Locomotive Railway Carriage & Wagon Review
Volume 61 (1955)

Key file

Number 749 (January 1955)

Containers. 1
Capable of carrying 2 tons or 4 tons

British Railways. 1
New locomotives: Eastern Region 2-10-0 Class 9: Nos. 92034-41; 2-6-4T Class 4 Nos. 80007/8. Co-Co electric Class EM2 Nos. 27005/6. Diesel shunter Class DY1 Nos. 11500/1. Scottish Region 2-6-4T Class 4 Nos. 80054/5; 80142/3. 350 hp diesel electric shunter Class DCS1 No. 12146

Personal. 1.
Captain Hugh Vivian, former chairman of Beyer Peacock, and then Director of Associatd Electrical Industries Ltd was made Member of the Western Area Board of the British Transport Commission.

News of the Month. 2

New British air brake. 2
Davies & Metcalfe , Ltd. have acquired the sole rights to manufacture and sell in the United Kingdom and the Dominions and Colonies air braking equipment of a type new to Britain. though it has been in use on railwavs in France, Switzerland, Austria and Yugoslavia for some years. These rights, which include the right to provide ·equipment to British locomotive and rolling stork builders supplying any territory have been acquired from the Oerlikon Machine Tool Works of Zurich, who in recent years have specialised in, and developed, these new designs of air brake valve, and equipment.
In the place of the usual pistons, which are associated with air brake triple valves, etc.. a special patented design of self-sealing rubber diaphragm is used, which is said to result in a new conception of maintenance requirements. The service life of the equipment is considerable and it is stated that there is no deterioration or loss of the original functional values throughout the period of service. Dismantling and re-assembling the component is simple and parts may be quicklv replaced without any necessity for fine fitting or grinding and lapping, etc. Amongst the components covered by the manufacturing licence is a number of styles of driver's brake control valves, designed to meet different braking requirements, and also different designs of triple valves. The equipment is so designed that many of the component parts are interchangeable between the various styles of fittings, thus simplifying and minimising the stock of spare components which are carried. The construction of the triple valves is based on the principle of adding various units to a standard body so as to give varying combinations of braking requirements, simplifying both manufacture and maintenance. A further feature of this equipment is that no pipes need be disconnected during the course of any service examination of the valves. A new patented design of air brake cylinder embodies the use of a synthetic rubber seal in place of the usual piston sealing rings. This seal in service remains perfectly airtight over a prolonged period of operation: its design ensures the continuous transfer of lubricant over the walls of the cylin- der, thus prolonging the cylinder life and contributing to better oraking resu lts. Equipment of this type is on order for some locomotives for Southern Ireland (Coras Iompair Eireann).

The Financial Times. 2
Frequently contains well-informed articles of considerable interest to those concerned wi th railway working. Among those which have appeared recentlv has been one on "Rail-Buses for Branch Lines" (25 Nov.), relating to German experiences with these vehicles. The Gerrnan railways have in service 472 rail-buses and 76 battery operated cars. The latter have a daily range of 160 miles on one charge but if intermediate charging can be effected we learn that the range is increased to 250 miles per day.
The issue of 6 December describes the increasingly important part which radio is playing in the operating of American railwavs. The number of authorised railway radio stations and carrier installations is now 16.792, representing a large increase in recent years.
The Rhodesian Railways formed the subject of a leading article on 13 December: tremendous expansion had taken  on this system and among locomotives now being delivered are 15 Beyer-Garratt locomotives of the 20th Class and 23 G.E.C. diesel-electric locomotives. The line to Lourenco Marques should be open by December 1955, after which the next step will be to construct the Sinoia-Kafue cut-off which will reduce the rail distance from the copper mines to Salisbury and Beira by 500 miles.
"The World's Fastest Train" was the title of an article which appeared on 17 December, and included a table of fast runs. Pride of place for electric traction is held by the French Railways who perform the run of 317.4 miles from Paris to Lyons at an average speed of 77.1 mile/h. To France also goes the credit for the fastest diesel run, 32.1 miles from Evreux-Bernay at 68.8 m.p.h. The record for steam traction is held by Britain with the journey between Paddington and Bristol, the 118.4 miles being covered at 67.6 mile/h.

Danish Railways. 2. illustration
The Danish State Railways signed a contract with Nydqvist & llolm AB,  for twenty 1,750 h.p. Nohab-GM diesel-electric locomotives. Delivery will start in November 1955- Early last year Nohab delivered four locomotives of a similar type to the Danish State Railways. Like the previous ones the new locomotives will be equipped with a 16-cylinder. two-stroke diesel engine of General Motors' design, but the power has been increased from 1,500 to 1,750 hp The electric generator provides current to four motors, which are connected to the outer axles of the three-axle bogies. The Danish firm of A/S Frichs, will manufacture under sub-contract the bogies, undercarriages and certain other details of the new locomotives.

Locomotive power transmission. 2
On  15 December . F.J.G. Haut, presented a paper to the Newcomen Society, in London on the subject of locomotive power transmission. The Author traced the history of this so far as the steam locomotive was concerned. and then considered at some length the problems encountered in transmitting power to the wheels of electric locomotives.

Manchester.Sheffield.Wath Electrification. 2
The change-over of the remaining section of this scheme, from steam tu electric traction, took place on 3  January. The Public Relations Office of the L.M.R_ had produced an attractive poster showing both passenger and goods trains hauled by electric locomotives of the 2,760 hp. Co-Co and the 1,868 hp. Bo-Bo type respectively. Over the Manchester- Sheffield main line there are operated about 100 trains each way every 24 hours, nine out of ten of which consist of loaded coal wagons or empties.

B.T.C. Reorganisation. 2
The approval by Parliament of the Railways Reorganisation Scheme, which provides for the introduction of Area Boards, has resulted in a further reorganisation and some reduction in size of the B.T.C. Headquarters. The titles of the Chief Regional Managers, in the new system operative from 1 January, were changed to General Managers. Members of the Area Board are appointed by the Commission and while at present such Boards deal only with Railways they may later take over other transport matters in their area. A British Railways Central Staff will be responsible, in conjunction with the General Managers, for seeing that the policies of the B.T_C. are carried out as a whole. The Central Staff includes R.F. Harvey, M.B.E whose position was titled Chief Operating & Motive Power Officer, R.C. Bond Chief Mechanical Engineer, S.B. Warder, Chief Electrical Engineer and A.E. Robson , M.B.E, Chief Carriage & Wagon Engineering Officer. Among changes in nomenclature of regional officers is that of the former Mechanical & Electrical Engineer-now known as Chief Mechanical & Electrical Engineer.

North British Locomotive Co. Ltd. 3-5. 4 illustrations
Over fifty years had elapsed since the formation in 1903 of North British Locomotive Company Ltd., which resulted from the amalgamation of three old-established firms of great repute in the locomotive world, viz. Sharp, Stewart & Co., Ltd., Neilson Reid & Co., and Dubs & Co.
An initial attempt to call the new combine the British Locomotive Company was thwarted by the discovery that this title had already been registered by an obscure company who had not, and have not since, had any connection with locomotive building. North British Locomotive Co., Ltd., one of the largest and leading manufacturers of locomotives, and its antecedents, have made a great and world-wide contribution to railway transport and have carried the reputation of the British locomotive for good design, excellent workmanship and first-class materials, to the corners of the earth.
The oldest branch of the firm, Sharp, Roberts, of Manchester, manufacturers of machine tools and cotton spinning machinery, produced their first locomotive in 1833, for service on the Liverpool and Manchester Railway. Through changes in the directorate, this firm became Sharp Brothers in 1845, Sharp Stewart in 1852 and Sharp Stewart Ltd., in 1864. In 1888 they moved to Glasgow, acquiring the works of the Clyde Locomotive Company Ltd., in Springburn, which had been founded in 1884 by Walter Montgomerie Neilson, the one-time owner of Hydepark Locomotive Works.
The Sharp 2-2-2 became one of the earliest standard designs, remaining in demand 1837-1857 for all classes of work. Some 600 locomotives of this type were constructed, the cylinders varying from 12½in. to 17in. and the driving wheels ranging from 5ft. to 6ft. diameter. Whilst most of these engines went to railways in Britain a large number were supplied to the Continent. Among later and famous derivatives of this type may be mentioned the locomotive built by eilsons, supplied to the Caledonian Railway and exhibited at the London International Exhibition of 1862. The enormous progress made in locomotive design and construction in the latter half of the last century is well exemplified by comparison of this engine with the South Eastern and Chatham Railway 4-4-0 exhibited by the same builders at the Glasgow International Exhibition of 1901.
Among the many technical developments associated with Sharps are, the form of wheel centre with H section spokes which was used in 1846 for a number of heavy goods locomotives. Valves located directly below the cylinders were introduced the same year on some engines, built for the L.N.W. and M.S. & L. Railways which had cylinders 18in. x 24in., a very large size for the period. Sharps fitted piston valves as far back as 1835. A feature of the standard 2-2-2 type, and other engines designed by the same Builders, was the location of the dome close to the chimney, this resulted from recognition of the fact that the greatest ebullition occured over the firebox and was done to reduce priming. The sole British rights for manufacturing the Giffard injector were acquired by Sharp Stewart with commendable foresight at a time when this device was viewed with much prejudice.
The Hydepark Locomotive Works, Glasgow, was formed in 1836, the original premises being located in Hydepark and Finnieston Streets on Clydeside. This Company was named successively, Mitchell & Neilson, Kerr Neilson, Kerr, Mitchell & Neilson, Neilson & Mitchell and Neilson & Company. About 1862 the works in Hydepark Street were vacated in favour of more suitable premises in Springbnrn. In 1863, James Reid became managing partner and in 1898 the name of the firm was altered to Neilson, Reid & Company. The beautifully designed stationary engine, which did duty for so long on the Cowlairs incline, was among the early products of this Firm. The locomotive output—as was the case with all the constituent companies—was of a varied nature and included an engine, built in 1861, for hauling trains of coaches mounted on sledges on ice between St. Petersburg and Cronstadt in Russia; a model of this is at the Science Museum in London. The well-known Caledonian 4-2-2 No. 123, built by Neilson & Co. in 66 days from the receipt of the order, was exhibited at the Edinburgh International Exhibition of 1886 where it received the "Highest Award."
Included in Neilson's contribution to locomotive development is the introduction of the crescent balance weight, applied by them about 1862. They were the first firm to fit a pony truck to a main line locomotive in Britain.Lthe G.E.R. "Moguls" of 1879. The engines built in 1884 for the L. & Y. R. were probably the first in Britain to have the valve spindles supported by a guide at the tail end. A wide grate, extending over the frames, was embodied in engines constructed by eilsons for the Cape Government Railways. Although the name of Neilson is best-known in con- nection with his great contributions to locomotive engineering he took a keen interest in other branches and contributed greatly to the successful construction of the Suez Canal, following an appeal for help from de Lesseps.
In 1863, Henry Dubs, managing partner with Neilson & Company, severed his connection with the firm and founded new works in Polmadie, "Dubs & Company, Glasgow Locomotive Works." In 1906, three years after the amalgamation, the name of this branch was altered to Queen's Park Locomotive Works.
The first engine built by the Company was a 0-4-2 for the Caledonian Railwayjn 1865. As with the other constituents, the nature of the products never lacked variety and they were distributed over the world. The Glasgow Exhibition of 1901 included a L.S.W.R. 4-4-0 with Drummonds patent water tube firebox. We learn from the booklet distributed by Dubs at the time that they had constructed 30 locomotives so fitted for the Railway concerned and the coal saving claimed to result from its adoption was 5 lb. per mile.
One of Dubs contributions to industrial develop- ment was the pioneering of the introduction of women as tracers, thereby releasing draughtsmen for designing. The amalgamation of 1903 created the largest firm of locomotive builders in Europe, with 8,000 em- ployees and a combined works area of 60 acres. In the half-century which has elapsed since the merger, the variety of types built and the quantity of loco- motives exported have increased still further. The types of steam locomotive constructed-to name but a few-have included Fairlies, de Glehn compounds, Mallets, etc., these have in most cases been described in our pages, a study of which will give some idea of the enormous output. This, in round figures, totals some 28,000 locomotives, distributed as follows: Britain 9,550; Continent 2,500; India and Far East 7,900; Africa 3,400; Australia and New Zealand 1,100; North and South America and Miscellaneous 3,300. In the 95 years of association with Indian railways some 6,800 locomotives have been supplied -an average of six per month over the whole of that period. Over 2,000 engines have been supplied to South Africa alone. Many of these locomotives have achieved remarkable longevity-a great tribute to the excellence of their design and construction. Through- out the history of the present firm and its constituent companies nearly one-third of the total output has been constructed for British Railways. Today some 90 per cent. of the locomotives built are exported. The unbroken record of production is indeed a remarkable one, but this is regarded by the Directors more as a stimulus to the future than as a nostalgic glory of the past. Pioneer work carried out has included the Reid- Ramsey and Reid-MacLeod steam turbine locomotives and, at the present time, an experimental coal-burning gas turbine locomotive is under construction in con- junction with C. A. Parsons & Co. Ltd. The contribution made by North British Locomotive Co. Ltd. to the national effort in both world wars was on a massive scale and extended to many spheres, inclurling in the first war the establishment of a hospital, with no less than 400 beds, in part of the Administrative Building at Springburn. The loco- motive output in the last war was 1,200, together with many spare boilers and other parts. Drawings were prepared and materials ordered for the Austerity 2-8-0 locomotives 16 days after the order was placed and within five months the first of 545 units, built at Glasgow, was delivered. The 2-10-0 W.D. loco- motive was also in traffic five months from the com- mencement of work in the drawing office and ISO of this type were delivered. While the years have seen great changes in the locomotives built by the founder firms and their suc- cessor the policy which has persisted from the begin- ning of good materials, good workmanship and pride in the product remains unaffected.
Diesel-hydraulic, diesel-electric and electric locomotives of all sizes had been supplied to many parts of the world and, as they constitute a large proportion of the current output, frequently figure in our pages. Recent examples include the 40 3,000 v. D.C. electric locomotives for the South African Railways. Today the Company's interests extend beyond the realm of locomotive manufacture-as is indeed the case with other Firms in the Industry-and Associate Companies are Carntyne Steel Castings Co. Ltd., and Henry Pels & Co. Ltd., the well-known manufacturers of shearing, cropping and punching machines. Lightweight caterpillar tractors are also a North British product.
Many great personalities have been connected with the original Companies; of the officials of the present Company Mr. J. B. Mavor is Chairman, Mr. T. A. Crowe, Chief Managing Director and the Managing Directors are Mr. R. Arbuthnott, M.B.E. and Mr. W. D. Lorimer.
The illustrations, including the coloured plate, are from blocks kindly loaned by the North British Locomotive Co. Ltd. Illustrations in text: 2-2-2 Semmering No. 29 built by Sharp Roberts for Wien Gloggnitzer Railway in 1842; 0-4-2 built by Neilson & Co. for Queensland Government Railways in 1865; 4-4-0 built by Dubs & Co for Canadian Pacific Railway in 1881 and 2-10-0 built for Ministry of Supply in 1944. See also letter from Montague Smith on crescent balance weights on page 50

