had he stuck to his guns as long as his tremendous vitality remained.

Lubrication and lubricants. 96-7.
Convened by the Institution of Mechanical Engineers a three-day conference on Lubricatian and Lubricants, held at the headquarters at Westminster, was divided into four groups, while the papers read numbered over one hundred. The four groups concerned, Journal and Thrust Bearings, Engine Lubrication, Industrial Appliances, and Properties and Testing.
The work of summarising the papers in Group II, Reciprocating Steam Engines, was undertaken by W.A. Stanier, and the following is an abstract of his remarks.
The French and German State Railways considered that various grades of superheated cylinder oil were desirable according to the degree of superheat obtaining in the cylinder, whereas the Canadian National and English railways employed only one grade. Of the opinions expressed for superheated cylinder oils the majority favour com- pounded oils since it is considered that at the temperature of superheated steam the oil becomes much less viscous and the fatty oil is partly decomposed, the decomposition products helping in the formation of stable and resistant boundary films. Oils A and B as quoted by the French State Railways, and the valve oil as used by the Canadian National Railways, were generally similar to those in use on the English railways:
Of special interest was the use of emulsified oil, prepared by the German State Railways, from the superheated steam cylinder oil and lime water for use in locomotives working under medium loads. With regard to the oils used far journals, motion, etc., the German Railways used winter and summer grades, as did certain of the English railways, while the Canadian National and the Other English railways prefer the same grade throughout the year; one of the latter railways considers that the inoonvenience of changing the grade of oil twice a year outweighs any possible advantage and in its experience no advantage was obtained when the thicker summer oil was used. It was the practice of the English railways to use a mineral oil containing a percentage of refined raw rape oil, the percentage depending on the different classes of work and the experience of the companies concerned, while the German State and Canadian National Railways use a mineral oil only. The German State Railways use an oil of higher viscosity far lubricating the journals and gear of streamline locomotives, this also being the experience of certain English Railways.
It was the practice of the German State Railways to use wick trimmings for supplying the oil to the valve gear, connecting and coupling rod bushes, while the English railways used worsted trimmings for the valve gear and either worsted trimmings, needle trimmings or felt pads for the rods. When needle roller bearings are fitted to the valve gear in Britain, grease was used as the lubricant. On the modern locomotive the pump lubricator had generally superseded the hydrostatic system far supplying the lubricant to the cylinders and the general principles employed by the German and French State Railways and the English railways would appear to be similar as regards the position of the pump, the provision and position of back pressure valves, etc. The English railways, however, do not favour the branching of lubricator pipes as indicated by M. Chatel, of the French State Railways, for use under certain circumstances. A point of interest was the recornmendation by M. Chatel that the high pressure cylinders should be lubricated towards the dead centres, where the piston is almost stationary, so that the piston rings can receive plenty of oil. It is the English practice that when a feed is taken direct to the cylinder barrel, it should be situated in the middle of the stroke.
Most of the French Railways injected steam or water into the cylinder exhaust to reduce the temperature of the gas when coasting, and they had under consideration an automatic device to come into operation when the driver closes the regulator, whereas the English railways attain the same end by allowing a "breath" of steam to enter the cylinder by means of the regulator or through the anti-carboniser or atomiser.
The analysis and mechanical tests of cast irons for piston rings and cylinders given by M. Chatel correspond to those generally in practice on the English railways, except for the higher percentage of silicon and the lower percentage of phosphorus, One railway in this country was, however, experimenting with a lower percentage of phosphorus, also with the use of nickel and chromium.
Modern French locomotives were fitted with four rings per piston head, the German with five, while the English railways favour two or three, but experiments were being carried out in Britain with an increased number of rings. Piston ring wear varied considerably according to the class of locomotive and the type of work on which engaged. For express passenger compound engines Chatel gives mileages of 12,500-25,000 for the high pressure cylinders and 28,000-37,600 for the low pressure cylinders at which the rings are replaced. On one English railway the piston rings of a three-cylinder (simple expansion) locomotive were changed at 40,000-45,000 miles.
The comparison of oil consumption is difficult since the consumption is governed by working conditions and is not on an entirely quantitative basis: Nordmann and Robrade give a figure of 0.7 pint per 100 miles for a "series- 03" (2-cylinder) locomotive, the figure for the English railways for a 2-cylinder locomotive being 1.0-1.2 pints per 100 miles.

Obituary. 97
Death of Samuel' John Sarjant on 18 February, at the age of 81 years, at Penmaenmawr. He commenced his career in the locomotive drawing office of the Midland Railway at Derby in 1872 under Matthew Kirtley, at the age of sixteen, and spent seven years in the works. He then took service with the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway in the drawing office at Newton Heath and as assist, loco. foreman under W.. Barton Wright. In 1885, he became distriot loco. superintendent of the Great Indian Peninsula Railway at Lonaula, and subsequently at Igatpuri, both depots being at the top, of the Ghats. He was then appointed assistant locomotive superintendent at Parel Locomotive Works, Bombay, and on the retirement of R.L. Trevithick, took charge- of the locomotive, carriage and wagon departments. The carriage and wagon sections were separated later. Sarjant retired from the position of Locomotive Superintendent of the G.LP. Rly. in 1915. He was responsible for many improvements in the locomotive practice of the G.LP. Rly., including the introduction of superheating. Under his charge the locomotive stock was kept in the highest state of efficiency. He was a member of the Institution of Civil Engineers and acted as chairman of the Locomotive and Carriage Superintendents' Committee of the Indian Railways from 1908 to 1912, Sarjant was a keen locomotive historian and gave us considerable assistance in preparing the Locomotive Magazine serial articles on Great Indian Peninsula Railway locomotives.

Alfred Whitaker. 97
Formerly Resident Locomotive, Carriage and Wagon Supt. of the Somerset and Dorset Joint Railway, died in his 92nd year on the 5 March. at his residence at Bath.. Whitaker joined the Midland Railway in 1860, as a pupil of Matthew Kirtley, then locomotive superintendent. On completion of his training at Derby, he was given charge of various locomotive depots on the system, first at Lancaster, and afterwards at Bradford, Carlisle and Leeds. He was the first District Supt. at Carlisle when the Midland line was opened in 1875. Subsequently he was given charge of the Leeds district, where he remained until he was appointed to the S. & D.R. in 1889. He remained with that railway until his retirement in 1911. During his term of office at Highbridge he was responsible for the re-building of the shops. He was the inventor of the tablet changing apparatus for single line working which bears his name, as well as a water leve1 indicator for locomotive tanks.

Correspondence. 98

Bishop's Castle Railway.  T. R. Perkins.
As the writer of the article on this line which appeared in the issues for October, November and December, 1930, I was much interested to read the notes on Carlisle, which appeared last month. By a fortunate accident I am able to clear up the question as to where the old locomotive was at work near Blisworth. A few weeks ago I discovered that a lady who has lived next door to me for the last 30 years or more was well acquainted with the engine in its "contractor " days, her father having been an official of Mr. Thomas Nelson, its original owner. She tells me that the work upon which they were engaged in 1880 was the widening of the L. N.W.R. main line between Bletchley and Roade, together with the new line from the latter place to Northampton. During that period her parents resided at Roade, and she—a child at the time—was frequently given a ride on Carlisle's" footplate. With reference to Parliamentary trains: the distinction between "third class" and "parliamentary" fares was certainly in force on portions of the G.\V.R. until 1893. In that year, when living at Wolverhampton, I sometimes walked home on Sundays, returning to business by train next morning. If I caught the 07.38 the fare from Kidderrninsrer to Wolverhampton was 1(6, but a's I had over three miles to walk to the station I usually travelled by the 08.05, by which the fare was 1/10. In the former case my ticket was green; in the latter, buff. By 1896, however, the Parliarnentary fare had become standard by all trains on the G.W.R.

The Dorset Central  Railway. Reginald B. Fellows. 98
Although the matter is not of great importance will you allow me to correct a mistake in the date given for the opening of the Dorset Central Company's line from Templecornbe to Cole in the interesting article on the Somerset and Dorset Railway published in January? The date given for the opening from Templecombe to Cole was Novernber 1861, as in Bradshaw 's Railway Manual of 1862 and subsequent issues. Contemporary newspaper accounts, however, show that although the directors stated at the half yearly meetings in 1861 that the line would be opened in the autumn, it was not actually opened for traffic until 3 February 1862. A formal opening by the directors took place on 18 January but, as some alterations were insisted on by the Government Inspector, the use of the line for public traffic was postponed for a fortnight. From 3 February through train service from Ternplecornbe, through Cole, to Burnham commenced.

Books received.  98

Proceedings of the General Discussion at the Convention on Lubrication and Lubricants at the Institution of MIechanical Engineers. two volumes. 1200pp. 98
See also page 96. Some 29 British and 22 foreign societies agreed to colaborate and, as a result, 136 paprrs were received. The papers dealt with the major problem of the subject—practical and theoretical and the correlation of these aspects—the application of bearing design, the relationship of academic research and trade practice, statements of current views on bearing metals, and the significance of laboratory tests, including wear and friction tests. The papers, together with the summaries by the reporters, the accounts of the discussions, and the collated replies by the authors, constitute an invaluable compendium of current information on lubrication, and an important addition to its literature.[KPJ personal memory of Stanier being involved].

Holiday haunts. 98
Great Western Ry. holiday guide for 1938 issued at the usual modest price of 6d. per copy. It is divided into geographical sections, each introduced by a dcscriptive article by S. P. B. Mais, and profusely illustrated in sepia photogravure, The guide includes over 8000 addresses of hotels, boarding houses and apartments, arranged in alphabetical order, with useful information to assist the holiday maker. Lists of cheap fares, holiday season tickets and maps are included.

Institution of Locomotive Engiineers. 98
At the general meeting on 23 February the following new members were elected: S. Barber, Offg. Deputy Transportation Supt. (Power), G.I.P. Ry., Bombay; N. Johnson, Loco. and Carr. Supt., Burma Rys, Insein; T. Pinder, Deputy Chief Mechanical Engineer, M. and S.M. Rly., Perarnbur , Madras; W. F. Wegener, Chief Mechanical Engineer, F.M.S. Ry., Sentul, Kuala Lampur ,
Transfer from Associate Member to Member: J. R. Best, .Asst. Loco. Supt., Sierra Leone Ry., Freetown.
Associate Members :-E. Arnies, Asst. (Ry. Dept.) , Heatley and Gresham Ltd., Calcutta; M. O. Attock , Engineer, Traction Department, English Electric Co. Ltd., ; F. G. Carrier, Loco. Draughtsman, L.M.S. Ry., Derby; A. M. Edleston, Loco. Draughtsman, L.M.S. Ry., Derby; L. A. Thorman, Loco. Running Dept., Southern Ry., Hither Green, S.E.D, D.M. Whitbread, Loco. Inspector , L.N.E. Ry., Gateshead-on-Tyne. Transfer from Graduate to Associate Member:-E. A. Newsum, Carr. and Wagon Dept. L.N.E. Ry. (Great Central Section), Neasden. Graduates :-H. Bayley, Draughtsman, L.M.S.Ry., Derby; Hung Chi Chang, Engineering Student, North British Loco. Co.; Chiang-Kan Hu, Engineering Student, North British Loco. Co.; P. Rigley, Pupil, L.N.E. Ry., Plant Works, Doncaster; R. W. Turner, Apprentice, L.M.S. Ry .. St. Rollox \Vorks, Glasgow; E. R. Squire, Pupil, L.N.E. Ry., Plant Works, Doncaster.

Whitelegg and Rogers Ltd. 98
Received an order for 640 Ajax axlebox lubricators and other grease lubricating equipment, for application to eighty 19D class, 4-8-2 type locornotives, now under construction for the South African Railways and Harbours Administration, by Fried Krupp A.G. and Borsig Lokomotiv-Werke G.M.B.H. Also an order for 352 Ajax axlebox lubricators for converting metre gauge, 4-6-0 and 2-8-0 type locomotives of the Madras arid Southern Mahratla Railway, from oil to grease lubrication.

L. & N..E.R.  98
Placed contracts for 975 wagons. Of these 175 will be 40-ton wagons, specially designed for exceptional loads, divided as follows: Metropolitan Cammell Carriage and Wagon Co. Ltd., 100 wagons, and the Birmingham Railway Carriage and Wagon Co. Ltd., 75 wagons. The remaining 800 wagons will be of the single bolster type with a load capacity of 12 tons each. They can be used singly or in pairs, according to the length of load to be carried. The orders have been placed with R. Y. Pickering and Co. Ltd. for 200 wagons; C. Roberts and Co. Ltd. for ·100 wagons, and Hurst, Nelson and Co. Ltd. for 200 wagons.

Number 548 (15 April 1938)

Post Office Mail Trains. 99-100
The working of the Down and Up Postals timed to ensure that Post Office workers could maximize their effort by switching between the two trains; also details of trains which conected with it at Rugby, Tamworth, Crewe and Carlisle. During the King's stay at Balmoral special arrangements were made to expidite Mail to and from His Majesty.

New 4-6-0 locomotives, Bengal Nagpur Railway. 101-2. illustration
Class GSM supplied by Robert Stephenson & Hawthorn of Darlington to the designs and specifications of Sir John Wolfe Barry & Partners.

2-8-2 oil-burning tank loco. for Mexico. 102. illustration
Hudswell, Clarke & Co. locomotive for Eagle Oil and Shipping Co. 20 x 24in cylinders activated by Walschaerts valve gear, 3ft 9in coupled wheeels, 1262ft2 total heating surface and 24ft2  grate area. Holden system of oil firing and Belpaire firebox.

Tasmanian Government Railway. 102
Streamlined locomotives (R class Pacifics) and four coach train with buffet car with green and black livery to run between Launceston and Hobart.

Articulated 3-car diesel-engined train, L.M.S. 102
Built at Derby: demonstration run from Euston to Tring and back on 24 March 1938. Scheduled to enter service between Oxford and Cambridge. Seats for 162 passengers.

Sentinel geared steam locos., Egyptian State Railways. 103-5.. 2 illustrations, 3 diagrams (including 2 side elevations)
Four locomotives built by North British Locomotive Co. with Sentinel engines. Each totally enclosed engine had two 11 x 12in cylinders driving wheels of 3ft 8¾in diameter. The driving wheels were not coupled: thus in Whyte notation they were 2-2-2-2. They eliminated hammer blow. They had 200 psi Belpaire boilers which were identical to those used in 4-4-0 locomotives supplied in 1937 (see LM, 43, 304). The valve gear was modified Hackworth. An industrial 2-2-2 saddle tank with two Sentinel engines is also described.

[Bridge reconstruction on LMS Bath to Mangotsfield line]. 105
12 bridges were reconstructed to enable heavier locomotives to work through to Bath,

Articulated railcar, G.N. Rly., (Ireland). 106-8. 2 illustrations, diagram (side & end elevations, plan)
G. Howden design for Dublin to Howth suburban service with Walker patent power bogie with two Gardner 6LW diesel engines, Vulcan-Sinclair hydraulic transmission and five-speed gearbox. Burlingham hot water heating, Dunlopillo upholstery and Rexine finishes.

Wirral Lines electrification, L.M.S. Railway. 108-13. 6 illustrations.
Electrification of former Wirral Railway, adjustment to Mersey Railway rolling stock to enable it to work to New Brighton. New welded rolling stock for LMS trains working to West Kirby. New high speed lifts for James Street underground station. Photographs include consol and circuit breakers in electricity control room and maintenance depot. Mersey Railway rolling stock had to be modified for working to New Brighton.

36-ton travelling crane, Southern Railway. 114-15. 2 illustrations
Ransomes & Rapier Ltd Stokes cranes for Nine Elms and Bricklayers Arms depots.

C.P.R. bell for L.N.E.R. loco. 115. illustration.
As fitted to No. 4489 Dominion of Canada.

Institution of Locomotive Engineers. The development of rail motor car services in France. 115-17.
Precis of Paper No. 389 by L. Dumas

Oil-engined Drewry railcars. Buenos Ayres Great Southern and  Buenos Ayres Great Western Railways. 128-31.  3  illustraions, diagram (4 plans)
99 cars of five different types supplied by the Drewry Car Co. Ltd. of Preston, an English Electric Co. for 5ft 6in gauge railways. Gardner 6LW engines, Vulcan-Sinclair hydraulic couplings, Hardy-Spicer transmission and Wilson-Drewry pre-selective gearboxes. Designed to work in multiple; first and second class accomnmodation with lavatories for the former. Rubber used in suspension. Further orders for seven from the Argentine North Eastern and one for the Entre Rios Railways, these being to suit the 4 ft. 8½ in. gauge. The contracts for the whole of these cars have been .carried out under the supervision and inspection of Livesey and Henderson Consulting Engineers.

Somerset & Dorset Joint Ry. 131
A trial run had been made with a train hauled by one of the L.M.S. 4-6-0 mixed traffic engines, Class 5, from Bath to Bournemouth and back. From 2 May these engines would work regularly over this road.

Locomotivve stock returns, 1937. 131-2. table
Accompanying table shows in summary form the alterations in the stock of steam locomotives operatmg the four main railway groups dunng 1937. When dealing with the figures for 1936 (see Volume 43, p. 116) it was pomted out that the L. & N.E.R. totals did not include the M. & G.N. Joint stock: the present statement however imcludes 82 engines. taken over, also 18 tank engines from the London Passenger Transport Board.
At the close of 1937 the total number of tender engines was 11,909 , only 25 less than twelve months earlier, while the tank engines numbered 7,770, being a reduction of 113 for the year. (The reduction in tender engines is however considerably more than 25 if the 1936 figures were increased to show the engines received from the Joint line).
Of the 11,934 tender engines in stock at the close of 1936, 414 were withdrawn last year; and of the 7,883 tank engines then in stock 287 have been taken out of service: on these figures the average life of a tender engine works out at nearly 29 years, and of a tank engine 27·½ years.
Tender engines added G.W.R.: Sixty- three 4-6-0 passenger (thirteen Castles, ten Halls, forty Granges), and nine 4-4-0 Earls.
L. & N.E.R.: Nineteen A.4, eleven B.17, twenty V.2, eight K.3, one K.4, ten J.39, and forty-three passenger and twenty-seven goods engines of various classes from the M. & G.N. line.
L.M. & S.R.: Five 4-6-2, one hundred and fifty-three 4-6-0, twenty-seven 2-8-0, and fifteen 0-6-0.
Tank engines added .G.W.R.: Three 2-8-2T converted from 2-8-0T (Nos. 7240-2), two 2-6-2T (Nos. 4120/1), and seventy-three 0-6-0T (Nos:3715-64, 6430-9, 7417-29).
L. & N.E.R.: No new engines were built during 1937 but the following were received into stock: ex M. & G.N. J.R., 4-4-2T Nos. 09, 020, 041, and 0-6-0T Nos. 015, 016, 093-099; ex L.P.T. Board, 4-4-4T Nos. 6415-22, 2-6-4T Nos. 6158-63, and 0-6-4T Nos. 6154-7. L.M. & S.R.:
Twenty-seven 2-6-4T ( Nos. 2476-94, 2610-7) and thirty-nine 2-6-2T (Nos. 145-172, 185-195).
Engines withdrawn..-While it is not necessary to give a complete list of the engines condemned, the more interesting withdrawals may be briefly referred to. G.W.R.: Three Abbeys for conversion to Castles; nine Dukes to balance new Earls; and ten Bulldogs; also thirty-seven 43xx to balance new Granges. All the Swindon-built 2-4-0 passenger engines had now gone, though the three taken over from the M. & S.W.J. line were still in service. L. & N.E.R.: All the A.2 (Raven Pacifics) and the C.11(Reid Atlantics) had been condemned, and the last of the N.E. 2-2-4T had gone, also the last Ivatt 0-8-0 and Wheatley 0-6-0 goods. Fresh classes added to the condemned list during 1937 included B.15, C.12, G.9, G.10, J.62, T.l, as well as M. & G.N. Classes B and D. L.M. & S.R.: Of the 4-6-0 type the Oban Bogies were extinct, and several more Claughtons, Princes and 19 in. goods had gone. The H.R. Big Bens and the G. & S.W. 4-4-0 and 0-6-0 had all gone, also the Caley, 2-6-0. As regards tank engines, the withdrawals of Crewe 4-6-2T and 4-4-2T and of Derby 0-6-4T had been heavy, and all the N.S.R. 0-6-2T and 0-6-4T had been taken out of stock. S.R.: The withdrawals included eight Stirling 4-4-0 and four Adams 0-4-2. Two of the three large-boilered 0-4-4T had gone (Nos. 126 and 2396) and four more Stroudley 0-4-2T. No. 299 was the only surviving C.8 4-4-0 (the original Drummond series). No. 2305 is the second of the Marsh goods to be cut up.

