Locomotive Magazine and Railway Carriage and Wagon Review

Volume 52 (1946)
Key file

Number 641 (15 January 1946)

Jubilee of "The Locomotive". 1

The issue of last month's number completes 50 years' continuous publication of The Locomotive. Older readers will remember the early efforts in January, 1896, when the first number, then known as Moore's Monthlv Magazine, appeared in an unpretentious style with a small circulation of some 2,500 copies. Success was quickly established by the perseverance of a few enthusiasts, some ambitious young men, and the support of subscribers. By the end of the' first year we were able to enlarge the scope of activities, extend our organisation, and from that time the paper acquired its present title, known somewhat affectionately by many as the Loco Mag. We are thankful to have survived two world wars, although not without loss, and the last six years has been a period of trial. During the great raid on London in December, 1941, our Amen Corner premises were destroyed with many valuable records. Our printers' works were also severely damaged on more than one occasion, but with an admirable effort and a sense of duty to subscribers the staff brought the pages off the presses with commendable punctuality. In common with other publishers, our work during the war period has been mainly controlled by restrictions in the use of paper, and we welcome the time when they are sufficiently relaxed to enable us to add more pages.
Contributors, many of' them authorities on special subjects, have enabled us to accumulate a collection of technical and historical information which now constitutes an encyclopaedia on locomotives and railway rolling stock in the fifty-one volumes (two were published in 1903, when weekly parts were issued). This we trust to make even more complete in the future.
In the present transition era of transport and the preference that is being shewn to education, it is a matter for consideration whether an endeavour should not be made to form a Museum of Transport in this country. In the past, opportunities to acquire exhibits have been neglected, and their destruction has robbed the community of the opportunity to possess unique examples of railway history and progress. The amalgamation of existing collections and the acquisition of irreplaceable objects by gift or purchase would be a fitting tribute to the achievements of transport and the sacrifice of its workers during the war, and should not even at the present stringent time offer insurmountable difficulties. It may be that in the replanning of London, the site and buildings of an abandoned terrminus or length of railway could be reserved as a location for the purpose.

Jubilee of "The Locomotive". P.C. Dewhurst [letter]
The Jubilee of The Locomotive provides a pleasing opportunity for one who has been .a reader since the beginning of the century—and a contributor for a much lesser period — to send his congratulations upon the successful accomplishment over the long period of fifty years under the same direction. The journal was launched at a time when effective interest in locomotive development was reserved to those within severely professional limits. and the dispersal and/or destruction of valuable records pertaining to locomotive history had become accentuated. The awakened general interest in the subject, of which The Locomotive was the stimulus, if not the forerunner, is not — as sometimes mistakenly supposed  — limited to an amateurish dilettante group, but has a definite professional value. Without doubt the changed atmosphere in the British locomotive world deriving from the existence of such a journal prevented in many cases, unfortunately not in all. the destruction of much data invaluable for an adequate detailed knowledge of what had previously taken place in the development of the art;' which knowledge—not susceptible of isolation in balance-sheets, although the lack of It can be a prolific time and money waster—is afforded by The Locomotive in the multiplicity of examples from the earliest period to the present time. For such reasons, as also that undoubtedly much valuable personnel has been attracted by The Locomotive to the profession, its influence has been a power for good of con- siderable effect in the locomotive world, and those who have steered it through its half-century—some, unfortunately, no longer with us—are entitled to the satisfaction of a worth-while job of work worthily carried out.

Automat buffet cars on G.W.R. 1
The cars will enable passengers to purchase snacks, smokes and drinks at any time on a journey by simply putting sixpence or a. shilling into the slot of one of the many hundreds of snack compartments. These will contain varieties of sandwiches, salads, savouries, cakes, fruit, chocolate. confectionery, ice cream, cigarettes, matches, stamps, medical requisites and even drinks, complete with wax cups. Stand up counters will be fitted in front of big observation windows on each side of the cars for the convenience of passengers who prefer to take their refreshments there. Entrance to the cars will be by a centre door at each end. The new cars will probably be used on short main line services.

Converted K4 type loco., L.N.E.R. 2. illustration, diagram (side & front elevations).
The diagram was not of a K4,  nor of its two-cylinder conversion, but of a J39 0-6-0 for which the locomotive was designed as a prototype for its replacement. Notes the number of standard components, including a shortened version of the B1, alias Gresley B17, boiler. No. 3445 MacCaillin Mor illustrated.

L.N.E.R. class B2 locomotive. 3. illustration, diagram (side & front elevations)
Two cylinder conversion of B17. No. 2871 Manchester City illustrated.

H. Fayle. The Dublin & South Eastern Railway and its locomotives. 11-13. 3 illustrations

James McEwan. Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 13-15.

Number 642 (15 February 1946)

The economics of the gas turbine locomotive. 17.

L. Derens. 3-cylinder goods locomotives. Netherlands Railways. 18-20. illustration, diagram (side elevation)

Ian G. Duncan. Locos. by Markham &; Co. Ltd. 20. illustration, table

The locomotive in Persia. 21-5

H. Fayle. The Dublin & South Eastern Railway and its locomotives. 25-6. 2 illustrations, table

The first gas turbine loco. 26-9. illustration, 2 diagrams

David L. Smith. The Girvan and Portpatrick Junction Railway. 29-31. map
The Glasgow & Belfast Union Railway had hoped to extend the railway which had reached Ayr in 1840 by an inland route to Girvan and thence along the coast to Stranraer, but this foundered, but Girvan was reached in 1860 and on 5 July 1865 Parliament approved a further extension to Stranraer,
Construction developed, but very slowly. Three very heavy works, the Glendoune cutting, the Pinmore tunnel and the Kincaer viaduct were concentrated at the Girvan end, and by the beginning of 1874 none of these had been completed, Another Act was passed on July 7, 1873, once more reviving powers, and extending the period of construction for another two years from 20 June 1873. Early in 1873, John Miller, engineer of the line, became seriously ill, and was replaced for the next period of construction by Mr. Edward L.I Blyth, who was responsible for certain amendments to the original scheme, the 65 lb. rails originally specified being altered to 70 lb., with 28 lb. chairs, and he also proposed a station at Luce Abbey, about 1½ miles from the south end of the line. Though the station was never constructed, some progress had been made with the project, for a grass bank that was to have been the platform can still be seen on the west side of the line near Milepost 29¼.
Better progress was made in 1874, and early in that year the first locomotive made its appearance. This engine came to work at the Girvan end, and was an 0-6-0 saddle tank named Sambo, cylinders 12 in. by 17 in., built by Manning, Wardle (makers' number 427) and delivered the previous year to Mr. Pilling. There is evidence that Sambo proved too stiff for some of the curves, and worked for some time as a 0-4-2T.

Correspondence. 31-2

"Trend of locomotive design." Bernard Bramall.
May I refer to your leading article for December last, and in particular to your remarks concerning roller bearings.
Whilst not intending to deprecate the advantages of roller bearings in general, I am inclined to question a policy of applying them initially to long-distance rolling stock. The reduced frictional losses incurred by the use of these bear- ings show to advantage more especially at low speeds; at high speeds the difference is very small. Their supremacy is evidenced to an even greater extent on starting from a standstill. Before a plain bearing can function properly a film of oil must be built up. Consequently on starting from rest, until this film has been built up. high resistances are encountered. Starting resistance may be of the order of 18lb. per ton (Phillipson). a figure which under oil film conditions is appropriate to speeds of sixty or seventy miles per hour. The roller bearing, on the other hand. is not dependent on maintenance of a film of lubricant. and has extremely low starting resistance.
In view of these considerations, it would seem logical to apply this type of bearing, in the first instance at least. to local and slow passenger stock, where its cardinal advantages can be exploited more fully. In regard to un braked goods and mineral stock. it rarely occurs that all the axles along a train start in motion at the same instant as is the case with close coupled passenger rolling stock. 'Nevertheless, the benefit of reduced resistance at speeds of 10 to 15 mile/h. would show to greater benefit than in high-speed trains.
While considering the subject. it might in justice be noted that roller bearings call for rather more stringent inspection than the plain type. Generously proportioned as they may be. failure is generally due to fatigue cracks, which. once in evidence rapidly proceed to complete failure. whereas a plain bearing, given adequate lubrication, can be said to wear out rather than fail.

The First Locomotive in Natal. G.V. Bulkeley. 32
In your issue for September 1939, page 269, there appeared a photograph of 0-4-0 locomotive No. 5 of the Melbourne & Hobson's Bay Railway, South Australia, at work on Sandridge Pier, Adelaide.
I enclose a booklet by T.J. Espitalier giving illustrations and details of the first locomotive to work in Natal. This was of 4ft. 8½in. gauge. (The S.A. Railways are now entirely 3ft. 6in.
You will note that the Natal engine is of practically identical design to No. 5 engine of South Australia above mentioned. The small wheel at the side of the enginemen's footplate is the flywheel of a small boiler pump engine. The Natal engine is gradually being rescued, bit by bit, from the river bed where it was dumped many years ago. It has been reconstructed (partly in wood) and will stand as an historical object of interest 'in the Durban terminus of the S.A.R.
It occurs to me that if the builders of the No. 5 S Australian engine can be traced, it may be found that the Natal engine also came from their shops, and perhaps they still have the original drawings from which it could be accurately reconstructed in detail here.

Compound locomotives. Henry W. Davis.
I have read with interest the various letters " from "compound" enthusiasts in your November number. One of your correspondents. in order to overcome the very definite difficulty regarding width of driving axle bearings to which Sir William Stanier has called attention, suggests placing two H.P. cylinders, 15½in. diameter by 28in. stroke. between the frames, and two L.P. cylinders 22in. diamefer by 30in. stroke outside the frames. This would not develop the power of, say, the L.M.S. 7P class without considerable increase of boiler pressure, and although from a balancing point of view, with the heavier outside reciprocating parts and longer stroke, this cylinder arrangement is not desirable, no doubt a satisfactory balance for practical purposes could be accomplished. But in order to keep 22 in. outside cylinders within the loading gauge it will be found necessary on a six-coupled engine to offset the axes of the coupling rods from the axes of the piston rods (on the L.M.S. Pacifies the centre line of the coupling rods is 107/8 in. from the frame) and such a design, for obvious reasons, is condemned as thoroughly bad practice.
Having seen something of Smith's system in its earlier days, and having had a number of de Glehn compounds under my supervision in Egypt for a period of years, it is a source of regret to one that the compound with superheater, so ably developed by M. Chapelon and described in his treatise, Locomotives a. Grande Vitesse, is not a practical proposition for express locomotives in this country owing to the restrictions imposed. It is a commentary on the interest taken in the subject that there are so many desirous of helping British locomotive engineers to design that which eminent members of the profession, like Sir William Stanier, to refer to one man only, have found impracticable. Incidentally", I did not say that the Midland compounds represented the limit of power obtainable here, but that they represented an approximation thereto. Perhaps I should have qualified the statement by adding "with modern boiler pressures."