Obituary.  5
Death in his 62nd year of E. T. Hippisley , M.A., A.M.Inst.C.E:, M.I.E.E:, M.I.Mech.E:, Manager of Traction (Sales and Engineering Department) BTE. Rugby, on 9 December 1954. Throughout his professional life Hippisley devoted himself to electric traction, in which subject he was an acknowledged authority. His Honours Course in Engineering at Cambridge was interrupted by the war, in which he saw service in the Corps of Royal Engineers. In 1920 Hippisley entered upon a three-year post-graduate appren- ticeship with the British Thomson-Houston Company. He joined the Staff of the Traction Department early in 1923, where for a time he specialized in the electrical design of traction motors, in pursuance of which he spent some months in U.S.A. From 1929 onwards Hippisley was responsible for heavy-traction contracts involving electric and diesel-electric locomotives; and in June 1936 was appointed Manager Traction Department, a position he held with distinction until his death. Mr. Hippisley had lectured and written widely on electric traction, gaining a special Premium for his paper on "Choice of Electric Traction-Motor Equipment" published in I.E.E. Journal, 1935.

B.R. wagon contract. 5
B.T.C. announced contract had been placed with the Tees Side Bridge & Engineering Works, Ltd., for 300 42-ton bogie bolster wagons.

Diesel trains in the West Riding. 5.
British Railways North Eastern Region announced the results of the first 3½ months operation of eight two-coach light-weight diesel trains in the West Riding. The introduction of more frequent services with these diesel trains has resulted in an additional 80,000 passengers being carried between Leeds and Bradford, with an increase in takings of £4,558. Between Leeds and Harrogate there were increases of over 28,000 passengers and £3,474 in revenue. The through traffic between Bradford, Harrogate and Knaresborough increased by 14,743 in numbers of passengers and £2,506 in receipts. This despite the fact that the poor Summer of 1954 undoubtedly reduced the number of people travelling for pleasure from Bradford and Leeds to Harrogate and Knaresborough.
So successful has the light-weight diesel train scheme been that net receipts in the area of operation have in- creased in the period (14June-30 September) by £10,500 and the increase in passengers has been over 125,000. Train working in the area has been much improved by these units, but the full scheme is not yet in operation. Further adjustments will probably be made in the services this year, and it is hoped these will lead to better services.

Vale of Rheidol Railway. 5
This 1ft. l1½in. gauge line, from Aberystwyth to Devils Bridge, would be open for traffic as usual next summer, contrary to widespread rumours that it was to be permanently closed.

Westinghouse brake equipment for diesel-electric locomotive. 6-8. 2 illustratiions, diagram
2-Do-2 built by Metropolitan Vickers Electrical Co. Ltd. for Western Australian Government Railways

Liquid containers. 8. 2 illustratiions
Guinness road tanker capable of being hauled by articulated lorry and demountable container for Gaymer's cider

0-6-0 [sic] diesel locomotiuves for Sierra Leone. 9; 11. illustratiion
Hudswell, Clarke 0-8-0 for 2ft 6in gauge with Vulcan-Sinclair fluid couplings.

Formica, Dekaron and Traffolyte. 10-11. 3 illustratiions
Illustrations: walls and ceilings of British Railways first and third class sleeping compartments and Ulster Transport Authority toilet. Other uses were as waist panels and doors, and in service and kitchen departments. In the latter, its ease of cleaning greatly facilitates cleanliness which is otherwise difficult to maintain in restaurant car kitchens with their steamy atmosphere and splashing of grease and water. Formica veneer is also employed in the cabs of electric and diesel-electric locomotives and motor coaches where it remains cleaner than the ordinary painted surface. The modern sleeping car is an ideal field of application as Formica can provide the required restful, clean and decorative surface. It is used extensively by British Railways for this purpose. Some recent applications 'of this versatile material are illustrated, other pictures of its use have appeared in our pages; a cafeteria car so equipped was described in our 1952 Volume, p. 91, and a compartment of a Western Region coach decorated in Formica was illustrated in our 1949 Volume, p. 13.

L.M.R. Punctuality. 11
We recently travelled up from Rugby to Euston when the driver converted a departure five minutes late into an arrival three minutes early. The locomotive was 4-6-0 No. 45736 Phoenix; while the load of 337 tons was admittedly light some smart handling was involved. The 82½ miles were covered in 80 minutes including the start and a cautious approach to Euston, the 62¾ miles from passing Blisworth to the stop occupying 57 minutes.

German Railways. 11
We learn that two new classes of steam locomotives are to be introduced in the Soviet Zone of Germany. These are a 2-8-0 two-cylinder superheated tender engine for passenger service (class 25) and a 2-8-4 two-cylinder superheated passenger tank (class 65). Both classes have driving wheels of 5ft. 3in. diameter. The first examples were exhibited at the last Leipzig Fair.

Hudswell Clarke & Co. Ltd. 11
Produce a range of Gremlin lanterns which are completely gale-proof and have a luminosity equal to other lanterns of greater size. In addition they are economical both from the point of view of oil consumption and the attention required; as an illustration of this the 14in. model, with a lino burner, will function for over 36 hours on one filling. Red and green globes are available, in addition to the standard clear type, and globes are instantly interchangeable. These lanterns are well designed and constructed and able to withstand the rough treatment to which this type of lamp is often subjected.

Personal. 11
R. White, District Motive Power Superintendent, Ayr (H.Q. Shields Road, Glasgow), British Railways (Scottish Region), retired on 31 December.

Railway Development in East Africa. 11
Progress  was bemg made with the construction of the second portion (Vila Luisa to Manhica) of the railway line that is to connect shortly the fertile Incomati Valley with the port of Lourenco Marques. Its length will be 47 km. and its immediate object is to serve the Manhica agricultural area, the products of which are usually transported over the river as far as Vila Luisa whence they are railed to their destinatio.ns. As the first portions of the Lourenco Marques-Union of S. Afnca, and the Lourenco Marques-Southern Rhodesia lines both use the same track, it has been planned to extend the track from Hanhica to Ungubana on the Limpopo line so that all traffic between Rhodesia and Lourenco Marques can be transferred to it in order to a void congestion on the line to the Union of S. Africa.

Austrian Railway electrification. 11
Electrification of the Lindau-Bregenz line having been completed, work was to start in 1956 on the Wels-Passau sector and on the Villach-Rosenbach and Voecklabruck to Kammer lines. A second line will be laid on the Villach to Klagenfurt line. Preparatory work is to begin for the electrification of the Eben-Schladming-Selztal line. Since the end of the war 50 new electric locomotives have been placed in traffic and 44 are under construction at present; the purchase of another 55 is under negotiation.

Correspondence. 12

Longmoor Museum. C.H. Barnett,
May I please make an appeal to your readers on behalf of the Royal Engineers Transportation and Movement Control Museum at Longmoor Camp, which many of them may have seen. Mluch work has been done on this Museum in the past six years and it is beginning to show signs of progress. We are, however, still in need of more exhibits and particularly of a type suitable for display in show cases, but will take any articles, maps, photos or documents. All exhibits should be accompanied by a short story explaining the origin of the exhibit
At the present time the Museum includes the locomotive Gazelle (on long loan by the courtesy of the Railway Execntive), Queen Adelaide's Coach, a small exhibit of the "Mulberry" Harbour and we have just acquired a uniform of a soldier of the Crewe Volunteer Engineers. The latter has been presented to us by the Chairman and Members of the Crewe and District Branch of the Royal Engineers' Association. Among other things we would like to have more such uniforms, or details of them.
The Museum at Longmoor Camp does not in any way compete with the main Royal Engineers Museum at Chatham. We are interested only in those branches of the Corps which are trained at the Transportation Centre and wish to bring our records up-to-date before they are irretrievably lost. In this we must rely on information sent us by any interested person. All exhibits must have direct relationship to Military Railway, Docks, Inland Water Transport or Movement Control activities in any part of the world.
In addition to the historical side of the Museum we also try to depict the various sides of our work for the benefit of visitors and our new recruits.
Any exhibit will be gladly received by the Commandant, Transportation Centre R.E., Longmoor Camp, Liss, Hants. and, when put on view', the donor's name will be displayed. Brigadier, Commandant Longmoor Camp. Transportation Centre.

Commemoration mug. R.E. Rixon Bucknall. 12
"Commemoration mug" which, with one or two minor simplifications, reproduces in exquisite colours the engraving shown on page 81 of Dendy Marshall's book The Centenary History of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway." This mug is most beautifullv coloured and glazed. Points of great interest in connection with references in the book, are that on the mug the engine chimney is certainly shown as being of polished brass, while the very wide cleading bands at each end of the boiler appear to be of the same material. The central portion of the boiler is green. The Victoria and Albert Museum described the mug as "Staffordshire china, circa 1830," so that the scene would appear to be contemporary.

Perak State Railways. H.J. Iron. 12
We have in our possession one First and Second Class Composite Carriage, believed built between 1880 and 1890, by Metropolitan-Cammell Carriage and Wagon Co. Ltd.. at Saltley, for the Perak State Railways. Makers' plates are still fitted, but do not indicate the makers' number or year. The coach is in poor condition, and was converted to an Inspection Saloon in 1909. It is proposed to recondition it to its original state as built, to be an exhibition piece. A drawing in our possession shows a coach that is very similar to ours the only major difference observable being the number of lamps fitted in the roof, the drawing showing one in the first class portion whereas actually two are fitted. These appear to have been fitted when built, as the original ceiling boards are in place. Many missing parts will have to be made and we are without information as to painting. The ventilators that fit into the vertical rectangular frames in the clerestory are missing, but holes in the coach indicate that they were hinged at the top edge, opening outwards, and held by a special bracket clip from the bottom edge of the frame. Unfortunately all the iron scroll work of the platforms is missing. The axle boxes have been replaced at some time. If any of your readers are in a position to supply information, which will be of assistance in restoring the coach to its original condition, this would be much appreciated. H. J. IRON (for Chief Xlechanical Engineer).Early coach, Perak State Railways Seritul Works, Kuala Lumpur, Federation of Malaya.

Review. 12
World Railways. 3rd edition. Edited and compiled by Henry Sampson. London: Sarnpson Low, Marston & Co. Ltd.
The latest edition of this now well-known and valuable work has been considerably changed. The most obvious development is that while the page size (at 12¾ x 8¼in.) remains unchanged, the pages have been re-oriented so that the major dimension is now the depth and not the width as heretofore, a change which will be regarded by most people as advantageous.
The work—the compilation of which must have been a tremendous task—is divided into four sections. The first of these in on Railways and for ease of reference is divided in to the geographical areas of Europe, North America, South America, Africa, Asia and Australasia. Particulars include, amidst a mass of other data. traffic and enquipment details, brief descriptions of the train control and signalling systems and meteorological information. Section 2 relates to Underground Railways and contains particulars on 32 systems in 20 countries. Section 3 is on Locomotive and Rolling Stock Builders and covers the composition and activities of 163 companies located throughout the world. Photographs and data of recent important and interesting products of the firms concerned are included in this section. The fourth section is on Diesel Engines and gives information—in some instances supported by illustrations—of the products of 35 builders of such units for locomotives and railcars. In addition to the reference sections this edition contains i llustrated surveys of developments of topical interest, viz. air conditioning and refrigeration, 50-cycle electrification, the Talgo train. and disc brakes.
The previous editions set high standards and were enthusiastically received. In our opinion the edition under review is even more valuable than its predecessors. It is a book which no consultants, manufacturers or others concerned with railways or the railway industry can afford to be without. The whole is excellently produced and the contents include 340 new half-tone illustrations, over 100 loading gauge diagrams and many new maps.

