Locomotive Magazine and Railway Carriage and Wagon Review
Volume 53 (1947)

Key file

Issue No. 653 (15 January)

New L.M.S. locomotives. 5-6. 4 illustrations,, 2 diagrams. (side & front. elevationss.)
Ivatt Class 2 2-6-0 and 2-6-2T.

Issue No. 654 (15 february)

L.M.S. Standard Types .15
Editorial presunavbly based on LMS press release. The Chief Mechanical Engineer's Department of the L.M.S. has recently made an interesting announcement on the subject of locomotive standardisation. The old idea that numerous designs were necessary to cover the re- quirements of varying services and routes was proved incorrect by the interchange which took place followmg grouping and modern development in design has greatly extended the scope of those types recently constructed. The advantage of t his development lies in the possibility of making se of the high in-built availability of the modern locomotive :by enabling it to take its turn on varying classes of 'traffic so as to attain. a high annual mileage over which to spread its capital and maintenance costs.
Since grouping the L.M.S. has built. new loco- motives to a strictly limited number of basic types, but stagnation in development has been avoided by introducing successrve modernised versions of these basic types, in which were in- corporated the latest improvements as they became available. '
Today, eleven locomotive types can cover the whole of the traffic requirements on the L.M.S.R. The types selected are as follows:- 4-6-2 (non-streamlined) 4-cyliinder passenger, Class 7; 4-6-0 Royal Scot) 3-cylinder passenger, Class 6; 4-6-0 2-cylinder mixed traffic, Class 5; 2-8-0; 2-cyhnder freight, Class 8; 2-6-0 2-cylmder freight, Class 4 (this engine is being designed and has yet to he built); 2-6-0 2-cylinder freight; Class 2; 2-6-4 tank 2-cylinder mixed traffic, Class 4; 2-6-2 tank 2-cylinder mixed traffic, class 2; 0-6-0 tank 2- cylinder freight; Class 3; 0-6-0 tank 2-cylinder freight, Class 2 ;and 0-6-0 Diesel shunting locomotive.
It will be moticed that the 0-6-0 tender locomotive, for many decades the ubiquitous maid-of-all-work, is at long last doomed so far as the L.M.S. is concerned.
Two of these standard engines, viz. the Class 2 tender and the 2-6-2 tank locomotive, are new designs referred to on other pages and—apart from their technical features—are of added interest in that. it has not been the practice of British Railways to design and build new types for secondary services; previously the practice has been to employ either old engines or alternatively new ones built to an old design. The new L.M.S. locomotives, however, although of small size and light weight, incorporate every modern development which has been found successful on main line types. It is dearly desirable that secondary service locomotives, equally with main line ones, should be capable of the highest attainable mileage per annum and between repairs, that they should be quickly and easily serviced at sheds, and that they should be economical to run. Since their prospective life may be over 30 years they should also be capable of good acceleration and relatively high maximum speed so as to be able to meet. any future speeding up in branch line services. These requirements cannot be fulfilled by locomotives built to designs of 20 or more years ago and a. further factor influencing the L.M.S. was. the fact that a considerable number of Class 2 engines of old design would have fallen due for scrapping in the years 1939 to 1945 had the war not rendered their retention necessary. They are now gradually being withdrawn as their condition warrants and their places taken by the new locomotives.

Their Majesties' Tour South Africa. 15.
The Royal train to be hauled by Beyer-Garratt locomotives over the Rhodesian Railways.

L.M.S. 15
Mr. C.E. Collins appointed Assistant Works Superintendent C.M.E's Department, Earlstown . Mr. G.E. Wilson succeeds the late Mr. W. Darcy at the Scientific Research Department, Crewe.
New locomotives in service were:- 2-6-4 Tank Class ·4P (built at Derby): Nos. 2259 to 2264; 2-6-2 Tank Class 2P (new design, built at Crewe): Nos. 1200 to 1209; 4-6-0 Class 5 Mixed Traffic (built at Horwich): Nos. 4988 to 4991; 2-6-0 Freight Tender Class 2F (new design. built at Crewe): Nos. 6400 to 6409.
The following engines have been withdrawn — 4-6-0 Class 4P: No. 14760 (Caledonian, former. Highand Railway "River" class. Class becomes extinct with withdrawal of No. 14760); 4-4-0 Class 2P: No. 14340 (Caledonian "Dunalastair" III class); 2-4-2 Class 2PT: Nos. 10722, 10825 (L. & Y.R.); 2-4-2 Class IPT: No. 6722 (L. & N.W.R.); 0-4-4 Class lPT: No. 1428 (Midland); 0-8-0 Class 6F: No. 12723 (L. & Y.R.); 0-6-0 Class 3F: Nos. 3467 (Midland), 12394_ (L. & Y.R.), 17700, 17704 (Highland); 0-6-0 Class 2F: Nos. 3131, 3519, 36]6, 22916, 22930, 22943 (Midland); 0-R-4 Class 7FT: No. 7941 (L. & N.W.R.); 0-6-0 Class 1FT: Nos. 1700, 1850 (Midland).

G.W.R. 15
The last two timber viaducts on the G.W.R. system, Dare and Gamlyn, designed bv I.K. Brunel were being dismantled.

L.N.E.R. appointments. 15
Mr. G.C. Gold appointed Mechanical Engineer, Stratford, following the death of Mr. F.W. Carr, and Mr. G. Caster succeeded Mr. Gold at Gorton. Mr. F.H. Petty appointed Assistant Locomotive Running Superintendant, North Eastern Area.

New L.M.S. locomotives. 16-17. illustration, diagram. (side & front. elevationss.)
Ivatt Class 2 2-6-2T: No. 1200 illustrated

McEwan, James. Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 24-5.

R. Opie. Locomotive power, performance an rating. 26-9. 3 tables

Issue Number 655 (15 March)

G.W.R. 2,500 h.p. gas turbine-electric locomotive. 31.
Being designed and constructed by Brown, Boveri & Co., Ltd., of Baden, Switzerland, for the GWR. A similar but somewhat smaller capacity locomotive, built by the same firm about five years ago for the Swiss Federal Railway, was described in The Locomotive, 52, page 26. This technical achievement aroused considerable interest around the world, as it was the first time this new form of engine was adopted for traction work. The locomotive is carried on two six-wheel bogies, the outer axles of each bogie being driven by series type D.C. motors completely suspended to reduce the unsprumg weight to a bare minimum. Compared with a highly efficient express steam locomotive, such as those being used on the Great Western line,. the fuel consumption of the gas turbine-electric locomotive will be less than half for equal work done.

G.W.R.. 31.
Following new engines put into service: 4-6-0 No. 1020 County of Monmouth; No. 1021 County of Montgomery; No. 1022 County of Northampton; 0-6-0 No. 3209; and 0-6-0T Nos. 9652 to 9661.
Engines recently withdrawn: 0-6-0 No. 2362; 0-6-0T Nos. 1722, 1761, 1794, 1763, 1866, 1882 (Neath and Brecon); 4-4-0 No. 3553 Pershore Plum.

L.N.E.R. Appointments. 31.
Mr. T. Matthewson-Dick Technical Assistant to the Locomotive Running Superintendent, North Eastern Area, has been appointed District Locomotive Superintendent, York, Mr. J. J. Finlayson, Assistant Works Manager, Cowlairs, has been appointed Locomotive Works Manager, Gorton, in succession to Mr. G. Caster; Mr. R.L. Vereker, Locomotive Shed Master at Mexborough, had been appointed District Locomotive Superintendent, Ardsley.

British Railways, Facts and Figures. 31.
Issued by the Main Line Railways and London Transport contains interesting facts about the Railways and the Board, their equipment, traffic and special features.

Conversion of "Patriot" 5X class, L.M.S.R. 32. illus.
States that conversion of 18 authorised in first instance.

Jet propelled locomotives. 32
The adage that there is nothing new under the sun is largely applicable to locomotives; the germ of many a modern trend is to be found in early patent specifications—at the moment two are of particular interest in the light of recent announcements.
In 1868 J. Robertson took out a patent (No. 3416) for a locomotive "to be propelled by the reaction of jets or currents of steam, air and furnace gases." Apparently the locomotive was in its turn expected to propel the train otherwise the plight of the occupants of the first carriage would have been a dire one!
A much more practical proposition was D. Greig's idea,protected by patent No. 2791 of 1876. This was for a locomotive having the axles each driven by a three cylinder engine connected to cranks at 120°. The cylinders were what today would be termed nose-suspended and apparently the whole worked in an oil-bath as it was wholly enclosed.

New corridor composite carriages, L.M.S.R. 33.
60 ft long and 9 ft wide. Seating 18 first and 24 second class passengers with rubber sprung buffers and rubber pads between underframe and timber floor. Built at Wolverton Works.

Loco modernisatiion on the Great Indian Peninsular Railway. 33-6. 2 illus., 3 diagrs.

Conversion from coal to oil burning. 36-8. 2 diagrs.
GWR modifications to tender and firebox as instigated by F.W. Hawksworth.

Obituary. 38
Henry Greenly.

Hickey, T.M. N.S. Wales express trains: "The Fish". 39-41. illus.

L.M.S. 41
Thirty-three standard 4-6-2 pxpress passenger locomotives were to be equipped with self-cleaning smokeboxes, hopper ashpans and rocking grates.
Three hundred and sixty-six express passenger locomotives, comprising the whole of Power Classes 7P, 6P and 5XP, were to be fitted with speed-indicators. New locomotives in service are: 2-6-4 Tank Class 4P (built at Derby): Nos. 2265, 2266 and 2267; 4-6-0 Class 5 Mixed Traffic (built at Horwich): Nos. 4992, 4993 and 4994; 2-6-0 Class 2F Freight (built at Crewe): Nos. 6410 and 6411.
The following engines had been withdrawn: 4-4-0 Class 3P: No. 25304 Greyhound (LNWR. Precursor class ) and No. 775 (Midland); 0-6-2 Class 2PT No. 6870 (LNWR.); 2-4-2 Class 2PT: Nos. 10669 and 10719 (L.Y.R.); 0-6-0 Class 3F: No. 3794 (Midland), Nos. 12105, 12128, 12463, 12605 (L.Y.R.), Class 2F No. 3434 (Midland); 0-6-2 Class 2FT: Nos. 7722, 27555, 27558, 27666 (L.N.W.); 0-6-0 Class 1FT; No. 1884 (Midland) .
During 1946, 129 locomotives were constructed; 482 new passenger-carrying vehicles were also completed (15 of them by outside contractors)—an increase of 137 per cent. on the 1945 ontput.
5,753 new wagons were built in the shops including 572 all-steel 16-ton mineral wagons of a new design. A new plant for this tvpe of wagon was erected at Derby and  was now in full production.

Stewart, W.W. The Takapuna Steam Railway, Auckland, New Zealand. 42-3. 2 illus., map.
4ft 8½ inch gauge street tramway designed to connect with ferry from City of Auchland with a line from Bayswarer to Lake Takapuna. Line opened on 22 December 1910. Three tramway locomotives supplied by Kerr Stuart: WN 1096/1909; 1137/1909 and 1216/1911; these were numbered 1-3 and first-two named Waitemata and Bayswater, These were totally enclosed 2-4-2Ts. These were joined by a Baldwin 0-4-0ST WN 37168 of class 418 C96 and became No. 4. Two further Baldwin's were supplied in 1919: WN 52128 and 52205.