The Empire Exhibition, Glasgow. 132
At all exhibitions use is made of the miniature in display and publicity and we understand the Empire Exhibition at Glasgow, opening in May, will be no exception to this rule. Bassett-Lowke Ltd. will be represented with some fine examples of their exhibition work. A huge model of a block of the earth's surface about 600 ft. deep will show to scale the coal seams, the way these are worked, and the processes the coal goes through before it is ready for transport on the railways. The model is to a scale of ¼ in. to the foot and will be the centre of attraction in the Government Pavilion. .
To railway enthusiasts probably the most interesting exhibit would be in the British Railways Pavilion where Bassett-Lowke Ltd. were constructing a working model railway. This consisted of over 600 ft. of track with points, crossings and other details, and a representative train of each of the four British railways. The track will be laid in the form of a large arc in a prominent position in the Pavilion, with the operating section at one end and a return curve at the other. The line will pass through a background of scenery representing districts which each railway Serves. The track will be 17#188; in. gauge, electrically operated, and signalled by colour light signals, but at the operating end where the trains are marshalled, the upper quadrant semaphore type will be used.
A complete passenger train of each company will be shown — the models being as follows — L.M S., Coronation Scot, L.N.E.R. Coronation, G.W.R. Cornish Riviera, drawn by the locomotive King George V, whereas the Southern Ry. will show their latest development in electric traction, the all-electric Brighton Belle.

Many applications of  K.L. Stronger Steel castings. 132
Illustrated in a booklet prepared by Kryn and Lahy (1928) Ltd., of Coborn Works, Letchworth, Herts. This metal has unusually high tensile strength, yet retains all the ducrility of steels of much lower strength. It is produced with such uniformity, that the makers guarantee the following mechanical properties :-Tensile from 35 to 40 tons per square inch; elongation of at least 20 per cent., and a cold bend test to an angle of 120 deg. on the test piece

Crown Agents for the Colonies. 132
Placed an order with the North British Locomotive Co. Ltd. for two Mikado type locomotives for the Newfoundland Railway. The Crown Agents for the Colonies also placed an order with the North British Locomotive Co. Ltd for six 4-6-4 tank locomotives and six 4-6-2 express engines for the Federated Malay States Railways.

R.A. Beckett, of the firm of Beckett, Laycock and Watkinson, Ltd. 132
Sailed to the U.S.A. with a view to studying transport conditions and problems, particularly in relation to the trend in vehicle design and construction.

North Western Railway of ·India. 132
Ganz and Co. of Budapest, received an order for eleven oil-electric railcars with two spare bogies. Each car to have a six-cylinder 240 h.p. engine and a five-speed gearbox.

L.N.E.R. 132
Placed contracts for one hundred and three non-vestibuled carriages. The order distributed as follows :-R. Y. Pickering Co., 24 non-vestibuled 3rd class carriages. Cravens Railway Carriage and Wagon Co., 79 non-vestibuled corridor 3rd class carriages.

Number 149 (14 May 1938)

Speed recording. 133

Stream-lined Pacific type locos., Victorian Railways. 134. illustration

2-6-4 type broad-gauge tank engines, South Indian Railway. 135-6. illustration, diagram (side elevation)

2-6-2 mixed traffic locomotive L.N.E.R. 136-7 + folding plate f.p. 146. diagram, plan.
Detailed working diagrams.V2.

Institution of Locomotive Engineers. Long distance electrification on the German State Railways. 137-8.

Three-car oil-engined train L.M.S.R. 139-43. 2 illustrations, 3 diagrams
Built at Derby with Leyland engines and hydraulic torque comverters. Special attention is paid to the articulation. The livery is described as Post Office red on the lower part of the vehicles and "aluminium" above.

W.A. Tuplin.  Mixed traffic locomotives. 143-4.
Modern designs: GWR 43XX 2-6-0; Gresley 2-6-0 classes leading to No. 1000

A century of Austrain loco. practice. 145-9. illustration, diagram (side elevation). See also letter from Erich Rihosek on page 266

Battery locomotives for new works and maintenance (London Passenger Transport Board). 149-50. illustration

South African Railways—trolley inspection cars. 150

Four-wheeled carriage, Spalding and Bourne Railway. 150. illustration.

Argentine State Railways. 150

Ceylon Government Railway. 154
The three diesel-electric trains described in February issue, had been put into service and named Silver Foam, Silver Spray and Silver Mist.

D. A. Oliver.  154
D.A. Oliver, M.Sc. (Eng.), F.Inst.P., had been appointed head of the Research and Technical Investigation Section of the combined laboratories of William Jessop and Sons and]. J.J.. Saville and Co., the Sheffield steelworks, which now are a subsidiary of the Birmingham Small Arms Company. Oliver had many years of research experience at the National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, and later at the Research Laboratories of the General Electric Co. Wembley, before transferring to Sheffield nearly four years ago. He has made a special study of magnet steels and the newer permanent magnet alloys, as well as other matters of a physical and metallurgical nature.

Gilbert S. Szlumper. 154
General Manager of the Southern Railway, to be president of the Institute of Transport for the year beginning 1 October.

Driver William Gilbertson. 154
Gilbertson of Upperby Loco. Depot, Carlisle, who drove the Royal Scot express 11,000 miles through Canada and the United States on an exhibition tour, retired from the service on 14 May, his sixty-fifth birthday.

Railway Club. 154
At the annual general meeting of the Railway Club held at the Royal Scottish Corporation Hall, Fetter Lane, the President, Kenneth Brown, delivered his Presidential Address entitled "Railways. at Law." Describing his address as grains of railway history gleaned from law reports, Brown first referred to the case of the King v. Edward Pease 1832. This case established the legal right of railways to be operated by steam. Next the prolonged litigation between Bacon and the Newcastle and Carlisle Railway was dealt with. The ambitious Manchester and Milford Railway was involved in numerous legal disputes, and the President referred to reports of Chambers v. M. and M. Ry., Carmarthen and Cardigan Ry. v. M. and M. Ry. Finally the closing of the Potteries, Shrewsbury and North Wales Railway was descriobed and the eventual acquisition of this line by the Shropshire and Montgomeryshire Light Railway.

Diesel-mechanical shunting locomotives. 154-6. illustration, 2 diagrams (including side & front elevations & plan)
Six-cylinder M.A.N. diesel engine with drive through Ardelt transmission

D[ewhurst], P.C. L.M.S.R. locomotives: a history of the Somerset and Dorset Joint Railway. 157-9
Continued from page 83). The first locomotives and rolling stock must have been ordered by the Somerset Central Rly., as the working of their line by the Bristol and Exeter Rly. on the broad-gauge had been definitely determined by August 1861, and ceased on the 28th of that month. At a general meeting of the shareholders in the same month it was stated that the narrow-gauge would be laid immediately on the expiry of the B. & E. Rly. lease—which itself expired in August 1861—and mean- time the traffic was worked on the original portion of the line by means of broad-gauge stock hired from the B. & E. Rly. until the opening of the Glastonbury to Cole section on 3 February 1862, and the completion of the "mixed" gauge. In the special House of Commons Return of July 1861 the locomotives and other rolling- stock of the two lines, as on 31 December 1860, is given as follows:-" Dorset Central, see L. & S.W. Rly."; "Somerset Central, see Bristol and Exeter," hence it is clear that the working of each line was at the time entirely in the hands of the operating companies. The published time-tables of the Somerset Central Rly. for July 1861, giving all the passenger trains between "Wells and Burnham, have a foot-note respecting certain trains arriving at Highbridge from Wells: "This train runs to Bridgwater to catch up and down expresses returning almost immediately," thus indicating broad-gauge working and co- -operation right up to the eve of severance. The extension to Cole being opened on Feb. 3, 1862, the Somerset Central Company's own narrow- gauge engines were in service by then.
The working of the Dorset Central section proper, i.e., from Wimborne to Cole, by the S. & D. company's own locomotives commenced in August-September 1863, when the two portions of the recently amalgamated lines were connected.
The first locomotives built for the companies were a number of 2-4-0 tender engines by G. England & Co., of Hatcham Ironworks, New Cross, London; they were built in 1861, being mostly delivered in November of that year and numbered 1 to 7, and, whilst having a few variations in details, were practically identical. Their makers' numbers—if any—are unknown. They are illustrated by Fig. 7, and their principal dimensions were:-Cylinders 15 in. by 18 in.; coupled wheels 5 ft. 0 in. dia. Leading wheels 3 ft. 6 in. dia., and a wheelbase of 13 ft. 3 in., equally divided. As will be seen, the engines had an unusual form of "mixed" framing, and the tenders were on four wheels, having outside framing very similar to the G.W. Ry. pattern current at that period. The working pressure of the boilers was probably 115 lb. per sq. in.
These engines had some distinctive features for the time they were built, although one—the dome-less boiler—was probably derived from the practice of their adjacent railway neighbours, the Great Western Railway and the Bristol and Exeter. The other feature, the mixed framing, comprised an apparently weak-looking .arrangement of outside framing to the leading wheels combined with springs below the runnmg plate; that such weakness proved in practice to be the case is probably confirmed by the fact that when such of this class—two of G. England's and two later ones, of the same pattern, by the Vulcan Foundry—were rebuilt at Highbridge, particularly strong outside framing, etc., was provided for the leading wheels. The boiler was flush-topped, having a somewhat small manhole on the back ring and a pair of spring-balance safety-valves over the firebox, being fed by injectors placed at the sides of the firebox outside the cab, the safety-valve casing and chimney-cap being polished. The link motion had the reversing shaft below; the coupling-rods were of the adjustable, cottered type, and the driving and trailing springs were under-hung and provided with equalizing beams between. As built, there was no brake on the engine, whilst the tender was provided with a hand-brake, applying wooden blocks to the front and rear of both the left side wheels. A bent- plate weather-board, in some cases only very slightly protecting the enginemen, was upon the engine, and upon the tender was a fairly substanstantial "straight-up" weather-board, which, together with sand-boxes upon the front end of the tender (placed outside in an un- usual position) delivering sand between the engine and tender- wheels, indicating that the engines in practice ran more or less indifferently in either direction.
These engines were certainly of small size, and if, as is probable, their boiler pressure was 115 lb. psi.—it would not have been more—their rated tractive force at 80 per cent. would only have been 6,210 lb.
Engines 1, 3, 4 and 5 were sold in 1874-5—one in 1874 and three in 1875—to Messrs. Fox, Walker & Co. of Bristol, presumably in part payment for engines being supplied by them to the S. & D. at that time. Of these, Nos. 1 and 5 went to the Bishop's Castle Railway, one lasting until as late as 1905, but the other ending service about ten years earlier.
It has not been possible to ascertain definitely the disposal of the other two. It has been stated that a Somerset & Dorset engine was sent by Fox, Walker & Co. in the early 1870's to the East and West Junction Railway, but refused by them, and this was possibly one of these engines; it also appears very probable that No. 3 of the E. & W. Junction Railway was one of these ex-S. & D. Railway engmes.
Engines 2, 6 and 7 were taken over by the Joint line in 1875, No. 2 having been then replaced and become 2A; it was renumbered 25 in 1876, 25A in 1881, and was scrapped in 1882. No. 6 became ?6 in 1876, 26A in 1881, and was scrapped ln 1889.
This latter engine had been converted to a side-tank some time after 1875 and is so illustrated in Fig. 2, from which it will be seen that besides the alterations arising out of the elimination of the tender, that is to say the provision of tanks and bunker with the necessary frame extension to carry the latter, and the addition of a rear weatherboard and a cab-somewhat of the pattern of early G.S. & W. Rly. Iocomotives—the provision of brakes to the driving and trailing wheels having double-plate hangers and pull-rods outside the wheels, no changes were made to the original structure of the engine or boiler, even the equalizing between the driving and trailing springs being retained. The illustration is remarkable for other interesting features: that the leading wheels are obviously of larger diam, than the 3 ft. 6 in. (being about 3 ft. 9 in.) of the rest of the class as built and as rebuilt, and the view being one of the few known showing an engine number still upon the front of the chimney in the time of the "Jaint" ownership. Old No. 2 when running as No. 25 had a similar cab and also the number an the front of the chimney.
No. 7, having similarly become 27 and 27A, and withdrawn about 1884, was completely reconstructed as a 2-4-0 side t:ank. in 1888, at Highbridge. It is Illustrated thus in FIg. 3, showing the drastic alterations made, including the outside framing and springs above the running-plate for the leading wheels. The dimensions are given:
Cylinders, 16 in. by 18 in.
Wheels: leading dia. 3 ft. 6 in.
Wheels: coupled, dia. 5 f t. 0 in.
Wheelbase,. adheslve. 7 ft. 4 in.
Wheelbase total, 14 ft. 2 in.
Boiler, length of barrel 8 f t. 9 1l1 .•
boiler dia., 3 ft. 11 in.
boiler, height of centre above rails, 6 ft. 4¼ in.
Inside flrebox~. length, 4 ft. 0 in.
Heating surface :-170 tubes, l¾ in. outs. dia., 712 sq. ft.
Firebox 81 sq. ft.;,
total, 793 sq. ft.
Grate area, 13 sq. ft.
Boiler pressure, 140 lb. per sq. in.
Tank capacity, 589 gallons.
Weight in working order, 35 tons, 9 cwt., 1 qr.
Wheelbase :-Leadmg to driving, 6 ft. 10 in.
Driving to rear coupled, 7 ft. 4 in.
Rated tractive force at 80 per cent 8,602 lb.
From which it will be seen that the cylinders were increased in diameter by 1 in. and the coupled wheelbase by 6 in. to 7 ft. 4 in. The boiler far this conversion was built at Highbridge, and had the dome aver the firebox, with a pair of spring-balance safety-valves thereon; apart from the unusual position of the dome the whole design was up to date for the time it was carried out, and included power and hand-braking upon the coupled wheels, with double-plate pattern hangers, with outside pull-rods and brake-shaft to rear of the trailing wheels; also, either at the time or within a year or so afterwards, the vacuum brake equipment in the usual S. & D. Joint manner. The equalizing of the driving and trailing springs was not perpetuated, and the new 7 ft. 4 in. coupling-rods had plain bushed ends; the dome casing and chimney cap were polished. When another boiler was required in the early 1900's, the usual M. Ry. style of dome, safety valves, etc., was adapted, and Fig. 4 shows the engine as at that period; the safety-valve casing and chimney cap being polished, but the dame painted. It lasted until 1925, spending the latter part of its life shunting at Highbridge Wharf.
Illustrations: Fig. 2. converted 2-4-0 tank locomotive No. 26a, Somerset & Dorset Joint Railway. Fig. 3. rebuilt side tank loco. No. 27a, Somerset & Dorset Joint Railway. .Fig. 4. rebuilt 2-4-0 side tank loco. No. 27a, Somerset & Dorset Joint Railway.

The Duke of Sutherland. 159
Duke was entitled to run his own private train over the former Highland Rly. line between Inverness and Wick. This privilege was exercised on April 29th. when the Prime Minister made the journey from Brora to Inverness on the footplate of the Duke's private tank locomotive Dunrobin with the L.M.S. Northern Division official saloon attached. Speed was restricted to 30 m.p.h. The journey took 3½ hours with three stops for water.

Leeds City Station. 159
On and after 2 May, the Leeds (New) and Leeds (Wellington) stations have been combined and renamed "Leeds City Station."

Wagons for conveyance of edible oils, L.M.S.R. 159-62. 2 illustrations, diagram
Road/rail tankers capable of being moved by mechanical horse and loaded onto special wagons where pneumatic tyred trailer locked into position. Demonstrated at Euston Station for customer Unilever Ltd; rail vehicle built at Derby Works; tank trailer by R.A. Dyson & Co. using Dyson-Marenborn patents

Reviews. 162-3

Kitsons of Leeds, 1837-1937. Edward Kitson Clark, London: Locomotive Publishing Co. Ltd.
Many to whom the cessation of the production of lccomolives by the well known firm of Kitson and Co. after a century of continuous activity was a matter of sincere regret will find some consolation in reading this interesting memoir from the pen of Col. Kitson Clark, It is not in any sense a catalogue of events, but a pleasantly told story that will appeal to a much larger public than that mainly interested in locomotives. The beginnings of the firm are first dealt with, commencing with Todd, Kitson and Laird and then on through Laird, Kitson and Co., Kitson, Thompson and' Hewitson, Kitson and Hewitson, Kitson and Co. and finally Kitson and Co. Ltd. Here it may be noted that the Railway Foundry, first established by Shepherd and Todd, after the last named had broken away from the original firm, and later continued by Fenton and Craven, E. B. Wilson and Co., and finally Manning, Wardle and Co. came back to the fold in 1927 when the latter firm was absorbed by Kicsons, The importance of this great business to the city of Leeds can hardly be over-estimated, and it is fitting nhat iJts story should now be given by one who has been actively associated' with it for so long. After dealing briefty with some of the many different types of locomotive built by Kitsons and the railways to which they were supplied, the writer proceeds to detail certain other of the firm's activities and follows with special chapters on Tram and Articulated locomotives. The former were for many years a Kitson speciality and were noted for the particular type of valve gear with which they were fitted whilst Kitsons have long been known in connection with the articulated locomotive by their Interest in the Kitson-Meyer type of which they supplied many examples to various parts of the world. The story of the Kitsori-Stil! locomotive is given in some detail and its fortunes or misfortunes fully discussed. The chapter on the Education of an Engineer makes delightful reading and will be thoroughly appreciated by all who have been through the mill themselves. The book finishes with brief notices of some of the chief personalities of the firm and is plentifully illustrated by excellent reproductions of locomotives and other pictures of interest in connection with the business. Throughout it bears evidence of the great care bestowed upon its compilation and' production though an unfortunate slip, the only one we have noticed, occurs on page 30 where the Sharp firm is stated to be "now Neilson and Co."; this of course should be the North British Locomotive Co. Ltd.

The metallurgy of a high-speed locomotlve...London: The Railway Gazette. 163
Sixteen page brochure is a reprint of articles published in The Railway Gazette, and gives from a metallurgical point of view, a survey of the materials used in the construction of the streamlined 4-6-2 express locomotives of the L.M.S.R. with details of the analyses and tests. A folding plate shows details of the boiler and firebox, coupling and connecting rods, crank axle and piston valves.

G.W.R. engines: names, numbers, types, classes, etc. W.G. Chapman. Published by the Great Western Railway, Paddington. 163
All who are interested in G.W.R. locomotives and especially the number and name collecting fraternity, will welcome this new edition of the G.W.R. engine book. Since the last issue (1935) appeared, over 150 deletions, alterations and additions have ,been necessary in the list of named engines alone. In the new edition these amendments have been embodied, while the text has been re-arranged and new features added. An alphabetical index to G.W.R. named engines is included. One section is devoted to details of the standard tender and tank types of G.W.R. engines, with illustrations and diagrams. Further subjects dealt with are the activities of Swindon Works, also passenger and freight train names, famous high-speed G.W.R. expresses and train speeds, and also the development of locomotive power on this system.

How to recognise Southern Railway locomotives. R.W. Kidner. Sidcup: Oakwood Press. 163
An interesting little book on somewhat novel lines showing the external features of the various S.R. locomotives. The production is somewhat crude but the salient details are emphasised, which should enable anyone to readily identify the different classes. From this point of view, the booklet is to be recommended, but there are many errors in the letterpress which, considering these particulars are found in other publications on the S.R. locomotives, can only arise through imperfect checking. For instance, all the C2 class goods engines were built by the Vulcan Foundry, not at Brighton, whilst none of the N1 class was built at Brighton. All the E2 class shunters, too, are on the Eastern Section, whilst many of the dates given are incorrect.

Oxford. Douglas Woodruff. Great Western Railway. 163
This excellently illustrated booklet is an attractive addition to the guides ·issued by the G.W.R. Whilst of considerable interest to the general reader, it has been designed to help the visitor to see the colleges, public buildings and chief places of interest in Oxford. Particulars of the hours of admission are given and a map of the city is included.

New non-stop Sunday train, London & Edinburgh. 163
The L.N.E.R. announce that the world's record non-stop run between London and Edinburgh will be made on seven days a week during the summer. Previously this record has been maintained by the Flying Scotsman on weekdays only. In view of the considerable passenger business anticipated in connection with the Empire Exhibition at Glasgow, it has been decided to introduduce a non-stop service between the English and Scottish capitals on Sundays also during the summer of 1938. The train will be known as the Sunday Scotsman and will leave the London and Edinburgh termini at 11.00, performing the journey in seven hours. The 10.00 departure time for the Flying Scotsman on weekdays will, of course, be continued; this is a treasured tradition of the L.N.E.R. as the Flying Scotsman has left King's Cross at this hour since June 1862, and this timing has become the foundation stone on which the timetable is built up. For the service new locomotives and carriages are being built at Doncaster, and these will be used for both the Flying Scotsman and the Sunday Scotsman services. The locomotives were being streamlined.