William Dean. H.C. Wallace.
It is curious that descriptions of Dean's 4-6-0 No. 36 of 1896 always seem to omit reference to the most interesting feature of this engine, the wide firebox, the first, I believe, in British practice. Churchward's paper on Large Locomotive Boilers read before the Institution of Mechanical Engineers in 1906, includes a dimensional diagram, which shows that the firebox casing was 5ft. 10in. wide and 7ft. 0in. long, with a grate area of 35 sq. ft. The Krugers also had similar fireboxes with a slightly smaller grate area. These fireboxes extended over the trailing coupled wheels and inside frames, but fitted between the outside frames.

St. Helens Railway locomotives. E.K. Kirby.
I cannot think that the view of your correspondent, Mr. B. Baxter, that the old Sharp locomotive L.N.W.R. 419 was taken over by the St. Helens Railway is correct.
I have it on very good authority that 419 was remembered by the L.N.W.R. in the duplicate list 1174 in 2/65. I again remember 181A in 1/79. The St. Helens Railway was absorbed by the L.N.W.R. in 1864.

Jubilee of .The Locomotive. E.A. Phillipson.
I am very pleased and interested to read that The Locomotive has attained its jubilee. Please include my congratulations and good wishes for its continued . success in the future with the many which you have no doubt received. In view of the position achieved and held by The Locomotive in the field of technical journalism, I cannot help- feeling that the announcement of the anniversary was unduly modest. It certainly understated the great difficulties which arose during the war years, and omitted all mention of the manner in which they were overcome. Perhaps, too, the greatly valued pleasures of friendships made in and throuh the editorial office could have been given greater emphasis, although it is difficult to express these things in words. eedless to say, readers and contributors alike sincerely reciprocate your good wishes. With apologies for my carping criticisms,

Number 643 (15 March 1946)

The "Merchant Navy" engines. 33
Editorial on Bulleid paper presented in the Lecture Theatre at the Institution of Mechanical Engineers which was crowded on Friday evening, 14 December 1945. Bulleid described his "Merchant Navy" Class locomotives, built· for general main-line service on the Southern Railway, and it can confidently be said that none of those who heard the paper, supported by some excellent lantern slides, were in any way disappointed.
Unfortunately, the same cannot be said of the ensuing discussion, which was rather disappointing; this is rather a pity, because in so revolutionary a design as Mr. Bulleid's one might reasonably have expected there might have been some criticism of some of the features which characterise these engines, and which, moreover, yery definitely distinguish them from normal British standards of design
Are we to assume from this that all are in agreement and that in the future others will go and do likewise? or are we, on the other hand, to infer that the mechanical engineers of other lines had no opportunity either to applaud or condemn Mr. Bulleid's ideas themselves or to send their nght- hand assistants to voice their opinion
Mr. Bulleid certainly had a large and, we think, a highly appreciative audience,. as well. it might be, for the-design of these engmes is certainly interesting and it is seldom we have seen or heard a paper better presented. Elsewhere in this issue we print what we fear is a very much abndged version of the paper, but in doing so have attempted to mention some of the important details of the make-up of these locomotives, noting more particularly the steel firebox with thermic syphons, the valve gear and the complete enclosure of the motion for the middle cylinder. A glance at the design as a.whole enables it at once to be seen that Mr. Bulleid has been influenced to some extent by his old chief, I vatt; the short piston stroke and the wiIde firebox make this apparent, while later Doncaster practice is seen in the use of three cylinders, all driving through one axle, the "Pacific" wheel plan and the streamlining, or whatever one may. care to call It. So far as the use of steel for the internal firebox is concerned, Mr. Bulleid seemed somewhat apologetic for its inclusion, though It Iis difficult to know why. Steel for fireboxes is almost the universal material and, if applied correctly, especially m so far as the design and arrangement of the roof and water-space staying is concerned, should not be expected to be other than successful. There is plenty of experience available for the asking. Whether or not syphons are applied is another matter; some prefer to be without them. They are not a necessity when a steel box is employed. The welding of firebox seams has been practised for many years, one of the pioneers being the Norfolk & Western in U.S.A., a line noted for an enterprising policy in motive power matters.
Considering the new valve gear arrangement, while this is certainly ingenious, we find it rather difficult to agree that it had to be used for want of space to do otherwise. Any shortage of space is, we should say, of the designer's own making, because it can hardly be said that a three-cylinder "Pacific" cannot be built to the weights prescribed if cylinders and valve gear follow usual practice. The "Little Oil Bath," as one speaker called the enclosed motion arrangement,. is excellent in its way, and all one might be inclined to ask, if this plan is so advantageous, was It not applied to the new six-coupled freight engines. Here surely was a chance to enclose the whole of the motion, as these engines have "inside" cylinders. These thoughts are simply those which rather naturally present themselves when reading the paper and studying Mr. Bulleid's design. No doubt much more might be said. In the meantime the engines are in traffic and are, we believe, doing what is expected of them. What we now should be told is how they perform from the point of view of coal and water consumption for the work done, and how they compare in this respect with other engines. A paper on the performance of the lomotives, both from the point of view of the boiler and the cylinders, would, we feel sure, agam attract another large meetmg.

South African Railways. 33.
The first locomotives of the G.E.A. class 4-8-2+2-8-4 wheel arrangement had been shipped to Port Elizabeth. These engmes had been built at the Gorton works of Beyer, Peacock & Co., Ltd., to the specification and requirements of M.M. Loubser, Chief Mechanical Engineer.

"Merchant Navy" locomotives, Southern Railway. 34-7. 3 diagrams.
Based on Bulleid's IMechE paper

Ireland. 37.
Locomotives scrapped by Coras Iompair Eireann: No. 7L 4-4-0T (Caven & Leitrim Section); Nos. 8, 43 and 45 (Kerrie bogie class); Nos. 45, 47 and 49 (0-4--4T built 1883-6);  No. 92 (0-6-4T Inchicore cab); No. 165 (101 class 0-6-0); Nos. 465 and 469 (4-6-0T ex CB&SCR); No. 531 (4-4-0 ex-MGWR D bogie class); No. 622 (ex-MGWR 0-6-0). 

L.N.E.R. 37
Exhibition of power-operated hand tools at King's Cross Station organized by Chief Engineer's Department. 

David L. Smith. The Girvan and Portpatrick Junction Railway. 39-40. 3 illustrations (line drawings: side elevations)

James McEwan. Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway.41-3. 3 illustrations

Locomotive wheels. 44-5.

"Eastern". Old G.N.R. locos at Hatfield. 44-6. 5 illustrations
Acknowledges K.A. Ledbury for loan of photographs: 0-4-4T No. 242A (photograph taken in 1888: locomotive fitted with condensing apparatus); 0-4-2 mixed traffic locomotive No. 11; 0-4-2 No. 102A; 0-4-2 No. 562 and 4-2-2 No. 547

Early coupling and brake. "Eastern". 47. diagram
Description of Henry Booth patent. Notes that idea was copied by Richard Allen

Correspondence. 48

[Locomotive exchanges]. Albert E. Clow]. 48
In your issue for August, 1945, I read with great interest the first page on the interchange of locomotives on the British railways. A few pages on, in the article on Standardising S.R. Locomotives, Central Section, therein was an account of the trials between George Whale's L.N.W. "Precursor" class saturator 4-4-0 Titan No. 7 and one of Marsh's 13 superheater tanks, each working the Sunny South express in turn south of Rugby. I have before me a letter from Mr. Peter Clow, of Rugby, dated May 27, 1910, wherein he gives certain details of these trials. He was working the L.N.W. engine Titan No. 7, while the L.B. & S.C. men had two superheater tank engines: the latter had two failures and lost time on several occasions through avoiding to stop for water before reaching Croydon. Coal consumption for the L.N.W. engine was 30 lb. per mile, while the L.B. & S.C. was under 2 lb. per mile less. I may say that I hold the Stephenson Centenary Medal given to Mr. Clow for this work by the L.B. & S.C. Superintendent, J. J. Richardson, of whom he writes most highly. Mr. Clow was mv uncle, one of five brothers all drivers on the L.N.W. Rly·. in days now past. This I think should prove interesting to some of your readers.

[Apprerciation]. Lionel E. Willis.
I started as a subscriber with the January, 1898, number of "The Locomotive Magazine," when I was an apprentice to the old Great Northern Railway, and have taken every number since. What, a wealth of information one gets by browsing over the old issues; and what a feast for the eyes looking at the beauties' of a bygone age before the days of streamlining and dirt! Young people to-day cannot realise what an engine looked like beautifully cleaned and gleaming in the old Companies' liveries. A valuable, feature of the "L.M." has ,been the various "locomotive histories" and technical essays, many since issued in book form. So here is wishing continued success to the good old "Locomotive," even though we may be condemned to only a few standard types of locomotive if State ownership ever comes.

Compound locomotives. L. Derens
Referring to the interesting discussion on compound locomotives in the November, 1945, issue about the maximum cylinder dimensions with regard to the available space, none of the correspondents seems to recall the two 4-6-4 Baltic type compound express locomotives built in 1910 by the Nord France to the designs of Asselin. In these engines, which were the most powerful then built on the Continent,. L.P. cylinders as large as 620 mm. dia. were required between the frames. As the position of the large inclined L.P. slide valves, overhanging the frames, did not allow slotting the frames, Asselin solved the problem by the simple method of "stepping" the cylinders one behind the other, not only avoiding the slotting of the frames, but also narrowing the distance between the frame plates to 1,095 mm. (A complete description of these engines appeared in "The Locomotive" of October, 1910, July and December, 1911, and June, 1912, as well as in "The Engineer" of November 25, 1910, February 10, September 1 and December 29, 1911.)
On the P.O. 4-8-0 locomotives the width of the outside firebox is 1,205 mm. and the distance between the frames thus probably 1,245 mm., between which the 640 mm. L.P. cylinders cannot be placed without making slot-holes. With the Nord arrangement, however, cylinders as large as 695 mm. could be got into the available space. The limit of power in compounding is thus as yet by no means reached. The Nord engines, with their symmetrical outline, through the uniform construction of all the bogies for both engine and tender, presented a very handsome appearance. Their power was far in excess of what was needed then. In ordinary service they' easily worked 800-ton trains at 125 km. (78 m.p.h.) and on a trial run No. 31.102, the engine with the Brotan water-tube firebox, hauled a train of 1,200 tons at a speed of 110 km. (68 m.p.h.).

Reviews. 48

British Railways. Arthur Elton.
Worthy addition to the "Britain in Pictures" series, with which 'many of our readers will he already familiar. The task of condensing the salient features of Britain's railway history into 48 pages cannot have been an easy one, but it has been carried out very well. The took is excellently produced and the illustrations well chosen and reproduced—especially'so the coloured ones. There are a few minor points upon which some readers will disagree with the author. On page 14 Brunton is credited with the construction of two locomotives, in 1813, with mechanical legs. Dendy Marshall, in his book "Early British Locomotives," expressed the opinion after a careful survey of all the available evidence, that it was uncertain whether more than one "walking engine" was constructed. On page 23 the caption below the illustration refers to the "Rocket and train"; while this title is no doubt taken from the picture reproduced, the fact still remains that the engine depicted is the "North Star." , This book may be relied upon to arouse an interest in railways. among many as yet uninterested, while at the same time it is worthy of a place in the library of anyone whose interest is serious and of long standing.