H. Hilton. White Horse of Kent.  44.
Reproduced in full below:
As this subject has aroused interest no excuse is necessary for again referring to it because the writer believes that the builders of this notable engine can now be determined. To avoid recapitulation reference should be made to " The Locomotive," Vol. 50, pp. 53 and 194.
Messrs. Robert Stephenson & Hawthorns Ltd., state that after the order for the 2nd White Horse of Kent "their records are silent and they are unable to confirm that this engine was constructed in the works of another builder."
After a careful scrutiny of Warren's "A Century of locomotive building," and Starbuck's 750 letters, it is possible to arrive at a reasonable conclusion from the following facts. The replace engine bore Robert Stephensori's plate No. 435 and it is not mentioned in any other builders' records.
Warren states on page 94, 13th October, 1841: " Cook writes to Edward Pease within the last 6 months' We have gradually discharged about 50 hands—the number of engines for which we now have orders being 38—but I may mention that we have up to this time' in the present year finished amd sent away 31 engines, and that ere its dose, we calculate upon the despatch of 6 or 7 more.' "
These figures confirm the yearly output of the works to be 38 engines, or at the rate of 1 engine about every 9 days with a reduced staff.
On page 97: "11 th December, 1843, Cook writes to Edward Pease, 'although we are now unfortunately working short handed-yet I am pleased to say that in addition to 3 engines we have in hand for Yarmouth and 2 for the North Midland, we have a contract for 15 for the Marseilles Avignon line—which we have reason to expect will be increased to 20—but they do not come into operation just yet.' "
" 13th February,. 1844, Cook writes to Joseph Pease, ' I am happy to say we are becoming more actively employed and since the 1st January we have orders for 5 engines (1 for the Croydon & Dover, 2 for Holland and 2 for Silesia) and shall immediately have an order for 6 more for the Yarmouth & Norwich' " afterwards increased to 10 but not required to be delivered until June the following year).
The output at the beginning of 1844 being at the rate of 1 engine every 9 days the number of engines on order at 14th March when the 2nd W.H. of K. was ordered would be 26, less the 9 which had been delivered since Cook wrote on 11 th December, a total of 17 engines including the replace engine or roughly 22 weeks' work.
The replace engine left the works early in the followmg September or 25 weeks after the order, a date which agrees with the output.
From these statements there appears to be no reason to suggest this engine or any other should have been sub-let to contractors during the relevant period, March to August, 1844.
Now comes the most amazing statement of Warren. On page 373 when describing the Gauge Experiments he writes: "The champions of the broad gauge appreciating the unsuitability of the long boilered engme for higher speeds at which they were aiming', made full use of such arguments as they could obtain from the bad behaviour of a particular engine, the White Horse of Kent, which had single driving wheels and outside cylinders, and although not built by Robert Stephenson ,& Co., was one of their long-boiler designs, being one of many engines of this type built by other makers to their drawings."
So after 79 years the engine as it were is disinherited, treated as the had boy of a large and successful family without justification.
The late Mr. Dendy Marshall informed the writer that the late Mr. Ahrons  [The British Steam Railway Locomotive 1825-1925 page 55] was mistaken in attributing the building of the engine to Nasmyth & Co., and that when he and the late Mr. A. C. W. Lowe were compiling the "History of the S.R. Locomotives" [Dendy Marshall's History of the Southern Railway] in they were unable to decide who built the engine.
Unfortunately they did not have access to the Starbuck letters [KPJ nor do we??]

Presentation to L.M.S. loco. No. 5739 "Ulster". 44-5. illus.
Plaques presented by the Ulster Branch of the Overseas League unveiled at Euston on 31 January 1947 by Lady Brook, wife of Sir Basil Brook, Prime Minister of Northern Ireland in the presence of Sir William Wood, President of the LMS and several directors: Sir Robert Burrows, Chairman, and Lord Aldenham, Evans Bevan, Francis M, Glyn, Sir Murray Stephen and Lord Woolton, Directors...

Penychain Holiday Camp. 45.
LMS improvements included lengthening the crossing-loops at Dinas Junction, Brynkir and Llangybi to enable ten-coach trains to be worked between Caernarvon and Afon Wen. The GWR doubled the section between Afon Wen and Penychain (renamed for Pwllheli Holiday Camp.

Personal. 45.
Edgar Alcock's 70th birthday: brief biography which ipso facto gives his birth date; also much information about state of Hunslet Engine Co.

Locomotives for mines: 100 b.h.p. flameproof diesel design for main haulageways. 45-6. illus.
Hunslet Engine Co. with six coupled wheels and Gardner 6LW engine and four-speed gearbox.

Reviews.  46.
The Eastern Union Railway. H.F. Hilton. LNER.
In our July issue we noted the centenary of this railway and we now have the full story published by the L.N.E.R., the fifth of a uniform series commemorating centenaries of sections of the system. The illustrations are excellent and no better choice than Mr. Hilton could have been made for the author. Mr. Hilton is an acknowledged authority on the old G.E.R., having been at one time District Locomotive Superintendent at Cambridge, at Stratford, and Assistant to the Superintendent of Operation, and when he retired Assistant to the Running Superintendent, L.N.E.R.
On the Footplate A.J. Creswell. Quadrant Publications
Popular description of engines and engine working: Recent locomotives and points of design are considered and a chapter is contributed by Dr. W.A. Tuplin on the subject of future development.
The World's Smallest Public Railway. O.J. Morris. Ian Allan Ltd.
This is an altogether admirable publication. It is well illustrated and written in a most entertaining manner. Much information is given upon matters with which patrons of the line will not generally be familiar, e.g., the proposed extension to Sandling.

Ruston and Hornsby Ltd., of Lincoln. 46
Publication 8826 dealing with the 165 DS. oil-engined shunting locomotive. This latest member of the well-known range of Ruston locomotives is fitted with a 150/165 B.H.P. 6-cylinder four-stroke engine .

Correspondence. 46
Condensing locomotives. Kenneth W. Wightman
One of the Reichsbahn series 52 2-10-0 condensing locomotives, mentioned by correspondent R.N.V.R. on page 29 of the February issue, is at work on the SNCF in France. This type is class 150-Y on the SNCF, and there were 41 in service, and the one condensing engine had been used on coal traffic between Lens and Paris. The remaining 40 were non-condensing engines. There were also 29 2-10-0s in service on the SNCF of Reichsbahn series 50 (the type from which series 52 were developed and these were class 150-Z. Reichsbahn 3-cylinder series 44, which was commenced in 1937, has been adopted as a standard type by the SNCF, and the class intended to increase by new construction to a total of 218. These were SNCF class 150-X. As far as writer knew the one condensing 2-10-0 was experimental, and it had not intended to extend this equipment to other engines of German design.
Caledonian engines. E. C. Poultney.
Requested McEwan to amplify his remarks regarding the cylinder design adopted by Drummond for the six coupled goods engines illustrated. So far as I am informed, Drummond being a faithful disciple of Stroudley, generally, if not always, used a cylinder design with two separate sets of steam and exhaust ports, one set above the other. The exhaust port of the upper set connected directly with. the passage way immediately below the blast pipe, but the exhaust from the lower exhaust port was carried round the cylinder barrel and over the top, as, due to this port arrangement, it was the only possible means of making connection with the exhaust passage at the base of the blast pipe. I should very much doubt if this design was used in order to provide a steam jacket, as I cannot imagine Stroudley or anyone else would think of jacketing a cylinder with exhaust steam with the idea of suppressing condensation. I think the idea behind this arrangement was to provide increased steam chest volume when the valves are between the cylinders which in itself is, of course, an excellent idea. Drummond used this type of cylinder on the London and South Western, as a reference to a drawing of one of his four cylinder engines, published in "Engineering," November 10th, 1905, will show, while a reference to Developments in Locomotive Practice, C.J.B. Cooke, 1902, page 51, illustrates Drummond's cylinders as applied to an ordinary engine with a pair of inside cylinders. Lambie, who followed Drummond at St. Rollox, also used cylinders of this kind. There was a drawing of one of these engines in The Engineer in 1895.

L.M.S. motor ship Princess Victoria. 46.
New vessel of 2,300 tons with accommodation for 1,500 passengers and about 40 motor cars. She was launched at Dumbarton on 27 August 1946, and, with a service speed of 19 knots, was replacement of former Princess Victoria, completed only a few months before WW2, but sunk on war service in 1940.

Issue Number 656 (15 April 1947)

The national coal situation and the railways. 47-8.
A substantial proportion of the national coal consumption is used by the railways and the bulk of this quantity is required by steam locomotives. The total coal burnt by engines in Great Britain each year therefore constitutes a considerable tonnage and any economies effected. must rea:ct to a corresponding extent on the national position; the exploration of every possible avenue  is urgently necessary in consequence and is now in hand. Considered broadly, there are two approaches: the reduction of mileage run, which is a traffic problem, and the reduction of consumption per mile which is the responsibility of the motive power department. As regards the first much has already been done by the cancella, tion of slack penod and luxury passenger trains and of certain general traffic freight trains; during the actual crisis marshalling yards were by-passed in some cases by coal trains. These were emergency measures and their extended application, already announced, must be governed by prior investigation, involving careful analysis of the utilisation and working of the services, in order that public inconvenience may be minimised and detrimental effects on efficient working avoided. It is conceivable that benefits may ultimately fructify; it may be found possible, for instance, to make certain yards redundant or convert them as a matter of long term policy to hump yards, thereby reducing the locomotive power necessary to work them. In any country where hauls are short, shunting mileage inevitably comprises a large proportion of the total, and anything which can be done to reduce its extent or, alternatively, to enable it to be performed more economically, is therefore to be encouraged. In general many schemes at present pigeonholed on account of labour and material shortages will now have to be re-examined from a new angle of national necessity rather than of railway economics, and given revised priorities.
Any approach to the problem from the locomotive aspect is at once faced with disabilities which influence unfavourably the coal consumption per mile. These are the dirt now included with the coal supplies, which is of course a source of complaint for every consumer, industrial or domestic, the effects of deferred maintenance, and the lowering of normal standards of workmanship by the dilution of labour. The effects of these factors are both direct and psychological; as regards the latter the fashionable malaise known as frustration is apparent.
Emergency action, then, may well take the form of encouragement of the engine crews and maintenance staff to effect economies by their individual efforts towards increased efficiency and by more effective co-operation with one another. Trite as this may appear, it is supported by the inertia and lack of pride in work which, unfortunately, are all too generally evident. Where dnvers are concerned, they must be instructed to use the most economical position of regulator and lever to time their trains, to ensure that the supply of lubricant is both constant and adequate, particularly to valves and cylinders, and supervise the work of their firemen with emphasis on the prevention of fuel wastage. No, two drivers work an engine in an identical manner; therefore should a driver have a strange firemao; he should advise him in advance of his intended actions on the road. Again, as an aftermath of the war, there are now many firemen of limited experience; drivers must treat them sympathetically and, remembering their own early difficulties, help them with instruction and demonstration. Courses in the theory and practice of firing would no doubt benefit employees and companies alike. Meticulous attention by drivers to the reporting of engine defects is also essential, with particular reference to those which tend to increase coal consumption. Examples are smokeboxes drawing air valves off beat, valve, piston, gland and othe; blows, safety valves blowing off light, and unsatisfactory oondition of brick arches, dampers and deflector plates. It is important that vague reports, such as "engine not steaming" and " blow at front end," be avoided ; they are of no assistance to the maintenance staff and at the same time reflect adversely on the craftmanship of the engineman.
The instructions to firemen should include such items as the avoidance of heap firing and other practices causmg poor combustion: and the control of injectors and fire, with accompanying adjustment of dampers and firehole door openings m such a manner that blowing off is avoided. For the same reason premature building up of the fIre pnor to the commencement of a trip must. be avoided and, similarly, the fire must be allowed to diminish towards the end of a trip. Care must be exercised when cleaning fires that live fire is not thrown out. Again, tenders must always be carefully, trimmed, the coal already on the tender bemg worked forward before replenishing in order to avoid accumulations of stale and abraded fuel· overloa,ding,. so easy at mechanical coaling plants: must be avoided, not only because spillage leads to waste of fuel, but also because fallmg coal constitutes a potential danger to staff working at rail level.
It is a good plan to encourage all enginemen to set themselves the initial savings target of a shovelful of coal per mile, at the same time emphasising that this by no means represents the ultimate practicable economy objective. The contribution of shed staff to the campaign is chiefly by the exercise of care and thorough- ness in boiler washing, tube sweeping and fire-dropping, together with the avoidance of premature lighting up and the extravagant use of coal for this purpose. Workshops staff can most effectively assist by giving prompt attention to all reported engine defects and by the exhibition of good workmanship in their rectification and in the course of periodical examinations and other engine maintenance work. Further economies may be effected by care in the uses of all electric current (the individually driven machine tool has a distinct potential advantage here), of hydraulic power and of ornpressed air. In the two latter cases the prompt reporting of, and attention to, all leakages are important.
The foregoing outlines, but not exhaustively, the details of the preliminary steps in a coal economy campaign. The next phase is to analyse the existing engine workings with the object of obtaining more efficient use of power. More intensive utilisation of the individual engine, by reducing terminal standing times, by "double shifting" and other means, usually leads to a reduction in its consumption of fuel per mile. Finally, consideration maybe given to improvements in design, and those which involve only limited alterations may certainly be regarded as short term policy. For instance, a small percentage coal saving may be effected at low cost by fitting top feed and, in some cases, similar results may be anticipated from minor alterations to valve events and gears or to the proportions of smokebox draught apparatus. Mention has already been made of the relative extent of shunting mileage in this country. It may be well to decide the extent to which the cut-off in full gear may be restricted on shunting engines without appreciable effect on the speed of shunting movement, by blanking off quadrant end slots or the insertion of distance pieces at the ends of reversing screws. Again, superheating may be justifiable in the present exceptional circumstances, although the economies would be far less than on main line engines. Here the cost of installation could be minimised by adopting a moderate degree superheater in conjunction with, for instance, balanced slide valves of phosphor bronze, the new tubeplates and fireboxes being of steel. It may also be beneficial to consider the similar fitting of superheaters to other classes of small tank and tender engines. Additional, but indirect, savings also occur by the reduction in the consumption of pumped water supplies, and the necessity for investigating these and other rnod incations is governed not only by the requirements of the immediate situation, but also by the time which must elapse before these engines can be replaced with others of more modern design and the percentage of coal which can be saved an their consumption in the interim period, which is conceivably of some length. There are two other matters which, although they bear directly on the question, cannot be conveniently considered here; the implications are too extensive. The first of these is the conversion of engines from coal to liquid fuel burning; it is of course determined economically by current relative costs of the two fuels and also in this country by the desirability or otherwise of relying on imported fuel. Secondly, there is the substitution of electric, diesel or other power for steam traction. The subject offers almost unrationed food for thought and subsequent action.