Facts about British Railways. 163
The 1938 edition of this booklet issued on behalf of the British Railways was available upon application to the British Railways' Press Office, St. Ermin's, Caxton Street, Westminster. The figures given are for 1937 and the information has .been summarised to illustrate the various directions in which the railways have been active during ,the year, and the ways .in which they cater for the needs of the trader and the traveller. Facts, figures and statistics are given covering the financial results, traffic' receipts and expenditure, passenger and freight services, ancillary businesses, improvement schemes, maintenance, employment and other features of railway activity. Comparison with the previous year shows a steady increase in business. The number of journeys made amounted to 1,215,648,000, as compared with 1,179,462,000 an increase of 36,186,000. 15,672,000 more excursion, monthly return, weekend and similar cheap tickets were issued and an increase of over 10,000,000 was recorded in the number of workmen's ticket journeys. Season ticket journeys also increased by nearly 8,000,000. 766,000 more parcels were forwarded dur- ing 1937 as compared with 1936, whilst freight tonnages in- creased by 16,153,000. Of this increase, 1,919,000 tons re- presented general merchandise traffic, 3,755,000 mineral traffic, and 10,479,000 tons coal, coke and patent fuel. The mileage- covered by both passenger and freight trains was also con- siderably in excess of the previous year. Passenger trains. covered a total of 281,112,000 miles, an increase of 5,565,000 miles, whilst freight train mileage totalled 140,109,000, an. increase of 4,712,000 miles. Passenger and freight engines covered 15,095,000 .rnore miles than in 1936, with a total of 594,864,000 miles. Interesting figures are given of some of' the annual purchases made by the railways, wh.ich include 15,017,000 tons of coal, 14,439,000 cubic feet of timber, 5,130,000 sleepers and crossing timbers, 18,431,000 bricks, 2,348,000 yards of cloth for uniforms, 7,240,000 gallons of' lubricating oil and 29,968,000 gallons of petrol and oil fuel;. whilst no less interesting are the details of numerous items. under the heading of "equipment" owned by the railways.. such as 10,297 signal boxes, 141 water troughs, 1,042 tunnels.. 6,683 passenger and 6,909 goods stations, and 50,407 horses.

Obituary. 163
Death at age of 76; of F.G. Wrighr, who retired in 1922 from the position of Chief Assistant to the Chief Mechanical Engineer of the G.W.R. He was the son of Mr. T. Houghton Wright, locomotive superintendent of the former South Devon Railway, and one of Sir Daniel Gooch's pupils. Wright entered the Gloucester shops of the G.W.R. as an apprentice in 1876, and was moved to Bristol three years later. He entered the, drawing office at Swindon in 1882, and became chief draughtsman in 1892. In 1896 he became assistant works manager at Swindon, and manager in 1901, and Chief Assistant to Churchward in 1903.

James Watt. 163
One of the oldest, if not the oldest, of Scotland's engine drivers, James Watt, passed away on 22 March in a nursing' home in Craigie, Perth, after a very short illness. Born in 1857, his father was a driver on the old Forth and Clyde Railway, afterwards transferring to the Fife and Kinross. Railway, a short single line connecting the Kinrossshire Ry. at Hopefield with the Edinburgh, Perth and Dundee Railway at Ladybank Junction. On this line young Watt, then in his early teens, used to fire for his father on either the Falkland Palace or the Loch Leven, the two four-wheeled locomotives which comprised the stock of the company. The Fife and' Kinross appears to have been one of the early lines that existed in a chronic state of impecuniosity and Watt used to. tell many very interesting tales of going with his father on one of the locomotives, collecting what money was available in the tills of the various stationmasters the day before pay day. Watt joined the North British Railway in 1876, and drove one of the 185 class on goods trains across the first Tay Bridge and later generally over the system, retiring some. fifteen years ago.

Correspondence. 164

The Belleville washer spring.  P.C. Dewhurst. 164
The article (in your issues for October and December last) ·illustrating possible usages for the above-mentioned washer- spring are very interesting as suggesting the various advantages and possible applications of it. In fact the only comment which—at first sight—appears applicable is "why was it not done before," in other words,' in view of the facts stated in the article that for some 30 years the possible uses of these washer-springs have been known, why their apparently obvious advantages have not been seized upon by designers of locomotive and other machinery and vehicles. There appears to the writer an evident fundamental—mechanical and not metallurgical—disadvantage as follows: to be effective a series of these washers must be placed either upon a spindle or in a case, or both, and it is obvious that in use the immediate tendency is for each washer to move in a lateral direction alternately one way and another, as far as either the spindle or the case—or both—will allow. In. the case of using a spindle alone, to provide for flexing of the washer. there must be a clearance between the spindle and the hole, and it is evident that movement of the washer will tend to occur and thus cause "biting" into the spindle in service. If it is attempted to eliminate this defect by adding a cylindrical case outside the washers, again sufficient clearance (the diameter of washers when flat plus necessary freedom) must be provided, and this will allow the washers to get out of line and bite into the case and/or the spindle. The writer has not used these washer-springs, but the prac- tical points above-mentioned may explain the reluctance to use what otherwise appears an obviously advantageous mechanical contrivance. It is of course evident—as indeed is mentioned in the final paragraph of the article—that flatting the bearing edges would reduce the tendency I have referred to; but to be effective this flatting would have to be carried to an extent seriously reducing the effectiveness of the device as a spring, before it would become sufficiently effective in preventing the washer-springs getting out of line.

Southern Railway.. 164
As a part of the electrification scheme, the station at Littlehampton was being completely rebuilt. The small locomotive shed was closed on 18 April and the eight engines standing there transferred to Bognor. 4-6-0 engine No. 749 had been repainted bright green colour, with the number in block letters on the cab side, and the initials "S.R." on the tender.

Institution of Locomotive Engineers. 164
At the general meeting held on 27 April, the following were elected as members: Member: Charles Beaumont Kirk, Dist. Loco. Supt., L.N.E.R, Gorton. Transfer from Associate Member to Member: Thomas Eugene Jansz, Asst. Div!. Transport Supt., Ceylon Govt. Ry., Demetagodde, Colombo. Associate: Harry Joel Mulleneux, Chief Electrical Engineer, G.I.P. Ry., Parel, Bombay. Associate Members: Arthur Leslie, Officer in Charge of Workshops, R.I.A.S.C., Bannu, N.vV. Frontier Province, India; Wilfred James Sproson, Loco. Supt., North Borneo State Rys., Jesselton, B.N.B.; Humphrey Ernest Aston White, Draughtsman, G.W. Rly., Swindon; Sukh Sarnpat Lal, Trainee at Vu1can Foundry Ltd., Newton-le-Willows, Lancs.

Stephenson Locomotive Society. 164
On 11 April R.A.H. Weight gave a paper, "Great Northern Reminiscences," illustrated by photographs. Doncaster locomotive practice past and present was briefly surveyed and a number of interesting sidelights on traffic working were mentioned. A display of photographic work of topical interest included a series by L. Derens, of Amsterdam.

Trade notes and publications. 164

Ruston and Hornsby Ltd. 164
Lincoln firm's Locomotive catalogue—The Ruston oil-engined locomotive is now made in five sizes, ranging from 11/13 b.h.p. to 44/48 b.h.p. One important advantage claimed for this locomotive over other types is its low running cost, light fuel oil at 6d. per gallon being used. It is fitted with a Ruston four-stroke vertical oil engine which has proved an economical proposition when installed as a portable unit. Other features of the machine are the constant mesh 3-speed gearbox, and the method of drive and of springing which obviate chain snatch. Full particulars are given of the various sizes of locomotives, with the respective hauling capacities, etc. The illustrations show the wide variety of jobs for which these machines are em- ployed in all parts of the country as well as overseas. Ruston locomotives are working in intense cold near the Arctic circle and in the fiercest heat as on the shores of the Dead Sea, as well as in many tropical countries.

Railok. 164
A new half drop window for bulkheads, doors, etc., known as the "Railok," is shown in a leaflet issued by Beckett, Laycock and Watkinson Ltd., of Acton Lane, N.W.10. It is of frameless glass and extremely light and can be fitted between pillars of minimum depth. Consequently it is very suitable for sliding doors. It is locked positively in the closed position, along the whole length of the guard rail.

L.M.S. Railway. 164
Orders fplaced for 87 freight and service vehicles as follows :-Metropolitan Cammell Carriage and Wagon Company, Birmingham: 75 twelve-ton sleeper wagons; Hurst, Nelson and Co. Ltd., Motherwell: ten 35-ton bogie wagons; C. Roberts and Co. Ltd., Horbury, Yorks: one 10-ton creosote ,tank wagon; R.Y. Pickering and Co. Ltd., Wishaw: one ballast plough van.

Whitelcgg and Rogers Ltd. 164
Order for 44 Ajax steam operated firedoors from the North British Loco motive Co. Ltd. for application to fifteen 4-8-2 type locomotives under construction for the South African Railways and Harbours Administration. Also an order for two air operated firedoors for 2-8-2 type locomotives building for the Newfoundland Railways.

Clyde Rubber Works Co. Ltd.  164
Orders from the Egyptian State Railways for the supply of rubber draw springs.

Peruvian Corporation 164
Order with D. Wickham and Co. Ltd. for 30 four-wheeled trolley trailers for the Central Railway of Peru.

Drewry railcars. 164
Buenos Ayres Great Southern and Buenos Ayres Western Railways described in our last issue are fitted with Beckett, Laycock and Watkinson's sliding door gear and stainless steel louvres. Some of the rail- cars also provided with Simoon' horizontally sliding windows

Number 550 (15 June 1938)

The control of transport. 165
Professor Alexander Gray of Edinburgh University paper presented to Institute of Transport Congress held in Edinburgh considered the financial performance of the amalgamated railways and the London Passenger Transport Board, and in particular the removal of the 62 bus ciompanies

Improved 2-8-0 freight engines, G.W.R. 166. illustration
38XX series: Side window cab, outside steam pioes and improved sanding gear: No. 2884 illustrated.

London & Southampton Railway Centenary. 166

2-6-0 locomotives, L.M.S.R., Northern Counties Committee. 167. diagram (side elevation)
W class diagram shows No. 90 Duke of Abercorn. Other names listed. Photograph of No. 99 King George Vi with larger Stanier pattern tender page 263..

New high-power electric locomotives, Swiss Federal Railways,. 167

4-6-4 express locomotives. New York Central Sytem. 168. illustration
Class J-3A Hudson supplied by American Locomotive Co. of Schenectady. No. 5445 (illustrated) streamlined locomotives to haul Twentieth Century Limited

2 ft. 6 in. gauge "Mikado" locomotive, Chosen Ry. Co. 169-70. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
Korea: Kokai (Yellow Sea) line: locomotives supplied by Kisha Seizo Kaisha Ltd and by Nippon Sharyo Ltd in Japan

Leeds City Station. 170
The  combination of the Wellington and New stations as Leeds City: a joint LMS/LNER venture with the new (LMS) Queen's Hotel

High-power diesel locomotive for Roumania. 171-3. illustration
Supplied by Sulzer Bros. of Winterthur and Henschel of Kassel for operation over the Transylvanian Alps from Campina to Brassov with gradients of 1 in 47/1 in 50.

Miniature locomotive for a garden railway. 173. illustration
10¼ inch gauge 4-4-2 designed J.N. Maskelyne for railway in Dudley. Two locomotives supplied with boilers manufactured by T. Goodhand of Gillingham in Kent.

E.A. Phillipson. The steam locomotive in traffic. IV. Locomotive depot equipment. 174-8. 9 illustrations, 2 diagrams
Mechanical coaling plants. Illustrations of those at Colchester, York, Doncaster and Whitemoor on the LNER and Rugby on the LMS.

G.W.R. Centenary. 178.
On Whit Monday 1 June 1938 the line opened from Paddington to Maidenhead

Institute of Transport Congress, Edinburgh May 18-21, 1938. 179.
President Sir Alexander Gibb; three keynote papers: The problem of rates classification by George Mills, Divisional General Manager, LNER Scottish Area; Transport in Europe, regulation and control by Archibald Henderson, Chairman of the Traffic Commissioners, Southern Area, Scotland and Post War development of government control by Profesor Alexander Gray of Edinburgh University.

Manchester & Bolton Railway Centenary, 179
Opened 29 May 1838: used Bury locomotives with names

London & North Eastern Ry. 179
New J39 0-6-0 locomotives allocated to North Eastern Area Nos. 1546, 1548, 1551, 1558 and 1560; to Scottish Area Nos. 1862, 1863 and 1896; and to Southern Area Nos. 1804, 1808, 1835, 1898 and 1903. Two engines of J39 class had been fitted with all-welded boilers: Nos. 1509 and 1535. Withdrawals included last F8 2-4-2T Nos. 40 and 420 and ex Hull & Barnsley 0-6-0s Nos. 2412m 2540 and 2542.

O.J. Morris. Eastleigh Railway Museum. 180-3. 5 illustrations
Brief historical background: Rouse-Marten, Rosling Bennett, Archie Sturrock and Sir William Acworth attempted to form the Railway Musem Assocition. It had long been argued that if a National Railway Museum was established it could not be historically representative [KPJ this remains true]. By 1938 the LNER had established its Museum in York; the LMS had preserved two locomotives; London Transport had preserved one bus. The Southern Railway was making a start at Eastleigh in the Paint Shop with a Whitworth screw cutting machine sent to Nine Elms in 1858 of a design patented in 1834 (BP 6566/1834). There are two illustrations of this machine (KPJ: was this lost during WW2?); sectional wooden model of Beattie mid-feather firrebox patent BP 259/1854; also feed-water heater pump as fitted to 2-4-0T No. 247; Mansell wheels (illustrated) developed by Richard Christopher Mansell; Vortex blast pipe off A12 0-4-2 No. 642; gilded door fittings from LSWR Royal Train (illustrated); Adams 4-2-2 drawing (illustration: reproduced)

Breidsprecher break of gauge device. 184-5. illustration, diagram
change gauge between German and Russian railway systems.

L.M.S.R. engine casualties. 185-6.
Presentation of Motive Power Shields by Sir Josiah Stamp at Euston on 25 May 1938 gave names of winning district motive power superintendents: J.E. Wood, Plaistow, W.H. Ensor Shrewsbury; A.H. Whitaker, Bristol; W.E. Blakesley, Crewe; I.E. Mercer, Werllingborough; H.B. Buckle, Derby; H.G. Prentice, Motherwell; F.C. Anker, Nottingham; S.W. Gerrard, Longsight and Wakefield, D. O'Hara.

Early Eastern Counties Railway locomotives. 186-7. 5 diagrams (side elevations)

Railway electrification. 187
Sir Ralph Wedgwood, Chief General Manager of the L.N.E.R., contributed a talk to the B.B.C. Transport series which was broadcast on 12 May 1938. He dealt with the possibilities of speed if the lines were electrified. It was true that an electric locomotive could haul a heavy train at a more constant speed than a steam locomotive, and that over a varied line it could maintain a higher speed between point and point. But it was "5 a weight carrier rather than a flier that the electric locomotive would do its best work. Suburban electrification, dependent on the multiple unit, not the electric locomotive, was a proved success, where the passenger traffic was heavy and the goods traffic light. This was particularly the case with London, South of the Thames, where there had grown up by far the largest system of suburban electric railways in the world.
North of the Thames progress had been less rapid, but was making great advances now that the main line companies. and the London Transport Board had pooled their suburban interests. Apart from London, progress was slow — the traffic was less intense, and the pressure of freight traffic on the available facilities was greater. The capital cost was therefore heavier in comparison with the reward to be obtained. Still progress was being made, and new sections of suburban line had been electrified in the Liverpool area, and on Tyneside, within the last few weeks. Main line electrification stood on a different footing. It must justify itself as a business proposition mainly on the economies it brought with it; and unfortunately the smaller the scheme the smaller l was the proportion the economies were likely to bear to the capital expenditure involved. An experiment to be successful must be made on a big scale or not at all. Such an experiment was in progress on one of ,the lines connecting Manchester with Sheffield, where heavy grades, long tunnels and intensive traffic gave favourable conditions for success. Taking the whole of our railways, even those that served the North of Scotland, they gave a more frequent service than any other country in the world — more than twice as frequent as the French railways and eight times as frequent as the U.S.A. Passenger questions, continued Sir Ralph, bulked large in the public eye, but as a matter of fact the railway drew much less than one-half of their revenue from passenger business. Coal and goods traffic gave more money over all. They carried 190 million tons of coal a year out of about 240 million tons produced, but they carried it only 44 miles on an average; in America' they carried it 324 miles, and in India 200 miles. On the other hand, they were themselves one of the largest consumers of coal, and one wagon- load out of every fifteen that they hauled went to stoke the fires of their own locomotives.

L.N.E.R. appointments. 187
E. Thompson, mechanical engineer, North Eastern Area, is to be mechanical engineer (Western section), Doncaster. A. H. Peppercorn, locomotive running supt., Southern Area, to be mechanical engineer, North Eastern Area, Darlington. F. W.. Carr, assistant mechanical engineer. Stratford, to be mechanical engineer, Southern Area (Eastern Section). L. Hyde, works manager, Inverurie, to be works manager, Cowlairs. L. Farr, works manager, Cowlairs, to be works manager, Inverurie.

D[ewhurst], P.C. L.M.S.R. locomotives: a history of the Somerset and Dorset Joint Railway. 188-90

Tuplin, W.A. Mixed traffic locomotives. 190-1. 2 tables
Performance of LNER K2 and K3 class 2-6-0s on heavy passenger expresses between Wakefield and Doncaster.

C. Hamilton Ellis. Famous locomotive engineers. V. Dugald Drummond. 192-6. 4 illustrations (including portrait)
See also letter from W.B Thompson on p. 231

Number 551 (15 July 1938)

The Castlecary accident. 199.
On 10 December 1937 the 16.03 Edinburgh to Glasgow express over-ran Castlecary home signal and hit stationary 14.00 Dundee to Glasgow train leading to 35 fatalities. Automatic Trtain Control would probably have prevented the accident. The Inspecting Officer commended the Buckeye couplers and Pullman vestibules on the coaches of the express.

London & North Eastern Railway. 199
New 0-6-0 tender-engines of the J39 class, completed at North Road Works, Darlington, were Nos. 1930, 1933, 1940, 1942, 1943, 1952, 1965 and 1971, all of which, we understand, were working in the Southern Area. An innovation in the tenders of the last four of these engines was the fitting of a high back piece, with a coal gate, similar to the tenders of the V2 class and the Pacifics. The first of the new series of K4 class in hand was No. 3442 Mac Cailein. Mor and was painted green. The latest A4 Pacific No. 4901 Capercaillie was working from Gateshead. 4-4-0 D49 class No. 327 had been rebuilt with Walschaerts valve gear.

The Flying Scotsman of 1888 and 1938: fifty years of speed. 200-5. 6 illustrations, diagram (elevation and plan)
Press demonstration run to introduce two new train sets for non-stop Flying Scotsman and Sunday Scotsman between London and Edinburgh, but limited to a run from Stevenage to Barkston Junction and back. From King's Cross to Stevenage travel was in six-wheel coaches hauled by Stirling single 4-2-2 No. 1. From Stevenage the new rolling stock was employed hauled by A4 No. 4498 Sir Nigel Gresley.. The trains featured a buffet car with a ladies' lounge and toilet room in addition to first and third class dining cars. Double glazing and sound deadening materials (rubber and asbestos) were employed to provide a quieter passenger environment. Pressure ventilation was provided. The exterior was the normal teak finish, but the interior was more like that of the streamlined trains. 

Miniature railway at the Glasgow Exhibition. 205. illustration
Two 21 inch gauge steam-outline Pacific locomotives supplied by Hudswell, Clarke & Co. Ltd with Dorman diesel engines; replicas of Stanier Princess Royal pacifics and named Princess Elizabeth (painted bright red) and Princess Margaret Rose (painted green).. The rolling stock nwas fitted with air brakes, similar to those used on the City's tramcars

[Southern Railway staff changes]. 205
C.J. Hicks promoted to Works Manager at Ashford on retirement of G.H. Pearson who had been Assistant Mechanical Engineer and Works Manager at Ashford since 1914..