Number 750 (February 1955)

British Railways modernisation and re-equipment. 13-14
£1200 million expenditure: some of which achieved, some of it misdirected and some being still awaited (electrification to Felixstowe!). 100 mile/h for main line passenger trains; colour light signalling; centralised traffic control; no new steam motive power to be built for express or suburban traffic after 1956; steam to be replaced by electric or diesel; Liverpool Street, Great Northern and Glasgow suburban electrification; all east of a line from Reading to Portsmouth to be electrified (why Rye forgotten); Chelmsford to Ipswich and branches to Clacton and Felixstowe. Vacuum brake to be fitted to freight vehicles. Diesel traction west of Newton Abbot, including from west to London (both Paddington and Waterloo)

Obituary. 14.
The death occurred on 5 December of S.T. Price. a former Works Manager of  W.C. Bagnall, Ltd. Price joined W.C. Bagnall in 1875 when the first locomotive was being built at Castle Engine Works. The business was later formed into a limited company and eventually Price was appointed Works Manager. a position which he held until he left the employment of the company in 1915. after forty years service. Price will be remembered particularly as the inventor and patentee of the Bagnall-Price locomotive valve gear. 'This gear was illustrated and described in Engineering on 9 September 1904 where it was stated that. up to that date some thirty locomotives had been fitted with it by the makers. Hundreds were fitted with it in the years that followed and the gear is still to be seen on plantation and industrial locomotives in many parts of the world. While the gear was designed specifically for narrow gauge locomotives with outside cylinders. there is evidence that it was also applied to stationary steam engines. Only one eccentric was required for each cylinder in place of the two required by the Stephenson gear then in general use in this country.
Despite failing health and his great age Price retained all his faculties to the end and continued to take a keen interest in the company he had served so well. He died a few days after attaining his ninety-third birthday.

London Transport arc-welding shop. 15. 2 illustrations

2-8-2 locomotives Chilean Northern Railway. 16-17. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
Yorkshire Engine Co.

Air pressure unloading of cement. 17-18. 2 illustrations
Cement Marketing Co. Ltd. Sir George Godfrey & Partners experimental 20-ton hopper wagons built at Shildon

Diesel locomotives for Nigeria. 18.
The first of ten English Electric Co. locomotives for the Zara-Kano section, where there is a water shortage, had benn unloaded at Apapa.

British Railways, wagon contracts. 18
British Transport Commission had placed contract with Metropolitan Cammell Carriage & Wagon Co. Ltd for 398 24-ton hopper ballast wagons, and with Charles Roberts & Co. Ltd. for 399 similar wagons.

4-8-2 Colombian standard locomotives. 21-5. illustration, 3 diagrams.
Three cylinder simple for 3ft and metre gauge with bar frames; designed for incomplete raiway from Bogota to the coast with sharp curves and 1 in 33 gradients.

Chemicals by train ferry. 25. illustration.
ICI was using Harwich to Zeebrugge service: Basle could  be reached in 7 days.

Institute of Transport. 25
S.O. Ell gave lecture: some technical aspects of railway transport—locomotives at Gloucester on 1 February.

BR wagon contract. 25
British Trnsport Commission with Metropolitan-Cammell Carriage & Wagon Co. Ltd for 600 thirty-ton bogie bolster wagons

Personal. 25
J.F.K. Davidson appointed District Motive Powr Superintendent Ayr District (located at Shields Road Station, Glasgow).

Steam heating tendrrs, South African Railways. 26-7. 2 illustrations
Clarkson Vapor oil-burning steam generators  designed L.C. Grubb, chief mechanical engineer

Diesel-mechanical locomotives for West Clare Section, C.I.E. 27. illustration
Narrow gauge B0-Bo with two Gardner 6LW diesel engines each driving through a Vulcan Sinclair traction coupling and self-changing epiyclic gearbox

The reconstruction of the Netherlans Railways. 25.
On 2 February F.Q. den Hollander, President of the Netherlands Railways presented a lecture at the Royal Society of Arts in London .Steam traction would be repalced. Main line trains would be hauled by electric locomotives working passenger trains by day and freight by night. Difficulties of training mature men from steam traction for electric working

Reviews. 28

Overseas Railways, 1945. The Tothill Press. 28
The latest number of this well-known publication contains much interesting information relating to railways in Aus- tralia, New Zealand, Africa, the Far East, North America. South America, and Europe. It is not always realised what a tremendous amount of development is continuously taking place and this publication is of great value, in keeping one posted inter alia with progress in many parts of the world. The majority of the articles are written by the General Managers of the railways concerned, and there are many good illustrations and maps.

Choosing Electric Cables; C.C. Barnes. Emmott & Co. Ltd., Manchester. 28
This monograph gives, for the engineer who is a cable user, a comparative analysis of cable structures. The impregnated paper types of power cables for a very wide voltage range (from 660 to  132,200) are specially described, and special designs of oil filled and gas pressure cables are also dealt with. This publication will be a useful addition to the library of anybody dealing with the wiring of buildings, factories, etc.

A proud heritage, John L. Salmon. The Railway Convalescent Homes. 28
This book—which tells the story of the Railway Convalescent Homes—is well summed up in Sir Brian Robertson's foreword, wherein he says that it tells a simple story of the work of a band of railwaymen who, with energy and zeal, devoted their leisure to the founding and up-keep of an organisation designed to help their colleagues whose health has suffered from illness or accident. The work done by these homes is great in quality and quantity; those who have any acquaintance with them can testify as to the former, while the fact that over a quarter of a million patients were received between 1901 and 1953 confirms the latter.

Kempe's Engineers Year Book. 1955 Edition. Kempes Engineers Year Book, 2 Vols. 28
The 60th edition of this unique publication has been subjected to up-to-date and authorative revision. The 1954 edition was so thoroughly revised that only detail alteration was called for, neverthless details are matters of' importance and as such all received the attention necessarv. There is sometimes a tendency to regard a year book as a rather condensed survey on any particular subject—in the case of the work under review. however, detailed treatment is provided for each of the many subjects covered. Some idea of the enormous scope may be conveyed by the statement that there are 79 chapters covering practically every aspect of engineering in nearly 3,000 pages with about 1,500 illustrations; the infinite care with which matters are covered will, however, probably be better brought home by the fact that there are in the Index nearly two pages, each of two columns, devoted to locomotive references alone. What is even more impressive is that everyone of the references receives adequate treatment. This book will save its cost many times over in any engineer's office, no matter which of the many branches of the profession be concerned.

The Great Eastern 0-6-0Ts. Peter Proud. R.C. & T. Society. 28.
This is a complete account of these interesting engines. reprinted from the Railwav Observer. It contains descriptions. dimensions, numerical lists and a diagrammatic history of the ]67, ]68 and ]69 classes.

Personal. 28
After 49 years railway service, S. E. Parkhouse. O.B.E., Chief of Operating Services (British Railways). British Transport Commission, retired on 31 January . Entering the service of the L.N.W.R. in 1906, Parkhouse was appointed Assistant to the District Superintendent, Euston, in 1914, but was then away until 1920 on war service with the Railway Operating Division Royal Engineers; he attained the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel and was awarded the O.B.E. and two mentions in despatches. On returning to the railway he held various appointments in the Operating Department and from 1935 to 1944 was Divisional Superintendent of Operation for the Western Division of the L.M.S.R. In 1944 Parkhouse became Assistant Chief Operating Manager, L.M.S. Railway, and since 1948 has been responsible, with the R.E. as Chief Operating. Officer and latterly with the B.T.C. as Chief of Operating Services, for important work on the co-ordination of inter-regional traffic working and operating practices throughout British Railways.

British Railways. 28
The following new steam and diesel locomotives and railcars have recently been placed in service.
Eastern Region 2-10-0 Cl. 9, Nos. 92042-92044; 2-6-4T Cl. 4, No. 80099; Diesel shunter Cl. DYI, No. 11502.
London Midland Region. 4-6-0 Cl. 5, Nos. 73070-73074; 2-6-0 Cl. 2, Nos. 78036-78044; 2-6-4T' Cl. 4, No. 80095; 350 h.p. diesel electric shunter Nos. 13089-13091; diesel railcars, .motor third brake. Nos. 79008-79020; Driving trailer composites Nos. 79600-79612.
North Eastern Region. 2-6-2T Cl. 3, 82028, 82029; Diesel railcars, motor third brake, No. 79007; motor composite No. 79507.
Scottish Region. 2-6-4T Cl. 4, Nos. 80056-80058, 80114, 80115.
Southern Region. 350 h.p. diesel electric shunter, Nos. 13092-13096.
Western Region. 2-6-2T Cl. 3, Nos. 82030-82034; 0-6-0PT Cl. 16xx. Nos. 1651-1657; 0-6-0PT Cl. 94xx, Nos. 9497, (built by The Yorkshire Engine Co., Ltd.).

B.T.C. Secretary General. 28
General Sir Daril Watson, Secretary General of the British Transport Commission, will be retiring in May. Major-General Llewelyn Wansbrough-Jones, C.B., C.B.E .. will join the B.T.C. shortly and will take over from General Watson on his retirement.

Publications received. 28

The Hoffman Manufacturing Co. Ltd. of Chelmsford. 28
Informative card folder relating to the storage and mounting, lubrication, protection and dismantling of their ball and roller bearings. The attention required—small though it be—is not always fully understood and the little extra care, which is so easily given, may make a considerable difference to the ultimate life of the bearing.

Number 751 (March 1955)

Economics of intensified use of railway operating and motive power resources. 28-30.
H.H. Phillips, Assistant General Manager, Western Region: paper presented to Institute of Transport noted that 19,000 locomotives were only in traffic for 8¼ hours per day. Wagons carrying loads were only active for 55 minutes per day. New timetables for the Cardiff suburban services increased the service to Barry by 23 trains per day and to Pontypridd by fourteen. Although an extra 6500 train miles were worked per week there had been a 20% reduction in operating costs. 98 fewer passenger coaches anfd 50 fewer staff were needsd. But more passengers were carried.

B.R. wagon contract. 30
British Transport Commission announced Head Wrightson & Co. to supply 111 30-ton rail, sleeper & ballast wagons.

World Power Conference. 30
Fifth Plenary in Vienna 17-23 June: theme World energy resources in the light of recent technical and economic developments.

20th Class Beyer-Garratts, Rhodesia Railways. 31-2. 4 illustrations
4-8-2+2-8-4. Beyer Peacock supplied to design of F.E. Hough, Chief Mechanical Engineer; Freeman, Fox & Partners consultants. Intended for working 1400 ton trains on Kafno to Broken Hill. The locomotives had bar frames; welded steel fireboxes based on Colville's Double Crown steel plate; four arch tubes and a Waugh grate of 63,1ft2. Mechanical stokers were fitted and the exhust incorporated Goodfellow tips.

British Railways. 32
New locomotives into service: Eastern Region: Class 4 2-6-4T Nos. 80100 and 80101; 0-6-0 diesel-electric shunters Class DEJ 6 Nos. 13152-5. Scottish Region 350hp diesel-electric shunters Nos. 13097-13100.

Electric locomotive working in South Africa. 33. 2 illustrations
Completion of the changeover from 1500V dc to 3000V enable through working from Cape Town to Touws River. New locomotives were supplied by North British Locomotive Co. with General Electric Co. equipment. Regenerative braking was employed on the steep gradients (up to 1 in 40). G. Williams was the Chief Electrical Engineer. Feature based in part on paper presented to South African Institute of Electrical Engineers

Diesel hydraulic locomotivess for Malayan Railways. 34-5. illustration, diagrams (side, front and cross-sectional and plan).
Six 300hp North British Locomotive Co. locomotives supplied with Paxman V6 RPHXL engines and Holset & Wiseman flexible couplings. C.G. Harrison, Chief Mechanical Engineer; inspection by Crown Agents.

English Electric Company's expansion. 34
At Whetstone in Leicestershire: research location for power station engineering

Colombian Railway Programme. 34
$45,000 contract awarded to Madigan Hyland South American Corporation for preliminary survey for Magdalena Valley Railway planned to link La Dorada to Gamarra.

Diesel-electric locomotives for West Africa. 36-7. illustration
Sierra Leone Development Corporation 3ft 6in gauge 52 mile railway from Pepel to Marampa to serve iron ore deposits. Birmingham Railway Cariage & Wagon Co. locomotives with Sulzer engines. Inspected Livesey & Henderson

3,600 h.p. 1,400v. DC locomotives for India. 38-40. 3 illustrations, 2 diagrams
Seven English Electric locomotives built at Vulcan Foundry for Bombay to Poona and Bombay to Igatpuri lines with 1 in 40 gradients.