Electric mine locomotive. 48.
General Electric Company for Weirton Coal Comapny's Isabella Mine in Pennsylvania.

Coal weighing tenders L.M.S. Railway. 49-50. illus., diagr.
Two tenders introduced under H.G. Ivatt with weighing apparatus supplied by the Transport & Generaal Engineering Co. of Leeds.

Stead, Arthur L. French locomotive plans. 50-2. 2 illus.

Articulated locomotives: Bosnia-Herzegovina Railway. 53-4. illus., 2 diagrs.
0-4-0+0-4-0T with drive off dummy crank axles. Design was probably that of Helmholz as locomotive was constructed by Krauss at the Linz Woeks in Austria.

McEwan, James. Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 55-7.
In 1903 No. 6199 was fitted with a "class 721" (Dunalastair I) boiler and tried out on various duties, mainly tackling heavier trains than the ordinary engine of the class. The engine broke three frames in the trial period which terminated in December, 1906, and then reverted to its old style.
All of the passenger engines have since L.M.S. days been fitted with the vacuum brake for train working. Also steam heating fittings have been added from time to time. Of the steam brake engines several from 1934 onwards have been supplied with Gresham and Craven vacuum ejectors and piping on the left hand side completely separate from the engine's steam brake on the right hand side and acting on the train only. During the 1939-1945 war a further alteration has been made, the vacuum and steam are now an the left hand side. The Midland Railway type of vacuum/steam apparatus is used with extension handle to enable the steam valve to be used alone without using the vacuum handle.
From about 1924 the earlier engines of the class were given an additional vertical handrail fitted to the cab entrance, bringing them into line with the Mclmtosh ones. The older arrangement was very awkward unless the tender footstep was used. Although the new boilers have a combined blower and sanding valve, in many cases the engine retains gravity sand and the steam sanding gear is blanked off. From 1935 onwards most engines which retained the gravity sanding were fitted with a steam sand washing apparatus fore and aft but the arrangement does not get used very often. Chimneys which have required replacement since 1943 have been done with "stovepipe" type of varying shapes.
Some odd interesting notes about the class are: No. 349 was the last engine to carry Drummond type boiler with the Ramsbottom safety valves on the dome. No. 307 (later 517) was the first engine to appear from St. Rollox with the L.M.S. colours and was No. 17245 (December, 1923). No. 682 was the first C.R. engine to be repainted L.M.S. which was done at Polmadie Depot. in October, 1923, L.M.S. No. 17271. The old painting had been continued in full glory for some time with the omission of the coat of arms, but by mid- summer 1923 there were certain little additional items missing. Lining was not appearing on the tenders of some of the goods engines, the "dot" between the " C " and the " R " was missing, and by the Autumn all further new painting had ceased. Only touching up being permitted. Under the L.M.S. from 1930 onwards boilers ceased to be mated to the same set of frames and began to get changed around. New boilers and cylinders were made and in some cases new frames were all put into the one engine. One effect of the boiler changing programme is to vary the pressure between 150 and 180 lb. sq. in. according to the state of the framing of the engine to which it is fitted.
In 1929, No. 744 (L.M.S. 17411) was fitted with the new pattern boiler which was the Lambie type boiler fitted with "Pop" safety valves and pressed to 180 psi and live steam injector of the M.R. type. Many others were fitted there-after, and this alteration gave the class a further lease of life. Although L.M.S. 17284 may have received this boiler type earlier, the performances put up by 17411 called attention to the scheme generally.
From modem standards as originally built they are small engines capable of hauling on an average "25/35 and a van," approximately equal to 400 tons, they are extremely useful in yards and where traffic is not dense and when necessary can haul passenger traffic or exchange easily with another engine of the class if not passenger fitted, for most sheds have some of each.
The class being a large one has been involved in many mishaps, No. 550 on 17th January, 1923, was suddenly switched into a loop at Pollokshaws South, and over-ran the buffer stops demolishing the signalbox of the offending signalman and finishing up in a smother of broken timber from the cabin down an embankment.
From the end of the 1914-1918 War the class began to appear on passenger runs of more consequence than the Coast route to Gourock and Wemyss Bay and Edinburgh to Glasgow stopping trains, Leith, Barnton, Perth-Forfar, and Alloa. The Oban line was the earliest to get a set working for the class on passenger work, followed by the Lanark turns, and to Muirkirk afterwards. This was the thin edge of the wedge and after the amalgamation the class was used for passenger traffic on many sections and particularly at the holiday periods when they did useful and fast working.
The high light was the Stirling to Oban excursions when two 18 in. engines loaded to 8 QF's and a Pullman worked through with complete whistle communication between the drivers to give synchronisation of cut-off and regulator. Less frequent workings were the Aberdeen-Stonehaven service with occasional piloting.
On one occasion two of the class coupled together reached a maximum speed of about 63 m.p.h. on a favourite stretoh of the line South of Girvan. The train was about 90 minutes late and the drivers were apparently making good use of all favourable gradients to reduce the lateness which they did succeed in doing to the extent of nine minutes between Girvan and Challoch Junction. This record will show the versatility of the class. It has frequently been said that the class was heavy on coal but against this has to be set their work output and pro rata their coal bill was not excessive. So far two only of the class have been withdrawn and the others are to be found on all Scottish sections of the L.M.S. Those used on the former Glasgow and South Western section are mainly steam braked and are used for mineral and shunting work.
The class was turned out as follows: Nos. 294 to 308, Neilson and Co., 1883 (WN 3043 to 3057) renumbered in 1918 excepting No. 294 done on return from War Service in 1919, to 1294, 262 to 264, 539, 259, 260, 335, 337, 365, 367, 374, 403, 517, 548. In 1923 were allocated L.M.S. Nos. 17249, 17232 to 17234, 17246, 17230, 17231, 17235, 17236, 17241 to 17245 and 17247. Nos. 349 to 352. St. Rollox Works, 1883 L.M.S. Nos. 17237 to 17240. Nos. 353 and 354. St. Rollox Works, 1884, L.M.S. Nos. 17250 and 17251. Nos. 517 to 526, and 680 to 689. Neilson and Co., 1884 (WN 3252 to 3271). Nos. 517, 680 and 682 renumbered 1517, 1680 and 1682 on return from War Service in 19119. L. M. S. Nos. 17269,17252 to 17260, 17270, 17261,17271, 17262 to 17268. os. 690 to 695. St. Rollox Works, 1885 05. 691 to 695 were renumbered in 1887 to os. 361 to 365 respectively. In 1919 on return from War Service 365 was renumbered 1365. These six engines became L.M.S. Nos. 17276, 17272 to 17275 and 17294 respectively. Nos. 309 to 320. St. Rollox Works, 1886. All these engines were renumbered. In 1918 No. 309 was altered to No. 549, 311 to 553, 312 to 558, 313 to 680, 314 to 682, 316 to 703, 317 to 705, 320 to 707, all of whioh renumberings took the place of engines lent to the Government. In 1919 on return from War Service the others were renumbered No. 310 to 1310, 315 to 1315, 318 to 1318, 319 to 1319. The L.M.S. numbers allotted in first C.R. numbering rotation were: 17248, 17290, 17283 to 17286, 17291, 17287, 17288, 17292, 17293, and 17289.
Nos. 355 to 360 built 1886, and 366 to 371 built 1887. St. Rollox Works. (L.M.S. regard Nos. 359 and 360 as built 1887 as they were finished and charged to that year although an 1886 order by the C.R. and finished in January, 1887, which was the end of the C.R. financial year). L.M.S. numbers respectively were 17277 to 17282, and 17304, 17312, 17305 to 17308. C.R. No. 367 was on War Service and on return in 1919 was renumbered 1367.
Nos. 321, 322 and 339 to 348. St. Rollox Works, 1887. In 1895 No. 339 was renumbered 323, and in 1918 Nos. 321 and 322 were renumbered 708 and 380. The original No. 339, later altered 323 was renumbered in 1919 on return from War Service, to 1323. The L.M.S. numbers of these engines were: C.R. Nos. 340 to 348 L.M.S. Nos. 17295 to 17303,380 (ex 322) 17309, 708 (ex 321) 17310, and 1323 (ex 323 and 339) 17311.
Nos. 403, 404, 406 to 409. St. Rollox Works, 1889. No. 1403 allotted to No. 403 on return from War Service in 1919. L.M.S. numbers were in original numbering rotation 17313 to 17318. Nos. 410 to 415. St. Rollox Works, 1890. These were the balance of the engines ordered along with the Nos. 403 series. These engines were fitted with the Westing house brake and pump for working fitted and passenger trains. The L.M.S. numbers were 17319 to 17324. Nos. 372 to 379. St. Rollox .Works, 1891, and Nos. 540 to 543, 1892. No. 374 on r-eturn from \Var Service in 1919 was renumbered 1374. The L.M.S. numbers given to the series were (omitting No. 1374 which was given Nos. 17348), 17325 to 17335.
Nos. 691 to 696. St. Rollox Works, 1892. These engines were also fitted for passenger train, etc., working. Their L.M.S. numbers were 17342 to 17347. For a short period about 1917 No. 695 was on loan to the Highland Railway when that line was short of engine power. Nos. 544 to 553. St. Rollox Works, 1892. Nos. 548, 549 and 553 were on War Service and on return in 1919 were renumbered 1548, 1549 and 1553. In original numerical rotation their respective L.M.S. Nos. were: 17336 to 17339, 17349, 17350, 17357, 17340, 17341 and 17351. Nos. 554 to 563. St. Rollox Works. Nos. 554 to 558 built 1892, 03. 559 to 563 built in 1893. No. 558 on return from War Service in 1919 was given No. 1558 and the number allotted by the L.M.S. was 17352. The other engines in rotation omitting No. 558 became 17358 to 17366. All the engines mentioned up to now, when dealing with the class had the standard Drummond boiler and tender.
Nos. 697 to 702. St. Rollox Works, 1893. According to official records these engines were htted with Larnbie type boilers, but on the other hand four of them are definitely known to have carried Drummond type boilers and probably all six did, No. 701 carrying its boiler until 1922 at 1east. These six engines were passenger fitted and worked from Polmadie and Dawsholm sheds. As already mentioned, No. 699 got a Dunalastair I class boiler fitted in 1903. The L. M. S. Nos. were 17367 to 17372.
Nos. 199 to 202. St. Rollox Works, February, 1894. Passenger fitted. This was one of the smallest orders placed at the works fer a standard type of engine and appears to have been made to bring the last series up to a total of ten engines. Although all were made at the same time there were marked running peculiarities amongst them, No. 199 was "a lame duck" and never seemed to be as good an engine as ithe others despite several examinations. No. 200 on the other hand was an extremely easy engine to work and could take a coach more than any of the others without appearing to show any retarding of its efforts. Nos. 201 and 202 were just ordinary in performance and did the work required of them. The L.M.S. numbers are 17373 to 17376.
Nos. 203, 204, 256 to 261, 334 and 335. St. Rollox Works, 1894. os. 203 and 204 in 1918 were renumbered 338 and 339, Nos. 259, 260 and 335 were renumbered in 1919 on return from War Service, 1259, 1260 and 1335. Their L.M.S. numbers in rotation of original numberings are, 17383, 17384, 17377 to 17379, 17389, 17390, 17380, 17381 and 17391. Nos. 336, 337, 703 to 708. St. Rollox Works, 1894. No. 337 renumbered 1337 in 1919 on return from War Service Nos. 703 and 705 renumbered 1703 and 1705 in 1919 on return from War Service. In 1920 owing to the numbers being carried by loaned Ministry of Munition engines these two engines were renumbered 1704 and 1706. Nos. 707 and 708 were renumbered 1707 and 1708 on their return from War Service. At the time of renumbering into L.M.S. stock this series were mixed up rather badly with other engines bearing near numbers. The L.M.S. numbers in original numbering rotation were 17382, 17392, 17353, 17385, 17354, 17386, 17355 and 17356.
The remainder of the engines of the class came from St. Rollox Works and were more regular in numbering and can be conveniently tabulated as follows:-