Number 644 (15 April 1946)

L.M.S. locomotives. 49-50

A modern locomotive history. 51-55. 7 diagrams including 4 side elevations.
Long precis of Cox classic ILocoE Paper 457 which concentrates upon the Fowler proposed large compound designs which viewed from the 21st century have a remarkable likeness to the Royal Scot class and the Stanier Pacifics. See also letter from G. Carpenter.

R.A. Whitehead. Miniature railways (II). 58-60. 2 illustrations

James McEwan. Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 61-2. 2 illustrations

Number 645 (15 May 1946)

"Liberation" locomotives. 65
UNRRA design

"Liberation" 2-8-0 locomotives. 65-6. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
110 being built by Vulcan Foundry for UNRRA plus a further ten for the Duchy of Luxembourg

R.A. Whitehead. Miniature railways (II). 69-72. 4 illustrations, 2 plans
Blakesley Hall Miniature Raillway, owned by C.W. Bartholemew; Crowthorne Farm Miniature Railway owned V. Burgoyne; the Geneva Railway  and the Belle Vue Railway

To services rendered. 72-3
Remuneration for railway mechanical engineers: salaries, pensions and fringe benefits, like free travel, See also letter from Norman Duncan on page 112

L.N.E.R. appointments. 73.
E. H. Baker, & District Locomotive Superintendent, Peterborough moved to District Locomotive Superintendent, Gorton where responsible for 484 locomotives and B. Adkinson formerly at Gorton moved to Doncaster

David L. Smith. The Girvan and Portpatrick Junction Railway. 73-6. illustration. table
Further considering the question of working the line, the directors seem to have inclined favourably to the G. & S.W., especially as that company had now reduced its terms to 50 per cent. of receipts. With Scots caution, however, they decided, before closing, to approach the Caledonian Railway, which from 1864 had operated the Portpatrick Railway.
This was an unfortunate move. The Caledonian and G. & S.W. were on very bad terms. The Caledonian, after consideration, declined the offer, and the directors returned to the G. & S:W., to find that the terms had stiffened, and that the G. & S.W. were now prepared to work the G. & P.J. at nothing under cost price. Mr. Wheatley, convinced that the G. & P.J. would now revert to his scheme, went ahead with the purchase of the four North London engines, but to everyone's surprise the G. & P.J. continued negotiations with the G. & S.W.
The C.R. now became alarmed. They had probably thought that by declining to work the G. & P.J., they were aiding Mr. Wheatley, whose cause they favoured; now it appeared that they had only exposed their citadel of Stranraer to an invasion by their enemies, the G. & S.W. So began a grim campaign of opposition to the entry of the G. & P.J., a campaign which dragged on into 1877 and to which the Board of Trade unwittingly lent their aid by their decree that an additional running line and platform be provided at both Dunragit and Stranraer (Town) Stations for the accommodation of the additional G. & P.J. traffic. Matters became so difficult that early in 1877 it was seriously pro- posed that the G. & P.J. make its own line as far as Dunragit Station, and there hand over its traf- fic to the Portpatrick company, in fact for a time it seemed possible that the G. & P.J. might have to make an independent line right through to Stranraer. But wiser counsels prevailed, and early in the summer construction of the additional accommodation on the Portpatrick section began. In May, 1877, another Bill was passed through Parliament, the principal clause giving the G. & P.J. powers to borrow another £100,000.
All this time, Mr. Wheatley waited hopefully with his four North London engines. He had them fitted, presumably at Bow Works, with the extremely attenuated cab favoured by him on the  N.B., the bunkers appear to have been enlarged and the engines repainted in black with boiler-bands picked out in red, a livery just adopted by the N.L. for their duplicate stock and in which they were probably the first engines to appear. But Mr. Wheatley's hopes were vain, for on July 24 an agreement was signed whereby the G. & S.W. undertook to staff, maintain and work the G. & P.J.
On 24 July 1877 Col. Hutchison inspected the line and the line opened officially on 1 October 1877....
Change of engine was necessary at the shore end of Stranraer Pier, this being presumably included in these schedules. The pier was then of wood, and nothing heavier could be allowed upon it than a four-wheeled tank engme.
No local manager was apparently appointed for the G. & P.J., but the secretarial duties were carried out by Mr. W. Graham, at first with an office at Stranraer, but later from a Glasgow office. Then, in accordance with a clause of the 1872 Act, three directors from the G. & P. J. and three from the Portpatrick Railway were formed into a Committee, the Portpatrick and Girvan Joint Committee, to look after the working on the section of line from Challoch Junction to Stranraer jointly owned by the two companies and thereafter known as "The Stranraer Section." Mr. Robert Beattie, previously stationmaster at Motherwell, was appointed Secretary and Manager to this Committee. Through various vicissitudes of its two components the P. & G. Joint Committee continued to function until its abolition on January 1, 1895, and tickets printed in its name were issued up to the time of the grouping of 1923 and probably later. .
The disposal of the engines used in the construction has some points of interest. An auction sale of contractor's material was advertised for January 17-18, 1878, and two locomotives are listed. Hired engines being excluded; these would be Sambo and Duchess. Boulton evidently got Duchess, while it seems probable that Sambo was obtained by J. H. Riddell & Co., of Glasgow, dealers in engineering material. But very strangely, on March 8, 1878, there appears in The Engineer" an announcement that Riddell & Co. have for a sale a "tank locomotive engine called the Duchess, by Manning, Wardle & Co., 12 inch cylinder, 6-coupled," for the sum of £400. This 68-year-old conundrum is indeed hard to solve, but the writer would offer the opinion that when Riddell & Co. obtained Sambo, they also obtained Duchess's ornamental name-plates, which were placed on Sambo, or some other Manning, Wardle purchase. Duchess's cab, being of local material, was probably removed also, hence her appearance in Fig. 84 of Chronicles of Boulton's Siding (from a photograph taken at New Cross) nameless and cabless. There was a story on the G. & P.J. that Sambo went to colliery owners, and that Duchess went to "a small private line in Yorkshire." This may have been her ultimate disposal, but she had evidently been in the London area first. Amy and Black Knight went back to Boulton, Amy being sold by him in January, 1878. Wheatley removed Lochinvar, and one account says that she went to a purchaser in Kilmarnock, who fitted her with six-coupled wheels about 3 ft. 9 in. diameter.
Another story says that "N.B. No. 20" worked at a Fife coal-pit. The stories may be complementary. Bradb y , however, remained after the opening. Some parts of the line, notably a slipping bank above; New Luce, were giving trouble, and apparently the contractor agreed to retain the engine until matters had been put right. There was a ballast quarry at Milepost 30¼ north of Challoch Junction (the excavation can still be seen) and in a siding there Bradby and some wagons were stationed, and made ballasting journeys up the line. Three of the ballast wagons had brake-man's cabin at one end in Continental fashion, brake-blocks operating on one side of the wagon only. Bradby remained till the summer of 1878, when she was removed by Mr. Wheatley, and is believed to have gone, like Sambo and Lochinvar, to colliery work. She reappeared on the Wigtownshire Railway in 1884. The Challoch ballast quarry continued in use by G. & S.W. engines until about 1882-3, when the siding was removed.
Two G. & S.W. tender engines of James Stirling's design were the first to be stabled at Stranraer, a 2-4-0 believed to be No. 71, and a 0-4-2, No. 240. 71 worked the morning passenger train as far as Ayr, did a trip to Kilmarnock, and returned with the 4.15 p.m. ex Glasgow. 240 worked a through goods to Eglinton Street, Glasgow. The morning boat train to Stranraer was run by Glasgow men, with similar 2-4-0s, and in 1877-8 these were returning on the 8.20 p.m. (nick-named "The Paddy") from Stranraer Harbour, though by 1879 the return trip was made on the 11.15 a.m. from Stranraer, continuing from Girvan on the 3 p.m. to Glasgow. 2-4-0 No. 83 was on this job- in 1879, and when she was laid up for six weeks' overhaul, her crew received as a modest substitute a small 0-4-2, No. 188. The boat trains, however, were very light. When "The Paddy" was in collision with a goods at Barassie on November 18, 1878, the load was given as three small- coaches and van. Girvan men had at least one passenger turn to Stranraer.
-Photograph by H. C. Casserley: G. & S.W.R. No. 637 (formerly No. 240)

Post-War locomotive design: Central Uruguay Railway. 76-8. illustration, 2 diagrams. (side and front elevations & plan)
Includes detailed drawings

L.M.S.R. 79
The following new engines had been put into service: 4-6-0 Class 5, Nos. 4931, 4967 and 4968 (built at 'Crewe); Nos. 4953 to 4955 (built at Horwich); 2-6-4T class 4P, Nos. 2223 and 2234 (built at Derby).
The following locomotives had been withdrawn: 4-4-0 Class 3P, No. 760 (Midland Rly.); 0-4-4 Class 2PT, Nos. 15120, 15163, 15205 {Caledonian Rly.); 0-4-4 Class 1PT, Nos. 1294, 1395 (Midland Rly.); 0-6-0 Class 3F, Nos. 3768 (Midland Railway), 12187, 12206, 12295, 12367, 12424, 12550 (L. & Y .R.), 17248 (Caledonian Rly.); 0-6-0 Class 2F, Nos. 3139, 3649 (Midland Rly.), 28209, 28347, 28410, 28533 (L. & N.W.R.); 0-6-2 Class 2FT, Nos. 7763, 7827, 27605, 27609 (L. & N.W.R.); 0-6-0 Class 1FT, No. 1864 (Midland Rly.); 0-4-0 Class 0FT; No. 16009 (Caledonian Rly.).
Altered Motive Power Classification. 0-8-0 Class 6F, Nos. 9189 and 9202 to Class 7F

L.N.E.R. 79
Facilities for coaling, turning and servicing engines at Dunfermline Upper Locomotive Depot were being improved. New equipment included a mechanical coaling plant of 250 tons hopper capacity and a 70ft. articulated turntable capable of dealing with modern locomotives. In addition to an improved track layout, an existing building will accommodate workshops and stores, whilst staff amenities will be improved by the erection of a new building. During 1946 579 miles of L.N E.R. lines were to be completely or partially renewed. Over 300 passenger stations. goods depots and other buildings were to be repainted. Roofing glass removed soon after the outbreak of war is to go back, and work is in progress at King's Cross and Edinburgh (Waverley).
A plan to improve Newcastle Central Station included the conversion of four of the bay platforms to two through platforms, the provision of an additional platform and of a passenger subway to replace the existing footbridge .and the replacement of the signalling by a modern installation.
The existing electro-pneumatic signalling installed in 1906, to be replaced by modern colour light signals controlled from one signal box in the Central station, this enabling the present Newcastle Nos. 1, 2 and 3 and Manors Junction boxes to be closed.