B.T.H. development in 1954. 40. illustration
Traction and control equipment was supplied to the Toronto Subway which was ssimilar to that supplied to London Transport. Sixteen sets of electrical equipment were supplied for 155 hp Ruston BTH works shunters. A range of Yorkshire Engine Co. shunters had been supplied with electrical equipment. British Railways and raiulways iun Australia, India, Brazil and New Zealand had received BTH electrical equipment

O.S.M. Raw. Some locomotive reminiscences. 41-3.
continued from p. 201, Vol. 60
I saw my first Union engine at Durban shunting on the wharves as we docked. It was a very ungainly side tank engine 4-8-2 with a huge oil headlamp in front of the chimney. Closer inspection showed this to have been a 4-10-2 with the trailing coupled axle removed and the open horn left. These were the main line engines of the Natal Government Rlys. at the beginning of the century, they were designed by Reid and built in Glasgow. Some are still shunting and although not designed for shunting, they are in the yards away from shed for six days at a time, being fueled, watered and fires cleaned in the yards at the change of crews. Although its main line was well over 300 miles long to the Transvaal border at Volksrust until about 1905, when Hendrie introduced his first tender designs, the Natal Rly. was worked entirely by tank engines, the main line engines being 4-10-2 and 4-8-2 Tanks. A unique feature of these was the throw of the coupling rods being less than that of the piston stroke, an eccentric crankpin being used as in the Ivatt Atlantics.
The Union of South Africa Rlys. are an amalgamation of the various territories' lines. The Natal lines comprised a main line from Durban to Volksrust with a branch from Glencoe to Vryheid and thence to the North East Transvaal through Piet Retief and from Ladysmith a branch to Harrismith in the Free State. There are a number of branches radiating on Pietermaritzburg and from Durban the Coast lines run South to Port Shepstone and North through Zululand to Gollet just inside Swaziland. These Coast Lines carry an immense sugar cane traffic whilst on the branches radiating from Glencoe there is a very heavy coal traffic, the coal being of excellent quality and a large proportion of it exported through Durban. Before the war very good coal could be purchased at 5/- a ton delivered into railway trucks at the pithead. The Natal Rlys. had their workshops in Durban and new ones are now being built at Congella in the South Suburbs, so as to release the present workshop space in the centre of the city and adjacent to the station. The Cape Coast Rly. was the biggest system in the biggest and oldest Colony. The first line was pushed out from Cape Town to Worcester at the foot of the Hex River Mountains. When diamonds were found at Kimberley, there was a rush to get railways to it, not only was the Capetown line pushed up through Touws River, Beaufort West and De Aar, but lines were also pushed up from Port Elizabeth and East London. They were all more or less separate systems and whilst the main workshops were at Salt River, Capetown, there were other extensive workshops at East London and also at Uitenhague about 18 miles from Port Elizabeth. The Cape Coast Rlys.had some tank engines for suburban services round Capetown, but had a host of 4-6-0s of Classes 5 and 6, which were still used for shunting and secondary duties, and their 4-8-0s of Classes 7 and 8. Major Sells described similar engines in his article on the Rhodesia Railways; to my way of thinking these 4-8-0s were some of the ugliest engines ever. Very small wheels, low pitched boiler on extended smokebox, with a thin tall chimney set well back and the outside cylinders slightly inclined. The Cape Rly. had introduced some 4-6-2s and 4-8-2s just before the systems were amalgamated.
The Transvaal Republic had a small system linking Volksrust and Komatipoort with Pretoria and Johannesburg and a number of branch lines. It was known as the Z.S.A.M. and was staffed largely by Dutchmen. Its main workshops were at Pretoria and after the Boer War it and the lines in what had been the Free State were combined to form the Imperial Military Rlys. with further workshops at Bloemfontein. They had introduced some very fine engines, the largest being the Class 11 2-8-2s with a tractive effort of 34,990 lb. a very powerful engine for the first decade of this century and especially for the 3ft. 6in. gauge. They were on shunting and transfer work in 1939. In fact for the last 50 years or so, South African 3ft. 6in. gauge locomotives have been appreciably more powerful than British 4ft. 8½in. or Indian 5ft. 6in. types.
When the Union was formed and the railways were amalgamated into one system Hendrie of Natal was appointed C.M.E. of the whole system. One would have thought that amalgamation would have reduced the number of workshops, in actual fact, due to political expediency, still another workshop was added. The Transvaal claimed that being the largest and wealthiest Colony its capital Pretoria should be the capital of the Union. This was agreed, but the Cape insisted that Capetown was the Mother City and as a compromise it was agreed that Parliament should sit in Capetown over 900 miles from the Executive at Pretoria. Accordingly, when Parliament is in session all senior Civil Servants with stacks of files make the trek from Pretoria to Capetown. It is funny that one always heard gibes about the Government of India moving each hot weather from Delhi to Simla, 400 miles, but no-one seems to have heard of this Capetown Trek. The Free State demanded something for its capital Blomfontein, roughly three hundred miles from Pretoria. The High Court of Justice was allotted to it, handy to no-one. Pietermaritzburg the Capital of Natal was still left and as there was nothing in the way of Government Departments to allocate to it, it was arranged that an additional railway workshop should be built there and the town be given a reducing subsidy for 20 years. These workshops considerably helped out the overworked Durban workshops only 76 miles away, and when the Natal main line was electrified electrical overhaul workshops were built at Ladysmith.
The section of the Rhodesian Railway running through the Bechuanaland Protectorate from Vryburg to Mafeking and thence to Bulawayo, was at the outset worked by the Cape Government and later by the S.A. Railways. The stock is the property of the Rhodesia Railways, but instead of being maintained in the Bulawayo shops, separate shops for its maintenance are located at Mafeking and staffed by S.A.R. personnel. In the time the writer was there the 4-8-0 10th class engines were concentrated on this section, working right through from Mafeking to Bulawayo with a spare crew travelling in a caboose, changing over half way at Palapye Road where fires were thoroughly cleaned.
In Kenya, engine and train crews might be European or Indian with a few Africans coming along as firemen. In the Union and Rhodesia it came as rather a shock to find that the crews are entirely European, though in Rhodesia an African greaser or trimmer was often carried, and in fact all skilled work was forbidden to non-Europeans, this even applying to gangers on the line.
Illustrations: 2-6-0T Locomotive built by Beyer , Peacock & Co. for South Africa. 1877; 4-6-2 of Natal Government Railways (supplied as 0-6-2T by Kitson & Co. in 1879) see letter from John Poole on p. 84.; Class A 4-8-2T supplied by Dubs & Co. in 1889; 4-10-2T supplied to Natal Government Railways i 1900..
(To be continued)
Erratum. The penultimate line in the fourth col. R.H. p. 200 in the previous instalment should have commenced "foremen . . ."

A. E. Cook. 43. illustration (portrait)
Retired from the Managing Directorship of Cravens Ltd., of Sheffield, in 1951, relinquished his seat on the Board of Directors of the Company on the 31 December 1954. Cook's keen personality and mastery of his subject will be well remembered by the mechanical engineering staffs of Railways throughout the world. His knowledge of transport was not confined to road and rail problems only, as during the war, Cravens Ltd., amongst their many other activities, built troop-carrying gliders and various details for the R.A.F.. Cook served the Company for a period of 44 years in the successive positions of Engineer, 'Works Manager, General Manager and Managing Director.

Shed Smoke Extraction in U.S.S.R. 43
The problem of keeping smoke and coal dust and fumes out of locomotive sheds has received much attention on the Soviet railways and after many years of research they have decided that the best way is by individual extractor fans set in exhaust pipes over the shed roads. The locomotive's stack is connected by a flexible sleeve to a chimney on the roof of the shed. In this chimney an extractor fan is installed which draws out only the dust and fumes but practically none of the warm air of the shed. Thus the shed retains its warmth, and small fans may be used. This cannot be achieved by general ventilating systems which draw the fumes from the whole engine house and not from each stall separately. Until recently there was no suitable fireproof material for the flexible sleeves, but this problem has now been successfully solved. A glass-cloth smoke-exhaust sleeve was made and tested at the Khovrino engine-house near Moscow in 1952. In operation it was found that the glass-cloth can well stand the smoke-fumes, and heat. The first experiments helped to improve the design of the sleeve, and prolong its life to six to eight months: such sleeves are in successful operation. Two yean of experience have shown that they are relatively simple to make. Two pieces of glass-cloth a yard wide (the length depending upon the height to the roof) are sewn together on both sides with glass thread. In order that the tube should remain cylindrical and not be deflated by suction, rings of 1/8in. wire are sewn on the exterior of the sleeve, spaced nine inches apart.

Nils Ahlberg.. Swedish steam locomotives. 44-5. llustration, table

Original Class

Builders

Date

Rebuilt

In Stock

Withdrawn





to

Date

1. 1. 53 Class

Date

Class

lYlb

646-650

Motala Mech. Works

1901-2




1926-32

Mb

~1b

651

Motala ~1ech. Works

1902

Ma

1910


1926

Ma

Ma

652-656

Nydqvist & Holm

1902




1926

Ma

Ma

657

Nydqvist & Holm.;

1902

id

1924


1937

Md

Ma

658-661

Nydqvist & Holm

W02




1926

Ma

Ma

702,703

Wagon & Machine Wks., Falun 1902




1926

Ma

Mb

761,762

Wagon & Machine Wks., Falun 1903




1932,28

Mb

Mb

763

Wagon & Machine Wks., Falun 1903

Mc

1920

G7


-

*

Mb

764

Wagon & Machine Wks., Falun 1903

Ma

1909

G7


-

*





Mc

1921





Ma

777-781

Nydqvist & Holm

1904




1926

Ma

Mb

800-802

Motala Mech. Works

1901

Md

1924


1926-31

Mb

Mb

803

Motala Mech. Works

1901







Ma

916,918

Nydqvist & Holm

1907

Mc

1920

G7

1926

Ma

Ma

917

Nydqvist & Holm

1907




1937

Md




* Becarr'te HH] 1937-40





Liège International Conference. 45.
The Liege Section of the Association des Ingenieurs from the Ecole de Liege were organizing International Days of Railway Transport to take place April 25-28, under the general Presidency of M. de Vos, Directeur General de la Societe Nationale de Chemins de Fer Belges. The first session to be held on April 25 under the presidency of M. Ghilain, Directeur Honoraire a la SNCB Secretaire General de I' Association Internationale du Congress des Chemins de Fer, after an introductory address by M. de Vos, will hear papers from M. Tourneur, Ingenieur en Chef, SNCF, on "Diesel Locomotives." and "Diesel Railcars" by M. Boulanger, Ingenieur Principal, SNCB; "Electric Traction" forms the subject of a paper by M. Baeyens, Ingenieur en Chef, SNCB. In the afternoon, when the president for the session will be Mr. Brian Reed, the matters receiving consideration are "Shunting and Industrial Locomotives" covered by M. Wehenkel, Ingenier en Chef, SNCL; "Diesel Locomotive Construction and Performance" by M. Vandeghen, Ingenieur-Chef de Service, S.A. John Cockerill, and "Diesel Railcar Construction and Performances" by M. Bourlet, Ingenieur en Chef, Soc. d'Electricite et de Mecanique.
On April 26, when the president for the morning will be M. Marchal, Charge de Cours à la Faculté des Sciences Appliquees de l'Université de Liège, Tngenieur Principal a la SNCB, addresses will be given on th- "Construction and Performance of Electric Transmission on diesel Locomotives" by M. Lamberts, Ingenieur Principal, Ateliers de Constructions Electriques de Charleroi: "Construction and Performance of Electric Apparatus for Locomotives and Motor-Coaches" by M. Dispaux, Ingenieur Principal, Ateliers de Constructions Electriques de Charleroi, and "Fixed Electrical Installations" by M Challe, Ingenieur a la Direction Electricite et Signalisation SNCB. Later in the day, under the presidency of Pringiers, Ingenieur en Chef, Les Ateliers Metallurgiques, Nivelles, the papers to be presented are "Hydraulic and Mechanical Transmissions for Diesels" by C. Lampe of Krauss-Maffei A.G., "The Locomotive considered as a Vehicle" by M Squilbin, Ing. Principal, SNCB, and "Working and Maintenance" by Mr. MacInnes, Manager, Application Engineering, Baldwin-Lima-Hamilton Corporation.
There will be a dinner in the evening of this day. On the 27th there will be a special exhibition of locomotives, motor-coaches and railcars at the Fair, and a reception afterwards. In the afternoon Cbapelon, Ing. en Chef Honoraire de la SNCF will address the Conference on "Steam Locomotives," after which Mr. A W.J. Dymond, B.Sc., M.Inst.C.E., l\I.I.Mech.E .• M.I.Loco.E., Technical Assistant to the M. & E. Engineer, British Rlys.,. W. Region, will speak on "Gas Turbine Locomotives;" M. Brouckaert, Directeur du Materiel et des Achats, SNCB will speak on "Conclusions" and a "Closing Address" will be given by Mr. Hanocq, Professeur Emerite de I'Universite de Liege. The President for the last session will be M. "Lemaitre, Ing. en Chef, SNCB. In the evening there will be a Reception. .

Co-Co electric locomotives for Spain. 46. illustration
Sécheron of Geneva rreceived order in 1935, but Civil War delayed supply until 1944. Used on Madrid to Avila and to Segovia routes with  in 50 gradients. 1500V dc.