C.R. No. Date built L.M.S. Nos.
709 to 714 1895 17387, 17388, {a}
17393 to 17396 {a}
715 to 720 1896 17397 to 17402 {a}
736 to 749 1896 17403 to 17416 {b}
750 to 760 1897 * 17417 to 17427 {b}
564 to 575 1896 17433 to 17444
576 to 582 1896 17445 to 17451 {c}
583 to 587 1897 17469 to 17473 {c}
588 to 592 1897 17452 to 17456 {d}
761 to 765 1897 17464 to 17468 {d}
329 to 333 1897 17428 to 17432 {e}
593 to 599 1897 17457 to 17463 {e}

All these from 709 were Westinghouse fitted. Those dates shown bracketed indicate that the lot so grouped were part of the same general works order [the letters are solely to assist comprehension]. The lot marked with * were laid aside at the tme and later proceeded with, probably a system of earmarking money but not spending in the current year was used on this occasion. The tender design with the underhung springs was stopped about 1890, but records fail to disclose when and where the change took place. ( To be continued). Illustations: L.M.S. 17292 with Drummond Boiler and L.M.S. 17408 (rebuilt).

L.M.S.R. 57
New locomotives in service: 2-6-0 Class 2F freight tender (built Crewe): Nos. 6412 to 6416; 2-6-4 Class 4P tank (built Derby): Nos. 2268 to 2271; 4-6-0 Class 5 mixed traffic tender (built Horwich): Nos. 4995, 4996.
The following engines withdrawn: 2-4-2 Class 2PT Nos. 10664, 10810 (L. & Y.R.); 0-8-0 Class 6F No. 12824 (L. & Y.R.); 0-6-0 Class 3F Nos. 12090, 12241, 12263, 12562 (L.& Y.R.), Class 2F Nos. 3384, 22818 (Midland); 0-8-4 Class' 7FT No. 27943 (LNWR); 0-6-2 Class 2FT No. 7795 (LNWR).

Railway happenings in Ireland. 57.
Due to shortage of locomotive coal, all main line passenger train services on the CIE system were withdrawn on 20 February 1947, and some branch lines were closed completely. Goods train services were reduced to three days a week, and later, on 10 March, to two days a week only. Goods traffic was being conducted mainly by lorries, of which CIE were hiring some from private owners. Local passenger train services in the Dublin, Cork and Waterford areas were still being run at a reduced frequency. On the Dublin and Cork main line two passenger coaches were attached to the perishable goods and mail trains leaving Dublin at 07.15. and 19.45 and Cork at 21.30. There was also a daily perishable goods and mail train between Dublin and Athlone but passengers were not conveyed.
On the Great Northern Rly. (I) the reductions in service were not so drastic, and there were still three weekday trains in each direction between Dublin and Belfast, and reduced services on other lines. Goods trains were limited to two days a week, and traffic was confined to essential goods only. The Carrickmacross, Cootehill and Belturbet branches were closed to passenger traffic from 10 March.
The Belfast and County Down Rly. showed a serious state of. affairs; it seemed likely that the Bangor branch, the only portion which showed a profit on working, would be the only part in operation. No engines were scrapped during 1946 by CIE, the GNR or BCDR. Among those that went on the NCC were No. 50, the last remaining 4-4-0 with 7 ft. driving wheels, and Nos. 110 and 113, narrow gauge engines of the 2-4-4T and 4-4-2T types.

See also letter from R. Watson on page 95 concerning 0-6-0Ts Nos. 338 and 339. These were renumbered much earlier (from 203 and 204) than the 1918 stated herein as s at Kelvinbridge on Glasgow Undergroudn section in 1901 and in St. Rollox period between 1905 and 1910. .

Stewart, W.W. The Takapuna Steam Railway, Auckland, New Zealand. 58-60. 5 illus.

4-6-4 tank engines fot British Guiana. 60-1. illus.
Two locomotives supplied by Hunslet Engine Co. for standard gauge line with severe curvature and weight restrictions built to a design of 23 years earlier. 4ft diameter coupled wheels, 16 x 22in outside cylinders and 160 psi boiler pressure. Supplied to specification and inspection of the Crown Agents for British Colonies.

Central London tube extension. 61.
Progress on the Western extensipon fron North Acton to Greenford and Ruislip.

G.W.R. gas-turbine electric locomotive. 61-2.

Reviews. 62.

La Probleme de la Signalisation Ferroviaire et sa Solution Rationnelle. R. Tuot. Paris: Dunod, 1946. 126pp.
with preface by E. Bocquet, Ingenieur en chef honoraire a. la S.N.F.C.
A capital difficulty arising from the problem of securing complete safety in operating railway traffic lies in the necessity of providing such security under all conditions with the utmost flexibility of speed and the fullest utilisation of the track. In this work Dr. Tuot presents a novel solution by a judicious combination of the factors represented by speed, time, and distance. Thence he arrives at a conception which he terms "spacing according to speed" as a method of working satisfactory for every traffic requirement. The "tachymetric" solution offered depends fundamentally upon the fitting of the locomotive with an electrical speed indicator which can deliver current to controlling apparatus on other trains; and although his ideas may appear somewhat revolutionary, the author makes a most interesting contribution to the study of railway progress and opens the way for research into a way of operation which will appeal to railway men either on the technical or operative side. Space will hardly permit us to discuss this work in detail, but it should be said that Dr. Tuot deals with a difficult subject in an extremely able fashion; the mathematical treatment makes for the greatest clarity, and all diagrams, etc., are admirably executed. The final chapter is descriptive of the experimental apparatus installed by Messrs. Brown, Boveri and Co., in a special laboratory at Baden (Switzerland) for the better investigation of this new and original system of train control.

We have received from Beyer, Peacock and Co. Ltd., their new catalogue relating to ordinary type locomotives. This is the firm's first post-war catalogue and although times are difficult for the production of such matter the whole is admirably produced-the illustrations being especially good. Following Beyer Peacock's previous practice the text and particulars are given in English, French and Spanish, metric dimensions accompanying the two last-mentioned languages.

Obituary: W.J. Sedcole, chief engineer of the Pullman Car Co. since 1921. 62

Issue Number 657 (15 May 1947)

Base-Exchange Water Softeners. 63-4.
A.J.R. Walter read a paper to the Institution of Locomotive Engineers in London entitled "A Brief History af the. Application af Base Exchange Water Softeners to Railways." (Paper 463). The Author began by pointing out that water is probably the most impartant raw material used an a railway, bath in essentiality and quantity, and befare proceeding to the actual histary of base-exchange softeners gave a condensed description af other forms af treatment. Perhaps the earliest form of water treatment was the use af boiler compounds, which meant the treatment af feed water inside the boiler.

L.N.E.R. Locomotive Designs. 64-65. 2 diagrs. (s. els)
Precis of Bert Spencer's classic Paper No. 465 to the Institution of Locomotive Engineers in London. The diagrams were of the proposed 4-8-2 and 2-8-2T designs. The text mentions the proposed super A4 with boiler pressure raised to 275 psi and the six-cylinder D49 where difficulties in designing a bevel gear impeded progress.