Institution of Locomotive Engineers. Summer Meeting in Scotland. 206-8. 2 illustrations, table
The summer meeting took place on 8-12 June and included Dr Dorpmuller, the German Minister of Transport and fourteen officers of the German State Railway. The British Minister of Transport, Dr. E.L. Burgin was also present. Stanier was in attendance.
A special seven coach train, including the LMSR dynamometer car, hauled by Coronation class Pacific No. 6225 Duchess of Gloucester was run from Euston to Glasgow Central with a stop at Carlisle to change the engine crew which had been Driver F.C. Bishop and Fireman J. Greenup of Camden then Driver D. Kerr and Fireman T. Reid of Polmadie. The main interest was the rapid ascents of Shap and Beattock banks.
The Institution's Dinner was held in the evening of 9 June in the Grosvenor Restaurant, following a cruise to Inverary on the Duchess of Montrose. Both the Ministers of Transport spoke at the dinner. Dr Burgin called for simpler controls on the locomotive and Dr Dorpmuller noted that Britain relied for steam for her railways more than any other country..
A visit was made to the Clydebridge Steel Works of Colvilles Ltd in the morning of Friday 10 June and after lunch St. Rollox Works was visited where the preserved Jones' goods 4-6-0 and Caledonian Railway No. 123 were inspected. Saturday was spent at the Empire Exhibition and on Sunday morning the LNER arranged a special train from Queen Street to the Forth Bridge where the visitors were allowed to study part of it on foot. In the afternoon they were taken on a coach tour of Edinburgh.
It should noted that a much fuller account is given in J. Instn Loco. Engrs., 1938, 28, 569

Electric stock, Bognor and Littlehampton lines, S.Ry. 208-10. 2 illustrations
O.V. Bulleid contributed to design of unusual buffet cars which provided tables with scalloped edges facing towards windows and revolving chairs. The bar was provided with high stools. The whole was aimed to provide a high turnover. The exterior of the new buffet cars was painted in light (malachite?) green.

125 m.p.h. on the L.N.E.R.: a British record. 210

E.A. Phillipson. The steam locomotive in traffic. IV. Locomotive depot equipment. Coal handling. 212-16. 6 illustrations, 2 diagrams.
Ferro-concrete coaling towers: Fig. 17 shows diagrams of those at Annesley and at Woodford to the patented design of Henry Lees & Co. Ltd. of Glasgow. The design involved a wagon tippler, a skip to hoist the coal to the top of the tower and water sprinkling to lessen dust. Figs. 18-20 show the tower at Norwich (LNER) where the tippler was situated under cover presumably to reduce noise and dust pollution Figs. 21 and 22 show a steel design constructed by Babcock & Wilcox Ltd. installed at Cudworth (LNER) and at Springs Branch (LMS). The last was constructed in an area of severe colliery subsidence and the design aimed to accommodate this.

[Lovett Eames]. 216
Re article in the December 1937 Issue, page 402, on the American single driver locomotive Lovett Eames, tried on thc Great Northern Ry. in 1881 and sold for scrap in April 1884, it was stated the engine bell was retrieved and preserved for many years at King's Cross Locomotive Depot. It was moved to Hornsey when the new shed was built and it served as a time signal for the filters employed there. Its active service accomplished it was on 11 July  handed over by Sir Nigel Gresley, on behalf of the L.N.E.R., to Mr. Richard Perinoyer , who is attached to the American Embassy. He has long wished to have a locomotive bell and is providing a good home for it.

A new speed indicator and recorder. 216. illustration
The provision of a reliable speed indicator and mileage recorder on the footplate of the locomotives working the present day high speed trains, is of increasing importance to enable the drivers to successfully handle them at the booked running times, as well as of assistance in regulating the speed over curves, junctions, etc., which carry a statutory limit. The record of the actual running serves as a support as well as a check in avoiding disputes about responsibility for delays. The Tel. R.T. 835 Speed Indicator and Recorder introduced by the Hasler Telegraph Works, London, for indicating the speed of locomotives, railcars and other vehicles, had been specially designed for flexible shaft drive.

Southern Rly. 216
Nos. 501 and 532 of the 0-6-0 class Q engines were working from Eastleigh. Four of the Schools class had been painted in the new light green l ivery and  working to Bournemouth.

L. Derens. The Dutch State Railways Company. 218-20. illustration, 2 diagrams
Hackworth-Lentz valve gaer fitted to Dutch locomotive

L.I. Sanders. Carriage and wagon design and construction. I. Carriage and wagon tractive resistance. 221-5. diagram, 2 tables
Cites Pennsylvania Railroad with high loads by British standards

Great Western Railway. 225
The first two of the new series of Castle class locomotives are numbered and named 5068 Isambard Kingdom Brunel and 5069 Sir Daniel Gooch in memory of the two men famous in railway history throughout the world, and an appropriate commemoration of the centenary of the railway. Both locomotives were stationed at Old Oak Common Sheds. At the last annual meeting of the company the Rev. H. P. Hart drew attention to the fact that the Great Western Railway no longer had locomotives perpetuating the names of these famous engineers. In reply, the Chairman promised that this should have prompt consideration; apparently these remarks have soon borne fruit. I.K. Brunel was the company's first engineer. He planned and built the line from Paddington to Bristol; was champion of the broad gauge; builder of Box Tunnel and the famous Royal Albert Bridge, Saltash, Maidenhead Bridge and Clifton Suspension Bridge, and designer of the Great Western, the first steamship to provide a regular sailing across the Atlantic. Sir Daniel Gooch was the company's first locomotive superintendent, founder of Swindon \Vorks, designer of famous locomotives, and later Chairman of the Company. He was the champion of the Severn Tunnel scheme and laid the first Transatlantic cable, for which he was knighted.
New engines completed at Swindon during May were:- No. 7245, 2-8-2 tank; Nos. 4125-29, 2-6-2 tanks; Nos. 3770-74, 0-6-0 tanks. Withdrawals during the same period included Nos. 2375, 2394, 2421 and 2450, 0-6-0 tender; No. 4244, 2-8-0 tank; Nos. 4319, 4342, 4360 and 4399, 2-6-0 tender; Nos. 5100 and 5145 2-6-2 tanks. Express engines were to be fitted with an improved safety glass of the Armour plate type in order to give better protection to enginemen.

L.M.S. appointments. 225
Ashton Davies had been appointed Acting Vice President (Railway Traffic, Operating and Commercial) during the absence of E. J. H. Lemon on special Government service. T.N. Argile has been appointed Acting Chief Commercial Manager in place of Davies. F.A. Pope had been appointed to a new position of Superintendent of Operation under T. Royle, Chief Operating Manager.

London Transport 225
The contract for earth works, retaining walls and bridge abutments in connection with widening the Metropolitan line to four tracks between Harrow and Rickmansworth had been placed with Sir Robert McAlplne and Sons Ltd. Electrification of the line beyond Rickrnansworth to Amersharn and Chesham was to be put in hand, and do away with the need for the exchange of electric and steam locomotives on London Transport trains at Rickrnansworth, and five or six minutes saved on the journey het ween Baker Street and outlying stations.

O.J. Morris. Standardising Southern Railway locomotives, Central Section (10) 0-6-0T. Classes E1 and E1x. 225-8. 4 illustrations
Since the day in 1874 when William Stroudley placed in service his first goods tank engine, No. 97 Honfleur, the El class has enjoyed a dual identity that makes its story the more interesting. Designed essentially for freight work, as, witness the 4 ft. 6 in. wheels, the class was split up at an early date, and a number of its engines were transferred to passenger duties. The transfer involved certain mechanical alterations and additions, among the latter air brakes and the electrical passenger communication, but its most striking external feature was the substitution of the resplendent yellow livery for the more sober "goods green" that had hitherto characterised the class.
This mixing of duties at so early a stage in the career of Stroudley's goods tanks has always been something of a mystery, upon which even the authors of the "Histories" have not thrown any light, but it now becomes possible, through the researches of J. Pelham Maitland, to clear up this old-age topic. At the period referred to—that is, the decade commencing with 1877—the districts of South London served by the Brighton Company were undergoing so rapid an expansion that Stroudley found himself unable to cope with the demands for engine power. Brighton Works was indeed turning out passenger tank engines of the D class as fast as it could, and presently Neilson's of Glasgow were also called in to build numbers of these badly- needed locomotives. Unfortunately, even Neilson's, harassed as they must have been by Stroudley, who always "wanted his way to the last bolt and nut," were unable to work miracles in the way of immediate delivery, and in the interim of waiting, Stroudley had to find some other means of satisfying the Company's patrons. Particularly difficult was the case of the main suburban line out of London Bridge, owing to the stiffness of the New Cross bank. The increasing weight and frequency of the trains over this section were sorely taxing the abilities of the older suburban engines and the existing D tanks were needed in many other places as well. It was necessary to temporise, and this Stroudley did in the only manner open to him, by allocating some of his goods tanks to these arduous turns, which apart from their importance in the scheme of things, had the additional merit of dealing with first class and sometimes cantankerous passengers, who brooked no delays or breakdowns whatsoever.

Mixed traffic locos. for China. 231. illustration
Kin-Han line of the Chinese National Railways, the Société John Cockerill of Seraing, Belgium, built 2-6-2 mixed traffic tender locomotives. Coupled wheels 5 ft. in diameter; outside cylinders driving the middle pair of drivers, 20 in. diameter by 26 in. stroke, with piston valves and Walschaerts valve gear. The boiler carried a working pressure of 172 psi. The heating surface was: tubes and flues, 1,490 ft2.:firebox, 119 ft2.; superheater, 380.5 ft2; combined total, 1989.5 ft2 The grate area 32.29 ft2. The 5,000 gallon tender had a fuel space of 317 ft3 The adhesive weight was 46.5 tonnes and the total engine weight in working order is 72 tons

Electric colour light signals. 231
Installed on the L.N.E.R. line between Wickford and Southend and brought into use on Sunday, 26 June. The semaphore signals have been dispensed with and all trains over the 12½ mile section of line will be controlled day and night by 38 red, yellow and green searchlight signals, many of which will be worked automatically by the trains themselves. The new signalling was expected to be of great assistance during foggy weather.

[Obituary] 231
Death on 4 June 4 of Lt. Col. A. Fayrer Hosken, formerly Locomotive and Carriage Supt. of H.E.H. The Nizarn 's State Railway. Hosken was formerly at Stratford, Great Eastern Ry and subsequently on the Caledonian Railway locomotive staff.

London, Midland & Scottish Railway., 231.
The fourth of the new streamlined Princess Coronation class locomotives, No. 6228 Duchess of Rut/and was in service, thus leaving only one other to complete the series of five with streamlining. This engine, No. 6229 Duchess of Hamilton, nearing completion at Crewe, had been selected for  American tour, and very probably would be finished in the blue livery which was specially chosen for the Coronation series, Nos. 6220-4. Two of the non-streamlined engines. had also been turned out at Crewe, Nos. 6230 Duchess of Buccleuch and 6231 Duchess of Atholl. Patriot class No. 5503 The Leicestershire Regiment and No. 5516 The Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire Regiment had been named. Engines rebuilt with standard Belpaire boilers included G1' class Nos. 9008 and 9113; also 18 in. goods class No. 8526. . One of the latter class, No. 8532, was running fitted with a round top boiler. Recent withdrawals included the following: 0-6-4 tank No. 2032; 0-6-2 coal tanks Nos. 7688 and' 27593; 4-6-2 superheater tank No. 6956; and 0-4-2 shunter No. 7859. Two of the new series 2-6-4 passenger tanks building at Derby were in service, Nos. 2618-19.

Correspondence. 231

[Life of Dugald Drurnmond]. W.B. Thompson.
Re life of Dugald Drurnmond stated that his 4-4-0 engines on the North British line had a pressure of 140 lb. This figure should be 150 llb. I used to see the engines on the Waverley trains fifty to. sixty years ago, and always understood that their pressure was 150 lb. The article in The Engineer 4 January 1878, which described the engines merely said that they were tested for 150 lb. in steam before g'oing into service, but the earlier article dealing with the goods engines, which except for the wheel arrangement were practically the same engine as the 4-4-0s, said that "the working pressure of Drummond's engines is 150 lb." (see The Engineer, 5 January 1877). It must be remembered that the Brighton Grosvenor, with which Drummond had been closely associated, had a pressure of 150 lb., and it was natural that Drurnmorrd should use it in his own engines. When new the Waverley 4-4-0's were easily the finest engines in the kingdom; the engines of the other six companies serving Carlisle looked a very poor lot beside them. The double-singles, the "720" class, on the L.S.W. were- apparently a European edition of the James Toleman, of the Chicago Exhibition in 1893. Unfortunately they were much too small for the traffic at the time when they were built, but with light trains they could run well. If they had been on a larger scale they might have given a good account of themselves.

Number 552 (15 August 1938)

Canada's railway problem. 233.
Very serious situation in which the railways of Canada found themselves was causing the Government and people grave concern, and the recent appointment by the Senate of yet another Committee to investigate the matter, and to find a solution to the problem, had once more. focussed attention on the two great transportation systems, and on the conflicting views of their Chiefs, which seem as far from reconciliation as ever. To the impartial observer it seems fairly clear that the real difficulty lies there. Neither concern can agree to the proposals of the other; a state of deadlock exists, which can only be broken by the intervention of a third body with the power to enforce its will on the other two. Until this intervention takes place no real improvement In things can be expected, and the country will go on suffering, financially and otherwise, with an even worse state of things certain to come about eventually.
The basic cause of the imbroglio is really simple, however disinclined people may be to admit it. The gross, unbalanced over-optimism of investors, m the country and outside, exhibited during the first decade of the century or thereabouts; their mortgaging of the future in the expectation that man-power and capital would continue to pour into the country until in a few years the populatiori, doubling and tnpling, would "take care of" all t?e thousands of miles of superfluous and duplicated track laid down; this was the seed whence came the present crop of trouble. Millions of dollars were borrowed and sunk in premature and needless construction and expansion; then the War [WW1] cried halt; afterwards, the steady influx of home-seekers was not resumed, and now the country finds itself saddled with a burden of debt, heavy and increasing, and with a transportation system easily capable of serving treble the population that is there to use it or is likely to be within another half century.
However simple the cause, there is unfortunately no equally simple remedy. The mere abandonment of non-paying mileage is, of course, impos- sible, except where two competing lines closely parallel each other; instances of this are not hard to find. Wherever the railway penetrates towns and vlllages. spnng up along it, depending on it for their existence. A section operated at a loss may Iink up two paying divisions which could not exist without it. Yet one need not be the seventh son of a seventh son to see that a privately owned company cannot go on losing money indefinitely; a day of reckoning inevitably comes. When two systems operating largely in the same field, competing, interlocking, both get into difficulties, and cannot agree as to the solution of their very similar troubles, yet cannot be allowed to fail, obviously the time has come to call in the third party suggested above; the party with power to command, to bring order out of chaos. And that third party must be Government; that is, the people as a whole, who are dependent on the two irreconcilables for their prosperity and progress, and who have the power, in the last resort, to make their will prevail.
Broadly speaking, the conflicting plans advanced by the two companies, and on which a decision must be made, are (1) amalgamation, and (2) enforced control. The first means that the two great systems should merge, and operate as one, presumably as a Government concern. Many people are frankly afraid of the power that could be swayed by the huge body of voting employees resulting from this plan. The second means "third party control," forcibly regulating the operations of both companies, leaving them largely as they are, one Governmental, and the other Private. We are not prepared to be dogmatic as to which is the better, but feel convinced that either plan is preferable to none at all. The nettle must be grasped firmly and it may then be found far more harmless than was expected. Too long has a laissez faire attitude been assumed by Canada to this very serious situation; action cannot be postponed much longer. Everyone with the interests of railways at heart will hope that a definite decision may be reached in the near future, and that then this great problem will cease to be a millstone round the Canadian neck.

Great Western Ry. 233
New engines completed at Swindon during June were 4-6-0 express type Nos. 5068 Beverston Castle; 5069 Isambard Kingdom Brunel; 5070 Sir Daniel Gooch; 5071 Clifford Castle; 5072 Compton Castle; 4-4-0 type No. 3219; 0-6-0 type Nos. 2200 and 2296-9; 2-6-2 tank No. 8102. It was intended that the first two engines of the new Castle series should bear the names Isambard Kingdom Brunel and Sir Daniel Gooch, but they had been allotted the numbers given above. Engines withdrawn were as follows:- 0-6-0 tanks Nos. 1660, 1766, 1776, 1824; 2-4-0 tank No. 1497; 2-6-2 tank 3173; 0-6-0 tender No. 2388; 2-6-0 tender Nos. 4302, 4349 and 4355. For the Vale of Rheidol narrow gauge line, from Aberystwyth to Devil's Bridge, fifteen new observation coaches had been built at Swindon.

New 4-6-2 express locos., L.M.S.R..234. illustration, diagram (side & front elevations)
Non-streamlined: No. 6230 Duchess of Buccleuch illustrated: note that No. 6234 Duchess of Abercorn would have streamlined steam passages between cylinders and steam chests and was to be fitted with a hopper ashpan and deep firegrate.

Tank locomotive for Longmoor Military Railway. 234-6. illustration, diagram (side & front elevations)
Designed and built by W.G. Bagnall Ltd. 0-6-2T with outside cylinders and valve gear named Kitchener

The Royal Visit to France. 236-7. illustration
King and Queen departed Victoria for Dover on Tuesday 19 July on six car Pullman train behind No. 915 Brighton. At Dover boarded Admiralty yacht Enchantress. At Boulogne boarded special painted blue with gold lines behind Nord streamlined super Pacific No. 3.1820 to Batignolles where the locomotive was changed to an Etat streamlined Pacific for the journey over the Ceinture line to the Avenue Foch (Bois de Boulogne) station. The return journey on 22 July started at Invalides Station behind No. 3.1820,

L.M.S. School of Transport. 237-9. illustration, plan
Opening took place on 22 July when a special train from St. Pancras took Lord Stamp and the Minister of Transport Leslie Burgin to Derby. Building designed by William H. Hamlyn, company architect.  There are or were murals by Norman Wilkinson and by Hamlyn. The Principal of the School was Colonel Manton (biographical details given)..

Diesel electric locos. Buenos Aires Gt. Southern Ry. 239-40
Built by Harland & Wolff in Belfast and shipped to Argentina on the motorship Devis on its maiden voyage from Harland & Wolff. Described as a 2-8-2 with a Bissel truck at each end supplied by the Swiss Locomotive & Machine Co. in Winterthur. The generators were supplied by Brown Boveri and the traction motors by Laurence Scott. The mixed traffic locomotives were for the 5ft 6in gauge, could devlop 1800 hp and had a maximum speed of 62 mile/h.

4-8-2 type locomotives, South African Railways. 241-2. 2 illustrations
Class 23 designed by W.A.J. Day. 116 were  on order: 85 from Henschel; 31 from the Berlin Locomotive Co. and 44 (with smaller coupled wheels) from the North British Locomotive Co.

Great Western Railway. 242
Withdrawal of passennger service from Cleobury Mortimer & Ditton Priors branch from 28 September 1938. Line descibed in 1921, 27, 152  

Rebuilt Atlantic engine No. 3279, L.N.E.R. 242-3. illustration, diagram (side & front elevations)
Former four-cylinder simple rebuilt with K2 type cylinders and outside valve gear.