A long-lived electric locomotive. 46. illustration
No. 11000 Swiss Federal Railways 1-Bo-2-Bo-1 built in 1920 with Brown Boveri Buchi drive and Tschan electric drives

P.C. Dewhurst. Commentary on "Railway locomotives down to the end of 1831". 47
(Continued from p. 186, Vol. 60)
Crook & Dean (p. 229, para. 1)
This firm was (J.) Crook & (Wm.) Dean and their works were the Phoenix Foundry, Little Bolton, Lancs. Although Salamander and Veteran may have been built as early as 1831, no contemporary record is known stating this, or any other, date (D.M. derived it from C. E. Stretrons History of the Bolton & Leigh Rly.). Whishaw shows both engines, but gives no dates for either, whilst Hargreaves' 1841 Return shows Veteran and Salamander (the latter as named Liverpool, but identifiable as ex-Salamander from the dimensions) likewise both without dates of construction.
What is certain, however. is that a locomotive named Phoenix was completed by Messrs. Crook & Dean in May 1831 (vide Bolton Chronicle, 4 June 1831) being tried on the Bolton & Leigh Rly. with passengers. Then, in January 1832. a local newspaper records that a locomotive named Phoenix, belonging to 'W. Hulton, Esq.," collided on the B. & L. Rly. with a locomotive Nelson; the former ran hardly be other than Crook & Dean's Phoenix, whilst the latter is clearly the Nelson supplied by R. Stephenson & Co. to the B. & L. Rly.—incidentally establishing that Nelson was of 1831 build (see D.M. p. 162). In June 1832 a "new engine" by Crook & Dean named Bolton was tried on the B. & L. Rly. (Liverpool Mercury 6 June 1832); it was stated to be intended for passenger traffic between Bolton and Liverpool. but no further reference to it as Bolton is so far known. This engine mav have become the Veteran shown by Whishaw and the October 1841 Returns as in the possession of Hargreaves on the B. & L.
Salamander, which also appears in Whishaw, but as Liverpool in Hargreaves 1841 Return, might possibly have heen built between Phoenix and Bolton, or after the latter—or even may represent one of them re-named; it seems evident, however. that there was an appreciable interval after the production of Phoenix for the reason that a Director of the Liverpool & Manchester Rly ., Mr. Hardrnan Earle, in a published letter of the latter part of 1832 dealing, "inter-alia," with the capacity and earliest productions of the then locomotive-builders of Lancashire, stated that Messrs. Crook & Dean had made "a copy of another class from the same [Bury's] manufactory." The present writer, therefore, feels that only one of the firm's known locomotives—and that one Phoenix—can certainly bp included for the year 1831.
According to Hargreaves' 1841 Return both Veteran and Liverpool (ex-Salamander) were inside cvlinder engines with inside frames and of 0-4-0 type originally, although by 1841 Veteran had been altered to a six- wheeled (probably 0-4-2) type; they may both have been of a quasi-Bury pattern—according to the Hardman Earle letter previously mentioned, this is likely to apply to Phoenix also—similar to engines built by Rothwell & Hick about this time. The Hargreaves firm's list of 1845 shows Veteran as of 1838 date and this is probably when it was altered to a six-wheeler. and although it may have lasted to come to the L.N.W.R.—doubtfully as No. 216—it did not last long, as by July 1848 it had been renewed or replaced on that railway bv No. 216 named Ambassador". No engine named Liverpool (ex-Salamander) appears in the firm's 1845 list. but it may be represented by an engine named Victory which had evidently been drastically reconstructed or renewed in 1842—it had been the only four-wheeled engine not altered to six wheels in their 1841 Returns—as a 2-2-2, eventually becoming L.N.W.R. No. 123.
Galloway, Bowman & Glasgow (p. 229, last para.)
Information brought to light subsequently has shown that Manchester was not reconstructed as Caledonian; thev were entirely separate locomotives. Contemporary newspaper accounts refer to each engine at times which overlap; thus Manchester was still being used on the L. & M. Rly. in March 1833, when a traffic accident occurred to it. (it was never the property of the L. & M. Rly.) at which time Caledonian was also in use, by the railway, as from October 1832. Incidentally, "Galloways Limited" ceased business in 1922; and it may also be mentioned that the later firm was more a direct descendant of W. & J. Galloway, a related mechanical engineering firm to G. B. & G. and established in Manchester contemporaneously with the latter, hoth firms records eventually coming down to GaJloways Limited.
Mather Dixon & Co. (p. 230, para. 1)
The early locomotive of February 1827 attributed to this firm depends entirely on an account which appeared in The Engineer 14 April 1899, which purports to give a relation of all the locomotives built by Mather Dixon's from 1827 up to works No. 95 of about 1844. This "list" is remarkable in that wherever detailed dimensions are shown, they can be traced to the tables in Whishaw, and where that source fails dimension details also fail in the "list" and very vague descriptions are given; further, in the majority of the latter cases the locomotives-where not traceable in railway sources—are shown as "for docks," "for stock" and similar destinations (?).
Mr. D. Marshal! was uncertain as to the origin and trustworthiness of this list; he apparently did not know that it was repeated, with some paraphrasing and "enlarging," in the Locomotive Engineers & Firemen's Journal for October 1899 with C.E. Stretton as author. This latter account had "grown" in some details and whereas the first (April) account gave the second and third engines of the firm as "four-wheeled coupled locomotive cranes" and the fourth as "steam traveller or traverser ,." in the second (October) version all four first engines have a much more "locomotive" flavour and engines 2 to 4 are said to be of the same general construction as No. 1. Both the accounts of 1899 make the firm's productions "fit in" with the Stretton side of the Stretton/Sekon controversey of 1896 etc. regarding early Great Western Rly. locomotives—about which later knowledge has shown Sekon to have been the more correct. The present writer has no confidence in the lists; each contains manifest errors when confronted with authentic pre-1896 information from railway and other "outside" sources. and thus each is not merely a computed list but built on a palpably inadequate foundation and almost certainly indicates far more locomotives than Mathcr Dixons actually constructed. That no makers records were available for the compilation of the "list" is obvious from the fact that as Whishaw is drained for dimensions where such are given in his tables, in the other cases dimensions would also have been given if available. A typical illustration of the faultiness of the lists may be cited in their commencement. The text of the October list says "Nothing further [i.e. from 1827] done in locomotive construction at the works until 1832", adding that the next engine produced subsequent to the supposed four of 1827 was delivered in America in December 1833, yet in a published letter from Mr. Hardrnan Earle a Director of the Liverpool & Manchester Rly. at that period, he definitely states, referring to Bury-pattern engines "Messrs. Mather, Dixon & Co. have made one similar to Bury's"—i.e. between mid-1830 and mid-1832. In the midst of so much doubt it is considered that the locomotive of 1827 can only at present be classed as unproven. (To be continued)

B.R. rolling stock orders. 47
The British Transport Commission announced placing contracts with British manufacturers for 207 new coaching vehicles and 670 ballast and sleeper wagons. Details of the contracts are as followsc—
The Gloucester Railway Carriage & Wagon Co., 60 Corridor Third Brakes, Metropolitan Camme1l Carriage & Wagon Co., 95 Corridor Composites, Chas. Roberts & Co. Ltd., 12 Corridor Third Brakes, and Cravens Ltd., 40 Gangwayed Brake Vans.
Ballast and sleeper wagons to be supplied as under:- 252 from The Butterlev Co. Ltd., 202 from the Gloucester Railwav Carriage & Wagon Co. Ltd .. 116 from the Cambrian Wagon & Engineering Co. Ltd., and 100 from the Derbyshire Carriage & Wagon Co. Ltu.

Canadian Pacific speed-up. 48
N.R. Crump, vice-president of the Canadian Pacific Railway has announced that 16 hours will be cut from the presen t elapsed running time of the westbound all stainless steel dome train when the company's new The Canadian goes mto the trans-continental service on April 24. East- bound the new streamlined train will cut the journey by 12 hours 30 mmutes. The new schedule will see The Canadian travelling the 2,881 miles from Montreal to Vancouver in 71 hours 10 minutes, the present time being 87 hours 10 mmutes. In the reverse direction the new time will be 70 hours 20 minutes, instead of 82 hours 50 minutes. Westbound, the train will start in two parts, one from Montreal, the other from Toronto. They will be consolidated mto one 14-car tram at Sudbury, Ontario Eastwards, the train will divide at Sudbury for Montreal and Toronto. To achieve the reduction in running time, Canadian Pacific will use diesel locomotives entirely on the many sets of trains required to operate The Canadian daily in each direction. Another time-saving factor will be mechanical air-conditioning. This will eliminate the need for taking on Ice dunng the summer, thus reducing service stops to a rrinimum. The Canadian is designed to provide every type of accommodation for the latest in trans-continental travel' tourist cars, de luxe coaches, a dome coach with a buffet in which light meals may be bought at popular prices, a modern electrically-kitchened dmmg car for meals in more sumptuous and leisurely style, sleeping cars with a full range of types of accommodation including open sections, roomettes. double bedrooms, compartments and drawing rooms, and a new development, a scenic-dome car which al.so carries. an observation lounge at the lower level together with a limited amount of sleeping accommodation.

E.E.C. activities. 48
Typical orders for diesel-electric locomotives received during 1954 included those for the Argentine Railways (1,000 h.p.) and for New Zealand Railways (750 h.p.). Additional 400 h.p. equipments for diesel-electric shunting locomotives for British Railways were put in hand. Deliveries included locomotives for New Zealand. Brazil—the mechanical parts for these latter locomotives were built by the Vulcan Foundry Ltd.—the Gold Coast, Nigeria and the Netherlands.
Among orders for electric traction equipment were those from the Central Railway of India and British Railways. Electric locomotives were delivered during the year to Victoria, Spaain and India. Further 980 h.p. 675 v. D.C. motor coach equiprnents were supplied to the Southern Region of British Railways, where over 1,000 motor coaches were provided with "English Electric" equipment.

The General Electric Co. Ltd. 48
Displayed a comprehensive range of industrial equipment at the A.S.E.E. exhibition held at Earls Court, March 15-19. Motor exhibits included seven general purpose industrial models and a variety of motors developed specially for lift and marine applications. Among the traction motors displayed was a double-reduction geared traction motor for a British Railways 350 h.p. standard diesel-electric shuntmg locomotive for which G.E.C. were supplying 15 equipments. Each equipment comprises a 350 h.p. Blackstone diesel engine direct-coupled to a generator which supplies power to two of these motors.

Hungarian oil-burning locomotives. 48
Locomotive workshops of the Hungarian State Railways had converted 112 locomotives fro:n coal to crude oil in order to free more coal for industrial needs. It is estimated that one locomotive will burn some 650 tons of crude oil p.a. against 1,000 tons of coal.

International Internal Combustion Engine Congress. 48
The forthcoming Congress to be held at The Hague, May 23-28, so far as railway traction is concerned, will be largely devoted to present-day possibilities of diesel ongines. The provisional list of papers to be presented is as follows: (I) J. Kater, Chief Engineer N.S., Chairman of the O.R.E. Experts Committee for the Study of Diesel Traction. "The importance of the international rules for diesel enzines for railway traction for the construction of those engines (U.I.e. Leaflet No. 623)". (2) Ch. Tourneur, Chief Engineer S.N.C.F. "Evolution of diesel railway traction engines." (3) Dip. Ing. August Brand, Deutsche Bundesbahn. "Use of high speed diesel engines for prime movers in rail vehicles having different types of transmission." (4) Dott. Ing. Luigi Slaghek, Ansaldo, Genova. "The locomotives equipped with.: internal combustion engines, according to Ansaldos practice." (5) William J. Fritton, Vice-President, Van der Horst Corporation of America, M.A.S.M.E. "Maintenance techniques employed in diesel-electric locomotive repair shops of United States railroads." (6) Professor Dr. Ing. E. Sorensen , Director M.A.N., Augsburg. "High pressure charged engines for railroad operation." (7) Ing. Roberto De Pieri, Principal Director Fiat Stabilimento Grandi Motori, Torino. "Four and two-stroke cycle diesel engines for high-powered locomotives." (8) A. H. de Klerck, Chief Engineer Werkspoor, Amsterdam. "Exhaust gas turbo-charged four-stroke high speed rail traction engines with whirl combustion chamber." (9) D. M. Pearce, Chief Research Engineer, Davey , Paxman & Co. Ltd., Colchester. "The Hi-Dyne engine for diesel traction." (10) Dr. Goldbeck, Klockner-Humboldt-Deutz A.G., Koln. "Loop-scavenged two-stroke engines for locomotives." (11 ) Dr. Ing. Ekhart Schmidt, Director Daimler-Benz A.G., Stuttgart. "High-speed heavy-duty diesel engines for rail vehicles. Design, operating conditions and results." (12) Dr. Ing. L. Geislinger, Soc. d'Etudes des Moteurs Thermiques, La Courneuve. "A locomotive with thermo-pneumatic transmission." (13) F. Picard, Directeur des Etudes & des Recherches it la Regie Nationale des Usines Renault and M. Chatel , Chief Engineer Compagnie des Ateliers & Forges de la Loire. "The Renault Turbo-Diesel locomotive; actual and future realizations." (14) A. Vandeghen, Chief Engineer Ste Cockerill (Division de Seraing , Belgique). "Evolution of the locomotive diesel engine. Spectrograph opens new ways for maintenance."

Hungarian Locomotives for N. Korea. 48
The Hungarian MAVAG works are reported to have recently exported five locomotives to North Korea. Work is now in progress on an order from the U.S.S.R.

Austrian Railways. 48
We learn from Donaueuropaischer Informationsdienst No . 20 that at the end of 1953 there were 3,647.8 km. of main line railways, 1,871.6 km. of standard-gauge secondary railways, and 505.6 km. of narrow-gauge lines. Total mileage is thus 6,025 km. Rolling stock at the end of 1953 was as follows: Steam locomotives: 1,894 (1952,2,045; 1951,2,163). Motor trains: 88 (1952, 90; 1951, 87). Wagons (passenger, baggage and' mail) 4,674; (goods) 29,584.