Locomotive Power at Speed. 66-7.
At a meeting of the Institutian af Mechanical Engineers on 21 February 1947, E.L. Diamond, read a paper on the horsepower output af steam locomotives at high speeds. The rapid fall in the power developed with increasing speed, characteristic of locomotive performance, has during recent years been a matter that has received considerable attention, due to the desire an the part of designers to praduce more powerful engines to meet the demands arising for fast travel with heavier trains. Ultimately, the power that any engine can develop must depend on the steaming capacity of the boiler; nevertheless, given a steam supply at constant pressure the mean effective pressure in the cylinders at any cut off constantly diminishes as the speed increases. The problem confronting designers is, therefore, how to reduce this fall in the pressure exerted on the pistons and thus increase the cylinder power available through the higher ranges af speed. In his paper entitled The Development of Locomotive Power at Speed the Author divided his subject into two parts. The first section was devoted to a suggested method for computing mean effective pressures for different boiler pressures at various rates of cut off, taking also into consideration the effect of clearance volumes varying hom 5 to 15%, while at the same time the effect of compression at different cut offs was also taken into account.
Based on the construction of theoretical diagrams, graphs setting out the mean pressures to be expected were presented, constructed for a constant least back pressure and admission steam superheated and having a constant temperature of 600°F. These computations forrmed the basic data, not only for mean effective pressure, but also the determmation of specific steam consumption and cylinder efficiencies. The efficiency was calculated using a Rankin cycle assuming an adiabatic heat drop between a defined boiler pressure and the given constant exhaust pressure taken as 18psi absolute, divided by the heat available above the liquid temperature corresponding to the exhaust pressure. The second part of the paper presented plots showing the mean pressure actually indicated, based on a number of tests performed with different locomotives. Then, through the actual plotted points, the Author drew appropriate curves of mean pressure, obtained by a formula founded on the theoretical pressure obtained, as already mentioned, corrected by a factor characteristic of the particular engine and on the assumption that mean pressures would be proportional to the square root of the speed in revolutions per minute. The equation evolved is held to give the mean effective pressure "and hence the power at any speed of a particular out off." The Author goes on to say that the reason why other proposed formulae have been related to the boiler is to eliminate this condition (power for a given speed and cut off) and to give the maximum power for any locomotive as a whole for any given rate of evaporation. It is contended that this is fundamentally wrong in principle, it being pointed out that the first part of the paper showed how greatlv the economy of the engine is affected by the relationship between cut off and clearance, provided, of course, that the steam distribution is good. It will be apparent that the Author presented a most painstaking and excellent analysis of his subject. That this was appreciated was shown by the ensuing discussion, which, we may say at once, was not only of considerable interest, but reached a high standard.
In commenting on the paper, Mr. R.C. Bond in the course of his remarks touched upon the importance the Author had given to the effect of clearance and, in doing so, drew attentian to the relationship between clearance volume and the amount af compression. This is, we think, all important, especially from the point of view of power developed, for, if clearance space can be completely filled ar nearly so by the steam compressed, it will materially assist in keeping up the admission line of the indicator diagram. It is probable that modern long lap valve gears and improved steam port proportions have together augmented high speed performance by admitting more steam per stroke. There is, as a rule, little difficulty in exhausting the steam; the real trouble is to persuade it to enter the cylinders; further, cylinder back pressures are very largely governed — if not entire1y — by the size of the exhaust nozzle. Mr. Bond was also on good ground when he drew attention to the fact that the locomotive consisted essentially of three power-producing elements — the boiler, the engine and the link between the two, the smokebox, the chimney and the blast pipe. It is, in fact, the relationship bciween the action of these elemecr1ts that so largely determines what the locomotive as a whole can do, which, after all, is what we want to know. Locomotive power is a function of what Lawford H. Fry has so aptly termed the triplex relation between Coal Fired and Steam Produced, between Steam Exhausted and Air Supplied and between Air Supplied and Coal Consumed, consideration of which recalls the couplet:
"Upon the four elements I feed
Which life and power supply,
To run my race of boundless speed:
Take one away—I die."
Others taking part in this discussion, including Mr. E.S. Cox, stressed the desirability of taking the boiler into consideration when attempting to forecast locomotive performance. With this we fully agree, and feel that the Author would have been in a happier position had he been content only to estimate mean pressures for any known initial pressure rather than assert that his proposals were "a more accurate guide in estimating the power at speed of a projected design than either Cole's constants or the Kiesel formula, with its illogical basis in the boiler." There is a trite saying that "an engine is as good as its boiler." With this we fully agree. However good cylinder design may be and however perfect the valve gear, an adequate steam supply is the first essential. Under all conditians of working, the boiler has been, and will remain, the controlling factor in locomotive performance.

Brighton Works. 67.
In. June 1947 the thousandth locomotive to be built at. these works was completed: No. 2IC 164 of the West. Country class. It was exhibited alongside Stroudley Terrier No. 82 Boxhill, built in 1880 and repainted in the original colours.. The first engine constructed at Brighton was a single driver tank No. 14 completed in L852 soon after J.S. Craven joined the Company.

L.N.E.R. 67
The first Woodhead tunnel which accommodated a single line only, was started in 1838 and opened in 1845. The second tunnel was started in 1847 and completed in 1852. During WW2 these tunnels carried a tremendous volume of traffic, and the amount of maintenance work had to be reduced in order to avoid interruption to the trains. As soon as possible after the end of the war urgent repair work had to be undertaken, and various sections of the tunnels have been re-lined in recent months. This has necessitated the closing first of one tunnel and then of the other, all traffic being worked through the remaining tunnel, which has seriously reduced the carrying capacity of the line, and many trains have had to be diverted. Although these emergency measures will restore the tunnels to a satisfactory condition for the time being, the company has been advised that a great deal of work will have to be done to put the tunnels into perfect condition, and this will not only be very costly but will necessitate the complete closing of each tunnel in turn for long period, In the circumstances the Directors of the LNER have reached the conclusion that the only satisfactory course is to drive an entirely new double-line tunnel, parallel with the existing tunnels, and Parliamentary powers to enable this to be done are being sought in the Company's Bill this year.

Iraqi State Railways. 67.
An order has just been placed by the Iraqi State Railways with The English Electric Company of Queens House, Kingsway, London, for nine two-coach Diesel-electric units. Three of these units are for the standard gauge lines from Baghdad to Mosul, and the remaining six, which are of metre gauge, will be employed augmenting the rail services out of Baghdad. Each two-coach unit will he fitted with an English Electric 275 h.p. diesel-electric power unit, and will be capable of running at speeds up to 50 m.p.h. Units can be joined together, if necessary, to form a train. The order placed by the Iraqi State Railways also includes one 350 h.p. diesel-electric shunting locomotive which will be capable of starting and hauling trailing loads up to 1,000 tons on standard gauge lines.

Henry Ford. 67.
Ford, whose death had been reported, had many interests apart from the giant industrial concern with which he will ever be associated. Among these interests locomotives ranked highly and at Dearborn he established a museum containing several old time engines. It will be recollected that he added to these a replica of The Rocket which he had constructed by Robert Stephenson and Co. Ltd, some fifteen years ago.

Baldwin Locomotive Works. 67.
4-8-4 oil gas turbine driven locomotive to be built for the Atcheson, Topeka and Santa Fe R.R. Designed to develop 3,000 h.p.

L.N.E.R. appointments. 67
J. Blair has been appointed Acting Mechanical Engineer, Scotland, in succession to J F. Harrison. R.S. Hart-Davies has been appointed Acting Mechanical Engineer (outdoor) vice Mr. Blair.

0-4-0 industrial loccmotive built Black Hawthorn of Gateshead preserved. 67
An early example of the 0-4-0 type industrial loccmotive built Black Hawthorn of Gateshead, being preserved by George Cohen, Sons and Co. Ltd. The engine was built in 1874. Black, Hawthorn succeeded J. Coulthard and Son, and built about 1,100 engines between 1864 and 1896. The business was sold to Chapman and Furneaux in 1896 who built about 70 engines before the partnership was dissolved in 1901.

Derens, L. The Dutch State Railways Co. 67-70. 5 diagrs., table
Concluded from Volume 52 page 193. Tramway locomotives used on The Hague to Scheveningen and Ede to Scheveningen (the former was electrified in 1924)

London Transport. 70.
To ensure detection on signalling track circuits a thin layer of stainless steel was welded onto top of rails in rarely used refuge sidings.

Loco modernisation on the Great Indian Peninsula Railway. 70-3. 2 illus., 2 diagrs. (s. els.).
XP class of locomotives Nos. 3100 and 3101 constructed by Vulcan Foundry in 1937 incorporated experimental features: Mestre drawgear between engine and tender: this did not improve ride and was later replaced by a traditional drawbar. Steel fireboxes with Nicholson thermic syphons and ACFI feedwater heaters were fitted. The VM class of 2-6-4T consisting of five locomotives was supplied by Vulcan in 1940.

G.W.R. 73.
New County class into service: Nos. 1023 County of Oxford, 1024 County of Pembroke, 1025 County of Radnor and 1026 County of Salop.

Swiss Railways Centenary. 73.
Replica train built of Zurich-Baden Railway train.

R. Opie. Locomotive power, performance and rating. 73-7. 3 tables.
Continued from V. 52 p. 129.

Issue Number 658 (14 June 1947)

The 0-8-0T locomotive. 79.

Hunslet Engine Co. 79
Order from the Peruvian Corporation for a metre gauge 2-8-0 to operate on the Guaqui-La Paz Railway in Bolivia over gradients as steep as 1 in 14 located over 10,000 feet above sea level.

Railcars for Peru. 80-1. 2 illus.
D. Wickham of Ware railcars ordered by the Peruvian Corporation for service on the standard gauge Central Railway of Peru to operate up to 15,000 feet on 4½% gradients. Buchi turbo-charger. Drive through a Vulcan-Sinclair coupling to a Cotal epicyclic gearbox. Tested on LNER St Margarets to Buntingford branch line.

Baltimore and Ohio R.R. Class EM— articulated locomotive. 81-2. illus.
Thirty Baldwin 2-8-8-4 for operation in the Alleghany Mountains supplied in 1944-5 numbered 7600-7629. Four 24 x 32 in cylinders with 12 in piston valves. Grate area 117.6 ft2 and total heating surface 5298 ft2. Working pressure 235 psi.

Detecting leakage: vacuum brake. 82-3. illus.
Portable instrument developed by LMS Research Laboratories by J.O. Cowburn for which awarded Herbert Jackson Prize.

Cab signalling. 83.
See Locomotive, 1944, 50, 167 for full description of Westinghouse continuous cab signalling. Installation of system between Potters Bar and Greenwood.

Swiss locomotives for Holland. 83. illus.
Purchase by Netherlands Railways of 22 compound 4-6-0s from the Swiss Federal Railways: lcomotives manufactured by Swiss Locomotive and Machine Works of Winterthur between 1907 and 1915.

Swiss Railway Centenary. 84. illus.
Swiss Federal Railways:ordered a replica steam lcomotive from the Swiss Locomotive and Machine Works of Winterthur incorporating some of the parts from the original parts from Speiser. The Limmat was No. 1 of the Nordbahn and built by Emil Kessler of Karlsruhe in 1847. The repica train consisted partly of original stock and replicas. The first train in Switzerland ran from Zurich to Baden on 9 August 1847.

GWR [Fishguard to Rosslare]. 84.
Tri-weekly service restored from May 1947.

LNER [appointment of G. Crabtree as District Superintendent, Edinburgh]. 84
In succession to G.M. Johnston who retired.

London Transport {Central Line]. 84.
Extension from Stratford to Leyton and Leytonstone. Tunnel section fitted with sound-reducing lining and 300 ft welded rails. LNER steam trains ran from Leytonstone to Loughton, Epping and Ongar. In the west the line extended to Greenford.

Proposed balanced four-cylinder locomotive. 85-7.
Krauss-Helmholz bogie fitted 2-6-2 with light frames and light, but powerful boiler.

L.M.S.R, 87.
New locomotives in service are: 4-6-0 Class 5 Mixed Traffic (built at Horwich): 4783, to 4788; (built at Crewe): 4768 to 4772.
The following engines have been withdrawn: 4-6-0 CIass 3P: 14690 Dalcross Castle (Highland); 4-4-0 Class 2P: (Caledonian-Dunalastair II); 14392 Loch Naver (Highland); 14412 Ben Avon (Highland); 4-4-0 Class 3P: 767 (Midland); 2-4-2 Class 3PT: 10910 (L. & Y.R.), 1P'T 6646, 6723, 6739 (LNWR); 0-6-2 Class 2PT: 6927 (LNWR); 0-4-2 Class 0PT: 15001 (Caledonian); 0-6-0 Class 2F: 3167, 3230, 3366, 3554, 3646 (Midland), 28139, 28261, 28278, 28535, 28614 (LNWR); 0-6-0 Class 3F: 1213°, 12617, 12324 (L &YR); .0-6-2 Class 2FT: 7772 (LNWR). With the withdrawal of locomotives Nos. 14690, 14337 and 15001 class or series becomes extinct.

Southern Railway. 87.
The first four 4-6-2 Battle of Britain class locomotives "will bear the names": Winston Churehill, Lord Dowding, Sir Keith Park and Lord Beaverbrook. "They will be followed by three others named" Fighter Pilot, Hurricane and Spitfire in honour of the men and their machines who took part in the battle over the very country through which many of these engines will run. Many of the Squadrons which engaged in the conflict will have an engine named afted them, while aerodromes such as Biggin Hill, Manston and Croydon will also be included."