G.W.R. 79.
St. Mellons, near Cardiff, one of the secret "inland" ports which during the war handled hundreds of thousands of tons of traffic passing between the South Wales ports and the rest of the country, had closed down. Vast tonnages of miscellaneous cargoes, representing all that goes to feed a nation, as well as to arm, equip .and maintain its fighting services, had commenced to pour into the ports of Cardiff, Swansea, Newport, Barry and Port Talbot, with the result that in 1941 a commencement was made upon the construction of the "Inland Port Sorting Depot" at St. Mellons. Four large transit sheds were constructed and extensive rail and road accommodation installed, the Depot extending over all to 85 acres. In the early part of 1942 the Depot was put into operation.

Correspondence. 79

Birkenhead, Lancashire and Cheshire Joint Rly. H.F. Hilton
I have a list of engines belonging to this railway about the year 1847, but it makes no mention of the builders. Perhaps some of your readers can add this information and complete the record. All were 2-2-2 and all had 5ft. 6in. driving wheels other than No. 9 (5ft.)
1 Wirral with 13 x 18in cylinders
2 Zillah with 12 x 18in cylinders
3 Touchstone with 12 x 18in cylinders
4 Commodore with 13 x 18in cylinders
5 Hirondelle with 12 x 18in cylinders
6 Lupus with 13 x 18in cylinders
7 Druid with 13¾ x 22in cylinders
8 Monk with 13½ x 22in cylinders
9 Victoria with 13 x 18in cylinders

St. Helens Railway Locomotives. C. Williams.
In the February issue of " The Locomotive," Mr. E. K. Kirby suggests that Mr. Baxter is wrong in assuming that the old U. & B. 2-2-2 Sharp locomotive, L.N.W. No. 419, was taken over by the St. Helens Railway, and adds that this engine was renumbered 1174 in 2/65, and later 181A (? 1814) . As a matter of fact these particulars refer to another engine bearing L.N.W. No. 419, which replaced the one mentioned by Baxter. It came from the Birkenhead Railway, and was a 0-4-2 built by Stephenson. According to official inforrnation , this- engine was renumbered 1814 in 1872 and scrapped in 9/79.
The evidence so far submitted has not, in my opinion, proved the case that U. & B. No. 419 was purchased by the St. Helens Company. Data in my possession shows that when replaced by the Birkenhead engine in 1860, it became No. 419A. Later, in 4/62, following the abolition of the letter" A " for duplicates, it was allotted No. 1125 in the new duplicate list. This number the engine retained until early in 1863, when it was taken from stock, and, as far as is known, was then broken up.
A former correspondent, Mr. Abbott, has wrongly stated that St. Helens No. 28 was broken up in 1868; this was given correctly as 1864 by Mr. Marshall , Of the other St. Helens engines, No. 4 and 23 had 4ft. 6in. wheels and were 0-6-0T type. No. 10 was scrapped in 4/64 (not September) and No. 13 on 17/1/65. The L. N . W . R. official stock totals as at 31 /8/64 i nclude 24 St. Helens engines, four having then apparently been disposed of. These were Nos. 3, 8, 10 and one other, probably No. 2.

Compound locomotives. Henry W. Davis. 80
There is a misprint in line 17 of my letter on page 32 of your February issue. I stated: "it will be found necessary on a six-coupled engine to offset the axes of the connecting rods from the axes of the piston rods (on the L.M:S. Pacifies the centre line of the coupling rods is l07/8 in. from the frame) ... " If you will refer to my letter as published you will see that in line 17 "coupling rods" has been inserted in place of "connecting rods." The reference to "coupling rods" in that part in parentheses in the next line is correct. I shall be obliged if you will have the error corrected.

C. M. Keiller.
I am afraid Mr. Henry "W. Davis is quite incorrect in asserting that my suggested arrangement would necessitate the outside connecting" rods being offset from the piston line. I think he must have overlooked the fact that in my arrangement the inside cylinders are at 1ft. 5in. centres instead of 1ft. 9in. as on the L.M.S. design thus allowing the wheel boss to be moved 2in , towards the centre line of the loco. without altering any bearing or wheel seat length, and as the outside cylinders are also the same distance nearer together, 6ft. 8in. instead of 7ft. 0in., the piston line would automatically come into line with the new position of the outside crank pins and of course no offsetting would be needed. The essential thing is that there is the same distance between the inside and outside. cylinders on each 'side as on the L.M.S. design, the only difference being that the driving wheel centres would be flat instead of dished and the centre portion of the crank axle shorter.
As regards power output., the cylinder volume is certainly less than that of the L.M.S.7 P class but if the Chapelon efficiency were realised, and this is the chief reason for the compound cylinders, then the I.H.P. should be around 3500 which is quite as much as the above class have so far produced. I do not think it can be contended that the balance should give trouble, after all there have been quite a lot of two cylinder locos on express service with 22in. by 28in. outside cylinders and in this case the outside reciprocating weight would be at least 75% balanced by the inside motion.

L.M.S. signalling demonstration. 80
At a public exhibition of modern signalling and communications equipment held in the Shareholders' Meeting Room, Euston. Mr. Alfred Barnes, Minister of Transport, performed the opening ceremony.
The layout of the demonstration was supervised by Mr. W. Wood, signal and telegraph engineer, (retired at that time?) in conjunction with Mr. W. K. Wallace, Chief Civil Engineer and Mr. Jos. O'Neill publicity officer.

Railway history. 80
Two well-known collectors, Messrs. J. Phillimore and C. F. Dendy Marshall, both assembled important collections, consisting mainly of pictures, documents and medals relating to railways. Since their death, however, these collections have been dispersed, and the Science Museum and Science Library have been able to acquire many interesting items which, together with examples previously in the National Collections form a most valuable reference collection.

G.W.R. 80
Two new 3,000-ton cross-Channel passenger and cargo ships were being built to replace the S.S. St. Patrick and the S.S. St. Andrew lost during the war and are expected to be in service in about 15 months' time. The Cornish Riviera non-stop between Paddington and Plymouth and the Torbay expresses have been reinstated, also several additional main-line and local trains have appeared in the summer-time tables issued this month.

Reviews. 80

The Paget locomotive. James Clayton. The Railway Gazette.
Hitherto very little has been known of this exceptionally interesting departure from orthodox locomotive design. This reprint from The Railway Gazette, to which has been added an article from the Stephenson Locomotive Society's Journal, is profusely illustrated and contains much information previously kept behind a veil of secrecy. The engine concerned was certainly one of the most outstanding experi- mental locomotives ever built and this account of its design, construction and performance is a welcome—if belated—addition to locomotive literature.

Unsere lokomotiven: Zurich: Orell Fussli Verlag
The increasing interest 'in railway matters by the general public is not confined to Great Britain and the U.S.A. for the Swiss authorities have published the first of a series of booklets dealing in semi-technical manner with their locomotives. It is written in the German language and well illustrated.

The duplicate locomotives of the L.S.W.R. Published by Railway Hobbies Ltd.
A booklet of nineteen interesting photographs by Mr. Casserley together with the numbers of the duplicate stock of the old South Western line taken over at the grouping; building and withdrawal dates are given; there is no reading matter.

Tube Investments Limited. 80
Production started on a contract for 5,000 tons of locomotive boiler tubes placed by the French Government in connection with the rehabilitation of the French State Railways. Production is being undertaken at Birmingham, Walsall and Jarrow.

Number 646 (15 June 1946)

L.M.S. locomotive improvements. 81.

2,000th loco. built at Doncaster. 82. illustration
Thompson Pacific No. 500

Recent developments in L.M.S. locomotive practice. 82-5. 3 illustrations, 2 diagrams.
Rocking grates and self-cleaning smokeboxes

Arthur L. Stead. French rail re-equipment. 85-7. 2 illustrations

Arthur G. Wells. The paper railway. 87-90. 7 illustrations
2ft 6in gauge railway owned by Edward Lloyd Ltd (better kown by later name of Bowater's) at Sittingbourne on the Swale.

Southern Railway. 90. illustration
Lighting installation over the Golden Arrow continental platform at Victoria Station using ninety-six Osram fluorescent tubes giving an intermediate white quality of light (i.e., midway between the "daylight" and "warm white" colours) are arranged in two lines each covering 250 feet of platform. They are spaced 8 feet apart and mounted under a canopy I4 feet high. One line of tubes is positioned near the edge of the platform to provide adequate lighting for passengers getting in or out of trains, while the other line gives general illumination on the platform and lights the benches used by the customs offices.
This system gives even illumination, with minimum shadow, over the whole of the platform and is proving a great help to the railway staff. The scheme was prepared by the Illuminating Engineering Department of The General Electric Co. Ltd., to the requirements of Mr. A. Cunnington, Southern Railway Lighting Engineer. Photograph of Bulleid Pacific with Golden Arrow insignia with lighting.

L.M.S.R. 90
The formation of new Motive Power Districts for Bletchley and Blackpool is a feature of a partial reorganisation of Motive Power Districts. Bletchley District, formed of Bletchley (2B). Oxford (2B), Newport Pagnell (2B), Cambridge (2B), Aylesbury (2B), and Northampton (2C). Until this reorganisation, Northampton came within the Rugby District. Rugby District, comprising Rugby (2A), Market Harborough (2A), Seaton (2A), Nuneaton (2D), Warwick (2E), and Coventry (2F). Blackpool District, formed by depots transferred from the Accrington District, namely, Blackpool Central and Blackpool North (24E), and Fleetwood (24F). Accrington District. formed by Accrington (24A), Rose Grove (24B), Lostock Hall (24C) , and Lower Darwen (24D) . Bank Hall District, consisting of Bank Hall (23A)', Aintree (23B), Southport (23C) and Wigan Central (23D).

L.N.E.R. B1 class 4-6-0 No. 1040 "Roedeer", built by the North British Locomotive Co. Ltd. 90. illustration

The first 8-coupled locomotive in Europe. 91-3. 3 diagrams (side elevations)
John Haswell 0-8-0 designed for Semmering trials. Vindobona.

L.M.S.R. Advertising and Publicity Department. 93
Why? The L.M.S Answers your Questions: pamphlet explaining why services were neither fast nor punctual.

L.M.S.R. appointments. 93
J.E. Wood appointed District Locomotive Superintendent Leeds in place of A.W.F. Rogerson who had retired; N.R. Peach appointed District Locomotive Superintendent Kentish Town; D.D. Scott appointed District Locomotive Superintendent Plaistow, and A. Jeffrey appointed Assistant District Locomotive Superintendent Carlisle (Kingmoor).  