R.C. & T.S. Annual Dinner.  49
The Annual Dinner of the RaIlway Correspondence and Travel Society was held at the: Charing Cross Hotel on 18 February. The Chair was taken by Mr. C. Smith and the guests included R.C. Bond, Chief Mechanical Engineer. British Transport Commission and E.D. Trask, Motive Power Superintendent. Eastern Region. B.T.C.
Bond, in the course of replying to the toast of "British Railways" referred to the modernisation plan and its possible effect on the interest taken by Members of the Society in all branches of rail transport. While some aspects of railway working must inevitably be drastically altered—or even disappear—other interesting phases of working will be introduced, e.g. the general high-speed working of freight trains. So far as the preservation of historical material was concerned it was a matter of difficulty to decide which locomotives should be selected and. in this connection, the advice of Societies was most helpful. It is hoped to start shortly the manufacture of historical models in the apprentice training schools of British Railways. Bond referred to the tradition of over lOO years which had been inherited by B.R. and said it was the endeavour to maintain this so far as it was helpful, but tradition could also hinder. The upheaval of nationalisation came at a time when the ravages of war had not been recovered from but, despite the difficulties arising from shortages of materials, etc., much solid progress had been made. Much more remains to be done and the modernisation plan mnst be looked at as a whole. of which the motive power aspect is but one means to an end. All available resources will be needed to carry out the plan and today any young man with a bent for railway work is assured of an interesting career, for the end of the fifteen-year period will lead on to further development. Railway work in the future may be even more interesting than in the past; there are many problems to be solved before arriving at a series of standard designs for diesel and electric locomotives. The residue of the steam stock will be maintained as efficiently as possible and in this connection testing—of which today there is more than ever hefore—will play a considerable part in obtaining the greatest efficiency. Mr. Trask , in responding to the toast of "The Ladies and Visitors", referred to the exceedingly difficult conditions prevailing in Scotland as the result of heavy snow. These difficulties were not always appreciated by the public. who were apt to ask why rotary ploughs were not employed. Such ploughs were not really applicable in the conditions met with in Britain. where the design would have to be such as to clear platforms and allow snow to be ejected without damage to telephone wires, etc. Despite the great horse power utilised—over 2.000—the speed at which a rotary plough proceeds may be as low as 2 m.p.h ,
The speaker concluded by reminding his audience that 1954 had indeed been an historic year, from the railway viewpoint, in Britain. It had seen the International Railway Congress, the opening of the new Woodhead tunnel, the introduction of electric working between Manchester and Sheffield, the operating of a non-stop train between London and Edinburgh at over 60 m.p.h. for the first time since the war ended, and the advent of the new railcar. To these landmarks must be added the attainment in France of a speed of 155 m.p.h. by an electric locomotive.

Dutch traction motors. 49
A Dutch firm, N.V. Electro-technische Industrie v/h Willem Smit & Co. supplied the first batch of 250 electric traction motors to be built into diesel-electric locomotives under construction for the Belgian State Railways by the Soc. Angle-Franco-BeIge La Croyere'.

Timken bearing applications. 49
60 Quad type axle boxes, manufactured by British Timken Ltd., had been supplied for main line passenger cars of the Canadian Pacific Railway. The reason that this type of bearing was necessary for this application resulted from the Railway's standardising on the same size frame opening for both plain journal and roller bearing axleboxes. An order for 160 axlcboxes of a similar design had been received by British Timken Ltd. from the Canadian National Railways. Up to December last orders had been received for Timken axle-boxes for 186 of the lightweight diesel trains which have been so successfully introduced by British Railways.

Portuguese developments. 49. illustration
On page 63 of our last Volume we referred to diesel railcars built in Holland for PortugaL The total order consisted of 35 railcars and 20 trailers. Of the railcars. 25 are for broad gauge lines. and seat 24 first class and 50 third class passengers; 10 are for narrow (metre) gauge lines, and seat 12 first class and 32 third class passengers. 12 trailers are for broad gauge, seating 106 third class passengers; and 8 trailers are for metre gauge, seating 68 third class passengers.
The railcars are fitted with two driving cabins. and have a baggage compartment at one end. Each motor coach has two 200 h.p. A.E.C. oil engines placed under the floor. The control is by B.U.T. electro-pneumatic equipment (similar to that in the B.R. two-coach diesel units), and cars can be worked in multiple unit. The vehicles themselves were built by N.V. Allan & Co., Rotterdam. They are generally used in three- or four-coach units, the motor coaches being at the outer ends, as the trailers are not equipped with a driving compartment. There is a central corridor along each coach, but no vestibule connection between vehicles. Lavatory accommodation is provided. All seats are upholstered; and the exterior is finished in dark blue and grey. In December last year the Portuguese Railways received estimates relative to the proposed electrification of the Lisbon-Sintra and Lisbon-Entroneamento lines: a total of 147.7 route kilometres. The stock required is fifteen Bo-Bo locomotives and 25 three-car units. The proposed system is 20 kilo-volt, 50 cycle, single-phase A.C. Due to the height above track level required by the overhead equipment the Rossio tunnel, in Lisbon, is being closed for three months for the work of lowering the road-bed by 50 cms. Twelve firms altogether have tendered for the contract, including British, Swedish, Belgian, Swiss, Dutch, French; Italian and Spanish firms. We are indebted to Mr. J. H. Richards for these particulars and the reproduced illustration.

Scottish Region Marshalling Yard. 49
Occupying an area of approximately 65 acres. the new Scottish Region Marshalling Yard near Thornton (Fife) will be one of the most modern in Europe. embracing primary and secondary rail brake retarders. automatic speed control and pre-selection route setting of points actuated through electrical relays. Construction of this yard is the third and largest stage of marshalling yard development and modernisation which has been embarked upon in Fife within recent years. The first project already completed. was the extension of the marshalling yard at Kelty and the modernisation of the signalling, and the second. recently completed. is the provision of the sidings and running loops at Oakley. . The site is on the Dunfermhne/Thornton route, approximately two miles to the West of Thornton Junction, and for railway operating purposes is an admirable one. as its location in relation to the railway network in Fife facilitates direct acceptance and despatch of trains from and to all routes. The new yard will absorb the large increase in output which will arise through expanding development of the Fife coalfield. It will also take the place of the separate groups of sidings which at present serve the area and which cannot be satisfactonly extended and modernised. Eventually. the number of wagons which will be dealt with in the new yard will reach 3,000 daily—an increase of 100% on the present level of traffic.

Swedish power-gas locomotive. 50.
This locomotive, described and illustrated on page 177 of our last volume. is now in service on the Halrnstad-Nassuo line. The fuel consumption is stated to be 200 grammes per h.p./br. at a pcwer output of 1,000 h.p. and a speed of 60 km.p.h. The axle loading is about 12 tons and the total weight 60 tons. Provision has been made for transferring weight from the carrying axles to driving axles, to increase adhesion at starting. As the majority of Swedish coaches are electrically heated, a generator, directly coupled to the diesel unit, is fitted for this purpose. The performance of this unit is being watched with interest, in view of the plans for replacing steam locomotives, on lines not to be electrified, with more economical motive power.

Correspondence. 50

Crescent balance weights. Montague Smith
In your article, "North British Locomotive Co. Ltcl.." the following statement occurs, "Included in Neilsons contribution to locomotive development is the introduction of the crescent balance weight, applied by them about 1862." The official photograph of C.R. 8ft. 2 in , single No. 76, built at St. Rollox Works in 1859 shows a crescent shaped balance weight, and it is to Benjamin Conner and St. Rollox, and not Neilson & Co., that the credit for introducing crescent balance weights forged solid with the rims, must be given.

Publications received. 50

Trico.Folberth Ltd., of Great West Road, Brentford, Middlesex, 50
Commercial catalogue containing particulars of heavy duty screen wipers pressure and vacuum horns, etc., suitable for locomotive use. This equipment is widely used on diesel and electric units both at home and abroad; a considerable range is available suitable for all requirements.

European Developments. 50
We learn from the C.I.C.E. Information Bulletin that a new series of six-axle electric locomotive, to be introduced in Austria during May. This type, the fastest and most powerful to run in that country, will have a length of 17 metres, a weight of 105 tons and a maximum speed of 130 km.p.h. Although introduced only two years ago the rail busses of the Deutsche Bundesbahn have proved surprisingly successful. From the source mentioned above we understand that a further 200 are on order with 240 trailers. In addition the D.B. has ordered 50 single-axle trailers for the transport of bicycles and baggage.

B.T.C. appointments. 50
The following appointments announced by the British Transport Commission: . E. J. Vipond , M,B.E., M.C., Assistant to Operating Superintendent, E. & N,E. Regions to be Assistant Operating Officer. Mr. R. Thompson, O.B.E., Divisional Motive Power Superintendent, L.M.R., Manchester to be Assistant Motive Power Officer.

European Timetable. 50
C.I.C.E. condensed timetable entitled, "Through all Europe by Train." Operative from 22 May shows the best railway services between the capital cities of Europe. Each capital is shown separately, together wi th a rough map of the country and a design that makes it a simple matter to read the abridged timetables that follow. This is an excellently produced publication of great value to those travelling on the continent.

Mirror maps. 50
The L.M.R. were experimentally installing mirrors, having a map of lines in the Region and connections. These were being fitted in some main line and cross- country coaches and if public reaction is favourable their use will be extended to all such coaches. These mirror maps have been produced to the design and requirements of . George Dow , Public Relations and Publicity Officer of the L.M.R. and as they are both attractive and useful should be very successful.

Yugoslavia wagons for Burma. 50
Yugoslavia has received a contract from Burma for the supply of 100 open wagons for the transport of timber.

Danish coaches for Turkey. 50
Turkey placed an order for railway coaches to the value of Danish kroner 30,000,000 with Scandia, Randers, Denmark.

Obituary. 50

Death on 20 February of Richard David Metcalfe, M.I.Mech.E., M.I.Loco.E., Chairman of .Davies & Metcalfe Ltd. Irorn 1936-55 and for over half-a-century an active member of that Company. Metcalfe contributed greatly to the development of the exhaust steam injector and the vacuum brake ejector and was a well-known figure throughout the railway world.

Death, at the age of 85, of A.J. Ruane who was Brake Sales Engineer of Westinghouse Brake & Signal Co. who retired in 1940. He joined the original Westinghouse Brake Company in 1888, twelve years after its formation, and had personal contact in his earlier days, in his capacity as draughtsman, with George Westinghouse himself. He was Works Engineer from 1918 until the early 1920s when he became Brake Engineer and later Brake Sales Engineer. He was well-known throughout the Mechanical Engineering Departments of the British Railways, and had visited railways in many countries abroad.

Death on 9 February of W. E. Evans, A.M.I.E.E., Manager of thc Contract Department of the G.E.C. Engineering Works at Witton. Evans, who was 67 years of age, was born in Yorkshire, and served an apprenticeship with Vickers Ltd., of Sheffield. He joined the Witton Works of the G .E,C. in 1910, and after a year in the Estimating Department. was appointed manager of the Contracts Department, with responsibility for all important contracts for electrical plant and equipment, including the supervision of erection at home and overseas. Evans occupied this position continuously for 44 years, during which period the staff under his control increased from a few employees to a total strength of over 300.

C.P. LocktonM.Sc.Tech., M.I.E.E., Chief Engineer of Chloride Batteries Ltd., died suddenly on 20 February. In October 1949 he was appointed Chief Engineer to the Company (which shortly afterwards changed its name to Chloride Batteries Ltd.) and still held this position at the time of his death.

Number 752 (April 1955)

The French high-speed records. 51
Editorial on 205.6 mile/h achieved on 28 and 29 March between Bordeaux and Dax withg CC 7107 and BB 9904.

BR standard non-gangway coaches. 52. 2 illustrations
One  illustration shows compartment interior with its buff linette plastic panels

General Electric Company Ltd. 52
Manufacture of electrical equipment for British Railways diesel electric shunting locomotives. Reduction in size of camshaft control equip,ent to enable it to fit low floor coaches as required by London Underground.

Woodhead-Monroe fluid cushion shock absorber. 53-5. 2 illustrations, diagram
Illustrations show dampers fitted to East African Rilways sleeping car and to the power bogie of a Wickham & Co. railcar.

British Railways. 55
New locomotives: Eastern Region: 2-6-4T Class 4 Nos. 80102 and 80103; 0-6-0 diesel electric DEJ6 N0s. 12156-8;; diesel railcars: motor third brake: 70021-2, 70024-6; drivibg trailer composite: 79013-14; 79616-18. London Midland Region: 2-10-0 Class 9 Nos. 92045-8. Southern Region 0-6-0 diesel electric No. 13101. Western Region 16XX Nos. 1658-60; 0-6-0 diesel electric Nos. 13102-5.

625 h.p. B-B diesel-hydraulic locomotives for India. 57-8. 3 illustrations, 2 diagrams (including side elevation)
For Kandla Deesa Section. North British Locomotive Co., Paxman 12RPPXL engine and Voith North British L36R transmission

Arbel-Diamond bogie for wagons. 58-9. 3 illustrations

New G.E.C. premises in South Africa. 58
British General Electric Co. Durban office

L. Lynes. Stressed wagon underframes. 60-2. illustration, 2 diagrams
Wagon underframes should possess a reasonable factor of strength for the safe convenyance of all kinds of loads up to th rateed capacity; possess a reasonable sttregth for traction annd be able to withstand buffing shocks.

G.E.C. Appointment. 62
J.P. Clifton appointed Manager of the Contract Department at the Witton Works of The General Electric Co. Ltd., in succession to the late W.E. Evans. Clifton was educated at Imperial College-City and Guilds (Engineering) College, and joined the Metropolitan-Vickers Electrical Co. Ltd. as a graduate apprentice in 1913. His training was interrupted by the war, during which he held a commission in the Royal Artillery and served in the Italian Expeditionary Force. He returned to the Metropolitan-Vickers Electrical Co. Ltd. in 1919, and after completing his apprenticeship was appointed to the staff of various sales departments and was later transferred to the Contract Department. He joined The General Electric Co. Ltd. in 1935 as Deputy Manager of the department which he now controls.