E.H.  Livesay. Vancouver to Calgary on the footplate. 244-8.
Concentrates on the section from Kamloops through the Fraser Canyon through Revelstoke and the climb through the Kicking Horse Pass with a 2-10-4 at the rear banking to Banff and on to Calgary

E.A. Phillipson. The steam locomotive in traffic. IV. Locomotive depot equipment. 249-51.  2 illustrations
Ash handling plant and turntables: Mundt and articulated types

L.I. Sanders. Carriage and wagon design and construction. II. Carriage and wagon underframes.252-3. 2  illustrations
Samson Fox, Chairman of Leeds Forge: patent for pressed iron or steel underframes. Fig. 1: mounting of Silver Jubilee articulated rolling stock

P.C. D[ewhurst],  L.M.S.R. locomotives: a history of the Somerset and Dorset Joint Railway. 254-6. 3 illustrations
No. 11 was a 2-4-0T (Fig. 9) built by George England & Co. and exhibited at the Great Exhibition in 1861 and was acquired by the Somerset & Dorset Railway and subsequently was renumbered before beijng sold to the LSWR in 1871: see Locomotive Mag., 1930, 36, 385. Fig. 10 shows No. 15 as numbered 23 at the Vulcan Foundry, one of six 2-4-0 built by the Vulcan Foundry for the Somerset & Dorset Railway, but only two were delivered (due to lack of finance by the railway) and received numbers 15 and 16. The remainder were sold to the Alsace-Lorraine Railways. The Somerset & Dorset pair were rebuilt at Highbridge Works in 1880 (Fig. 11)

A 1½ inch scale model saddle tank locomotive. 256. illustration
Model of Hunslet Engine Co. 0-4-0ST built by T.A. Common and presented to Science Museum

Railcar streamlining. 257-60. 7 illustrations, diagram
Some of the work cited is mildly inaccurate: e.g. Calthorp rather than Calthrop. Cites Pambour formula for establishing air resistance. Siemens three phase electric railcar achieved 201 km/h on 6 October 1903. H. Nordmann air resistance formula. llustrations: Siemens three phase electric railcar; Rail Zeppelin; Flying Hamburger; Flying Cologner; partially streamlined 410hp railcar and trailer; streamlined Spanish railcar for freight; high speed diesel raicar in Netherlands

Automatic train control on the L.N.E.R.  260
The London and North Eastern Railway Company decided to instal the Hudd system of automatic train control experimentally on the main line between Edinburgh and Glasgow.  The L.N.E.R. has for some time been giving careful consideration to the question of automatic train control and has kept in close touch with the experiments which have been carried out by the London, Midland & Scottish Company on what is known as the Hudd system. At the same time the system in operation on the Great Western Railway has also been carefully studied.
The section of line between Edinburgh and Glasgow consists of 47 miles of double track and is specially suited for the experiment both on account of the density of traffic and the self-contained character of the engine working. It is proposed to equip the whole section and to fit 250 engines with the apparatus in the first instance.
The Hudd system is referred to by Colonel Mount in his report on the Castlecary accident in which 39 passengers were killed and 179 injured. It includes a non-contact inductive apparatus, the function of which is to ensure that when a distant signal is passed at caution, a horn is sounded in the cab of the engine and a partial application of the brake is made automatically, sufficient to bring the train to a stand before the home signal is reached. In this system the signal is conveyed to a magnetic receiver on the locomotive from inductors fixed centrally between the rails, controlled from the signal box through a contact on the signal lever. The audible signals conveyed to the driver of the locomotive do not relieve him of his responsibility for watching the signals, but they act as an additional check and provide that if he should fail to notice a signal at caution the train will be pulled up automatically.

Obituary. 260
Death of Samuel Thomas Gresham, aged 72, which took place on 18 July at his son's home at Bramhall, Cheshire. Gresham was managing director of Gr esham and Craven Ltd., chairman and managing director of Heatly and Gresham Ltd. of London and India, and vice-chairman of the Heatly-Gresham Engineering Co. Ltd. He was also a director of Associated Locomotive Equipment Co, Ltd., Omes Ltd., and Heatly Electric Forgings Ltd. After serving an apprenticeship with his father's firm, Gresharn & Craven of Manchester in 1888 he went to India on behalf of the Vacuum Brake Co. as their representative at the brake trials on the Quetta section of the North Western Railway ". This led to the standardisation of the vacuum brake on the railways of India. For a time Mr. Gresham joined the staff of the N.W.R. to deal with the application of the brake to the loco- motives and rolling stock. The firm of Heatly & Gresham was founded in Calcutta to provide the service required by the rapidly extended use of the brake on the Indian railways. Subsequently the firm acted as Indian representatives for a number of well known makers of railway equipment. He had a wide circle of friends connected with the Indian Railways most of whom made it a regular practice to call upon him when home on leave. In his later years Gresham controlled the Indian business from the Westminster office of the firm, as well as attending to his other various interests.

Jonas Woodhead & Sons Ltd. of Leeds . 260
Acquired a controlling interest in Willford & Co. Ltd. of Sheffield, makers of laminated and spiral bearing springs for railway rolling stock. Capt. Allan Kyle, chairman and managing director of Jonas Woodhead & Sons, and T.H. Sanders, technical director, have joined the board of Willford & Co., Williarn Jowett having resigned.

Personal. 260
L.N.E.R. announced that G.A. Musgrave, Locomotive Running Superintendent, Scottish Area, Glasgow, has, consequent upon the .appointrnent of A.H. Peppercorn as Mechanical Engineer, Darlington, been appointed Locomotive Running Superintendent (Western Section), Southern Area, with headquarters at Liverpool Street Station.

Early Eastern Counties Railway locomotives. 261-2.
Further details on locomotives taken over from the Norfolk Railway. Tayleur 4-2-0 (refers to The Vulcan Locomotive Works and to Locomotive Mag., 1904, 10, 31 which gave total heating surface of 900 ft2..In earler articles (Vol. 10?) stated that No.24 Stephenson long boiler 0-6-0 sold prior to ECR take over. C. [G.] Macallan stated sold by ECR to Royal Danish Railway and shipped from Lowestoft during June 1853 to Tonning. RDR No. 349 ran on the Lowestoft and Fakenham branches in July 1854 before being shipped. Nos. 224 and 227, when rebuilt were fitted with wroought iron wheels made at Stratford (Fig. 44: side elevation No. 2240)
Two of the four six-coupled long boiler goods engines built by Stephenson's, Nos. 224 and 227, when rebuilt, were supplied with wrought iron wheels made at Stratford as in Fig. 44 showing No. 224 re-numbered 2240 as it appeared in January 1882; just previously to scrapping. No. 226 illustrated in Fig. 66, Vol. 10 page 57, was at one time at Ipswich, and later at Cambridge, where it shunted in the goods sidings from at least 1878 to December 1882. In W. Adams' time No. 227 was arranged to drive a rolling mill in the forge at Stratford but was never used.
The similar engines by Tayleur: No. 2220 after rebuilding had a Gooch copper-topped chimney of similar proportions to that of Lord Robartes (see Vol. 37, p. 93), and was a smart engine. On Whit-Monday 1872 this engine was working an excursion to Rye House when the train was stopped by signal at Loughton J unction, Stratford, and on re-starting slipped so badly that the right driving crank boss, of cast iron, came right out of the wheel which had T iron spokes cast in. The engine was soon after broken up. No. 231 was rebuilt under S.W. Johnson in June 1867 with a boiler of the same dimensions as that put in No. 226 (see Vol. 10, p. 58). This rebuild differed from the others as it included new solid slotted frame plates. The main dimensions were, end of frame to centre of leading axle, 4 ft. 11 in., centre of leading to centre of driving,5 ft. 10¾ in., centre of driving to centre of trailing, 5 ft. 0¼in. Rail to under side of foot plate, 4 ft.; rail to centre of boiler, 6 ft. 2 in. The wheel base of the tender was 10 ft., diameter of wheels 3 ft. 8 in. This engine was at Ipswich, as were also Nos. 221, 222, 223, and 227. No. 220 was probably a Stratford engine. No. 231 as rebuilt is illustrated by Fig. 45. Fig. 46 shows No. 132, as rebuilt in June 1861, notable as retaining the original coupled wheels, and having a tender from one of the Stephensons "98-102" class, with a higher tank than those originally provided for the" 130" class, which were very low. No. 133 illustrated in Fig. 70, Vol. 10, p. 101, should have the usual Sinclair splashers with one circular opening between two pear shaped ones; also on the firebox, a safety valve of the small dome pattern instead of the column. This engine and No. 138 had four-wheeled tenders with higher tanks than the original ones. Battley's sketch of No. 138 shows a dome casing apparently from a Tayleur engme. Of the small single tanks built by E.B. Wilson & Co., Nos. 1, 2 and 3 on the E.C.R., many notes, sketches and dimensions were given to us by Mr. Geo. Perry since the previous articles . appeared. The circumstances under which these engines worked on the E.C.R. for a short time before becoming their property, were detailed in Vol. 11, p. 59, where also their principal dimensions will be found. An illustration of these engines as built is given in Fig. 47. The first mention we have in Mr. Naylor's correspondence concerning them is dated Norwich, 9 July 9 1851, when he wrote to Mr. Gooch:
"Dear Sir,
It is with infinite pleasure that I have to report to you the vast improvement in the qualifications of the A small tank engine since the lap has been reduced to a reasonable and practicable amount in accordance with your instruc- tions on Wednesday last the 16th inst. On that day she left Lowestoft at 7.10 a.m., arriving here at 10.0 a.m. She was then taken into the shop, the alterations made, the diagrams which I enclose taken of her cut off, etc., and the next day, Thursday 17th, she left again for Lowestoft at 5.0 p.m. WITHOUT a 'pinch bar.' She can now (get) away as well as any of them and I believe be much more economical than she was before the alteration. But the main point is, she is now fit for the work, before she was not. What I have now to ask and even pray for, is permission to alter the other two only one of which is at work, for I cannot find a place for the other as she is. Let that simple but highly necessary and most important alteration be made and we can make them useful. Trusting my prayer may be heard and have the desired effect.
I remain, Dear Sir,
Yours faithfully, Wm. NAYLOR.
J. V. Gooch Esq."
From the above and remarks in Mr. Naylor's diary, these little engines appear .to have been very satisfactory, the coal consumption being only 16 lb. per mile. The few particulars  which have been preserved of them wiill be found in Vol. 11, p. 59. In Fig. 48, we give an.illustratIon of one of the engines as altered, It Iis believed, under Mr. Naylor's supervision at Norwich; the drawings being dated at Stratford m March 1852. Battley made sketches of Nos. 1 and 3 in their original condition; that of .No. 3 has a sloped coping on the bunker extendmg to about 9 inches from the front· a small sand box below the footplate and a compensating' beam between leading and driving axles. Another of his sketches marked at " 1, 2, 3," has a horizontal coping to the bunker and a Sinclair chimney. There is one brake block behind the trailing wheel and all have inside bearings only. Battleys sketches note No. 1 as having a copper moulding round the front of the firebox and a copper top to the safety valve column, and No. 3 has a brass moulding round the front of the firebox and a brass safety valve column with a copper top. The last work of these engines in traffic was on the Woolwich service. On being withdrawn from traffic, one was made a stationary engine for driv ing the printing office machinery at Stratford, and another was used to drive the Wagon Dept. machinery and afterwards went to Cambridge; the third was sold.
Fig. 44 0-6-0 goods engine No. 2240 GER ex-Norfolk Railway
Fig. 45 0-6-0 goods engine No. 231 GER as rebuilt by Johnson ex-Norfolk Railway
Fig. 46 Rebuilt 2-4-0 passenger engine No. 132 Eastern Counties Railway
Fig. 47. 2-2-2 tank loco. No. 1, E.C. Ry., as built
Fig. 48 2-2-2 tank loco. No. 1, E.CR, as altered

2·6·0 passenger engine, No. 99, King George VI, L.M.S.R. Northern Counties Committee. 263
Particulars of this engine and the large tender provided were given in June issue, page 167.

Steel snow ploughs. 263
The L.N.E.R. were providing five additional steel snow ploughs for service on their Scottish lines and have decided to convert three existing ploughs, principally of wooden construction, to the latest type of steel construction. When this order is carried out there would be fifteen steel snow ploughs .allocated to different parts of the L.N.E.R. in Scotland and the type of snow plough is such that it can readily be fitted to a locomotive when a fall of snow is threatening without interfering with the utility of the engine for ordinary traffic purposes. The ploughs are designed to throw the snow to the off-side of the line so that on double track sections the clearance of either line can be carried out without interference with the opposite track.

London-Blrmingham Railwav Centenary. 263
The L.M.S. Railway plans were well advanced for commemorating the centenary in September of the opening throughout of the London and Birmingham Railway—London's first main line railway. As one of the features of these celebrations, it has been decided to hold at Euston Station a Centenary Exhibition comprising a demonstration of old and new locomotives and rolling stock, and an Indoor exhibition of models, London and Birmingham Railway relics (such as documents and early prints), etc. The indoor exhibition will be held in the Shareholders' Meeting Room. The centenary of the throughout opening of the London .and Birmingham R.ailway occurs on 17 September, and the Centenary Exhibition at Euston will be open to the public from Monday, 19 September until Sunday, 25 September. The exhibition of rolling-stock and engines will include a series of locomotives depicting progress in this sphere from the earliest days to the present time, passenger coaches of a century ago, Royal Saloons used by Queen Adelaide and Queen Victoria, and the latest types of L.M.S. rolling-stock ·including a three-car Diesel train.

South Indian Railway. 263
Two 2-6-4 metre gauge tank locomotives had been completed by Nasmyth, Wilson and Co. Ltd. at Patricroft, Manchester. We understand these will be the last locomotives built by this firm. The locomotives have been construoted to the inspection of Robert White and Partners and. were for branch line duties. They have 14 in. by 20 in. cylinders. 4 ft, coupled wheels, and carried a working pressure of 180 psi. Each weighed about 47½ tons in working order.

The Flving Scotsman of 1888. 263
It was decided to run a public half-day excursion by the "period" Flying Scotsman train, hauled by the G.N.R. Stirling Locomotive "No. 1," on Wednesday, 24 August, between King's Cross and Cambridge. The standard half-day excursion fare of 4s. 3d. will be charged irrespective of class, and the times provisionally arranged are as follows:- Klng's Cross dep. 11. 04 Cambridge arr 12.46 . Cambridge dep. 18.35. King's Cross arr. 20.14. The old train and locomotive were also to be on public exhibition at Alexandra Palace Station on Wednesday and Thursday, 14 and 15 September. It is also of interest to know that a guaranteed excursion by the old train has been arranged for the benefit of the members of a railway society on Sunday, 11 September, between London and Peterborough.

New turntable for Walton-on-Naze. 263
The L.N.E.R. decided in view of the increase in passenger business at Walton-on-Naze and the consequential increased working of larger locomotives to that point, to replace the engine turntable at Walton-on-Naze Station. The present turntable was only 45½ ft. in diameter and was proving too small for the larger locomotives required to haul trains to and from Walton. It is to be replaced by a turntable 55 ft. in diameter which will be able to accommodate the larger engines in use.

Closing of L.M.S. goods branch in Cumberland. 263
On Monday, 8 August, the L.M.S. Railway's Oatlarlds (Goods) branch, including goods stations at Oatlands and Arlecdon, was closed for traffic !between Distington (Rowrah Branch Junction) and Rowrah Hall Quarry (exclusive). In order to enable traffic from Rowrah Hall Quarry to be still conveyed to Workington, but via Marron Junction instead of via the Oatlands Branch, a new junction will be used at Rowrah , connecting the Cleator and Workington Junction line with the Whitehaven, Cleator and Egremont line.

More electric restaurant cars for East Anglla. 263
In connection with the increased number of electric restaurant cars in service in East Anglia the L.N.E.R. decided to instal additional electric charging points at Liverpool Street, Stratford, Ipswich and to re-position four existing electric pre-heating points at Parkeston Quay. These pre-heating points are used to provide electrical energy for the restaurant cars when they are standing in the sidings or waiting to commence their journey and. are consequently not deriving electrical energy from the dynamos connected with the axles of the cars.

Decapod locomotives, Congo Railway. 264-5. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
2-10-0 for service on 3ft 6in gauge Matadi to Leopoldville section. built by Société Anglo-Franco-Belge of La Croyere in Belgium similar to series built in 1932 for Congo Railway Co. at Société St. Leonard of Liége.

Locomotive cabs. 265
Suggests that  Bouch of the Stockton & Darlington Railway intrtoduced cabs in 1860 and probably influenced T.W. Wordell to fit them on the North Eastern Railway. Gradual growth in cab fittings

Correspondence. 266

A century of Austrian loco. practice. Erich Rihosek,
Re article in May issue: some details given are not quite correct.
Railway companies:
(1) K.F.N.B.: Olmütz is not situated on the direct route to Krakau, it is served by a branch line, from Prerau on the main line.
(2) Vienna-Raab Railway (comprising the main line Vienna-Raab and the branch Vienna-Gloggnitz). The first portion of the Vienna-Raab Railway was opened in 1841 (i.e., Vienna- Wiener Neustadt) and extended to Gloggnitz in 1842. About 1844, the Vienna-Raab Railway changed its named and was afterwards known as the "Vienna-Gloggnitz" Railway. As late as 1846, the first section of the Vienna-Raab line was opened.
(3) Northern State Railway: This line ran from Brurm through Prague towards the German frontier near Bodenbach; first part opened in 1845. (4) Galician Carl Ludwig Bahn: Consisted at first of lines partly owned (in 1858) from the K.F.N.B. and partly (also in 1858) from the Eastern State Railway, the main line being from Krakau via Lemberg to Podwoloczyska (near the Russian frontier).
(5) The first railway company in Hungary was the Hungarian Central Railway. The first section (i.e., Pest-Waitzen) was opened in 1846. Locomotive Builders:
(1) Works of the Vienna-Raab (Vienna-Gloggnitz) Railway in Vienna. Commenced building in 1840. There were afterwards the works of the Austrian State Railway Company (St. E.G.) .
.(2) Locomotive Works W. Gunther, Wiener Neustadt. Built locomotives from 1842 to 1860, when the firm was taken over by G. Sigl. Since 1875, the firm was known as "Aktiengesellschaft der Lokomotivfabrik, vormals G. Sigl in Wiener Neustadt."
(3) Norris, Vienna. Built probably only six locomotives in 1846. In 1857, G. Sigl started building there. He took over the works at Wien er Neustadt in 1860. The works at Vienna were closed in 1875.
(4) Locomotive works at Floridsdorf.
(5) Engine works at Müdling (near Vienna). Built locomotives between 1873 and 1875.
(6) Krauss, Linz. Commenced building in 1881.
As to the early locomotives of Austria, the first engines, one containing those of other those of the Vienna-Raab Railway. add the following remarks:-
As late as about 1870 numbers were given to the engines of the K.F. N.B. A kind of numbering existed prior to 1870, but these numbers were only used in the books and lists of the Company and changed almost each year. (Since 1862 or so the numbers were fixed).
Orion and Lucifer were built by Kessler at Karlsruhe and not by the Maschinenfabrik Esslingen.
The Mürz." class consisted of ten engines, built by Norris, Philadelphia in 1846, 14 in.. by 19 in. cylinders and 3 ft. 8 in. wheels. (Known as the "Large" Norris Class). Another Norris-type was the "Small" Norris class, comprising a dozen of engines, also. built at. Philadelphia with the following dimensions : 13½ by. by 20 in. cylinders and 3 ft. 6 in. wheels. Both classes were ordered by the Southern State Railway.
The Carolinenthal was delivered in 1842/43 and not in 1839. There is a mistake in Die Entwicklung der Locomotive.
Meyer of Muhlhausen built eight (not seven) 4-2-0 engines for the Northern State Railway. . There were only four (not eight) 0-6-0 engines on the Vienna-Gloggnitz Railway. Four similar engines, but with smaller driving wheels, went to the Hungarian Central Railway.
As to the back-to-back tank engines of the Giovi incline, no influence can be attributed to the elder Golsdorf, but more than one hundred 0-8-0 engines similar to those used on the Austrian Southern Railway and built to his design, were ordered in Austria by the Strade Ferrate del' Alta Iralia.
Haswell was the first to apply coupled axles with side play, but his well known 0-8-0 engines of 1855 had only the fourth axle to be so treated. Golsdorf in his 2-8-0 engine of 1897 was the first to conform with the theory of Helmholtz, used more than only one axle with transverse play. In this way, he rendered unnecessary the articulated gear of Hagans, Klose, Koechy, etc.

Trade Notes and Publications. 266

Andrew Barclay, Sons and Co. Ltd. of Kilmarnock
Order from the War Office for a Diesel locomotive, fitted with a 180 h.p. Paxman-Ricardo engine, a Wilson gear box, and a Vulcan-Sinclair fluid coupling.

Crown Agents for the Colonies
Ordered from the Birmingham Railway Carriage and Wagon Co. Ltd. for the Iraq Railways, 66 four-wheel covered goods wagons, 28 low sided bogie wagons, 6 double deck bogie sheep vans, 5 bogie rail wagons, two four-wheel underframes for inspection coaches and 3 under Ir arnes for bogie fruit vans.
The Crown Agents for the Colonies have also ordered from the Birmingham Railway Carriage and Wagon Co. Ltd. five bogie carriage underframes for the Fderated Malay States Railways.

Sands, Clays and Minerals. 266
The current number published by A.L. Curtis of Chatteris  provided information on a wide range of subjects concerning minerals and their prospective economic uses. There are articles on Magnesiurn, the Arsenic Industry in Devon, China Clay, Coal for industrial purposes, Powder metallurgy, Mining progress in British Columbia and Uganda, etc.

Oil engines. 266
Ruston and Hornsby Ltd. of Lincoln issued a very comprehensive illustrated catalogue of their small vertical oil engines. After detailing the main features, and illustrating various installations, the various types ranging from single cylinder 5 to 5½ h.p. at 1,000 revolutions per minute to four cylinder 30 to 33 h.p., are described and illustrated with full specification and shipping measurements.