David L. Smith. The Girvan and Portpatrick Junction Railway. 93-6. 2 diagrams (side elevations)
Continued page 120

Number 647 (15 July 1946)

"Statesmen" class locomotives Richmond, Fredericksburg and Potomac R.R. 100. illustration
At end of March, 1945 the first of the new 4-8-4 Statesmen class locomotives was put into service on the Capital Cities Route. Ten were constructed in 1945 for the R.F. and P.R.R. Co. by the Baldwin Locomotive Works, and the first engine, No. 613 John Marshall (illustrated) was the 71, 992nd locomotive manufactured at the Baldwin Works. The ten locomotives which have been named after notable Virginia statesmen have all been assigned to regular passenger service between Richmond and Washington and are a worthy addition to the five Genera" and twelve Governor class 4-8-4 locomotives supplied by The Baldwin Locomotive Works in 1937 and 1938-42 respectively.

L.M.S.R. 100
The following new locomotives had been put into service: 4-6-0 Mixed Traffic, Class 5, Nos. 4969, 4970, 4971, 4972, 4973 (built at Crewe); Nos. 4956, 4957, 4958 (built at Horwich ) ;2-6-4 Tank, Class 4, Nos. 2225, 2226, 2227, 2228 (built at Derby).
The following locomotives had been withdrawn: 0-6-2 Class 2PT, Nos. 6866, 6935 (L. and N.W.R.); 2-4-2 Class 2PT, No. 10878 (L. and Y.R.); 0-4-4 Class 2PT, No. 15128 (Caledonian); 2-4-2 Class 1PT, No. 6741. (L. and N.W.R.), 0-4-4 Class 1PT, Nos. 1277 and 1407 (MIdland); 4-6-0 Class 4F, No. 28786 (L. and N.W.R.); 0-6-0 Class 3F, No. 12332 (L. and ·Y.R.); 0-6-0 Class 2F, No. 12025 (L. and Y.R.), No. 28226 (L. and N.W.R.); 0-8-4 Class 7FT, No. 7934 (L and N.W.R.); 0-6-0 Class 2FT, No. 11434 (L. and Y .R.); 0-6-0 Class 1FT, No. 1681 (Midland).

L.N.E.R. 100
A branch line specially to serve Butlin's holiday camp at Filey was being constructed about halfway between Filey and Hunrnanby Sta.tions on the Hull and Scarborough line. The new camp station. is to be provided with four platform lines and sidings, engme pits and water columns.

G.W.R. 100
No. 1019 County of Merioneth was a recent addition to the new 4-6-0 1000 class. Four further 0-6-0 tank engines Nos 9642-9645 were in service. The following engines had been withdrawn: 0-6-0T No. 1287, No. 1585 and No. 1624; 2-6-0 No. 2677 and 4-4-0 No. 3313 Jupiter.

James McEwan. Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway.101-4. 2 illustrations, diagram (side elevation), table
Table lists building, rebuilding and withdrawal dates for Brittain 670 class 0-4-2s

L. Derens. The Dutch State Railways Co.  104-7. 3 illustrations, 3 diagrams (side elevations)

R. Opie. Locomotive power, performance and rating. 107-10.

P.C.D. The earliest loco. in Paraguay. 110.  illustration

Institute of Transport. 110

2-8-2 locomotives for France. 111. illustration
The French Railways suffered very severely during the war in all ways, by no means least in the locomotive department where more than 80 per cent. of the stock was destroyed. Realising that the basic requirement of recovery was trans. port the French Provisional Government arranged for the production of these engines early in 11944, some 700 being ordered from America. The design was based by the French on the 2-8-2 type, known as the 141 P, already in extensive use, as this machine had displayed its ability to handle mixed traffic at comparatively high speeds.
The contracts have been awarded to the American Locomotive Co., the Baldwin Locomotive Works and the Lima Locomotive Co. and we are in- debted to the last mentioned for their kindness in furnishing us with the reproduced photograph and particulars of these useful engines. Although delivery only commenced in November, 1945 it is anticipated that the whole 700 will be delivered before the end of this year. These locomotives have been designated the Liberation. Class—an appellation calculated to lead to confusion with the engines constructed for U.N.R.R.A and described in our May Issue; the classification is 141R.

Correspondence. 111

The first locomotive in Natal. John Poole.
G.V. Bulkeleys letter in February Issue, throws an interesting light on the early history of the Natal Rys. It has been accepted by many that the only 4 ft. 8½ in. locomotive to work in Natal was the 4-4-0T, Kitson's No. 2037 (1875), Cyls. 14 x 20 and 4 ft. 3in. coupled wheels. However, the Point line was opened in 1866, and in Kitsons list, No. 1271 of 1865 is. given as for Natal: 4 ft. 8½ in. gauge, Cyls. 12 x 18, and 4 ft. coupled wheels, which would appear to tally with the illustration, which moreover shows certain Kitson characteristics.
It would be of interest if Mr. Bulkeley could discover anything about a locomotive said to have been built at Durban in the early days of the N.G.R. An old four wheeled tender lying at Greytown in 1908 was said to have belonged to this engine, about which little seemed to be known.

St. Helens Railway locomotives. R. Abbott
The error which called forth the letter of Baxter in the December, 1945 and that of Kirby in the February, 1946 issues was that in my notes on the St. Helens Railway locomotives, the Works No. of  Trent was given as Sharp, Roberts' 193 instead of 199. Trent was originally one of four 0-4-2 locomotives built in 1842 for the Manchester and Birmingham Railway and numbered 21-24 on that line. Of these Nos. 21-23 became Northern Division Nos. 421-423 in 1857, when the North-Eastern Division of the L. and N.W. was absorbed into the Northern. No. 423 was renumbered 423A in March, 1860 and was sold to the St. Helens Railway later in the same year, and became their No. 2 Trent. On being again acquired by the L. and N.W. in July, 1864 it was allotted the number 1368 and sold during the same year to I.W. Boulton of Ashton-under-Lyne.

The Dublin and South Eastern Railway and its locomotives. John Carr. 112
Re the concluding article and the statement that No. 20 (King George) was not a success. As a retired driver of 46 years' footplate experience, and who has worked this Engine over all the various sections of the old D.S.E.R. with very heavy trains, I can confidently say that No. 20 was the most successful and economical loco. on coal and water that was ever turned out of Grand Canal Street works.
Proof of this lies in the fact that Mr. George H. Wild, when Loco. Superintendent ordered two identical engines from Beyer, Peacock and Co. in 1924, except that they were fitted with Belpaire boilers, and these. two, with No. 20 (now 455 with reduced pressure) work daily the crowded express trams of seven bogie coaches between Dublin and Greystones without any trouble and in spite of the very inferior fuel. Thus No. 20 has been constantly running for 35 years and is still a splendid machine. Also, the author's statement was not quite correct about the working pressure which was 160 lb., not 175.

Services rendered-traffic versus loco. Norman Duncan
As a railwayman of 38 years' experience in the Goods Manager's and Operating departments (formerly Goods Manager's Dept., Hull 1946. and Barnsley Railway, Hull).  I do not agree with the dictum that it is possible to convert a Loco. man into a Traffic man, but not the reverse. I would very much like to know of a single instance where a Loco man has emerged into a successful traffic officer. It is not necessary really to argue about the reverse for so far as a traffic man becoming a loco. man is concerned, the beginning and end of that is the Loco. Dept. wouldn't have them at any price, On the other hand, however, it is a fact that Loco. men have been appointed to posts in the Traffic Departments under a new "Joint organisation" or co-ordination of departments tried out on certain systems but the only result I have seen is that the traffic office in question under a Loco. chief speedily becomes "locomotivised" and after a bit you would have to go round with a large magnifying glass to discover any traces of its former Traffic "glory". The title of the office would be the same but the atmospherics entirely different. I worked in such an office for two and a half years of late and saw that transition take place, but it wasn't good for the traffic man.
Take the case of the larger railways of India. Before the introduction of the Divisional system of organisation in that country after the 1914-18 war it was a common enough thing for Engineers (but not Loco. men) to be appointed Traffic Managers and Agents of the largest lines, it being generally laid down in that country that a man with engineering experience was superior to any other for the purose of filling any high executive post. That many of these men did well is indisputable hut none the less for the occupancy of such responsible posts as those which were formerlv known under the titles of Chief Supt. of Transportation ard General Traffic Manager respectively of the big broad gauge lines. the best remembered names to this day are those of the men holding those posts for very often lengthy periods and who were Traffic born and bred. They were big noises whose equal was not to be met in any other depaitment and they know their jobs from A to Z. Now, to-day, in this country we are grappling with tt. problem of co-ordinating Locomotive Running Superintendents, Goods Managers and Passenger Managers into one harmonious whole. But until the Traffic men get their rightful bite of the apple and fill the responsible posts for which they have worked from their earliest years of service, the scheme, admirable though it may be in theory, will in practice fall short of ·expectations. Knowledge of rates and fares, general railway classification, canvassing, development and train and traffic control involves to my way of reasoning just as much skill as that implied by the term "mechanical training".
It is true we are living in the present and not the past but your mention of the Superintendent of the Line of by-gone days with his very special top hat rather makes me wistfully wish once again for the days of the big bearded giants who as Goods Managers and Superintendents ruled the roost in days of yore and were allowed to manage their own departments to the best advantage, ,untrammelled by the interference of other departmental chiefs. . . Without wishing to belittle the present style of executive railway officials, I would like to ask where to-day are the Scotters, the Nicholls, the C.T. Smith's, the L.W. Horne's, the Finlay Scott's and F. H. Dent's of bygone days .. Gone but not forgotten.

Reviews. 112

Building the Inner Circle Railway.The Railway Gazette
A series of pictures of very great interest (to Londoners in particular) were published in the Railway Gazette during the latter part of last year illustrating the construction of the Praed Street-Mansion House section of the old Metropolitan and Metropolitan District Railways. These have. now been reprinted in book form together with a few brief particulars of the contracts, etc. The "cut-and-cover" method of construction is very clearly shown and the brochure is well worth acquiring as a. memento of what was then a novel system of construction.

The 2-8-0 and 2-10-0 locomotives of the War Department 1939-1945. Published by the Railway Correspondence and Travel Society;
Technical descriptions and illustrations of these engines have appeared in our pages, but in this brochure we find chronicled a com- plete list of numbers, builders, dates, where employed and present whereabouts of all the tender engines built in this country for war service overseas during the late war, together with all other known facts-a complete historical record in fact; and one regrets that no similar record appears to have been made of the engines similarly employed in the 1914-18 campaign. The only criticism we have to offer is the use of the term A.F.V. which, together with a large number of other combinations of initials, gained currency during the war years and which are as Greek to the uninitiated.

The story of British Railways by Barrington Tatford, London; Sampson Low,
The author presents a general survey of the British railway system, but as the foreword states it is intended to be only a very rough sketch. The illustrations are numerous. [Ottley 116: who mentioned 24 colour plates]

Name plates of the Southern: by Frank Burridge. Published by Sydenham and Co. Ltd.
A list of all the Southern named engines detailing the style of name plate fitted to each together with dimensions. It is copiously illustrated.