B.I.F. 62
British Industries Fair being held on 2-13 . Ahout 1,000 firms will be displaying their products in the Castle Brornwich section. The Westinghouse Brake & Signal Co. Ltd. will be exhibiting brake, signalling and electrical equipment selected from their wide range of products. Of particular interest will be a working model demonstrating the Westinghouse system of Mine Traffic Control for underground locomotive haulage roads. This system, based on orthodox railway signalling principles, provides protection for the modern fast and heavy haulage against conflicting traffic movements and also prevents delays at converging points. Not only is traffic considerably speeded but the additional safety afforded by such signalling is now a necessity. The model demonstates how, with the use of colour light signalling and power operated points all controlled from a centrally located Interlocking Frame, this can be accomplished over a very wide area. Supporting the model and working in conjunction with the control panel will be a three-aspect signal as used underground, tog-ether with a "plug-in" type of relay, the whole being backed up by a static display of ancillary equipment such as intrinsically safe transformer, circuit breaker, point detector etc.

E.E.C. to take over Vulcan Foundry.  62
English Electric Co. Ltd. announce that their offers to acquire all the Ordinary Stock of The Vulcan Foundry Ltd. and all the Stock of Robert Stephenson & Hawthorns Ltd., not held by The Vulcan Foundry Ltd. had in each case been accepted by the holders of more than 90% in value of the Stocks concerned and have accordingly become unconditional.

Personal. 62
J. E. Calverley , M.I.E.E., M.I.Loco.E:, has retired from The English Electric Co. Ltd. after a distinguished career. He joined the Phoenix Dynamo Co. in 1908 as Assistant Designer, and in 1910 went to Dick Kerr & Co. as Assistant Design Engineer. From 1935 to [941, Calverley was Chief Engineer and Manager of the English Electric Traction Department. In 1941 he went to Washington, where he represented the Ministry of Supply as D.C. Adviser on electrical equipment for tanks and vehicles. He returned to Great Britain and to The English Electric Company in 1943 as Deputy Chief Engineer (Technical). Since January 1952 he was engaged on special consultancy duties for the Company. During his career Calverley was mainly concerned with D.C design and application and had a great deal to do with mercury arc rectifiers. His work included the development of the Transverter, in association with the late W.E. Highfield. This machine was designed to convert alternating current, at voltages used for the generation of electrical energy, (i.e., from 3,000 to 11,000 volts), into direct current at a pressure of the order of 100,000 volts.

Regional Diesel transfer. 62
One of the two main line diesel-electric locomotives-No. 10001 which had been working on the Southern Region since April 1953, has now returned tu the London Midland Region. In March it worked local services between Euston and Bletchley for two weeks before taking up duty on long distance expresses. Its sister locomotive No. 10000 was expected back on the London Midland shortly.

E.R. developments. 62
The March issue of the Eastern Region B.R. Magazine contains an article by Mr. A. J. White Assistant General Manager, on Modernisation in the Eastern Region. This deals with the large amount of development which is taking place in all departments and mentions that already 55 twin railcars have been allo- cated to the Lincoln, Norwich, Cambridge and Stratford districts. Within five or six vears all the branch and secondary services should have gone over to railcar operation.

B.R. Appointment. 62
British Railways (Scottish Region) announce the appointment of Mr. J. M. McCrea, Assistant District Motive Power Superintendent, Glasgow (North), as District Power Superintendent, Aberdeen.

Power equipment for 350 h.p. diesel-electric locomotive. 63-5. 4 illustrations, 3 diagrams

Reviews. 66

Newcastle-upon-Tyne Museum, Science & Engineering Catalogue. Newcastle. 66
The collection of scientific and engineering material at Newcastle is an exceedingly important one and is of special appeal to our readers by reason of its wealth of railway and locomotive material. This is in large measure due to the interest in such matters taken by the late Capt. E. W. Swan, who was Hon. Curator from the formation until he died in 1948, and by the present Hon. Curator, Mr. H.W. Davis, M.LC.E., who succeeded him. The catalogue under review lists the exhibits—of which there are more than 8,000—and contains detail of the many valuable items.

Men of the Footplate. P. Ransome-Wallis. Ian Allan Ltd., Hampton Court.
The Author explains in the introduction how he came to compile this book which contains the stories of four well-known top-link drivers on the Great 'Western, Southern, L.M.R. and L.N.E. Railways. Drivers' experiences are always fascinating and this book will undoubtedly and deservedly be popular among the large body of enthusiasts interested in locomotives and their working. There are many illustrations, including a coloured plate, in this attractive publication.

The railway revolution 1825-1845. M. Greenwood. Longmans, Green & Co. Ltd. 66
This is a book, for youngsters, which in rather less than 100 page, tells them quite a lot of the early days of railways. There are numerous illustrations, all based on contemporary pictures. Generally this is a well-arranged publicaton which should convey something of the difficulties. of early days and the way in which they were surmounted.

Report of Conference on Works Transport. 66
Issued by the British Iron and Steel Research Association, London.
Not much literature has been available on works transport but this omission has been made good by the issue of this report on the Conference, held in 1954, which was organised by the Association's Plant Engineering Division and Operational Research Section. The full texts of the ten papers which were heard and discussed are given, together with three appendices. Papers were divided into four sections viz . General, Operational Research, Practice, and Equipment. The technical subjects dealt with covered a wide range. The diesel versus steam locomotive controversy took a significantly large place in various papers and the subsequent discussions. The future of the steam traction unit may rest with high-pressure geared-drive types, possibly running on oil fuel and incorporating special features designed to cut down maintenance. If these can thus bring down operating costs to a point where they approach those of diesel practice, the lower capital cost of the steamer acquires greater relative importance.
The subject of wagon design aroused considerable interest. The importance of introducing increased axle loading heing recognised, general adaption of the 22½ ton axle loading standard was recommended. From this it follows that track and permanent way equipment in works should be designed to take wagons up to 45 ton in gross weight, and should be capable of handling the new 12 ft. wheelbase coal wagons. This publication is strongly recommended to all concerned with the organisation and operation of industrial transport.

The Leicester & Swanninqron Railway. C.R. Clinker. Transactions of the Leicester Archzeological Society, 1954. 66
This history, forming a paper of 56 pages and appendices with nine illustrations and diagrams, is manifestly the result of painstaking research—full advantage having been taken of the present-day facilities available—consequently forming a well-documented account. The work deals adequately and interestingly with a1l aspects of the railway—being divided into thirteen sections—and brings many new facts to light and, incidentally, finds little evidence to support some long current and long doubted, picturesque tales. There is an excellent and well-indicated map (except that the Soar Lane branch is omitted); a reasonably full and generally accurate account is given of the locomotives; whilst the bibliography is extensive and an admirable list of sources is included.
The account provides a welcome change from latter-day railway puhlications containing little fresh material and this "new-style" work should be much to the taste of railway enthusiasts who value railway history derived from reliable sources.

The Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway in the Twentieth Century. Eric Mason. Ian Allan Ltd. 66
The Lancashire & Yorkshire is one of the fell' major railways which has not been the subject of a separate comprehensive history, from its origin as the Manchester & Leeds Railway in the 1830s down to its pre-grouping amalgamation with the L. & N.W.R. in 1922. Mr. Eric Mason make, it clear in his Foreword that his book is neither a history of the "L. & Y." nor of its locomotives; but he claims with justification that it is a survey—and a very comprehensive one—of the line, its progress and train workings, with special reference to locomotive practice, from about the beginning of the twentieth century down to 1922. It is based largely, and more especially from about 1906, upon the Author's extensive personal observation and records. This useful and interesting book is generously illustrated with photographs (many hitherto unpublished), and diagrams of important stations and junctions, and there is a number of appendices of locomotive and other statistical information.

Fluid friction co-efficients, J. R. Finniecome. Emmott & Co. Ltd., Manchester.  66
The designers of pipe lines know of the problem of friction drop. Depending on the friction co-efficient of the pipe, this problem has been studied by some of the leading physicists of Europe and United States of America, and the book gi ves comparisons between the friction co-efficient developed for smooth and rough pipes hy these investigators. For enzi neers concerned with the problem, this is a useful collection of data.

Number 754 (May 1955)
Issue should have been Nomber 753 not 754

The Programme progresses. 67-8.
British Transport Commission contracts for modernisation: Dieselisation: Manchester London Road was largest. Birmingham to Lichfield; Newcastle to Carlisle and to Hexham. Diesel locomotives of Type A, B and C. Electrification from Liverpool Street to Enfield and Chingford. Quartermaine and E.J. Larkin appointed to activate changes: latter with special reference to training

4-6-2 "WL" Class locomotives for India. 69. illustration
5ft 6in gauge built Vulcan Foundry

G.E.C. atomic energy plans. 69
Electricity generation

Weedkilling train for British Railways. 70-1. 3 illustrations
Chipman Chemical Co. for R.K. Terris, Chief Civil Engineer, Eastern Region. Train consisted of tank wagons which were either vacuum brake fitted or piped, a machinery van and a mess/accommodation van

Institution of Locomotive Engineers. 71-2. illustration
Commentary on the Subject index of addresses and papers prepared by the Secretary of the Instituion G.T. Hart in 1954 and an account of the Summer Meeting held in Glasgow from 17 to 19 May 1955. The illustration shows members on a  visit to the factory of the General Electric Co. at Witton, Birmingham on 4 March 1955.

O.S.M. Raw. Some locomotive reminiscences. 73-4
(continued from p. 44)
Though the African standard gauge is 3ft. 6in., the first lengths from Durban and the Cape were constructed to the 4ft. 8½in. gauge, but very soon converted for economy of construction. Their engines have always been more powerful and heavier than contemporary British designs and the rolling stock is as commodious thanks to a generous loading gauge. For very many years locomotive designs have been prepared in detail by the Union Engineers, thus following the precedent of Beatty on the Cape and Hendrie on the Natal Railways.
In addition to the 3ft. 6in. system there were some 880 miles of 2ft. 0in. gauge lines largely concentrated in Natal and acting as feeders into the sugar estate areas carrying very heavy traffic over heavy gradi- ents. These are largely Garratt operated. There were also some very extensive 2ft. 0 in gauge lines with large fleets of locomotives and rolling stock on the various Sugar Estates, as an example, the main line of the Illovo Sugar Co. was 35 miles long, and these lines had a most fascinating stock of locomotives ranging from small 0-6-0 tanks to a number of the Avonside double-bogie types with a Vee engine under the boiler and ahead of the firebox driving out to either bogie by cardan shafts and bench boxes, the wheels of each bogie being coupled by conventional side rods. These engines were very successful, free riding, powerful and comparatively cheap in first cost. At this time diesel locomotives were being extensively introduced into the Estate lines.
The S.A.R. was at that time, a very large system, over 14,000 miles and since extended, carrying on immense traffic most efficiently at cheap rates and, in addition, ran the whole of the extensive road motor services, the inland air routes and all the Dock and Harbour installations. Locomotive design had originally been in the British tradition and though all designs are still very neat and tidy, bar frames, American type boilers with Wootten fireboxes of steel construction fitted with thermic-syphons and on the larger classes power operated firedoors and mechanical stokers, grease lubrication and roller bearings, etc., are now standard. Central couplers and combined buffers had been standard for many years, though there was no sign of automatic couplers being introduced, which are now standard. There was some four-wheeled goods stock, though the bulk was bogie stock and nearly 100% of it of all-steel construction; all was fitted with the automatic vacuum brake. Passenger stock was all of bogie type with clerestory roofs with side corridors and two- or four-seat compartments r which made up into two- or four-berth sleeping compartments. The bulk of the carriages had open vestibules, there were no side doors except on suburban stock, but all recent construction had closed vestibules, whilst some of the suburban stock was of open compartment centre gangway type, with very well fitted dining cars in which most excellent meals at very reasonable prices were served. All the stock rode most comfortably and though on the average speeds were limited to 50 m.p.h. some appreciably faster running was put in on the up-country runs, especially round Kimberley and particularly with the small class of very fine Class 16E Pacifies which have 6ft. wheels and on a number of occasions on test have exceeded 60 m.p.h. The Class 23, with 5ft. 3in. wheels, was the new main line engine in 1938-39, over 140 were delivered by German builders before hostilities broke out.
The great bulk of the Union is high country rising from a narrow coastal fringe. Thus in Natal Pietermaritzburg, 76 miles by rail from Durban is 3,500 ft. above sea level and Johannesburg 6,000 with numerous rises and falls, so that in effect on the run from Durban to Johannesburg the train climbs the equivalent of some 20,000ft. and very heavy gradients and curves are encountered. A great deal of re-alignment was then in hand and more has since taken place, as an example, the old Natal main line had numerous stretches of 1 in 30, with sharp uncompensated curves which resulted in the grade being the equivalent of 1 in 24. In the 1920's a new line was opened from Durban to Cato Ridge, double track throughout, with compensated curves but an almost continuous grade of 1 in 66 from Booth Junction, 5 miles from Durban, for some 40 miles to Cato Ridge, the old main line being left as a suburban passenger line, though its electrification was then started and has since been completed, and the doubling of the main line right through to Johannesburg is now well in hand. The coast lines from Durban carried a very heavy suburban traffic, especially the South line as far as Umfolozi, and some very brisk running was put in by the G.B. and G.C. Class of Garratts with their small 3ft. 6!in. wheels and very punctual runnmg was essential to avoid delay at crossings, these lines being single. The heavy sugar goods traffic was handled by the G.E. Garratts, of which a modernised edition has recently been delivered in quantity. Garratts and in almost all cases Beyer-Garratts were, and are, very largely used on the Union Rail- ways and it is certain that without them the heavy traffic could not be handled, at least without very extensive doubling and re-alignments of the tracks and in many instances electrification also. After the Garratt had shown what it could do, attempts were made by other manufacturers to produce a type of articulated engine, such as the Union-Garratt by Maffei, a sort of Garratt-cum-Fairlie and never successful, and a few Henschel and North British modified Fairlies type H.F. were introduced. None of these designs was up to the Garratt and they were not repeated. The first one was Class G.A. of the 1920's, a 2-6-0+ 0-6-2 type which very rapidly showed its superiority over the standard and Mallet types on the Estcourt-Mooi River section, but bl:!ing a lone engine it has now been scrapped. The great bulk of the Garratts are concentrated in Natal and the Eastern Transvaal. Branch line work was being taken over by the very efficient 19th Class light 4-8-2's, in 1939 some were delivered by Skoda just before Hitler took over their works and they were got out as rather a rushed job under very trying conditions and so had quite a number of teething troubles to be put right. The Cape designs were mostly left to the old Cape Section, though some of their old 7,th and 8th Class small-wheeled light axle load 4-8-0's had got up into German South West Africa and into Natal. (To be concluded) Illustrations: Avonside 2 ft. gauge articulated geared locomotive
Concluded p. 117