The Hunslet Engine Co. Ltd. 87.
Hunslet building 11 straight diesel locomotives of 200 bhp for French purchasers, 10 of these to be shipped to Algeria. After 12 to 14 years of arduous service, two of the first three Hunslet diesel locomotives acquired by the LMSR in 1933-34 have been re-purchased by the builder for reconditioning. Both have Hunslet's gear transmission, and in each case this is in excellent condition.

Poultney, E.C. A new truck for freight cars: the Barber stabilised truck. 88-9.

Aluminium rolling stock. 89.

McEwan, James. Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 90-2.  2 illus.
Drummond Class 66 4-4-0. Engines built in 1889 were first on Caledonian Railway to be made from ordinary mild steel. The exhaust ports were at the end of the cylinder faces and the slide valves were divided each with its own exhaust port. Drummond claimed to have reduced port clearance to a bare minimum with a reduction in back pressure. The blastpipe was Vortex type. Nos. 84 and 87 of 1889 and Nos. 83 and 88 to 90 of the 1891 lot were fitted with screw reversing gear. No. 124, the Edinburgh Exhibition locomotive (Dubs WN 2245/1886) was fitted with Bryce-Douglas valve gear which was designed for marine engines, but failed at the higher speeds demanded by locomotives. When the class was rebuilt with larger boilers, the LNWR passed them to work over their route to Manchester. The arrangement for mutual working lapsed in 1912 and did not resume until 1920. No, 79 was named Carbrook about 1895 after the estate of J.C. Bolten, a Board member. No. 124 was exhibited at the 1886 exhibition in the dark brown North British Railway livery. Also noted the livery displayed on this locomotive at the Glasgow International Exhibition opened by Edward, Prince of Wales, was adorned with Prince of Wales feather and Royal blue edging to splashers, cab, etc.

Diesel-electric locos., S.N.F.C. 92. illus.
US Treasury supplied the Freanch State Railways with Baldwin-Westinghouse six-axle 660 hp diesel-electric locomotives under partial lease-lend terms.

Ahlberg, Nils. Swedish steam locomotives. 93-5. 2 illus., map.
The first sections of the main line Swedish Sate Railways were opened on 1 December 1856 and linked Gothenberg with Jonsereed on the line to Stockhom and from Malmö and Lund, also en route to Stockholm.

Correspondence. 95-6.
Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. R. Watson.
See page article on pp. 55-7 for page 57 concerning 0-6-0Ts Nos. 338 and 339. These were renumbered much earlier (from 203 and 204) than the 1918 stated herein as s at Kelvinbridge on Glasgow Undergroudn section in 1901 and in St. Rollox period between 1905 and 1910. .
Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. J.F. McEwan. 96.
Refered to Poultney's letter in March issue I think the best reply is to quote Mr. Drummond's words on the matter which will be found in the Proc. Inst. Civil Engrs, 1897, pages 219-220 Paper 2497). "The design of the cylinders is a departure from the normal arrangement with central valve face. The steam ports were moved to the cylinder ends, and the slide valve was divided, each having its own exhaust port. In this way the port clearance was reduced to a minimum. . . The exhaust passages were increased so that the belt from the lower and top valves extended along the whole length of the cylinder, thus forming an exhaust steam jacketted cylinder." This extract is taken from a paper on high pressure locomotives given before the Institute by Drummond. There is a further reference to the idea but I cannot lay my hands on the note, but think that it was in The Railway Engineer about 1884, where there is also a plate of the 0-6-0 type given.
Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. William D. Wallace.
In his very interesting instalment on the Drummond 0-6-0's of the Caledonian Railway I notice that Mr. McEwan omits to mention that two of the Class, Nos. 555 and 560, were on loan to the Highland Railway from 1915 to 1920, the former being employed in the Inverness area, and the latter working from Perth (H.R.) shed.

Reviews.  96.
Transport Administration in Tropical Dependencies. George V.O. Bulkeley, with contributions from Ernest J. Smith, London, Railway Gazette.,
The wide scope of this book is best indicated by its chapter headings, which, in addition to an introductory section, cover the national aspect of transport, transport services wholly or partly rendered by the State, the functioning of a railway, port and marine functions, management and staff, Colonial railway finance and accounting, statistical control, road transport, inland waterways, air services, advisory boards, and planned Colonial transport, concluding with a suggested administrative system, and a number of useful appendices giving forms for suggested returns, bulletins. progress reports, vital statistics and other relevant documents. Although for many years to oome bulk transport will continue to go by rail, sea and waterways, and to a lesset degree by road, as the most economical means, there is no question that for certain purposes, air transport will play in future an increasingly important part in the communications system of many Colonies, especially in Africa.
The Calculation of Heat Loss from Steam Pipes, H. Buckley, Emmott and Co. Ltd..
Much potential energy is lost by inefficiently insulated pipes. This monograph, No. 33, is an attempt to combine essential theory with sound practice and should help in explaining the why and wherefore of applying lagging.
The Fordell Railway, J.C. Inglis and F. Inglis. Authors.
The Fordell Railway had much of interest in'itself and had added interest. albeit of a melancholy nature, in that its closing last August resulted in the disappearance of the last wagonway in Scotland. The Authors have obviously gone to much trouble to trace the history of the line and the book which they have produced is well written and illustrated and may be recommended to all interested in industrial railways and early wagonways.. .
My Best Railway Photographs, C.C. Herbert. Ian Allan Ltd.
This booklet dealing with the LNER is the fourth of a series and contains reproductions of some thirty photographs.
British Trains Album. Greenlake Publications Ltd.
This is the first in a projected series and deals with the LNER. It is intended to cover all groups, the LPTB and the Joint Railways and later to extend the series to pre-grouping companies. The photographs from which the 29 illustrations are reproduced are all by people well-known in this sphere and the reproduction has been well done on art paper. The page size is 8½ in. by 12 in.
Trains Illustrated, No. 5. Ian Allan Ltd.
Fifth of the series and contains articles on locomotive performance, notes on new locomotives, stock changes, etc.
Locomotives of the L.N.E.R., O.S. Nock. L.N.E.R.
This is a useful book and contains much valuable information. Particulars of policy, standardisation, classification and re-numbering and a list of named engines are given together with a series of diagrams (with leading dimensions, ratios, etc.) and illustrations of many types. All interested in the subject will be well advised to add this to their library.
Les Mysteres des Chemins de Fer, F. Rouge and Cie.
A number of authors, each specialists in their particular sphere, have contributed to this excellent book dealing with the technical and operational aspects of the railways of Switzerland. The 400 pages contain a wealth of interesting matter and the illustrations are–in company with the general production–of high quality.

Trade publications. 96.
Electric Traction Jubilee 1896-1946, J. H. Cansdale. The British Thomson-Houston Co. Ltd.
The Author, who 'has had many years' experience in the design and application of electric traction equipment and is already well known as a writer of technical papers and articles, has produced an excellent book covering the development of electric traction over the last fifty years. The British Thomson-Houston Company are to be congratulated upon this publication which forms a most useful text-book and admirably outlines the tremendous progress made since the Company first supplied totally-enclosed motors for the City & South London locomotives of half a century ago. It is unnecessary to remind readers of the considerable part played by BTH design and development both at Home and Overseas, but some measure of the popularity their equipment justly enjoys today may be gathered from the fact that of the 3,500 motor and trailer cars operated by London Transport no less than 3,000 are equipped with BTH controls. It is to be regretted that due to the edition being limited many who wonld like a copy may be disappointed but we understand that every effort will be made to supply those interested Overseas.
Robert Hudson Ltd., Leeds. 96.
General catalogue, describing this firm's well-known light railway material, together with their locomotive catalogue covering the Hudson-Hunslet range of diesel locomotives, These engines are available in 20, 25, 30 and 50 h.p. sizes. Both catalogues are well illustrated and produced and will be of considerable use to those engaged upon the selection of equipment for light railways.
Davey Paxman and Co. Ltd. 96.
Steps being taken to assist industry to surmount difficulties encountered in obtaining electric and mechanical power supplies. They are producing self-contained diesel generating sets from 56 k VA to 330 k VA capacity which are easily installed and occupy only a small space. By the adoption of these units it is clear that a useful part of the extremely serious deficiency between the supply and demand of electricity can be covered.

Issue Number 659 (15 July 1947)

International Congress. 97.
Editorial on International Railway Congress held at Lucerne in Switzerland from 27 to 28 June 1947. This approximately coincided with the centenary of railways in Switzerland. Swiss locomotives, whether steam, electric, or gas-turbine were noted for their excellence. The agenda was broken into five sections:
• way and works
• locomotives and rolling stock
• working (including electric traction and railcars)
• general (including housing for railway staff)
• light and colonial railways (including weight saving)

Southern Railway [closure of New Cross Gate engine shed]. 97.
New Cross Gate engine shed closed 14 June 1947 with locomotives allocated to Bricklayers Arms (mainly) and to Norwood. The shed was badly damaged during WW2. One shed dated back to 1844.

International Railway Congress: lightening railway passenger stock. 98-100.
Passenger Rolling Stock: Reports from M.M. Guignard, Swiss Federal Railways, E.A. Turbett, Assistant CME Southern Railway and W. Vrielynck, Belgian National (Vicinaux) Railway.
(1) There is a general tendency towards reducing the weight of all steel passenger stock without adversely affecting strength or comfort.
(2) Whatever the quality of the steel used it has been possihle to reduce, by a large proportion, the weight af passenger stock by careful design af all parts and by the use of sections made of thin sheets welded together. Usually the underframe-body structure is of the tubular girder type which has a high moment of inertia and the ends of which are specially braced and reinforced to resist shock.
Static and dynamic tests of the underframe-body structure are considered desimble. The use of strain gauges for such tests is most suitable.
(3) Ordinary carbon steel is still most generally used for building passenger stock. However, the use for that purpose of weldable low alloy steel with a high elastic limit, as well as the use af rustless steel, is becoming more common.
(4) Light alloys can be widely used for many detail sections and for interior fittings. They are also used in the building of structure assemblies on passenger stock of some light railways, but on main line railways their use far that purpose does not seem likely to be developed.
(5) The lightening of bogies can be obtained to some extent by using welded or rivetted thin plates for underframe construction and by replacing laminated springs by helical springs or the use of torsion bars controlled by shock absorbers.
It is also interesting to mention the combined use of rubber and steel for main suspensions and the use of robber suspended wheels. Designs at present in use allow for increase in comfort and it would be possible to further reduce the weight of the vehicle by replacing the heayy bogies in present day use.
(6) Lightweight rolling stock has been in service too short a time and in too small numbers to give any definite results as to its advantages both from the point af view of economy and savings. in wear on the permanent way but certain advantages do appear to be apparent.
Goods Wagons.
(1) Railway Companies are endeavouring to reduce the weight of their goods wagons as much as possihle.
(2) The lightening is achieved in general by the use of welded construction of the underframe members and bodies and also by the partial use of pressings which permits of reduction in thickness whilst maintaining sufficient rigidity.
(3) Ordinary steels are normally employed for goods wagons. Light alloys are sometimes used for certain details. Experiments are being carried out with light alloys for the principal framing.
(4) The possible saving in weight for gaods wagons is low in comparison with that for passenger stock. The reduction in weight should not be developed beyond a point where it is not a "commercial proposition".

Indian requirements. 100.
The Indian Standing Railway Finance Committee has approved a rolling stock programme for 1947-48 at an expenditure of Rs. 982 lakhs, which includes provision for 40 metre-gauge passenger locomotives to be built in India. Totals of 1,953 units of broad-gauge and metre-gauge coaching stock (in terms of four-wheelers) and 3,300 broad-gauge wagon units (in terms of four-wheelers) have been budgeted. The Committee also approved an order to purchase 100 broad-gauge express locomotives in the United Kingdom, and agreed to the Railway Board's proposal to restore capacity for a further 300 passenger locomotives for delivery by 1950.