Superheater Co , Ltd. 112
Closed their temporary wartime offices at Altrincham, Cheshire, and have moved to 53, Haymarket, London

Number 648 (15 August 1946)

The written word. 113.
Editorial criticism of standard of railway letter writing

L. Derens. Three-cylindder passenger locomotives, Netherlands Railways. 114-16. illustration, diagram (side elevation)

Swedish steam locomotives. 116
For the first time in twenty years new steam locomotives were being built in Sweden for the Swedish State Railways, on which 86 per cent. of the traffic is now hauled electrically. Nydqvist and Holm were building 10 large three-cylinder 4-8-0 engines, and the tenders were being built at Fahen works. The weight in working order is given as 74 tons for the locomotive and 116 tons for engine and tender; maximum axle load is 12.8 tons.

Argentine fuel. 116
According to the chairman of the Buenos Ayres Pacific Railway, that company had been burning as locomotive fuel during the past four or five years maize, linseed oil, sludge from oil refineries, and many other combustibles; but the mainstay was firewood, some hundreds of thousands of tons of which had been secured.

L.M.S.R 116
New locomotives in service were: 4-6-0 Mixed Traffic Class 5 (built at Crewe) Nos 4974, 4975, 4976, 4977, 4978; (built at Horwich) Nos 4959, 4960, 4961, 4962; 2-6-4 Tank Class 4 (built at Derby) Nos 2229, 2230, 2231, 2232.
The following engines had been withdrawn: 4-6-0 Class 5P. No. 10446 (L. & Y.R.); 4-6-2 Class 4PT. No. 15358 (Caledonian); 2-4-2 Class 2PT. No. 10881 (L. & Y.R.); 2-4-2 Class 1PT. No. 6755 (L. & N.W.R.); No. 12838 (L. &Y.R.); 0-6-0 Class 3F. Nos. 12282, 12614 (L. & Y.R.); 0-6-0 Class 2 F. Nos. 28186, 28303 (L. & N.W.R.); No. 22979 (Midland); 0-8-2 Class 6 FT, No. 7891 (L. & N.W.R.); 0-6-2 Class 2 FT. No. 27624 (L. & N.W.R.); 0-6-0 Class 2 FT. No. 11448 (L. & Y.R.); 0-6-0 Class I FT. No. 1871 (Midland).
All locomotives were to be painted black, and with the exception of the Pacific, Royal Scot, Patriot and Jubilee classes, would be unlined. These express passenger classes will be painted black and lined-out in maroon and straw colour. Carriage stock to be painted maroon instead of a shade often described as Midland red, with straw coloured lining. Gill Sans lettering to become standard.

L.N.E.R. 116
0-6-0 saddle tanks, built to the order of the Ministry of Supply and not required for overseas, were being taken over by the company for shunting in colliery sidings and similar duties.

Loco. modernisation on the Great Indian Peninsula Railway. 117-19. 4 illustrations, diagram (side elevation)
History of the locomotives of the Great Indian Peninsula Railway published in Locomotive Mag, Volumes 32-35 (beginning April 1926 page 110). This article mainly describes the Class XA light Pacific built by Vulcan Foundry in 1929: they had 16 x 26 in cylinders, 5ft 1½ coupled wheels, a total heating area of 1747ft2 including 348ft2  superheater. The grate area was 32ft2 . A Belpaire firebox was fitted. One photograph shows an XA Pacific being unloaded at Bombay from the SS Belray. The larger XB Cllass Pacific is illustrate, but was described in Locomotive Mag, Vol. 33, p. 375 and 34, p. 240 The XD Class is also illustrated and was described in Locomitive Mag., 1928, 34, 376

G.W.R. new engjne:s. 119
4-6-0 No. 5098 Clifford Castle; No. 5099 Compton Castle; No. 7000 Viscount Portal; No. 7001 Denbigh Castle; 0-6-0 Nos. 9646 to 9648.
The following engines have been withdrawn: 2·6·0, No. 2639 and No. 2673; 0-6·0 No. 876 (ex Cambrian); 0-4-2T No. 1163; 2-4-0T No. 1499; 0-4-0T No. 13.

Furness Railway. 119
At the time of its opening the Furness line was not connected with any other railway system, and the first engines supplied to the line had to be brought from Liverpool to Barrow by sea. These locomotives were built by the firm of Bury, Curtis and Kennedy and were known as the Coppernobs; one of them was exhibited as an historic relic at the Empire Exhibiton, Wembley, in 1924, and after being bombed out of Barrow during WW2, was still preserved at the L.M.S. Locomotive Works at Crewe, whence it would shortly be sent to Horwich Locomotive Works pending its return to its original site at Barrow. (See Locomotive Mag, Vol. V, The Locomotive History of the Furness Railway).

David L. Smith. The Girvan and Portpatrick Junction Railway. 120-2
Previous part began page 93. Neilson supplied 0-6-0 WN 3584-5: they had 5ft 1½ coupled wheels, 17 x 26in cylinders, total heating surface of 1065ft2, grate area 16.5ft2 and 150 psi boiler pressure. These received running numbers 4 and 5 and were painted dark green. No. 7 was an 0-4-0 tramway engine of the Wigan type with vertical boiler with water tubes and 7 x 12in cylinders. It was built by the Yorkshie Engine Co. Wheatley took it from Challoch Junction to Girvan and back where it remained for nine years. The line was taken over by the Ayrshire & Wigtownshire Railway which had been incorporated on 23 May 1887. The Chairman was James H. Renton and the Directors were Colonel Barnett and Duncan McCallum. The Secretary was James Fulton Jackson who later steered the North British Railway. Two locomotives orrdered by the oldrer company were not delivered until after the take-over . They came from the Clyde Locomotive Co. in its brief separate existence and were WN 12 and 13 of 1887 and became Nos. 6 and 7. It is noted that No. 1 was worked very hard and relied upon the Clark & Webb chain brake.

Centenary of the Edinburgh-Berwick line, N.B.R. 122-3
An important event in the history of British Railways took place on r Sth June, 1846, when the first section of line laid down by the North British Railway was formally opened. This was the Edinburgh to Berwick line which formed the first railway to run over the Border between Scotland and England and by joining up two years later with the York, Newcastle and Berwick Railway the through- out East Coast route between Edinburgh and London was completed.
On that memorable day 100 years ago crowds of spectators lined the North Bridge and the slopes of the Calton Hill, Edinburgh, to witness two trains, made up in all of 38 carriages and 9 locomotives, depart from the station which was situated on the east side of the North Bridge. These trains conveyed 700 guests to Berwick who, on the return journey, were entertained at Dunbar on the lavish scale customary at that period. A few days later, on zznd June, 1846, the line was opened to public traffic. The Act incorporating the North British Railway received the Royal Assent in July, 1844, and construction commenced on 12 August of the same year. The work was entrusted to 12 contractors each with a separate section to complete and the construction, which was on boldly conceived lines, did not present the difficulties later to be encountered in bridging the Rivers Forth and Tay. Nevertheless, the building of the steep bank culmmatmg at Grantshouse Station, approximately 385 feet above sea level, was not easily achieved.
The North British Station in Edinburgh in 1846 was an unpretentious affair not to be compared with the present Waverley Station. It had only been open for some six weeks when the Edinburgh and Glasgow Railway, whose management, foreseeing the advantages to be gamed from .the building of the new railway, had obtained powers sometime previously to construct an extension from. their terminus at Haymarket to link up with the North British, brought the line into use, thus enabling passengers to travel between Glasgow and Berwick without changmg stations. From that time onwards the station was shared by both companies and was designated the General Station. The following year saw the advent of yet a third railway company, which opened Canal Street Station adjoining the General Station. This was the Edinburgh, Leith and Granton which wIth its system of drawing trains through the steep incline of Scotland Street tunnel by means of statIonary engine and cable formed an unusual feaure of travellmg in the capital for a number of years. A brief span of time had elapsed and there were thus three railways occupymg one site now contained within the boundaries of the Waverley Staion. By 1869 the growth of traffic necessitated the provision of improved facilities for these these railways, the Edinburgh and Glasgow and Edinburgh, Leith and Granton havmg by now been absorhed by the North Bnhsh.
The opening of the Forth Bridge and the expansion and popularity of railway travellIng heralded the projection of plans for a new station to be built upon this site, and thus evolved the Waverley, largely as it is today, at a cost of £1.5 million. Until the building of Waterloo Station m London,. Waverley enjoyed the distinction of being the largest station m the British Isles. It is still the largest on the L.N.E.R.
From its inception the North British pursued a progressive .polIcy and, through fluctuating fortunes, eventually became the largest railway in Scotland With the two famous bridges over the Forth and Tay giving it further distinction. The building of new lines and the absorption of other cornpanies gave the North British access to Hawick and later to Carlisle and Silloth, whilst it penetrated England at other points to Hexham, Rothbury and Morpeth. Stirling, Perth and Dundee were reached in the north and, by running powers over the Caledonian Railway, access was gained to Aberdeen. To the north west the lines to Fort William, Fort Augustus and Mallaig were acquired and it may be said, hat the North British had attained a solid position in the economic life of Scotland.

L.N.E.R. 123.
Edward Thompson, Chief Mechanical Engineer, retired on 30 June, after a career which has included service on the Midland, North Eastern, Great Northern and London and North Eastern Railways. A.H. Peppercorn appointed as his successor. Peppercorn started as a premium apprentice at Doncaster in 1905, and after gaining experience in the running sheds at Colwick he was appointed District Locomotive Superintendent at Ardsley and later at Peterborough. After serving with the Royal Engineers in the 1914-1918 war, he became District Locomotive Superintendent at Retford and subsequently returned to Doncaster where in 1923 he became Carriage and Wagon Works Manager. In 1933 he was appointed Assistant Mechanical Engineer at Stratford and in 1937 became Locomotive Running Superintendent of the L.N.E.R. Southern Area. A year later he was promoted to Mechanical Engineer, North Eastern Area, Darlington. Peppercorn returned to Doncaster again in 1941 as Assistant Chief Mechanical Engineer.

L.M.S.R. 123
During WW2 there were 2,063 occasions on which bomb damage was caused, and running lines were obstructed 725 times causing blockage. One hundred passenger, goods and engine depots were severely damaged. Seventeen passengers and 51 L.M.S. staff were killed, 138 passengers and 567 staff were injured. 2,000 vehicles, including one locomotive were destroyed and 11,000 vehicles, including 73 locomotives were damaged. Poplar L.M.S. Goods Depot was the most bombed station, receiving 17 major attacks and many other minor incidents. Three large warehouses containing huge quantities of flour, grain, wool and crockery, were completely destroyed.