Number 553 15 September 1938)

Ventilation. 267
Sliding windows, fans and air conditioning; including filters to remove smoke and dust

G.W.R.. 267
Twenty diesel railcars to be constructed at Swindon with engines supplied by A.E.C. of Southall. Cotrol of electro-pneumatic type so that railcars could be coupled and provision to haul trailers including horseboxes.

Commonwealth Railways 4-6-0 passenger locos. and accelerated services. 269-70. illustration

Obituary. 270
Alexander Newlands: died Maxwell Park, Glasgow, 28 August 1938. Former Chief Civil Engineer of LMS.

Tasmanian Government Railways. "Boat Express" train and steam railcar. 270; 271. 2 illustrations

Victorian Railways, new steel cars. 271. illustration
Air-conditioned third class coach.

"The Mad Sarajevan," Jugoslav State Railways. 272-3. 3 illustrations
Belgrade, Sarajevo and Dubrovnik: reduction in journey times by Ganz three-car diesel multiple units.

Locomotives for the South African mines. 273-4. 2 illustrations
North British Locomotive Co. 4-8-4T for the East Rand Prroprietary Mines Ltd, and 4-8-2T supplied by Hunslet Engine Co. for Rand Leases (Vogelsfontein) G.M. Co. Ltd

C. Hamilton Ellis. Famous locomotive engineers. VI. Edward Fletcher. 274-8. 3 illustrations (including portrait), diagram (side elevation)
See also letter from W.B. Thompson on p. 367

M. Igel. Locomotive boiler-washing plant. 280-4. 2 diagrams
A greater part of the heat of the boiler water ought to be transmitted to the filling water and can be achieved: (1) Steam and water may be discharged separately. (2) Boiler water may be blown-down by steam pressure (without recovering the steam separately). If the heat is being transmitted according to the first method it is obtainable: (a) By means of leading the boiler water through the filling water, to which the steam blown-down for the direct heating of the freshly supplied clear water is admitted; (b) By means of leading the fresh water, before its entrance into the filling tank, through the blown-down boiler water; (c) By means of leading the boiler water through a heat exchanger through which flows simultaneously the supplied fresh filling water. If the blowing-down of the boiler water is performed with steam pressure (according to the second method) the boiler water should be conducted: (a) Through a heat exchanger, to which the fresh filling water is supplied in a quan-tity dependent on the desired final temperature of the fresh water ; (b) Through the filling tank constructed as a preheater and containing at least the water quantity necessary for one filling.

World Power Conference. Vienna Sectional Meeting. 284
A paper on The Requirements and Supply of Energy for Electric Railways, was presented by Francis Lydall, from Merz and McLellan, at the 1938 Sectional Meeting of the World Power Conference in Vienna on 25 August 1938. Lydall divided his subject into four parts: the first discussed the energy requirements for electric traction, and showed that these are much lower than is usually expected, an approximate figure being 50 k.w.h. per 1,000 ton miles. Train heating during the winter adds about 10% to this, and reference was made to the relative advantages of steam and electric heating. The second section dealt with the consumption of energy for railway traction in Great Britain, which in 1937 amounted to 1,352,793,000 k.w.h. A table showed the consumption of various electrified lines for that year, with the source of supply and the half-hourly maximum demand. The third part of the paper related to the fluctuations of traction load and the ratio of the average to the maximum demand, and the author gave some interesting instances of the variations due to conditions of service. Curves were given showing the output from the power stations of the London Passenger Transport Board during a typical winter and summer week-day, also on a day of exceptionally heavy traffic. In the fourth section the factors affecting the cost of energy for electric traction were examined, and the relative advantages of purchasing energy and private generation were considered. Details of the provision of power for its electrified services were given by permission of the Southern Railway, which derives its current partly from its own power station built before 1914, partly from a power company, and partly from the Central Electricity Board, and the significance of the figures was explained.

L.M.S.R. Appointments. 284
C.R. Campbell, Assistant, Office of Divisional Supt. of Operation (Motive Power), Derby, to be District Loco. Supt., Carlisle. A.R. Ewer, Assistant, Office of Divisional Supt. (Motive Power), Derby, to be District Loco. Supt., Willesden.

London & North Eastern Railway. 284
North Road Works, Darlington, had completed series of J39 0-6-0 goods engines, the last six being Nos. 1974, 1977, 1980, 1984, 1996 and 1997, and these were located to the Southern Area. The first two of the new series of V2 2-6-2 tender engines Nos. 4804 and 4805 were completed. No. 4804 differed from the earlier engines of this class in having a multiple-valve regulator fitted in the superheater header and the regulator rod was outside the boiler, with a compensating crank about half way. One of the new engines is to be named The Green Howard, the christening ceremony taking place at Richmond at the end of the month. New 2-6-2 tanks of the V1 class completed at Doncaster were Nos. 404 and 425. The first of Jas. Holden's 0-6-0 side tanks, No. 275 G.E.R., dating from 1886, had been withdrawn from service at Stratford. Engiines withdrawn in the North Eastern Area included—B13 class No. 738, J21 class Nos. 568, 1818 and 530; J24 class Nos. 1841, 1944; J25 Nos. 1724, 1727 and 2137; J71 Nos. 1835, 448 and 498, and H. &B.R. 0-6-2 tank No. 2483.

A centenary of Austrian loco. practice. 285-8.

P.C. Allen. A Canadian railway centre. 289-93.  

L. Derens. The Dutch State Railways Company. 293-7.

L.I. Sanders. Carriage and wagon design and construction. II. Carriage and wagon underframes. 297-9. 2 illustrations, diagram (including plan)
Welded 60 ft underframes on both LNER and LMS: latter for an articulated vehicle

Reviews. 300

The Brunels, father and son. Celia Brunel Noble. London: Cobden-Sanderson.
Lives of the famous engineers who form the subject of this work have already been written, but the authoress, who is a grand-daughter of the younger Brunei, now gives us a picture of them from the home and personal, rather than the engineering, point of view. It is perhaps not always remembered that the Brunels were descended from a very old French iamily which ·is now extinct. Circumstances connected with the French Revolution caused the elder BruneI to seek a new home and, after various vicissitudes, he ultimately settled in this country where his genius and inventiveness soon made a name for himself. With the British public he is generally associated with the Thames Tunnel and his son with the Great Western Railway, but these, after all, only represent a portion of their lives' work, It would be tedious to enumerate everything with which they were engaged but in all they displayed an enthusiasm, originality and ingenuity which, however, was not always combined with business acumen. It is no doubt difficult in these days, with the result of years of experience to assist us, to fairly apportion praise or blame to the works of these pioneers. The Thames Tunnel is hardly thought of to-day, and the many innovations which the younger BruneI introduced on the Great Western Rly. have nearly all been relegated to a forgotten past. At the same time they will always be remembered for the daring they displayed, both in the conception and in the execution of the works they undertook and such an authoritative and carefully compiled record of their daily lives as the authoress has now given us will be welcome by all interested in the achieve- ments of the early pioneers.

Quartet in steel.The complete book of British Railways. Horace Greenleaf and Howard Hayden. Frederick Muller, Ltd. 300
Railways have been for many years popular themes for juvenile books. Generally speaking, they have been confined to two classes. There is the highly coloured picture book for the very young, and the diagram-studded, technically-worded manual for the youthful student of railways. The growth, working, and achievements of Britain's four great companies is a fascinating story; yet comparatively few writers have attempted to relate it. This story has now been told by Horace Greenleaf and Howard Hayden in simple, straight- forward terms. Together they have penned Quartet in Steel, a book which bridges the gap between the elementary and the technical. The volume presents an intimate picture of railway working. It traces the progress of the British lines from the small horse-drawn affairs of 150 years ago to the steel highways of to-day; outlines the ramifications of the modern companies; and explains the working of a locomotive, the meaning of signals, the history of the Pullman car, and the reason for electrification projects. The reader travels with the driver and fireman on an express engine; watches the chef and stewards at work on a dining car; peeps inside the famous travelling post office, walks along "the track"; and follows in the wake of a flier on its journey across England. "Quartette in Steel" is interesting and informative reading, lavishly illustrated with more than fifty photographs. Originally the book was planned for use in schools, but the publishers. realising its general appeal decided that it should also be available to the public, and have therefore produced an attractive addition at the popular price of six shillings. Mr. Greenleaf is on the staff of the Southern Railway Advertising Department, and is an experienced writer on railway and similar topics. Mr. Hayden, a well-known educationalist, is the author of several school books, and is a specialist on children's plays and books.

A survey of railway development and practice.  P.E. Garbutt. London: Arthur H. Stockwell Ltd.
This comprehensive survey of the railways throughout the world gives the general principles governing their administration as well as the economies of rail transport. After tracing the 'history of the origin and organisation of the railways of [his country, the author refers to the complicated question of railway rates firstly as a means of increasing traffic and the development of industries, and secondly the transport of such traffic as cheaply and efficiently as possible. Financial progress is then discussed. Following chapters are devoted to sketches of railway development on the Continent of Europe, in America and Asia, Australia and Africa, explaining the administrations and organisation in each case. A further section includes reasons for electrifying railways and for diesel-electric traction and their advantages in special cases. Attention is also drawn to questions of road transport competition. The student of railway economics will find this book useful in giving a concise view of the present day position and of the many problems facing the railways.

L.N.E.R.-locomotive depots. 300
To bring locomotive depots up to the latest standards, the L.N.E.R. had recently let several contracts for improvements at certain principal depots. At Lincoln where the depot was being completely transformed— the last stages of the work were now in hand and W. Wright & Son (Lincoln) Ltd. had been awarded the contract, valued at £2,000, for the extension of the general stores in which spare locomotive parts and materials such as lamp oils, sponge cloths, etc., were kept. At Darnall, near Sheffield, the L.N.E.R. is constructing a new locomotive depot in connection with the Manchester-Sheffield electrification scheme and this depot would provide accommodation for both steam and electric locomotives when completed. Longden & Son of Sheffield had been given the contract for the construction of locomotive inspection pits here and work would commence almost immediately as it is very desirable that this depot should be ready for the change-over from steam to electric working when that time comes, planned for two years hence. The same firm had also been awarded a contract for building dormitories at this new locomotive depot which will be available for enginemen who have to spend a night away from home. The value of these contracts is £30,000. At Darlington where the locomotive depot is being modernised a contract for rebuilding the locomotive sheds has been let to Haymills Ltd. of London. This locomotive depot, which has associations with the earliest railways, will, when complete, be one of the most up-to-date. A mechanical coaling plant, new engine disposal pits, up-to-date repairing equipment together with new offices and a new mess-room are all included in this modernisation scheme, and the turntable is to be replaced by one of 70 ft , diameter to deal with the larger engines in use.

Exeter St. David's station.  300
The first instalment of the Great Western Railway Company's scheme of improvements at Exeter announced. This provides for the remodelling of the station building on the "down" side, widening of the building on the station approach side by 11 feet for a distance of 170 feet, erection of canopy covering for cars, 350 feet in length, running along the whole front of the building. The present architectural features of the station will be retained, aud the new work will be faced with stone to match. The work will be done in two stages, the first of which will commence in the autumn. Prior to this, temporary booking office and waiting roorns will be constructed on the open space in front of the station, and temporary cloak rooms near the Divisional Superintendent's Office. The first stage will consist of remodelling the building at the London end of the station and erection of the new addition. When completed this will provide a wide station entrance, large booking office, public enquiry office, lugga-ge hall and spacious refreshment and dining rooms with kitchens planned on up- to-date lines. The first floor will accommodate the Divisional Offices. Improvements will also be carried out to the station approach and the open space in front of the buildings.

Number 554 15 October 1938)

A great century.  301
London & Birmingham Railway Centenary

D.S. Barrie. The London & Birmingham Railway: Centenary Exhibition at Euston.  302-4. illustration

LNER 4-6-2 No.4468 "Mallard",

C. Hamilton Ellis.  Famous locomotive engineers: VII. Patrick Stirling. 306-9.

Chosen Railway, Corea, Prairie type locomotives and combined mail and passenger car.  310-11. 2 illustrations, diagram (side elevation)
2ft 6in gauge: locomotives capable of 70 km/h: built by Kisya Seizo Kaisya and Nippon Syaryo Kaisya

L. Derens. The Dutch State Railways Company. 312-14. 2 illustrations, 3 diagrams.
See also letter on p. 367 from W. Lubsen

E. Abel. Railcars and diesel-electric trains. Danish State Railways. 315-16. 2 illustrations

E.A. Phillipson. The steam locomotive in traffic. IV. Locomotive depot equipment. 317-20.  2 illustrations, 2 diagrams

Miniature Garratt type locomotives,

P.C. D[ewhurst] . L.M.S.R. locomotives: a history of the Somerset and Dorset Joint Railway. 322-3. 3 illustrations

4-6-4 passenger locomotives. Chicago and North Western Railway. 324. illustration
See also letter from WTH on page 402

LNW compounds. the three cylinder mineral engines. 325

Watchet Harbour. 327

Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Harbour Line: new "Pendulum Train".  328

The free wheel on railway vehicles. 330-2. 3 diagrams.

Number 555 (15 November 1938)

Feedwater treatment . 335
The effects of bad feedwater on locomotives are certain and may be resolved into priming or foaming, and deterioration due to deposition of scale possibly accompanied by acidity of the water within the boiler, the first being an immediate result and the second a slow but none the less sure process. Water for locomotive purposes is derived from three general sources; rivers and springs; wells and boreholes; surface supplies, such as collected rainfall. Surface and river supplies are particularly liable to organic contamination from earthy or vegetable matter held in suspension but that from wells or boreholes, especially of considerable depth, will yield water of a considerable degree of organic purity but unfortunately often rich in scale-forming compounds, of which the more common are the carbonates of magnesium and calcium and the chlorides or sulphides of sodium, magnesium and calcium. It may be remarked that rivers and surface-waters collected from peaty country are generally soft and particularly suitable for locomotive purposes; rivers from other sources vary in hardness, the River Thames at Hampton Court for example, averaging about 15 degrees on Clark's scale. Definite traces of sulphuric acid have been found in rainwater collected in urban areas; a very undesirable constituent of any feed water. As a further example, certain waters in East Africa contain sufficient magnesium salts to give them a distinct medicinal value and these in connection with the other salts present were sufficient to cause such priming that drivers found it necessary to use their blow-down cocks very heavily in order to get over the line; delays due to blowing-down and priming were frequent and failures due to broken piston-heads and cylinder-covers by no means unknown prior to the institution of a treating plant. The major reason in such a case for treatment would be the elimination of priming; the cleanliness of boilers being an obviously ancilliary advantage. Here we would make a digression respecting the definition of the terms "foaming" and "priming", which seem to be rather loosely used at times. We would define "priming" as the visible or tangible emission of water from the chimney and "foaming" as an intensely disturbed state of the water-level in the boiler unaccompanied by the emission of water from the chimney. We are of course aware that priming in a non-superheated engine can be converted under these definitions to foaming in a superheater on account of the carried-over water being evaporated in the superheater elements but we think that in spite of this the definitions are sound. Organic impurities are removable by filtration through sand, but the inorganic compounds require chemical treatment specially designed to deal with the particular salts present. It is an unfortunate feature of locomotive operation that a lime-soda softened water as well as an heavily impregnated water will cause priming; an example of the latter has already been referred to and it is well-known that the L.M.S. Railway are experimenting with a system of continuous blow-down with a view of eliminating the trouble due to the former. We ourselves have information from Australia that a residual hardness of 4 degrees after treatment has been found to give all-round satisfaction and it may be that a compromise on this basis may offer the best solution. The hardness before treatment of the Australian water was 16 degrees ; other railwavs however find this residual hardness unnecessary. At the same time it seems wrong to dogmatise too much on this aspect as the design of the boiler itself must enter very largely into any calculations, some designs seeming to be singularly free from any tendency to priming. There is however no doubt about the pressing need for treatment of most of the water supplies available: higher pressures and intensified use are making heavy demands on a strictly limited unit and the old method of removing an inverted "V" of tubes after a mileage of 18,000-20,000 miles for the removal of the accumulated scale is both expensive as well as wasteful of power. It is difficult to follow the argument used by some locomotive engineers that "hot-washing-out" is a satisfactory substitute for chemical treatment as each process serves a distinct purpose; the combination of the two however show a very considerable increase in the mileage between that bugbear of all running-sheds, washing out the boiler.

Great Western Railway. 335
Five more 4-6-0 express engines had been completed at Swindon. Nos. 5976 Ashwicke Hall, 5977, Beckford Hall, 5978. Bodinnick Hall. , 5979 Cruckton Hall; and 5980, Dingley Hall, Four 0-6-0 tanks, Nos. 3785 to 3788, a 2-8-2 tank, No. 7247, and a 2-6-2 tank, No.. 8100, had also been put into service-. Nos. 1558, 1702. 1839, 1850, 2028 (0-6-0T). 2328 (0-6-0), No. Cleeve Albbey (4-6-0), and No. 5124 (2-6-2T) had been withdrawn.

Passenger locomotives for New York Central Railroad. 336. illustration
Fifty Hudson type 4-6-4 J3A supplied by American Locomotice Co.

Obituary. Sir Heny Fowler K.B.E. 336
Concise: died Spondon Hall on 15 October 1938

Livesay, E.H. London to Edinburgh on the footplate. 337-8.
Written as a companion article to the same author's "Vancouver to Calgary on the footplate" (Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1938, 44, 244-8). On the first day he experienced a short jouney from Top Shed down to King's Cross on Stirling 8-foot single No. 1 where he was struck by the austere simplicity of the cab and the gentle slipping of the drivin wheels. On the following couple of days he was treated to travel on the cab (and in the train) on the non-stop Flying Scotsman hauled by No. 4491 Commonwealth of Australia where he was impressed by the  Flaman speed recorder, the bucket seats, the vacuum mechanism for locing the reversing gear, the V-shaped cab front, the chime whistle (a vast improvement upon the shrill whistle). The train was crewed in both directions by Driver Taylor and Fireman Floyd of Kings Cross and Driver Maguire and Fireman Kinnear of Haymarket. The baby son and wife of the last-named travelled on the northbound journey. He comments on the three-cylinder smoothness, the easy firing; the aalmost routine use of 15% cut off even on the ascent to Stoke, the slowing for water pick up and the perfect time keeping. The road was more difficult north of Newcastle. The maximum speed was 85 mile/hour down from Stoke. The firedoor tended to be left open.

E.A. Phillipson. The steam locomotive in traffic. IV. Locomotive depot equipment. 339-41. 3 diagrams
Vacuum o90r compressed air from locomotive brake hose to power tractor motors on locomotive turntables. Patents held by Cowans, Sheldon & Co.; also electric wheel drop machines. The eighteen stages involved in using sheer legs to lift a locomotive off its wheel sets are shown in comparison

[Canadian locomotive orders], 341
Candaian Pacific Railway had ordered 25 Pacifics to be built in Canada; and the Mexican Railway had ordered three Pacifics.

London & North Eastern Railway. 341
Three V2 2-6-2 had been completed at Darlington Nos. 4809, 4810 and 4811. V1 2-6-2T No. 467 had been completed at Doncaster  One of the old L.B. & S.C.R. 0-6-0Ts belonging to the Hartley Main Colliery was being repaired at Darlington Works.

Steel fireboxes. 342
Notes exports of Scottish steel to Canada for use on Canadian Pacic Railway fireboxes. Notes that steel is both lighter and cheaper and simler to weld than copper, and is thus easier to repair. Alexander Allan experimented with steel fireboxes on the Scottish Central Railway between 1860 and 1863. By 18871 only two had required  repair. The Great Eastern Railway experimented with steel and at least one lasted ten years. The Maryport & Carlisle Railway used steel from 1862.

South African Railways. 342
For year ending 31 March 1939 expenditure on rolling stock was estimated at £3,569,144.

L.I. Sanders. Carriage and wagon design and construction. I. Carriage and wagon underframes. 343-6. 3 illustrations, 3 diagrams
Contrasts the diminutive Railway Clearing House 12-ton, with the larger German vehicles, with the then enormous (up to 50 tons) American vehicles which were designed around the need to accommodate the forces inherent in a central automatic coupler

New "Hook Continental" train, London & North Eastern Railway. 346-8. 4 illustrations
Supposedly luxury train with typical Gresley teak exterior and interior influenced by streamlined trains, epecially in the first class: the second class was more like normal first class. Much use was made of Rexine. The kitchen  was alll-electric. The  Hook Continental left Liverpool Street Station at 20.15 every evening conveying passengers for Holland, Germany and all parts of Europe; in the mornings it left Parkeston Quay at 06.20, arriving at Liverpool Street at 07.53 with passengers from the Continent.