Mozambique delivery. 100
Eight large 4-8-2 locomotives have been delivered from the U.S.A. to the Mozambique Railways, in Portuguese East Africa. They weigh 186 tons including tender, and are required to haul 2,000 ton trains over generally level routes. Maximum permissible speed' is 56 m:p.h.

American diesel locomotives. 100.
At the beginning of 1947 there were 4.579 diesel locomotive units in Class I railroads in the USA, and about 530 on the. Class II and III railroads and the switching and terminal railroads. Industrial works lines also had hundreds of diesel locomotives.

Polish electric stock. 100.
For the rehabilitation of the electrified lines round Warsaw, the Polish State Railwavs has ordered eight electric locomotives and 44 three-car electric trains from Sweden; delivery is to be spread over some years.

Locomotives for West Africa.  100.
The Loanda Railway, in the Portuguese colony of Angala. has budgeted the equivalent of £26,620 for the acquisition of steam locomotives during the current financial year.

Locomotives for Finland. 100.
The first of the 20 main line steam locomatives being built by Baldwin Locom.otive Works and the American Locomotive Company far the Finnish State Railways was delivered earlv in the year. Anather 20 locomotives are being built by Fricks in Denmark.

2-8-2 Indian loaocomotives: "XD" Class. 101. illus., diagr. (s. el.).
North British Ltd. 5ft 6in gauge with two 22½ x 28 cylinders, 12 in piston valves, 5ft 1½ in coupled wheels, a total heating surface of 2685 ft2 and a greate area of 45 ft2. Built under supervision of Rendel, Palmer & Tritton.

0-6-0 tank heavy shunting engine, G.W.R. 102. illus.
No. 9409 illustrated: notes features standard with other classes, especially 8750 class and 2251 class (the No. 10 taper boiler with drum head smokebox)

Oil fired locomotives, Great Northern Railway (Ireland). 103-5. 2 illus., diagr.
During 1936 and 1937 the Great Narthern Railway af Ireland successfully experimented in the substitution af fuel oil for coal. The locomotive on which trials were performed was of the 4-4-0 two-cylinder type and in the converted state warked main line express trains between Dublin and Belfast. As at that time adequate supplies of coal were available and the cost af fuel oil was relatively high, the locomotive was subsequently re-converted to. coal burning. The recent serious situation of coal shortages made it imperative to. minimize coal cansumption and the Company decided on a programme of conversion to. oil firing. Oil burning equipment has been fitted to. tank engines af the T2 class of which type there are 25. Tlhe first locamotive was converted in September af last year and up to March four of these were in service with further conversians in hand. With the exceptian of a decrease in the length af the brick arch and the covering of the base and about 15 in. af the firebax sides with firebrick, . the conversian was carried out withaut any structural alteratian to the boiler, firebox or smokebox. A vertical burner is used and the system adopted is that perfected by Messrs. Laidlaw, Drew and Co of Edinburgh, the objects of the layout are as fallows:
1 To. improve upon the coal and oil comparative ratios which have so far been obtained in locomotive oil firing. .
2 (a) To. eliminate local heating of firebax and tubeplate.
(b) To. reduce firebax brickwork to a minimum
(c) To. avoid deposit of unburnt oil in boiler tubes.
3 To. give controlled steam raising, so as to reduce boiler stresses, by slow heating and even flame distribution.
4 To obtain a slow enough rate of combustian (without smell) to enable steam pressure to be lost when standing and to enable the burner to accomplish this without use af blower and consequent loss of steam.
5 To give a range of flame control covering all normal train workings without having to vary atomising pressure.
6 To eliminate all damper or secondary air control by providing such a smokebox and combustion chamber base design that, covering the working range of the locomotive, any quantity of steam leaving the blast pipe is sufficient to. produce a draught which will induce a quantity of combustion air sufficient to make steam only slightly in excess of engine demand.
7 An arrangement which will provide far a rapid change to. solid fuel firing and vice. versa.
The system allows the firedoor to be opened when the flame is lit and the normal blower can be worked without extinguishing the flame. 1947 Laidlaw-Drew oil firing equipment was fitted to some T2 class locomotives..

Covered fish van, L.M.S.R. 105. illus.
Fifty six-wheel fish vans built at Wolverton Works and finished in LMS passenger train colour as designed for working on passenger trains. Shock absorbing buffers with rubber springs were fitted, and the auxiliary suspension also used rubber. It was noted that as "soon as conditions permit" two hundred ventilated fruit and vegetable vans would be produced for the Worcestershire fruit growing industry.

Railway power plant in Great Britain. 106-7.
A paper with the above title was read to the Institution of Mechanical Engineers during their Centenary celebrations by O.V.S. Bulleid,. M.I.M.E. (Past president), in the unavoidable absence of Sir Wm. Stanier, M.I.M.E. (Past President). The paper was divided into sections covering the four groups, the sections being contributed by O.V.S. Bulleid, F.W. Hawksworth, M.l.M.E. (Member of Council), H.G. Ivatt, M.I.M.E. and A.H. Peppercorn, O.B.E., M.I.M.E., the Chief Mechanical Engineers of the S.R., G.W.R., L.M.S., and L.N.E.R. respectively. These contributions are covered under the individual authors.

L.M.S.R. 107.
St. Pancras station is being closed either wholly or partially at weekends during reconstructian operations, involving one of the most complicated sections of line in the London area. Over 40 sets of points and 50 crossings are being replaced. Extensive signal modernisation and other improvements are also being carried out.

London Transport. 107
A new luxury fitted Underground car, in service between Aldgate and Rickmansworth, has three compartments. They are separated from each other by vestibules with partitions and sliding doors. The compartments are decorated with special ripple-finished plastic panels in a blue and Orange colour scheme. There are special bucket-type seats with recessed arm rests.

G.W.R. 107.
Two further 4-6-0 express engines, No. 1027 County of Stafford and No. 1028 County of Warwick, are in service. A propelling appliance resembling a small hand plough is being used experimentally by uhe GWR for shunting in small goods yards where difficulty may be experienced in providing locomotive power. It moves on a single wheel driven by a petrol-electric motor. The wheel is fitted with a rubber tyre with concave tread to enable it to run on a rail or the ground. The machine will propel up to 150 tons or approximately eight wagon loads. K.J. Cook, Loco Works Manager, Swindon, has been appointed assistant to the Chief Mechanical Engineer. H. Randle becomes Loco Works Manager. C.T. Roberts has been appointed Carriage and Wagon Works Manager, Swindon.

A general survey of the German locomotive industry during the war years, 1939-1945. 107.
Paper read before the Institution of Locomative Engineers on May 14, 1947. The Authars being Messrs. T. Greenwood, R. H. Felt, G. W. Hancock a.nd D. E, Gudgin: See Paper No. 467.

Industrial Design.  107.
A full report of the conference on Industrial Design held in connection with the recent "Britain Can Make It" exhibition in London is now available. The discussion stressed the importance of design rather from the appearance and selling point of view, which is not so important from the engineering aspect for, although it must be admitted that a neat and symmetrical machine is more likely to have pride taken in it and be kept clean by its operator, output will suffer if a streamlined exterior involves inaccessibility to the working parts.

Stephenson Locomotive Society. 107.
Members at London Headquarters, also at Birmingham, were entertained by an interesting account of wartime experiences in Germany given by D.S.. Barrie, M.B.E., an Officer in the Royal Engineers. The scale of destruction necessitating an enormous plan of rehabilitation and the diversified nature of the rolling stock employed were emphasised.

2-6-0 industrial tank locomotive. 108. illus.
Robert Stephenson & Hawthorns 2-6-0ST constructed for the Kailan Mining Administration in China. 4 ft. 8½ in. gauge and had two cylinders of 17 ½ in. diameter by 24 in. stroke, controlled by Walschaerts gear. Coupled wheels 3 ft. 6 in. diameter.Boiler had a firebox of the Belpaire type, with a total heating surface of 986.86 ft2. Grate area 17.19 sq. ft2; working pressure 180 psi. Equipment included Westinghouse brake, turbo-generator for the headlamp and all usual fittings.

Eaton Hall light railway. 108.
Eaton Hall light railway, comprising engine, nine coaches and trucks, sleepers and rails, has been purchased by the Romney, Hythe & Dymchurch Railway. It was transported by the GWR and SR from Balderton to New Romney. The Eaton Hall railway and its rolling stock were described in. the Locomotive for March, 1942, 48.

South African orders. 108
South African Railways invited tenders for large numbers of steam locomotives and rolling stock. As many as 8,000 wagons and 150 locomotives in the 1947-48 programme, and 12,000 wagons and 150 locomotives in the 1948-49 programme.

Portuguese oil burners. 108.
One hundred steam locomotives converted from coal to oil burning are now in service on the Portuguese Railways, and another 80 were to be converted.

Poole, John. Locomotives of the Central Buenos Aires Railway. 108-10. 6 illus. (drawings: s. el.).
4 ft. 8½ in. gauge and 378 km in length, began as a horse worked tramway between Buenos Aires and Zarate. By 1914 it had extended another line 4 de Febrero, while the Zarate line had become part af the International route to, Paraguay by means of a connection to a train ferry Oowned by the Entre Rios Railway between Zarate and Ibicuy. Up to the formation af the Buenos Aires Transport Corporation in 1938, it formed part af the Lacroze property including an extensive surface electric tramway system in the city.

Locomotives for dock work. 111-113. illus.
Six 0-6-2T locomotives for Calcutta Port Trust supplied by Hunslet to specification of Rendel, Palmer & Tritton.

Railway models at Paddington. 113.
Working models of two famous engines were on view at Paddington Station. A personal gift from the maker, Mr. B.R. Hunt, of Johannesburg, to the Directors of the Great Western Railway, they are of a GWR. Cornish Riviera Express coach drawn by the 4-6-0 express engine King George V and George Stephenson's Locomotion No. I, together with the first closed carriage Experiment. In another case is a display of miniature engine tools.

Reviews.  113.
Locomotive Running Shed Practice: the maintenance . and servicing of locomotives, by Harry Webster, Oxford University Press.
Welcome addition to the Oxford Series oi Technical Publications and is intended to give a general knowledge of shop and running shed processes as well as of locomotives and their ailments. The book is designed to represent practice throughout Britain with occasional reference to special equipments abroad. Boiler washing, breakdowns, coal storage and consumption, engine cleaning and engine repairs, working diagrams, shed layouts, shop equipments, turntables, water treatment, etc., are a few of the subjects dealt with. Illustrations are extremely good and numerous.
The development of road motors, 1898-1946, R.W. Kidner. Oakwood Press.
Part 2 of the Author's Short History of Mechanical Traction. Part 1, previously reviewed, took the story up to 1897: the present part covers the following period. The strides made during this era were, as is well known, very vast, and the book—which is illustrated by photographs and sketches in the Author's particular style—contains much of interest.
The development of the railway locomotive, 1880-1946, R.W. Kidner. Oakwood Press.
Fourth part of the Author's Short History of Mechanical Traction and Travel and is on similar lines to the parts previously reviewed in this column. Unfortunately it is not devoid of mistakes, as an example the 4-2-2 locomotives built for the G.N.R. (I) were not the first inside cylinder engines with this wheel arrangement; G.W.R. broad gauge singles were of this notation. The illustrations are not all beyond reproach, again to take an example the Jones Highland 4-6-0 is depicted as having louvres extending all round the chimney whereas they were only at the front. It is a pity that more care was not taken in the compilation of these booklets—the underlying idea of which is very good.
Also received
Titans of the Track, L.N.E.R. No.2, Illustrated. Ian Allan Ltd.
Locovariety, Illustrated. Ian Allan Ltd.
Trains Illustrated No.6. Ian Allan Ltd.
The Port of Goole: Gateway to the Continent, London: London Midland & Scottish Railway, Euston.
This was the last folder of a series of six, the others being announced on page 194 of Vol. LII.
London Transport Carried On: an account of London at War, I939-1945, by Charles Graves. London Passenger Transport Board,
The co-ordination of road, rail and air services, Hyderabad State, India.
Paper relating experiences in the. field of British Transport vehicles and control of State-owned services under one Administration, by E. W. Slaughter, C.B.S., M.I.Mech.E.,. M.Inst.T., General Manager Nizam's Railway Board 1931-41, Managing Director Nizam's Railway Board 1941-46. Read at the Institute of Transport in London on May 8, 1947.