Forth Bridge repairs. 123.
Major work on the Forth Bridge was in progress and will continue for some time. The ends of all the main girders of the approach viaducts were being given attention. The work consisted of reconditioning the girder bearings and strengthening them in accordance with modern practice, as well as replacing the cast iron bedplates on the tops of the piers with cast steel bed plates of modern design. It is hoped that the work will be completed before the end of 1947, the southern approach being dealt with this year, and the northern approach next year.
The execution of the work has been so arranged as to cause the minimum of interference with rail services, but the lines over the Bridge will have to be closed to traffic from 12.01 to 10.00 each Sunday and for two periods of four hours in mid-week. At all. times trains will require to pass over the portion of the Bndge under repair at a greatly reduced speed.

L.N.E.R. appointment. 123
J. Blundell appointed District Locomotive Superintendent at Peterborough in succession to Mr. E. H. Baker who was recently appointed 'District Locomotive Superintendent, Gorton.

R. Opie Locomotive power, performance and ratiing. 123-5.
American Boiler House Power formula, also calculations of train resistance. Continued Volume 53 p. 73.

J.T. Clarke. Further French recollections. 126. 2 diagrams (side elevations)
Refers back to late 1890s and motive power used from Gare St. Lazare in Paris to Gisors via Pontoise. Outside cylinder 0-4-2 built at Chartreux in 1847. The Dieppe boat trains were powered by 2-4-0 built by Fives-Lille in 1888. Also refers to Paris Exhibition of 1900.

R.B. Fellows. The Granville Express. 127-8
Postulates that Granville Express noted in the official timetables in was the first train to receive an official title. It ran from Charing Cross to Ramsgate.

Correspondence. 128
A  modern locomotive history. G. Carpenter
Re article entitled "A Modern Locomotive History" [based on Cox ILocoE Paper 457] was of special interest in that it divulged full details of the various designs produced by the earlier Chief Mechanical Engineers of the L.M.S.R., and which never appeared in traffic, for the first time. The publication of this information, on which considerable speculation and rumour has occurred from time to time, makes one realise how the various restricting influences which caused the non-appearance of these machines retarded locomotive development in the pre-Stanier era.
Perhaps the most interesting of these projected designs were the four cylinder compound 4-6-2 and 2-8-2 machines, whose dimensions are such that they appear to effectively dispose of the oft repeated argument that four cylinder compound machines of maximum dimensions cannot be constructed within the confines of the British loading gauge, as did the construction of the larger Great Western Atlantics Alliance and President some years earlier. It may be noted that the cylinders of the proposed Fowler Pacific are not greatly dissimilar in dimensions from those of the P.O.-Midi 4-8-0s of Chapelon design and that the ratio between the high and low pressure cylinder volumes is practically the same. From the cross-sectional drawings of the cylinders given in your article it would also appear that adequate bearing surfaces were obtained without the necessity for offsetting the axes of the coupling and piston rods, which is strictured as being bad practice. It would be highly interesting to know how one of these projected machines would compare with, say, one of the latest Duchess Pacifies on the same railway, of roughly comparable dimensions. This unfortunately can only be a matter for conjecture, but one would imagine that the absence of independent valve gears for the high and low pressure cylinders, whilst having the advantages of simplicity and economy in weight, would.prevent the most efficient use being made of compound workmg m conjunction with a high working pressure and modern front end design. The efficiency of the Midland compounds with this arrangement may of course be cited against this argument, but these engines do not fulfil either of the conditions mentioned and the inflexibility of the Deeley design with fixed relative cut offs, whilst admirable for fast passenger working with moderate loads, has. been reflected in their lesser success on duties of a more intermediate nature.
Both from the aspects of power output and thermal efficiency the most modern types of compound express locomotive, such as the Paris-Orleans 4-6-2 and 4-8-0 designs appear to have a considerable advantage .over British simple types of similar dimensions. Sir William Stanier has stated that the closest approach to the overall thermal efficiency of 14%, claimed for the Chapelon 4-8-0s, is that of 11% in the L.M.S.R. Pacifies of latest type and of greater weight than the French engines menboned. Similarly no British design has, on published performance, equalled or closely approached the maximum power output of the French 4-8-0s which is in the region of 4000 i.h.p. One would imagine that compounding would produce similar results if applied to locomotives used on main line freight and mixed duties and the Fowler 2-8-2 design seems to confirm possibilities in this direction.
Whilst it seems reasonable to assume from the large Fowler designs referred to in your .article, and the dimensions of the earlier Great Western De Glehn Atlantics, that there is no serious constructional difficulty in producing compound machines of almost equal power and efficiency within the British loading gauge, there would have to be a drastic revolution in driving method to produce the best results from such machines unless the fixed ratio of cut off and Derby regulator of Midland design was used. Unless adequate theoretical instruction in compound design and handling were given, as is the case on the Continent, it is likely that results similar to those which attended the introduction of engines with modern front end arrangements on lines where conventional driving methods prevailed would occur again. Shed staff would also need special instruction for maintenance of the rather more complicated mechanism of compound engines although neither of these difficulties should be insurmountable.
Present day conditions of maintenance would also hamper the compounds which would seem more susceptible to the effects of poor maintenance in particular valve setting and receiver leakages. Here again, however, the present difficulties should only be temporary and can hardly be the basis of locomotive design which otherwise would be re- stricted limits of extreme simplicity for easy maintenance. Whilst all the foregoing conditions can only be accurately assessed by those in possession of detailed information it does, however, seem regrettable that no attempt has been made to incorporate compounding as applied .so successfu.lly to leading designs abroad in modern Bntish locomotive construction for comparative purpose with existing designs. This makes it the more regrettable that neither of the large Fowler designs mentioned materialised, but even the published details of their design show conclusively that there is no unsurmountable constructional difficulty if it is ever desired to introduce engines of this type.

. CARPENTER, Transport Directorate, Capt., R.E. South East Asia Command. May. 1946. Comment on A modern locomotive history which had appeared in April Issue: argued that Fowler proposed designs for compound 4-6-2 and 2-8-2 had shown that it would have been possible to design compound locomotive within British limits and thet the proposed ratios for cylinder dimensions were almost akin to those expounded by Chapelon.

L.M.S.R. appointments. 128
E.C. Watson Assistant Superintendent, Motive Power, Derby; W.H. Ensor Assistant Superintendent Motive Power, Watford; J.W. Phillips, District Locomotive Superintendent, Derby; A. Udell, District Locomotive Superintendent, Blackpool; F.M. Binns, ;Assistant District Locomotive Superintendent, Accrington; W.J. Legg, District Locomotive Superintendent, Bletchley, J.A.W. Knapman, Assistant Locomotive Superintendent, Kentish Town, V.W. Furber Assistant Locomotive Superintendent, Wellingborough.

Number 649 (14 September 1946)

Preservation of historic locomotives. 129-30
Editorial prompted by reprieve of Midland Railway No. 158 (Kirtley locomotive built in 1866). Notes importance of public access and cites Darlington station and dangerws of open air display and cites Invicta. Questions whether restoration to tyhe original state should be attepted and cites Aerolite.

New saloons for the Royal Train. 130-2. 2 illustrations, 2 diagrams (side elevations and plans)
The King and Queen's saloons are illustrated, but not the power car (electricity generator) and staff accommodation car. All ran on six wheel bogies, had Pullman gangways and Buckeye couplers. The sallons were fitted with armour plated glass and had steel shutters. Wide double doors enabled regal entrances and exits. Rubber bushes were fiited to reduce vibration. Asbestos insulation was widely used.

L.M.S.R. 132
At Euston Station, locomotive No. 5633 Jubilee Class, was formally named Aden by Lt.-Col. Sir Bernard Reilly, K.C.M.G., C.I.E., O.B.E., who was the first Governor of Aden when it became a Colony in 1937. Sir Robert Burrows, Chairman of the L.M.S. Railway, presided, and was supported by other L.M.S. officers. The guests included Mr. J. M. Martin, C.B. C.V.O., Assistant Under-Secretary of State, and Mr. Trafford Smith, Head of the Middle East Department, Colonial Office.
The locomotive Aden is one of 189 units of the L.M.S. Jubilee class, a large number of which are named after Dominions, Colonies and Mandated Territories of the British Empire. It was a red-letter day for Driver A.T.W. Castle, for not only was he selected to man No. 5633 for the ceremony, but it was also his 44th birthday. Driver Castle entered the railway service in 1917 and has been a driver for ten years; in September, 1945, he returned to the L.M.S. after 6 years Army service, in the course of which he became C.S.M. of an Indian Railway Operating Unit, and spent some time at Aden on his way to India. Assisting Driver Castle was Fireman J. Page, who entered the railway service in 1934 and became fireman in 1937. He served in the Army from September, 1939, until June of this year, being a Driver Instructor in the South African Royal Engineers. The flag covering the name-plate was the Blue Ensign, with the Union Jack in the left-hand upper corner. The badge is a circle, the background of which is sky blue. A dhow with two sails is superimposed on six wavy lines in alternate blue and white lines.

L.M.S. and L.N.E.R. Testing Station. 132
D.W. Stanford appointed Superintending Engineer of the locomotive testing station at Rugby: entered the Midland Railway works, Derby, in 1912, and later became chief draughtsman there.

James McEwan. Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway.135-7. 4 illustrations
Brittain 0-6-0STs supplied by Neilson & Co. in 1881 (WN2697-2702; RN 486-491) were known on Clydeside as steamboats due to their large hand brake. They had 18 x 22in outside cylinders, 4ft coupled wheels; 1050ft2 total heating surface and 14.75ft2 grate area. Three were rebuilt with a lightly larger boiler (1090.7ft2 total heating surface) and for a time higher (150 psi) boiler pressure. These were Nos. 486, 487 and 489. In 1913 Nos. 486 and 487 were sold to United Collieries Ltd for use at Quarter Colliery where they became Nos. 10 and 11. No. 10 received a new firebox in 1929 at Arnott & Co.'s works in Airdrie, No. 489 was kept at Motherwell shed as a spare and became LMS No. 16150, but this number was never carried: it was scrapped in 1928, but the other two lasted until 1935 and 1938.
The Brittain Oban Bogie or 179 class and were built by Dubs & Co. in 1882 (WN 1672-1681; RN 179-188). When built they were fitted with Stirling's steam reversing gear. They had an axle load of only 14½ tons and were fitted with four-wheel tenders as only 40ft turntables were available. Originally they had a small enamelled medallion with the Lion of Scotland rampant fixed on the cab side sheet. The class both as built and rebuilt presented a very neat and singular appearance and were never heavy on maintenance. This was the last passenger class to have outside cylinders until Pickersgill brought out the 60 class of 4-6-0 in 1916, thirty-four years later. They had 18 in. by 24 in. cylinders; 5 ft. 2 in. coupled wheels; 1146.42ft2 total heating surface and 14.4ft2 grate area. They were rebuilt between 1898 and 1901 with new boilers with 1085.9ft2 total heating surface and 17ft2 grate area with the boiler pressure raised to 150 psi, from 130psi. Folloowing the introduction of the McIntosh 4-6-0s to the Oban line the class was moved to working branch lines, such as the Blairgowrie, Moffat and Solway Junction lines. Eight survived to enter LMS stock and three carried LMS livery: the last were withdrawn in 1930.