Centenary of the North Union Railway. 348
The North Union Railway opened between Wigan and Preston on  21 October 1838. Thie company had at least one claim to distinction in that it was created by the first railway amalgamation, between the Wigan Branch Railway and the Preston and Wigan Railway. The locomotive stock in 1838 consisted of eight engines, designed by Edward Bury. Of these, Nos. 1, 8 and 9 were constructed by the Haigh Foundry Co., Nos. 2 and 3 bv Jones, Turner and Evans, while Nos. 4, 5 and 6 were products of Benjamin Hick and Co. All these engines had cylinders 12 in. by 18 in. except No.. 1, constructed the previous year, in which the cylinders were 11 in. by 16 in. This engine also had driving wheels 4 ft. 6 in. diameter. and carrying wheels 3 ft. 6 in. diameter, these dimension. in the case of the remaining engines being 5 ft. 6 in. and 4 ft. 6 in. respectively. No. 7 was constructed the following year, the makers and dimensions being similar to Nos. 4, 5 and 6

Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul & Pacific R.R. 346
The American Locomotive Company had constructed six 4-6-4 streamlined express passenger locomotives for the above system. These engines had cylinders 23½ in. diameter by 30 in. stroke; driving wheels 7 ft. 0 in. diameter; the boiler. which has a total heating surface of 5861 ft2., pressed to 300 lb. psi. At 85 per cent. b.p. the tractive effort was 50,300 lb.; the weight of the engine in working order was 185 tons. The tender carried 20.000 gallons of water and 25 tons of coal, the \veight loaded being 167 tons

Russian electric locomotive. 346
The Moscow Dynarno Works are reported to have designed an electric locomotive suitable for working trains at speeds up to 110 miles/h.. It is anticipated that the locomotive will be built next year.

P.C. D[ewhurst]. L.M.S.R. locomotives: a history of the Somerset and Dorset Joint Railway. 349-51: 5 illustrations, diagram (side elevation).
In association with the opening of the line from Evercreech Junction to Bath powerful 0-6-0 were bought from John Fowler & Co. of Leeds: they had a strong similiraity with Stirling Great Northern designs  and in the case of the first four even had domeless boilers (Fig. 16: photograph of No. 20 in this form). They were WN 2125-30: they had 4ft 6in wheels; 17½ x 24in cylinders; 1084ft2 total heating surface; 15.8ft2 and 140 psi boiler pressure. The main frames were unusually thick (1¼in) and were of sandwich construction. They were fitted with brakes. Theey were reboilered from 1888. They lacked balance weights. They were reboilered again between 1908 and 1911: 1176ft2 total heating surface; 16.2ft2 grate area and 160 psi boiler pressure

London, Midland & Scottish Railway. 351
New 4-6-0 mixed traffic engines turned out at Crewe and in service on the Northern Division were Nos. 5452-60. The remainder of the series, Nos. 5461-71, would follow. These will be followed by a series of ,fifteen 2-8-0 standard freight engines (Class 8). The ex-L.N.W. class G1 0-8-0s (Schmidt superheater) were being gradually converted from 160 lb. to 175 lb. pressure and assimilated to class G2; but as a sub-division of the latter are designated G2A. For traffic purposes the power classification is also raised to that of the G2's, viz., 7F. Two further three-cylinder 4-6-0s of the Patriot series had been named as follows: No. 5514 Holyhead, and No. 5538 Giggleswick. Withdrawals included the following ex-L.N.W. engines :-Prince of Wales class 4-6-0 No. 25656; 4-4-2 (Precursor) tank No. 6803; 0-6-0 tank No. 27356; and 0-6-2 tank No. 27660. The series of 2-6-4 passenger tank engines buitding at Derby in connection with the 1938 programme will be followed by a series of ten 0-6-0 standard freight engines (Class 4). The latest 2-6-4 tank in service is No. 2637, and of recent ones Nos. 2631-34 have been allocated to the Central Division.

C. Hamilton Ellis. Locomotives for the Swedish private railways, II. 352-3.  4 illustrations
Vastergotland-Gothenberg Railway, south of Lake Vaner. .891m gauge (approximately 2ft 11in): served Ledkoping and Skara. The Stochholm-Roslagen and Nordmark-Klaralven (north of Lake Vaner) shared this gauge. The last named was electrified. A 4-6-0 on the Vastergotland-Gothenberg Railway is illustrated: it was built in the 1920s and had a superheater. A larger 2-6-2 employed on the Stochholm-Roslagen Railway is described and superseded two-cylinder compound 2-6-0s (illustrated). The Blenkinge Coast Railway was 3ft 6in gauge and used 2-8-0.

New railcars for South Africa. 354. diagram (side elevation & plan)
Twelve cars supplied by Metropolitan Cammell Carriage & Wagon Co. with eight cylinder Ganz-Jendrassik type engines and Ganz constant mesh gearboxes with accommodation for 21 native class passengers on wooden seats, six non-European and 20 priviledged class

4,000 B.H.P. diesel-electric loco., Roumanian State Rys. 354-5.
Trial runs with 600 tons on the Bucarest (Bucharest)-Brasov line,

Novel railcars for Brazil: semi-automatic push-button control. 355-7. diagram (side elevation & plan), 2 illustrations
Metre gauge Estrada de Ferro Sorocabana supplied by Waggonfabrik Gebruder

Rail and wheel wear. 357
It is estimated that on the North American Continent nearly two million car wheels are worn out each year, through the loss of .an average of 15 lb. of metal per wheel, or a total of 30,000,000 lb. About 60,000,000 lb. of rail steel disappears each year due .to wear, and to make good .these losses needs the supply of 700,000 tons of wheels and 1,500,000 tons of rails annually.

Zinc plating for coupling and connecting rods. 357
Process being tried to prevent corrosion and facilitate cleaning. As the plating does not exceed .004 in thickness there is no concealment of cracks or flaws.

Johnstone's double ended compound 1892  C.R.H. Simpson. 357. illustration
Johnstone was the mechanical superintendent of the Mexican Central Railway and designed a 2-6-0+0-6-2 locomotive with 13 x 24in high pressiure cylinders and 28 x 24in low pressiure cylinders. The low pressure ones were set at an annular angle. The locomotive was built at the Rhode Island Locomotive Works 

A century of Austrian loco. practice. 359-61. 4 illustrations
Period 1870 to 1918. From 1869 to 1872 the Galician Karl Ludwig's Bahn acquired several Hall type 2-40 and 2-8-8 tender engines. This probably explains the citation to this from Locomotive Mag., 1950, 56, 182 which attributes this article to L. Derens. An 0-4-2 for working faast passenger trains was introduced in 1872: these had 15½ x 25in cylinders; 74½in coupled wheels; 1075ft2 total heating surface; 16ft2 grate area and 115 psi boiler pressure. WN 1196-99 were built by Esslingen in 1872 and WN 1245-52 in 1873. The Austrian North Western Railway acquuired 46 4-4-0 from Wiener Neustadt and Florisdorf between 1870 and 1873. These had 16 x 25in cylinders; 62in coupled wheels; 1360ft2 total heating surface; 18¼ft2 grate area and 140 psi boiler pressure. Two 4-4-0 were built by SIGL for the Viennna Exhibition of 1873: Rittingen went to the Austrian North Western Railway and the other to the Sudbahn. There was then a move away from the Hall type. Seventy inside frame outside-cylinder 4-4-0 wer built for the Kronprinz Rodolfbahn, Westbahn and STEG. They had 17¼ x 25in cylinders; outside Stephenson valve gear; 67½in coupled wheels and 18 psi boiler pressure. Eight 2-2-2 were supplied to the KFNB: four from Strousberg in 1871.and four from Florisdorf  in 1873.  Powerful 2-4-0 were supplied by STEG to the Westbahn i 1879-80. These had inside Allan link motion; 17 x 25in cylinders and 74½in coupled wheels. They worked the Orient Express. In 1880 the Haswell Works supplied the KFNB with light 2-4-0 of the Crampton type. They had 15¾ x 25in outside cylinders and 69½in coupled wheels

Australian built locomotives. 361
The Clyde Engineering Co. Ltd. were supplying four 56 ton 0-6-0ST to the Australian  Iron & Steel Co.'s Port Kembla Works. They had 18 x 24in outside cylinders; 46in coupled wheels; 1102ft2 total heating surface and 180 psi boiler pressure.

Institution of Locomotive Engineers. The fatigue strength of machined tyre steels. 362-3
At meeting held on 26 October T. Baldwin, Associate Member, read his paper (394) on the above subject, of which the following is an abstract. A large proportion of the breakages of locomotive parts in service are due to fatigue. On examination such fractures are seen to have occurred at "fatigue flaws," which slowly grow into the sound metal until the latter suddenly breaks in a very brittle manner. These service fractures, with a complete absence of plastic distortion, are very different from the fractures obtained in a tensile testing machine. The latter type show no signs of a smooth growing flaw and the test piece is seen to have altered its shape considerably during the test.
The author then proceeded to deal with the fatigue characteristics of metals, explaining the relationship of tensile strength and ductility, and also the effect on the fatigue strength of mean stress and cold-working.
Referring to the effect of stress concentration on fatigue strength, he pointed out that a calculated reduction of 77 per cent. caused an actual reduction of only 62 per cent. for a hard steel and 34 per cent. for a soft steel. The point that one would like to emphasize is that although mild steel does not suffer so great a percentage reduction of fatigue strength as hard steel through stress concentration under reversed stresses (with zero mean stress), it never seems able, under these conditions, to put up such a good performance as the hard steel on test pieces of the same dimensions. This is irrespective of the degree of stress concentration, provided that it is the same for both steels.
Materials like cast iron have only a low fatigue strength, as the graphite flakes give rise to stress concentration. Such materials are, therefore, comparatively insensitive to additional stress concentration due to notches and irregularities of shape.
A soft steel may give a better performance than a hard steel under conditions of high mean stress in the presence of surface irregularities, as a soft steel can yield until the steady stress is relatively unimportant. The fatigue range of the soft steel may then 'be higher than that of a hard steel, which will not yield and which consequently has its fatigue range reduced by the presence of a high mean stress.
At a tyre bore there is considerable stress, due, amongst other things, to the shrinkage stress, the axle load, impact bending stresses, and also, to high local pressure from the wheel centre.
Fatigue is largely connected with high values of shear stress. Now the maximum shear stress is equal to half the difference between principal stresses at right angles to one another, and consequently a high local compressive stress, which is reckoned negative, increases the shearing stress if the other principal stress is a tensile stress due to bending and shrinkage. Further, the bore may be more or less roughly machined, which gives rise to cracks and stress concentration, and the machining also has the effect of cold working the surface so that the diamond pyramid hardness number is raised from about 270 to 320.
The fracture of tyres in service is a matter which is naturally regarded seriously by locomotive engineers. Apparently tyre breakages have been more frequent on some railways than on others, and the Company with which the author is connected has been anxious to do everything possible to prevent failures of this nature. It was not proposed to include the general question of tyre failures and tyre stresses within the ambit of this paper, but rather to concentrate attention upon one particular feature of the subject, that of the effect of machining on the strength of the steel.
Most tyre fractures show a small fatigue flaw spreading into the tyre from the machined surface of the bore close to the flange face. As there was very little information available about the fatigue strength of tyre steels in the condition in which they are put in service, it was decided (in March 1932) that an attempt should be made to determine the fatigue strength of specimens taken from the actual bores of tyres.
Proceeding to the matter of testing, it was explained that most published work has been confined to cases where the direction of machining was at right angles to the direction of stress. Machining usually gives rise to a number of transverse cracks across the bottom of the grooves or furrows made in the surface, and, since the direction of machining in a tyre bore is parallel to the probable direction of (bending) stress, it: was thought advisable to reproduce this state of affairs in the testing. The transverse cracks are then at right angles to the direction of stress.
The flaws in tyres develop in a direction which is initially more or less in a radial plane so the test was arranged to be a bending test with the tyre bore surface forming one surface of the test piece and the bending taking place in what is normally the plane of the wheel. It was also considered desirable that the bending moment should be constant over a reasonable length of the test piece and, furthermore, that a mean steady tensile stress should be present at the bore surface to imitate the shrinkage stress ordinarily present in a tyre. This stress was arbitrarily fixed at 9.0 tons per sq. in., a figure that might, perhaps, be considered slightly on the low side.
Experiments made with a Haigh fatigue testing machine on the fatigue strength of tyre bores were then described, together with the methods of testing and some difficulties which arose.
An interesting point was the effect on the fatigue strength produced by various finishes. These tests, which were made on a right driving tyre that had failed due to a fatigue flaw developing from the bore at a stud hole, showed that the bore in the service condition had a fatigue range of about 9 ± 13¾ tons per sq. in. This tyre had been rather roughly bored, having 17 cuts to the inch. Some further specimens were prepared by shaping, the bore surface of the tyre being removed in the process so that the finished surface at the centre of the specimens was 1/8 in. below the bore surface. Although the feed had been reduced to 50 cuts per inch the fatigue range was practically unaltered. Other specimens had the bore surface removed by draw filing, using a 12 in. flat bastard file of about 19 teeth per inch. This raised the fatigue range to just under 9 ± 18½ tons per sq. in. Grinding the bore on a pendulum-type link grinder gave a better result still, over 9 ± 19.0 tons per sq. in., although the number of specimens available was not sufficient to obtain a more exact result. The amount of metal removed from the surface by grinding varied from 0.030 in. to 0.033 in., measured from the crests of the machining marks. A number of specimens prepared similarly to the shaped test pieces were finished by filing and polishing with emery paper. The fatigue limit in this condition was about 9 ± 21¾ tons per sq. in., although it is curious to notice that the broken specimens, bot:h in this series and also in the ground series, failed by flaws developing from the compression side of the test piece. Apparently the polished surface ½ in. or 5/8 in. below the bore surface had a lower fatigue range in compression than the ground or polished surface close to the bore in tension. Probably with similar material and surfaces the two values should normally be about equal, but the usual falling hardness gradient from the bore surface inwards towards the centre of the cross-section was apparently reflected in a corresponding reduction in the fatigue range.
The fad that the tyre in service had a fatigue range over 36 per cent. less than the optimum provided some food for thought, and it was desirable to obtain some confirmation of this result. During the course of an investigation on another broken tyre it was observed that its companion at the other end of the axle, whilst unbroken, was badly pitted and corroded in parts of the bore, whilst other areas of the bore were in relatively good condition and free from corrosion. As a matter of interest tests were prepared from both regions. Those from the non-corroded parts, whilst rather erratic, had fatigue limits lying between 9± 13.0 and 9± 14.0 tons per sq. in., thus generally confirming the previous results, whilst the corroded surfaces gave the much poorer figure of 9 ± 9.8 tons per sq. in. This result emphasises the importance of presenting tyre bore corrosion. The practice of applying linseed oil before shrinking on the tyre appears to be helpful in this direction.
Further tests made at the instigation of W.A. Stanier produced very interesting results, it being found that the finish resulting from the use of oarbide tool steel gave greatly increased resistance to fatigue, an improvement of 54 per cent in the fatigue range being obtained. This is a close approach to that obtained from a polished finish. The use of a 77 tons per sq. in. tyre steel bored with carbide steel produced an increase in the fatigue strength of no less than 91 per cent., the figure of 9 ± 24.8 tons per sq. in. being obtained as against the usual figure of 9 ± 13 tons per sq.  in.
The author emphasised that these figures- should be considered only as fatigue test results. Tables of bending fatigue test results and an appendix giving additional particulars of tyres used for tests concluded this paper.

G.W.R. 363
With the introduction of a further twenty streamlined railcars, the aggregate mileage run by railcars on the G.W.R. will advance to nearly two millions a year. Some of the new cars will have a maximum speed of 70 miles an hour and will be capable of hauling an extra carriage or of carrying out light shunting work. Two sets of twin cars are to be used for services between Cardiff and Birmingham, the railcars at present running being moved elsewhere. These cars will be provided with buffet and toilets and will have accommodation for 104 passengers. The extensive improvements to be effected at Whitland, Pernbrokeshire include new station buildings, a new goods shed .and a modern locomotive depot. The existing engine shed was to be demolished and the new one will be on a site at the Haverfordwest end of the station. Here there will be improved coaling facilities and a 65 ft. turntable for turning the larger engines working there.

Southern Railway. 363
No. 225S, the old Manning, Wardle 0-4-0T, used for shunting at Meldon Quarry, had been scrapped. She was formerly S.E. & C.R. 313, and worked at Folkestone Harbour. Her place at Meldon had been taken by No. 1607, 0-6-0T, one of the last surviving engines of the old L.C. & D.R., which had been renumbered 500S.

Metropolitan Rv, (L.P.T.B.) . 363
The widening of the line between Harrow and Rickmansworth is proceeding rapidly. Work has been commenced on the bridges over the three rivers Gade, Colne and Chess, also over the L.M.S. Watford-Rick mansworth branch and the Grand Junction Canal. The six intermediate stations, North Harrow, Pinner, Northwood Hills, Northwood and Moor Park, are to be altered to suit the additional tracks.

L.M.S.R. appoinnients. 363
R.F. Harvey, Assistant Supt. of Motive Power, Euston, to Assisting Operating Manager, Glasgow. Harvey joined the Midland Rly. in 1908 as an apprentice at Derby. T. Tandy, Dist. Loco. Supt., SaItley, to be Assist. Supt. of Motive Power, Euston. R. White, Assistant Divisional Supt. of Motive Power, Glasgow, to be District Loco. Supt., Saltley. O.C. Johnson, District Foreman, C. and W. Dept., OrdsaIl Lane, to be District Foreman, C. and W. Dept., Manchester (Victoria) .

E.M. Bywell. 363
Former editor of 'the North Eastern Railway Magazine, had retired from service in the North Eastern Area of the L. N.E.Ry. Bywell was a well known authority on railway history and is responsible for the very successful developments connected with the York Railway Museum, of which he is Curator.

Reviews. 367

Railways to-day. J.W. Williamson, Oxford University Press.
So many text books have appeared during recent years on the subject of railways that it is not to be expected that there would be much more to be said on the subject, and indeed, the writer of the present volume does not claim to introduce new material. It is one of a series, the Pageant of Progress, and in 160 pages Mr. Williamson has condensed most of what the average reader would require to know to obtain a general insight into the construction and working of the railway system. Beginning with a historical summary, the writer deals next with the route, gauges, tunnels, bridges and the permanent way generally. Then follow the building and repairing of locomotives and other rolling stock, with chapters on signalling and operating conditions. He concludes with a brief account of locomotives on the road, together with Diesel and electric working. Criticism may be directed against some of the statements in the historocal chapters, always a controversial subject, but on the whole the book depicts a fair and reasonable picture of the development and working of railways from the early beginnings to the present. In addition to a number of small line drawings, it is illustrated with 23 half tone plates, the reproduction of which is excellent.

Heat Engines. A.C. Walshaw, Longmans, Green & Co. 413 pp.
Intended as an introductory text-book, this is divided into three sections, dealing respectively with the essential principles of heat and heat engines, steam and steam plant, and thermo-dynamic and internal combustion engines. Generally this work is very complete and deals as fully with the subject as would appear to be possible within similar confines. It is up-to-date and owell illustrated.with diagrams and figures. In view of the extent to which the poppet valve is used in heat engines of to-day, it is rather surprising that it is not included in the, chapter on valves and valve gears. An even more inexplicable omission is the absence of a diagram or description of a locomotive type boiler. As this is one of the most rapid steam generators ever produced within the limits of its size and is also used for various stationary and small marine purposes, this is probably an over-sight. This book is undoubtedly a very useful contribution to text-books in its class and should be of considerable assist-ance to students preparing for examinations in the subject, or to those requiring a cortege work of reference.