L.N.E.R. Hull-Liverpool train passing through flood water at Rotherham Road, March, 1947. 114.
Photo: The Yorkshire Post

Locomotives for India. 114.
Hunslet Engine Co. Ltd. delivering a batch of narrow-gauge 0-6-2T locomotives to India for mixed traffic service. These engines have 10½ in. by 16 in. cylinders and weigh about 24½tons in full working order.

Correspondence. 114.
Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. W. B. Thompson.
Referes back to ?: puzzled by statement that at the Edinburgh Exhibition in 1886 the Caledonian engine 124 was painted a North British brown. He visited the exhibition and saw engine there, and his recollection is that each of them was correctly painted to represent its own line. Caledonian blue was the most attractive colour that has ever been used for locomotives in any country, and he regretted that LMS company, in obsession for all things Midland, did not see fit to perpetuate it. He also saw the engine Carbrook at the Edinburgh Exhibition in 1890; both this engine and 124 carried names while on exhibition.
The 0-8-0T locomotive. J. Scott
See Editorial, in June issue: noting LNER, Q1 (rebuilds). In August, 1945, one of these locomotives was used for banking, complete with slip-coupling, on the Cowlairs Incline out of Queen Street Station, Glasgow. Caution seemed to be the keynote in the use of this locomotive on these duties, as it was particularly noticed that the driver did not open the regulator until the train engine had hauled the train (with the banking engine attached). for some fifty yards or so, whereas the regular 0-6-2Ts start up immediately, sometimes before the train enginemen had time to respond to the guard's "right away." About six weeks later he saw this Q1 tank hump shunting at Cadder Marshalling Yards.

Issue Number 660 (15 August 1947)

"Mechanicals" Centenary. 126.
The Institution of Mechanical Engineers celebrated during June the centenary of its foundation, and to the large number of congratulations it has received we have much pleasure in adding our own. The founding af the Institution was one af the many great things with which George Stephenson was associated and railway and locomotive interests have through the intervening years played a g.reat part in the activities of what long since become one af the world's premier institutions. . Many leading locomotive engineers af the period contributed to its foundation and many have since added lustre to its activities; we cite Robert Stephenson, J.F. McConnell, Charles Beyer; Richard Peacock, John Ramsbottom and S.W. Johnson as earlier examples while coming ta the present century such names as Sir J.A.F. Aspinall, Sir Vincent Raven, Sir Henry Fowler, Lt.-Col. E. Kitson Clark, Sir Nigel Gresley, Sir W.A. Stanier and Mr. O.V.S. Bulleid are to be found in the list of illustrious Presidents. Throughout the century, locomotives have figured prominently in the many admirable papers read before the Institution and it is of interest to recall that as early as November, 1847, Charles Beyer presented one an the" Atlas" Luggage Locomotive Engine. Amongst the many locomotive engineers who have added papers to the proceedings may be mentioned J. Ramsbottom, A. Allen, D.K. Clark, F.W. Webb, W. Dean, D. Joy, W.F. Pettigrew, G.J. Churchward, H.A. Ivatt and G. Hughes. The contributions of other eminent and more recent locomotive men will be sufficiently fresh in our readers minds to render reference unnecessary. With such an important and distinguished locomotive background it was only natural that steam locomotion should. find a fitting place in the excellent arrangements mack to celebrate this occasion. An exhibition of Stephenson relics was held at Storey's Gate and the items gathered together from numerous sources were as interesting as they were comprehensive, in fact one could not help speculating as to whether such a display will ever again be gathered together in one place. A series of papers was given, to a gathering packed to capacity, an the present position of motive power and constituted a brilliant survey of British, Continental and American practice. This review dealt with the present situation af all forms. af railway locomotion and referred to their future prospects. All papers contained much valuable information, extracts from the British review appeared in our last issue and the Continental position is briefly referred to elsewhere in this number. The contribution on American practice, by P.W. Kiefer, chief engineer motive power and rolling stock, New York Central System, was admirably presented by R.C. Bond in the author's absence and contained much of interest, unfortunately — from our pomt of view — much of its information and value were derived from graphs and tabulated particulars which render it impossible to do the paper justice by quoting excerpts. We must content ourselves by saying that the author stressed the difference. between availability and utilisation, "availability" being defined as the percentage of total time a locomotive is available for service, whereas "utilisation" represents the percentage of tatal time it is actually in operation; it was shown that the steam locomotive compared unfavourably with other forms of motive power in this respect and indeed in almost all the respects which were tabulated. It seems to us, however, that the steam locomotive has certail} features which cannot be evaluated and amongst these we would place highly the ability to continue working when long overdue for shopping. Theoretically, we know, all equipment should be maintained in first-class conditoan and the point does not arise, but in practice it will occur as indeed it did during the last war and even, to a less extent, exists to-day. Had this country been equipped with other forms of motive power some units must have discontinued operation far want af maintenance. Our remarks, should not be interpreted as adverse criticism of a carefully considered survey of experience in America, which, is after all the only country where really extensive operating camparisons of steam,. diesel and electric locomotives are available.
A visit to the Southern Railway works at Brighton was included in the programme of celebration arrangements and was much enjoyed by those who participated. The celebrations were of. a far-reaching nature, beginning with a service in Westminster Abbey and concluding with a banquet at the Guildhall.

Pullman observation cars, S.R. 116. illustration
Devon Belle.

Motive power trends on European railways. 116-17
Page 117  missing from copy now owned

H.F. Hilton. The "Claud Hamilton". 117-19. 2 illustrations., diagram (side elevation)
Locomotive No. 8900 Claud Hamilton: a loocomotiv obituary. Pages missing from copy now owned (from Steam locomotive development)

Issue Number 661 (15 September 1947)

National Railway Museum. 133.
Plea by E.W. Swan for a National Railway Museum: Swan was Honorary Curator of the Municipal Industrial Museum in Newcastle-upon-Tyne

Experimental locomotive Norfolk & Western Railway. 133-4. 3 illustrations
1910 4-8-0 rebuilt with combustion chamber, fan in smokebox and automatic controls by R.G. Henly (Henley?)

Vernon L. Smith. The American logging locomotive. 135-7. 3 illustrations, diagram (side elevation)

Modern breakdown crane practice. 137-9.

James McEwan. Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway.144-6

Issue Number 662 (15 October 1947)

Availability. 149-50.
Editorial built around Rudgard's ILocoE paper Organisation and carrying-out of examinations and repairs of locomotives at running sheds in relationship to locomotive performance and availability.

Hump shunting locomotives, L.N.E.R. 150-1. illus.
Early statistics of diesel electric shunting locomotives Nos. 8000-8003 performance at Whitemoor Yard in March.

Smith, Vernon L. The American logging locomotive. 151-2. 5i llustrations, 2 diagrams.
Continued from page 137

Morris, O.J. Standardising S.R. locomotives, Central Section. 155-8. 2 illus., diagrs., tables
Continued from 51 page 151.

Opie, R. Locomotive power, performance and rating. 159-61. table.

L.M.S.R. mobile testing unit. 162-3. 3 illus., diagr.
Mobile testing plant for controlled road testing using electric generators coupled to the carriage bogies via Andrews-English Electric flexible drives. One of illus. shows test train hauled by Class 5 with wind measuring equipment mounted on front of locomotive.

Southern Railway. 163
The first of the Battle of Britain class locomotives had been named: 21C 151: Winston Churehill, 21C 152 Lord Dowding, 21C 153 Sir Keith Park and 21C 154 Lord Beaverbrook, 21C 155 Fighter Pilot, 21C 164 Fighter Command,  21C 165 Hurricane 21C 166 Spitfire and 21C 167 Tangmere. They have narrower cabs with windows at an angle compared to the earlier Light Pacifics.

2ft. 6in. gauge locomotives for India.  164
Six 0-6-2Ts supplied by Hunslet Engine Co. to the order of T.A. Martin & Co. and to inspection of T. Barnard Hall & Jones for use on Barasat-Basrhat Light Railway and Bukhtiarpur-Bikar Railway. Maximum axle load 6½ tons. Cylinders 10½ x 16in; coupled wheel diameter 33in.; total heating surface 367ft2, working pressure 160 psi.

Issue Number 663 (15 November 1947)

McEwan, James. Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 177-8;

Issue Number 664 (15 December 1947)

Nationalisation. 181.
Lists names of Chief Regional Officers (Darbyshire CRO LMR misspelt Derbyshire) and Railway Executive membersNotes T.H. Moffat, Deputy CRO Scottish Region

A stainless-steel coach. 182-3. 3 illustrations.
Pressed Steel Company associated with Budd Corporation named Silver Princess: compartments for first; open saloon for third class..

G.V.O. Bulkeley. The 4-8-0 locomotive on Colonial railways. 187-8. diagram (side elevation)
Author was former General Manager Nigerian Railwaay.

Dock shunting by diesel. 188-90. illustration
Hunslet locomotive on Mersey Docks & Harbour Board railways.

L.M.S.R. appointments. 190..
Mr. A. M. Todd, District Locomotive Superintendent, Bank Hall; Mr. G.W. Miller, District Locomotive Superintendent, Skipton; Mr. E. C. Bourne, District Locomotive Superintendent, Kentish Town; Mr. E. A. Talbot, District Locomotive Superintendent, Saltley; Mr. J. A. W. Knapman, District Locomotive Superintendent, Longsight; Mr. H. H. Mason, Assistant District Locomotive Superintendent, Crewe (North); Mr. A. E. Robson, Superintendent, Carriage and Wagon Works, C.M.E. Department, Derby; Mr. T. F. B. Simpson, Superintendent, Loco. Works, C.M.E. Department, Derby; Mr. J. M.. Chalmers, Assistant District Locomotive Superintendent, Inverness; and Mr. A. C. Booth, Assistant District Locomotive Superintendent, Perth.

Engine Lighting Equipment on G.W.R. 190-1. 2 illustrations
A experimental lighting set, manufactured by the Metropolitan-Vickers Electrical Co. Ltd. fitted ·to 4-6-0 oil fired engine No. 3904, St. Brides Hall.

W.M. Gowan Gradon. Some West Cumberland locos. (Fletcher Jennings & Company). 191-3. 2 illustrations
Illustrations show 0-4-0 Abernant on 2ft 8in gauge Aberdare Iron Company's lines which included gradients as steep as 1 in 14 and 0-6-0 Will o' the Wisp of the Ebbw Vale Iron Co. Other locomotives were purchased by Branson & Murray in connection with constructing defences for Plymouth harbour; the Norley Coal & Cannel Co. of Wigan; the Plymouth Iron Co., Aberdare; tyhe Tredegar Iron Co.; the Dowlais Iron Co.; the Aberdovey Slate Co.; Barrow Haematite Steel Co.;the General Mining Association of Nova Scotia; William Whitwell & Co. of Stockton-on-Tees; and Gaskell, Deacon & Co. of Widnes.

McEwan, James. Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway.193-5: . illustration
4-2-2 No. 123 including its performance during the races of  August 1888.

2-8-0 freight locomotive Trujillo Railway, Peru. 195-6. illustration, diagram (side & front elevations)
Hunslet Engine Co. for Peruvian Corporation: 3ft gauge.