G.W.R. 137
New engines in service: 4-6-0 No. 7002 Devizes Castle; No. 7003 Elmley Castle; No. 7004 Eastnor Castle; No. 7005 Lamphey Castle; No. 7006 Lydford Castle.  0-6-0T Nos. 9649-9651.

L.M.S.R. 137
New locomotives in service: 4-6-0 Mixed Traffic, Class 5 (built at Crewe) 4979, 4980, 4981; (built at Horwich) 4963, 4964, 4965, 4966; 2-6-4 Tank, Class 4 (built at Derby) 2233, 2234, 2235. The following engines have been withdrawn: 4-6-0 Class 3P 14686 (Highland); 4-4-0 Class 3P 755 (Midland) 14442 (Caledonian) ; Class 2P 14332 (Caledonian); 4-6-2 Class 4PT 15357 (Caledonian); 2-4-2 Class 3PT 10935, 10941 (L. & Y.); Class 2PT 10787, 10809, 10871, 10874 (L. & Y.); Class 'PT 6607 (L. & N.W.); 0-6-2 Class 2PT 6893, 6925 (L. & N:W.); 0-4-4 Class 1PT 1286 (Midland); Class 2PT 15131 (Caledonian); 0-6-0 Class 2F 3055, 3056, 3121, 3352, 3416, 3518, 3695, 22928 (Midland). 12039 (L. & Y.), 28420 (L. & N.W.); Class 3F 12143 (L. & Y.); 0-8-4 Class 7FT 7950, 7955 (L. & N.W.); 0-8-2 Class 6FT 7897 (L. & N.W.); 0-6-2 Class 2FT 27571, 27662 (L. & N.W.); 0-6-0 Class 1FT 1751, 1771, 1876 (Midland).

R.A.S. Abbott. The broad-gauge locomotives of the Vale of Neath Railway. 140-1. 2 diagrams (side elevations)
According to RCTS. Locomotives of the Great Western Railway. V. 2 this account contains some inaccuracies. Two wheel arrangements: 4-4-0ST for passenger work and 0-6-0ST (both illustrated, but other drawings, also by Abbott in RCTS publication!).. Also refers to Locomotive Mag., 1902, 7, 18.

Number 650 (15 October 1946)

Influence of the rear truck. 145-6
Feature of Great Northern Railway, notably the Ivatt Atlantics which permitted a greater grate area and firebox volume; but led to some loss of adhesion; although gave comfort to the footplate crew through better ride and possibly less harm to the track.

L.M.S. No.6254 "City of Stoke-on-Trent". 146. illustration, diagram. (side & front elevations)
Ceremony held at Stoke-on-Trent station on Friday, 20 September 1946, the new 4-6-2 locomotive No. 6254 was formally named City of Stoke-on-Trent by the Lord Mayor (Councillor Percy Williams, J .P .). Sir Francis Joseph, a director of the L:M.S., presided and was supported by Mr. T. W. Royle (Vice-President), Mr. H. G. Ivatt (Chief Mechanical Engineer) and other officers of the Company, whilst the guests included a number of prominent representatives of the civic and industrial life of Stoke-on-Trent. The locomotive was manned for the ceremony by Driver Henry Brindley and Passed Fireman Clive Robinson of Stoke-on-Trent, both of whom have distinguished records of public service in the city. Driver Brindley was a City Councillor 1919-22; he has been in the railway service since 1899 and a driver for 27 years. No. 6254 was one of three Class 7P 4-6-2 express passenger engines which are being constructed at Crewe Works in 1946.

Lancaster and Carlisle Railway. 146
The opening for traffic of the first completed section of the Lancaster and Carlisle Railway between Lancaster and Oxenholme, a distance of 20 miles, took place on 22 September 1846. There was brought into use the first 2 miles, between Oxenholme and Kendal, of the Windermere branch, which was constructed by the Kendal and Windermere Railway Company. With the opening of the railway from Lancaster to Oxenholme, what is now the main L.M.S. West Coast route to Scotland, was brought to within 50 miles of the Border City of Carlisle, to which the railway was extended in December 1846. At the time of the opening of the L. & C.A., Carnforth which has since become one of the most important junctions on the West Coast, was merely a wayside halt. The principal engineering feature between Lancaster and Oxenholme was the bridge carrying the railway 60 ft. above the River Lune immediately North of Lancaster. The Lancaster and Carlisle Railway began at a junction with the Lancaster and Preston Junction Railway about one mile south of Lancaster (Castle) Station, and with the opening of the latter, passenger traffic ceased to use Lancaster's original railway station—the terminus of the Lancaster and Preston Junction Railway, opened in 1846. It has since been used as a goods station.

New saloons for the Royal Train. 147-50. 7 illustrations, diagram (side elevation and plan)
Illustrations show the King's bathroom and bedroom, the Queen's bedroom and both of their lounges, and the exterior of the staff car cum brake van and generator car, and the interior of the last. Text describes air conditioning and services.

Tractors at Crewe Works, L.M.S.R. 150-1. 2 illustrations
Lancing Bagnall Ltd. tractors with petrol engines

Shoe beams on London Transport rolling stock. 152. illustration
Steel used in place of teak.

Loco modernisation on the Great Indian Peninsula Railway. 153-5. 3 illustrations, diagram. (side elevation)

High frequency generator. 155. diagram

David L. Smith. The Girvan and Portpatrick Junction Railway. 156-8. 3 illustrations

L.M.S.R. 158
New locomotives in service: 2-6-4 Tank —Class 4 Nos. 2236, 2237, 2238, 2239 and 2240 (built at Derby). The following engines had been withdrawn: 4-6-0 Class 4P No. 25818 (L. & N.W.R. Prince of Wales Class; 4-4-0 Class 3P No. 25277 Oberon (L. & N.W.R. Precursor Class); 2-4-2 Class 1PT Nos. 6652, 6713 (L. & N.W.R.); 0-6-2 Class 2PT No. 6936 (L. & N.W.); 0-4-4 (class 1PT No. 1253 (Midland); 0-8-0 Class 7F Nos. 12920, 12981, Class 6F No. 12790 (L. & Y.R.); 0-6-0 Class 2F No. 17376 (Caledonian), Class 3F Nos. 12257, 12375 (L. & Y.R.); 0-6-2 Class 2FT Nos. 7778, 27631 (L. & N.W.R.).
A steelwork contract in connection with the renewal of engine-shed roofs at Cricklewood (N.W. London), Belle Vue (Manchester), Saltley (Birmingham), and Stourton (Leeds) had been placed with a Henley-in-Arden (Warwickshire) firm.

Personal. 158
C. A. Lyon appointed Press and Publications Officer to the London Passenger Transport Board.

Cecil J. Allen, F.R.S.A., retired from the L.N.E.R. Chief Engineer's Department after a railway career of 43 years. Mr. Allen will be known to many readers as an author on railway subjects.

A delegation of five representatives of the Danish State Railways recently visited England to confer with L.M.S. technical experts regarding smoke abatement and disposal at locomotive sheds.

The Institute of Transport. 158
Railway Companies Association 1946 Awards (for Graduates and Students). 1. To E.S. Hutchins (Graduate), Buenos Aires Great Southern and Western Railways. 2. To A.R. Smith (Graduate), L.M.S. Railway, Manchester.

Obituary. 158
We regret to record the death of Malcolm Patrick of the L.M.S. (N.C.C.) Belfast. Patrick was appointed locomotive superintendent of the Northern Counties Committee in 1933.

Number 652 (14 December 1946)

The L.M.S. turbine locomotive. 177-8.
Editorial comment on the Bond ILocoE Paper. Main observation was that a higher steam temperatures and pressures were essential

German 2-10-0 locomotive. 178. diagram (side elevation)

Loco moderniisation on the Great Indian Peninsula Railway. 179-82. 9 illustrations

James McEwan. Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway.183-4. illustration

R.A.H. Weight. The Kent and East Sussex Railway in 1946. 185-6. 4 illustrations
Includes details of proposed extensions: to Tovil on outskirts of Maidstone, upon which some work had started: severe gradients led to purchase of 0-8-0T. Othe proposed extensions included Tenterden to Appledore; Northam to Rye and Robertsbridge to Pevensey. Lists loccomotive stock and liveries applied

London Transport. 186.
Conversion of boilers at Neasden Generating Station from pulverized coal to oil firing: initially oil was to be delivered by road but with full operation would be delivered by rail from Purfleet to a modified goods yard at Neasden

R.C.  Bond. Ten years' experience with the L.M.S. 4-6-2 non-condensing turbine locomotive, No. 6202. 187-9. 3 tables

L.N.E.R. 189
Appointments within Chief Mechanical Engineer's Department: S. King Assistant to Chief Mechanical Engineer (General) to be Assistant to Chief Mechanical Engineer (Cost Control); R. Hart-Davis moved from Doncaster to be Assistant to Chief Mechanical Engineer (Locomotive and General) and W. Featherstone, formerly Assistant Works Manager, Doncaster to be Head of the C.M.E.'s Section, Purchasing Agent's Office

L.M.S.R. 189
New locomotives into service: built at Crewe class 7P passenger tender No. 6255 City of Hereford, at Derby 2-6-4 tank class 4P Nos. 2246 to 2252; and at Horwich Class 5 4-6-0 No. 4986. Also retirement of Driver L.A. Earl of Camden MPD.

L. Derrens. The Dutch State Railways Co. 190-3. 2 illustrations, 2 diagrams (side elevations)
Trains from Utrecht to Amsterdam used to arrive at the Weesperpoort Station and reverse before going forward to Central Station. There was a stop signal on the sharp curve at Muiderpoort station where trains were liable to stall and in 1915 nine locomotives were obtained from the Hohenzollern Company of Dusseldorf. These were outside cylinder 0-6-0Ts. This first batch was numbered 221-9. In 1920 six further engines, Nos. 230-5 were obtained from Henschel of Kassel. Five outside cylinder 0-10-0Ts were obtained from the Hohenzollern Company. They were numbered 9501-5 and employed for hump shunting at Susteren in South Limburg.  The first and fifth axles were Golsdorf sliding axles with water lubricated flanges. The cab was totally enclosed and provided with  tip up seats and fascilities for warming food.  

Luxembourg locomotives. 193.
Had received five new locomotives from the Belgian State Railways and a further four were promised. 18 of the 40 siezed by Germany had been returned. The total stock was 126.

Polish locomotives. 193.
5975 locomotives working in Poland of which 2608 were Polish owned and 576 were foreign owned. There were 223 5ft gauge locomotives.

Italian electric locomotives. 193.

Norwegian locomotive statistics. 193.

American-built locos ffor U.S.S.R. 193

Biggest diesel locomotive. 193.

Chilean locomotive order. 193.

Egyptian proposals. 193