Correspondence. 367

Edward Fletcher. W.B. Thompson
Re article on Edward Fletcher, locomotive superintendent of the North Eastern Railway from 1854 to 1883, does not mention a rather puzzling matter which attracted some attention at the time, namely, the frequency with which his engines suffered from boiler explosions. It was not only with old and worn out engines, or engines of obsolete type, that explosions occurred. Your article rightly described the double framed goods engines built in 1870 as excellent, but two of them were wrecked by explosion after a few years' service; and of the inside framed type introduced in 1872—a very fine engine for that date—No. 787 built by Stephenson and No. 941 built by Neilson exploded when still comparatively new. The North Eastern was of course not the only company which had boiler explosions, but the Board of Trade inspector in one case reported that in a named period there had been fifteen boiler explosions on British railways all put together, and that of the fifteen nine had occurred on Fletcher engines. The following for one period of fourteen months shows the position pretty clearly:
Engine No. 787 exploded at Blaydon, Nov. 24, 1878.
Engine No. 375 exploded at Headingley, Aug. 16, 1879.
Engine No. 737 exploded at Leamside, Sept. 9, 1879.
Engine No. 746 exploded at Silksworth, Jan. 26, 1880.
And so on.
What exactly was wrong with the design or maintenance of the Fletcher boilers I do not know, but they seem to have been very susceptible to grooving. Apart from this unpleasant failing the Fletcher engines were very good, and if they had run into London instead of being visible only in their own district they would have been much more famous. Perhaps the greatest distinction between locomotive practice in the early days of railways and at the present time. lies in the fact that in spite of much higher pressures and very large boilers—expecially in America—explosions to-day; are almost unknown. See also correspondence in Volume 45 page 29 from W.J.A. and from C. Hamilton Ellis

"Atlantic" Locomotive, Dutch State Railway. W. Lubsen
Re Derens' serial article describing the bad riding of the Atlantic class. Considering the construction of the leading bogie of the engine, it must be said that this form cannot have the good running qualities known of other classes of the said wheel arrangement. Tne design of the bogie makes the engine in question resemble an engine of the 2-4-2 arrangement with leading pony-truck. The bad running qualities of this class are well known, due to the short fixed wheelbase compared with the whole length of the locomotive. When running at high speeds suoh an engine has a distinct tendency to rolling. The. high percentage of counterbalancing might have enhanced the unsteadiness of the locomotive. The fact that the converted engine now running as a resistance car does not show greater unsteadiness when running backwards at a speed of 100 km. per hour, does not allow the conclusion that if the engine had the 2-4-4 arrangement it would have been a better running locomotive. On this point I cannot agree with Mr. Derens, for the running. qualities of a railway vehicle may be very different when, self-driven or being drawn.

Early Austrian locomotive. L. Derens. 368
Re some peculiarities of the Hall arrangement as applied to the eight coupled engine for the Brenner Railway, described on page 285 of the September issue. The outside frames (without inside frames) were an essential feature of the Hall arrangement and were mostly of the sandwich type. Hall was an Englishman, and from 1852 works manager at the Maffei Locomotive Works in Munich. The absence of inside frames permitted a ten per cent. wider grate to be fitted, which in view of the inferior quality of fuel available in Bavaria and Austria was of much importanoe.
The most remarkable feature of the Hall arrangement was the so-called "journal crank." With this type the boss of the crank instead of being outside the journal box as usual, formed the bearing itself. This can be clearly seen on the half plan view of the 0-8-0 engine on page 285. This arrangement had the advantage of bringing the crankwebs close up to the journal box and .thus permitted the centre line of the cylinders to be much nearer the frames. This had the double advantage of enabling a stronger connection for the cylinders to be made and also greatly reducing the momentum of the piston force and the nosing movement of the engine resulting from this.
This reduction of the momentum was effected in two ways, for not only were the crankwebs much nearer the journal box, but owing to the large diameter of the crank boss, the length of the journal could be greatly reduced for the required hearing surface. The cranks were forged ,in one piece with the crank pins, which was a difficult job, and owing to the sudden changes in section of the material and sharp bends led to breakage in many cases.
Nevertheless, the other advantages of the Hall arrangement through this type of crank were so important that no less than 257 engines have been built with Hall cranks for South Germany, Switzerland and Austria.
Hall .first introduced his patents in Munich, and when afterwards he removed his aotivities to Austria, his system found much favour there.

Number 556 (15 December 1938)

Smoke. 369-70.
The pollution problem with coal burning locomotives. Coke was originally used (cites work, but not sources of inventors of coal burning grates), LBSCR patent device fitted to No. 189 and prerheated air used in water tube boilers likde that fitted to No. 10000.

4-6-0 streamlined locomotive, French National Railways. 370. illustration

Buenos Ayres Great Southern Rly. Class 12K 4-6-2 and 15A 4-8-0 locomotives. 370-2. 2 illustrations
Built at Vulcan Foundry and inspected by Livesey and Henderson, Consulting Engineers.

Some "improved" locomotive valve gears. 373-6. 6 diagrams

Automatic snifting valves. 376.

C.R.H. Simpson. An early Baldwin locomotive. 377. illustration
2-4-0 supplied in 1875 No. 21 J.W. Bowker of Virginia & Truckee Railroad. Fitter with a fire pump to extinguish fires in timber. Locomotive to the Sierra Nevada Wood and Lumber Co. in 1896.

A.C.W. Lowe. The West Cornwall Raailway. 378-82. 8 illustrations
Incorporated 27 June 1834: first portion opened on 23 December 1837. Main line included inclined planes at Angarrack which was later abandoned. Photographs of this section are included as are of terminus at Hayle and Truro.

C. Hamilton Ellis. Famous locomotive engineers. VIII. Robert Sinclair. 383-6. 4 illustrations (including portrait)
See also letter from James F. McEwan on page 126 of Volume 45 and from G.G. Woodcock on pages 29-30 of Volume 45.

Irish notes. 387-8. 2 illustrations

W.T.H. The machine efficiency of American locomotives. 389-90. diagram

Kofler ttain control on the Polish State Railways. 391. illustration
PoJish State Railways had equipped a section of Iine between Tlusz and Ostrolenka, a distance of about 46 miles, with the Kofler automatic train control system. This device is mainly mechanical, consisting of a tnip arm mounted on a support braced to the track adjacent to the signal which, when the signal is on, comes into contact with a trip on the cab roof of the locomotive and, pressing against it, actuates the brake-control equipment, red and green lights, hooter, etc.
When the track trip arm has acted on the locomotive mechanism, it .is automatically disengaged from its actuating 'Spindle and moves up clear of the loading gaug'e, so as to be out of the way of anything on the train that might be Iiable to foul it, and is restored to position for the next signal operation. Recent improvements include addi- tional electric apparatus consisting of a set of re- lays, a contact operated by the cab roof gear, red and green signal lights, hooter, resetting key, electrically controlled brake valve, and contact on driver's brake valve. Normally the green signal light shows and the A.T.C. brake valve is held closed; but if the trip arm on the signal actuates the cab gear, the green light is extinguished, the red switched on and the hooter begins to sound. If the driver observes the warning and manipulates his brake valve handle, a contact on the latter is made causing all parts to return to normal. If he does not do so, a slow-acting relay causes a partial opening of the A.T.C. brake valve, resulting in a slight brake application and, if the driver takes no action, a full application follows shortly afterwards. Operation of his brake valve will restore the paparatus and allow the driver to release the brakes.

L.N.E.R. 391
During 1939 it was.intended to limit the locomotive building programme to engines of one type, viz. 2-6-2 V2. There will be 50 tender engines for fast goods and passenger trains and ten tank engines (2-6-2T "V") for local passenger services .in Scotland and on the North Eastern section. Owing to the serious drop in traffic and the need for economy a number of trains had 'been withdrawn. Most of them were on branch line services, but certain expresses between London and Norwich, Nottingham and Sheffield, Sheffield and Manchester, and Leicester and Nottingham had been cancelled.

Beyer Garratt locomotives for South Africa. 391
Beyer Peacock and Co. had completed an order for sixteen 4-8-2 + 2-8-4 articulated locomotives for the South African Railways. These engines had been specially designed for an exceptionally difficult section of the S.A.R., viz., between Johannesburg-Leerust-Mafeking. The line has long 1 in 40 grades and numerous sharp curves. The engines have a tractive effort of 68,800 lb. at 85 per cent. of boiler pressure, arid haul loads of 750 tons.

Old Glasgow and South Western 0-6-0 engine (Kilmarnock No. 310). 391
Discovered at Kirkheaton Estate Colliery by members of the North Eastern Branch of the Stephenson Society. The line to the colliery extends from Dawas Hall on the L. & N.E. Ry., .but it has no.t been used for about 9 years. The engine had been kept in fairly good order. See also letter from James F. McEwan on page 126 of Volume 45

London, Midland and Scottish Railway:. London and Birmingham Railway Centenary Banquet, Grosvenc House, London. 401
H.R.H. The Duke of Gioucester was the principal guest at a banquet presided over by Lord Stamp, to commemorate the centenary of the London and Birmingham Railway, There were over 800 guests preent.
Following the loyal toasts, the Duke of Gloucester proposed the toast of the London, Midland and Scottish Railway, and in a pleasing manner referred to the fascinating subjeot of early railway development. He mentioned a number of the extraordinary objections which arose from most unexpected quarters when railways were proposed, and recalled interesting events of the past, such as Queen Victoria's first journey by the Great Western Railway to Slough in 1842, also her two day journey from Balmoral to London in 1848, during which she stayed the night at Crewe. This journey, it may be remembered, was made unexpectedly owing to sea fog rendering dangerous a return by the royal yacht. The Duke also paid tribute to Lord Stamp and the traditions which have inspired the rise of the L.M.S.R. system to its present position of being the longest British railway.
Lord Stamp, in reply, expressed his gratitude to His Royal Highness for attending and graciously proposing the toast, remarking on the fact that this was the Duke's first public appearance after returning from his travels. He referred to rhe ocoasion as being not without its critics, and he felt that the directors would be failing in their duty if they passed by such a commemoration in silence. The Stockton and Darlington Centenary was indeed a distinct and distinguished event. The l..M.S. actual beginning was the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, and its hundredth anniversary had been adequately celebrated some years ago: Lord Stamp stressed the remarkable and not diminishing appeal which the railway exerts on the lay public, which had been emphasized by the response to the Centenary exhibitions at Euston and Birmingham. He also expressed pleasure at the presence of Dr. Dorpmuller of the German State Railway, whose visit complemented Lord Stamp's to the German Railway Centenary celebrations at Nuremberg, two years before. He recalled how in 1838 the Prussian Government had written to the London and Birmingham directors asking them for instruction in running a railway system.
"Old Euston " was the title of a beautifully produced volume which was afterwards passed round among the guests as a souvenir of the occasion. It had been specially prepared by Mr. Royde Smith, the Assistant Secretnry and a well-known 'railway historian. The builders of the original Euston struck a commemorative medal 100 years ago, and the L.M.S.R. had now followed their example 'by issuing a similar token, the first speoimen of which was presented to His Royal Highness.
Many of the guests formed historic links wioh the early days of railways. Alderman G.A. Solly of Birkenhead and Dr. Ernest Solly of Harrogate are great grandsons of Isaac Solly, the first Chairman of the London and Birmingham. Mr. S.R. Beale's uncle was Secretary of the Liverpool and Manchester. Sir Ralph Glyn's grandfather. George Carr Glyn, afterwards Lord Wolventon, was chairman of the Board 100 years ago.
The toast of "The Guests" was proposed by Mr. E. B. Fielden, Deputy Chairman of the L.M.S.R., supported by Mr. S. R. Beale.
The Minister of Transport, the Rt. Hon. Leslie Burgi)l, and the President of the British Iron and Steel Federation, the Rt. Hon. Lord Greenwood, responded.
Dr. Burgin, amid laughter, remarked that it excited him to learn that the L.M.S. possessed a capital of £460,000,000_ "Give me that," he said, "and I will put the whole of the Bressey Report into execution at once!"

Southern Railway. 401
Three new 0-6-0 goods. engines were in service, Nos. 536-538. The last two were working from Bournemouth, all the others of the class being: stationed at EastIeigh. No. 617 (0-4-2) had been withdrawn for scrapping. The Dyke branch to be closed for traffic on and after 1 January 1939. This .branch was originally the property of the Brighton and Dyke Railway and was opened' on 1 September, 1887, Ibeing worked iby the L.B. & S.C. Rly. until the absorption of both undertakings by the Southern Railway in January 1923.

A famous railway crossing.  401. illustration
Manganese Steel has for many years been recognised as the- ideal material for those parts of the track that are subject to unusually severe wear and tear—this includes, of course, points, crossings and sharp curves. Without question, .u steel of this character has become more than ever necessary in recent years in order to keep abreast of the more onerous working conditions met with on main line railways. It is, therefore, opportune to refer to one very important layout that has recently been supplied by the well known. Sheffield firm of Hadfields Ltd., and made entirely of Patent "ERA" Manganese Steel.
The accompanying illustration conveys a good idea of the complicated nature and magnitude of the job and as many of the joints are of the insulated type, for track circuiting, special care was necessary in the fitting and assembly of the crossings. The total length is 141 feet and the width 58 ft. 6 in.
Situated at the East End of the Central Station, Newcastle-on-Tyne., L. & N.E. Railway, and is probably the largest "concentrated" piece of manganese steel work in the world. Cornprising no less than 92 solid cast crossings and rails, it weighs, over 70 tons, and it was the third similar layout in the location above mentioned. The first one was installed in the year 1912, and the second in 1924, so that as the latter has just been renewed ·it has had a life of 14 years, which is a remarkably good performance having regard ·tp the exceptionally heavy traffic it has to contend with. This traffic embraces exceptional freight tonnages, as well as both electric- and steam passenger trains. The conditions are, indeed, probably as severe as could be found anywhere.

Correspondence. 402

The Webb compounds. W.B. Thompson
May I akk the writer of the articles on the Webb three-cylinder compounds to state what exactly was done in the case of the first three engines of the Teutonic class. It appears that Teutonic herself was built with and always retained cylinders of the Dreadnought dimensions, h.p. 14 inch and 1.p. 30 inch. But Oceanic, the second engine of the class, was built with 14 inch h.p. cylinders and a 1.p. cylinder 28 in. in diameter; while the third engine, Pacific, had two outside cylinders 14 inches in diameter and one 20 inch inside cylinder. With regard to this engine Pacific The Engineer for 16 August 1889, page 143, stated:- "ThLs is not a compound but a continuous expansion engine; it can be worked with boiler steam directly in all three cylinders when a great hauling effort is required, or the steam can be expanded through all the cylinders at pleasure.
On the face of it this obscure statement appears to mean that the engine could either be worked as a compound, as a three-cylinder simple, or as a triple expansion engine. If intended for use as a compound the cylinder proportions were obviously unsuitable; if the engine was to be used as a three-cylinder simple the .boiler was too small to supply steam for [he equivalent of two cylinders 20 by 24 in. I tried at the time to obtain fuller particulars from The Engineer but was unsuccessful. Am I right in supposing that Oceanic and Pacific were soon rebuilt with a standard low presure cylinder 30 inches in diameter?

Two items in the October Locomotive appear to call for further comment. The upper one of the two superimposed headlamps on the C. & N.W. Rly. 4-6-4 type locomotives, described on page 324, has a "red" lens. It is used only as a warning signal to approaching trains on the double-track line in the event of a derailmerut or other emergency. A more extended reference to this appeared in Baldwin Locomotives, October 1931, page 15.
In F. C. Hambleton's article on the Webb three-cylinder compound mineral engines (page 326), he says that No. 1880 had a Belpaire firebox with circular grate and water tube firebars. I had always understood from contemporary accounts that this engine was originally fitted with a cylindrical firebox, which was replaced about 1903 by a box of the same forrn used on other engines of the class. However, I am not at present able to find any printed reference to the matter, and perhaps my memory is playing me tricks. If the original firebox was as described by Hambleton, it would seem to merit a more detailed consideration. I hope this can be cleared up. See also response from C. Williams

Robert Stephenson and Hawthorns Ltd. 402
Received an order frorn the Crown Agents for the Colonies for four streamlined Pacific type locomotives for the Iraqi Railway. They will be oil burners and when in running order will weigh approximately 160 tons, engine and tender. These are the first streamlined locomotives to be built by contractors in this country. It is also of interest to recall that the same firm designed and built the first streamlined electric locomotives which we nt to New Zealand.

British Timken Ltd. 402
J.E. Spear appointed Sales Manager. Formerly Spear conducted the railway representation.He is succeeded by Mr. Tuffill.

Trade Notes and Publications. 402

"Srandagc Couplings"
Illustrated folder dealing comprehensively with the range of flexible couplings standardised and manufactured by S.P.C. (England) Ltd., of Precision Works, 100 Blackstock road, London, NA. The Standage coupling is very resilient under light torques, the resilience decreasing until it becomes sensibly constant at a predetermined value within the range of working torques. In the event of a heavy load rthe resilience decrease still further until, at a certain' point, the coupling becomes, virtually, a solid transmitter 'of the drive. This condition does not come about suddenly, however. because an oil film between each spring lamination provides a cushion which could only be broken down under excessive pressure.

Weather to Measure.
Pamphlet issued by Abair Engineering Ltd. of 1 Devonshire Square, London, E.C.2. It relates the activities of the firm in connection with air conditioning a applied to public buildings, ships, trains, hospitals, etc.

A report on Strearnline, Light Weight High Speed Passenger Trains. 402
Sent by W. Howe Sadler relates that every lightweight streamlined train operating in the United States has produced additional passenger traffic and substantial earnings for the railroad placing it .in service. The Denver Zephyrs, of the Burlington lines, produced tthe highest ratio of earnings of any train of this type in the year. Other equally significant findings included the development of the Zephyr service between Chicago and the Twin Cjties, where service was started with twin three-car traius in ] 935, and grew to two seven-car trains by 1938 because of increasing demand for accommodation. There are now 76 high speed trains in operation on which modern luxury equipment has been introduced in the past four years. Of this number, 24 are of llghtweight, stainless steel construction. The first so-called streamliners went into service in 1934, with the inauguration of the City of Salina by the Union Pacific and the Pioneer Zephyr by the Burlington. Both were three-car trains, the City of Salina constructed of aluminium alloy by the Pullman Company and propelled by oil-electric power unit. The Pioneer Zephyr was built of stainless steel by the Budd Company, and was powered with a Diesel-electric unit.

London & Birmingham Ry. Centenary souvenir booklet, 1938.
A limited stock of this booklet, tissued by the L.M.S. Railway in connection with the recent centenary, is still available and whilst the supply lasts copies may be obtained at special reduced price of 3d. each post free, from the Advertising and Publicity Dept., Room 400, Euston House, Eversholt Street, N.W.1, or from the District Passenger Managers' Offices at Euston and Birmingham (New Street Station) respectively.

account of there being two different load lines- through the centre of the pneumatic tyre when travelling on the road and through the centre of the rail wheel when carried on rail. The rear rail wheels are steel castings, 1St in. diam., bolted to a flange on the front of the hub, and on the outside of the pneumatic-tyred road wheels. The spring deadening jacks fitted to the rear axle, which are screwed down when the trailer is in the correct position on the rail truck, are oper- ated bv hand wheels at the rear of the tank which force a series of steel balls round a bent tube. These balls impinge on a piston shaped jack, the stem of which protrudes into the tube. As the rear handle is operated it pushes the balls along the tube and forces the jack down. In this manner "remote control" is obtained as well as very easy operation. In addition to the ordinary mechanical brake, double-acting vacuum brake gear has been fitted. This gives power application of the brakes when coupled to the tractor and automatic application when the trailer is uncoupled. In addition to the power application, the brakes can be mechanically operated by means of the mechanical trailer brake fitted in the cab of the tractor, operating through bell crank mechanism incorporated in the king pin, whilst a mechanical parking brake consisting of a hand wheel and screw is fitted to the front near side of the trailer. It may happen in service that the trailers arrive at the loading dock the wrong way round for coupling to the tractor and in this case they are hauled off the truck backwards. The power brak- ing has therefore been arranged so that the brake coupling on the tractor can be coupled to the back of the trailer and the trailer brakes power operated even when it is being hauled backwards. At the rear of the glass-lined tank is an internal throat consisting of a gun-metal casting to which is secured a cylindrical hot water heating tank made of copper. An electric immersion heater is screwed into the gun-metal casting, projecting through the hot water tank, as is also the thermo- stat which enables the temperature of the water to be controlled. From the heating tank rises a single "riser" pipe connected to a header tank, which has a filling orifice projecting through on top of the tank and which enables the tanks and pipes to be kept full. The riser pipe also branches into two main heating pipes which run round the sides of the tank, eventually joining together to form a single return pipe along the bottom of the tank back to the heater cylinder. As the water in the main heating tank is heated, it passes up the "riser" pipe, flows through the main heating pipes and back to the heating tank through the return pipe. A 150 amp. " [iphan" plug socket on the rail chassis provides facilities for electrical pre-heating of the tank water circulating system, or for boost- ing, should this be desirable. The piping is arranged with a cock at the front of the tank and a drain cock at the rear, so that if necessary when electric power is not available at the factory, con- nection can be made to the factory hot water supply and hot water passed through the pipes. A device is fitted to the front of the trailer for stabilising the retractable forecarriage when being carried on rail. This consists of hinged arms which hook round lugs on the forecarriage and then adjusted until it is rigidly secured. This pre- vents the retractable forecarriage from being damaged by vibration when the trailer is on the railway truck. It also locks the forecarriage and enables the trailer to be drawn off in a perfectly straight line when arriving at a loading dock the wrong way round necessitating it being drawn off backwards, to facilitate which a rear coupler has been let into the chassis rear cross member.