Portugal's first underground . 77
Contracts to the value of scrne £200,000 have been placed with The General Electric Co. Ltd. by the Metropolitano de Lisboa, S.A.R.L. (Lisbon Metropolitano Sosiety) for power supply, ventilation and pumping equipment for the Lisbon Metropolitano. the first underground railway in Portugal. The contracts were gained in the face of intense Continental competition, and are the only ones awarded to a British manufacturer in connection with this scheme. The Metropolitano will be a 4ft. 8½in. gauge railway operating at 750v. D.C., and will be constructed mainly on the cut-and-cover system, although short sections will require tunneling. Stage  1 of the project, for which the present contracts have been placed, involves the line from Restauradores to Entre Campos, and a branch from Rotunda to Sete Rios with a spur to the workshops, a total of some 4.3 route-miles. The planned total mileage of the svstem so far is 11.97 route-miles. and extensions which would bring the total to 25.7 route-miles are in view.
At the main substation, where power is taken at present from the supply undertaking at 10kV, the G.E.C. is supplying a 7-panel 10kV oil circuit breaker switchboard. a 1,000kVA, l0kV/3kV transformer, and an 11-panel 3kV switchboard for controlling supplies to auxiliary services. Standby auxiliary power will be provided by a 1,000 h.p. diesel-alternator set comprising a 1,000 h.p. Ruston / Paxman 12 YLX engine coupled to a G.E.C. alternator. At the traction substation for the first section of the line there will be two 750kV pumpless air-cooled steel tank rectifier equipments with transformers. The cornplete A.C. and D.C. switchgear installation at the substation is also being supplied by the G.E.C. Pirelli-General paper-insulated steel-wire armoured H.T. cables will be provided for the 10kV feeders to the main substation and through the tunnel to the traction substation; and 3kV cables for auxiliary services throughout the line. The contract includes ighting and ventilation at the main substation, and ventilation at the traction substation. The G.E.C'. will also be responsible for the supply and erection complete of the ventilation system for the tunnels and the eleven stations in the first stage of the scheme and for the pumping system.

Light alloy finishing. 77
Since the experimental unpainted finish for the exterior of light alloy railway carriages was initiated by London Transport Executive, increased interest has been aroused by this application of unprotected aluminium sheet. To provide a neat clean finish a modified Black & Decker 6 inch heavy duty portable electric saw has been used to remove the projecting beads from welded light alloy sbeets so that a flush surface is provided. The saw was modified bv mounting a milling-cutter on the blade shaft. and by removing the lower blade guard and fitting in place an adjustable guide plate of teak or hard wood. A non-metallic material is required so that scratching of the light alloy sheeting does not occur. The cutter speed for this application is between 2-3,000 ft. per minute, and in use the guide plate is adjusted so that apuroximately .001 to .005 in. of metal is left upstanding after the head has been cut down. The remainder of the projection can then be removed with a disc sander.
After the weld beads have been removed, it has also been found that a Black & Decker orbital sander produces a good overall effect on the unpainted alloy surfaces hy giving a mechanically produced, scratched finish which possesses a sufficient degree of reflectivity and metalic lustre to over- come the patchiness which is possible to occur in service with full matt surface finish. Also accidental scratches and marks do not show up readily.

German built Garratt-locomotives for Africa. 77
German contemporary Glasers Annalen for October 1954 Dipl. Ing. Bangert reports upon some interesting and efficient Garratt locomotives, built. by Henschel & Sohn for African railways. All these engines have the 4-8-2 + 2-8-4 wheel arrangement and are built to suit the 3ft. 6in. gauge of the South African Rys. and the Mossamedes Ry. A cast-steel "engine-bed" with integral cylinders is employed. The middle section carrying the boiler is wholly welded, as well as the water tank and the coal bunker. In service the engine is accompanied by a special tank wagon, only a small amount of water being carried on the front unit, while a capacious coalbunker, with stoker, is mounted on the rear unit. All engines built umder licemce from Beyer Peaock.

B.R. Summer Services.  77
British Railways summer train services will start on 13 June when 64 long-distance trains will be accelerated by from 10 to 81 minutes compared with last summer's schedules. and there will be ten more start-to-stop runs at 60 m.p.h. or over (58 instead of 48). Important accelerations will include The Flving Scotsman", which willl run non-stop between London and Newcastle and will reach Edinburgh (393 miles) in 7 hours (a saving of 27 minutes on last summer's time), and The Ulster Express which will leave Heysham half an hour later than last year (07.00 instead of 06.30) and will arrive at Euston at the same time (11.35). Services between London (Paddington) and Hereford are to be accelerated, and the 16.00, train from Worcester to Oxford, which is to be extended to Paddington, will be the first train since the war to cover the 63½ miles from Oxford to Paddington in one hour.
A new multiple-unit diesel railcar service will be introduced in Lincolnshire as a preliminary to the full diesel scheme olanned for next winter, and light-weight diesel units will replace steam trains on the Watford-St. Albans and Harrow-Bclrnont services.

L. Lynes. Stressed wagon underframes. 78-9. 6 diagrams
Triangular design as adopted on Southern Railway.

F.J.G. Haut. Belgian electric locomotives. 80. illustration
Bo-Bo locomotives capable of hauling heavy freight or fast peassenger trains

Proposed London Underground railway. 80
Legislation being sought for what became the Victoria Line (minus Walthamstow Wood Street)

Lightweight diesels increase traffic. 80
8000 more passengers in Cumberland

Londion Transport appointments. 80
G.S. Binham Assistant Mechanical Engineer (Running) had been appointed Assistant Mechanical Engineer (Works) and J.G. Bruce Assistant Mechanical Engineer (Works) had been appointed Assistant Mechanical Engineer (Running).

F.J.G.H. [Haut]. New Swedish electric locomotives. 81. 2 illustrations
1-D+D-1 rod driven locomotives for woring iron ore trains to Norway

News of the month. 82

New railway for Angola. 82
The Portuguese Government has ordered a plan to be drawn up tor the construction of a railway connecting Baia dos Tigres, on the South coast of Angola, to the South Rhodesian border. Baia dos Tigres is one of the largest bays in West Africa and this new railway would be the shortest route between the Rhodesian industrial region of Wankie and the African west coast.

Electrification in New South Wales. 82
The first stage of electrifying the main line between Sydney and Lithgow, in New Soutn Wales, Australia, is now complete. In February the first section, between Parrarnatta, in the suburbs of Sydney, and Blacktown, was opened to traffic as an electrified line. It is expected that the second section between Blacktown and Pennth will be electrified by September of next year and the final stage to Lithgow by the middle of 1957. A considerable amount of electrification had taken pace in Sydney and its suburbs between 1926 and 1951 when the New South Wales Railway awarded the contract for the electrification of the route to British Insulated Callender's Construction Co. Ltd.
It is estimated that the journey times between Sydney and Lithgow will be reduced by one hour for passenger trains and by two hours for freight trains. The gradients in the area are suitable for regenerative braking and all motive power will be fitted for regeneration. Recovery of energy by this means is estimated to be approximately thirty per cent. of the total energy used in the whole service. A 1,500-volt D.C. system has been chosen. From Parramatta to Penrith the equipment is of the simple catenary type; from Penrith to Lithgow in the mountainous section it is of the compound catenary type. Supporting structures consist mainly of broad flange beam portals.

L.M.A. 82
At the Annual General Meeting of the Locomotive Manufacturers' Association which took place in London on 28 April, T. A. Crowe, Chief lvranaging Director and Chairman-elect of the North British Locomotive Co. Ltd., was elected President of the Association for the ensuing year. Crowe succeeded. John F. Alcock, Chairman and Managing Director of Hunslet Engine Co. Ltd., who was President of the Association from April 1953 to April 1955. At the Annual General Meeting of the Internal Combustion Group of the Association, C. C. H. Wade, Manager, Traction Sales and Contracts of The English Electric Co , Ltd., was re-elected Chairman of the Internal Combustion Group of the L.M.A. for the ensuing year.

U.S.S.R. electrification. 82
Nineteen main line railways in the U.S.S.R. are now electrified and electrification is to be increased further this year. Many sections of the Ufa (Bashkiria}, Omsks (Western Siberia) and of the Moscow-Kursk-Donbas railways are shortly to be switched over to electric traction. Subsequently all the lines of the Novosibirsk-Chelyabinsk-Syran railway system are to be electrified. When completed, this system will, it is claimed, be the longest electrified goods line in the world.

A.T.C. 82
The trial of automatic train control apparatus, at present installed on the down main line between New Barnet and Huntingdon, is soon to be extended to both up and down main lines from Kings Cross to Grantham.

Wagons for Belgian Congo. 82
Union Miniere du Haut Katanga, Belgian Congo, placed an order for 51 Western dual-side, pivot drop door, automatic air dump cars with Baldwin-Lima-Harnilton Corporation. The capacity of the cars is to be 28 cubic yards or 50 tons. They will be of all-steel construction with structural members of Cor-Ten alloy steel, and will be built for operation on the 3ft. 6in. gauge.

Yugoslav Railway development. 82
The first section of the normal gauge railway line linking Belgrade with Bor on the coast of Montenegro will be opened to traffic by the end of this year.

Argentine electrification. 82
The Argentine section of the Transandine Railway from Mendoza to Los Andes in Chile is shortly to be electrified. The Chilean sector is already electrified.

Container experiments. 82
During the past year the North Eastern Region of British Railways has been experimenting in the Leeds District with small-wheeled containers which may well herald a new service for traders in providing door-to-door transport with reduced packing costs, lessened risk of damage, and giving additional security by avoiding intermediate handling for small lots of up to 20 cwt. from one firm to another.
Three types of container were used in the initial stages and from the experience gained the larger type was considered most suitable for general use. The internal dimensions were: length 5ft 5½ in., width 3ft. 11 in. and height 4ft. 3½in.; externally these measurements were 6ft. 4in., 3ft. 3½in. and 5 ft. 6in. respectively.
The large container, the tare of which is 5cwt. 2qrs. 14 lb, was of 70 cu. it. capacity and can carry 1 ton. The top is lidded, one half being hinged and capable of being locked. Quick release catches are also fitted at each end of the hinged portion whilst one side of the container-made up of plywood panels reinforced on all edges with sheet iron- was; detachable. Each of the oanels is locked into its neighbour bv a patented device. -
The two rear wheels were fixed, but the front pair, linked to a handle, can be swivelled in any direction. All wheels are solid rubber tyred and the containers are exceptionally "asy to manreuvre whether loaded or empty. An interesting feature is that each container is fitted with four retractable legs or stilts. Movement is through a system of levers and all four legs are operated simultaneously by a single hand control. When in position, they raise the container ap- proximately tin. from the floor. The iron "shoes" forming the base of each leg are serrated on the underside to afford a firm grip, thereby obviating movement during transit. The containers are fitted with shackles for lifting purposes and they can also be handled by fork lift truck if necessary.
Following the successful outcome of the tnals in the North Eastern Region, the British Transport Commission have decided that the scope of the experiment shall be extended and authority has been given for the purchase of 80 containers of the type described.

Argentine Notes. 82
Some Class 15B locomotives had been transferred from the G. Roca to the D.F. Sarmiento line. These engines are an improvement on the original F.C.O. 1500 design. The transfer is due to the fact that these engines which worked on the Barriloche line had been replaced on that service by Baldwin diesels. Two large German rack and adhesion engines had arrived for working the Volcan-Leon rack section on the line to Bolivia. Since 1904 this key section had been worked by three Eslingen 0-8-2T engines.

BTH appointment. 82
W.B.G. Collis, M.B.E., T.D., B.Sc., A.C.G.I., A.M.LE.E., A.I.Loco.E .. has been appointed Manager-BTH Traction Department in succession to the late E. T. Hippisley, as from 1 April 1955. Collis was educated at Shrewsbury. and at the City  & Guilds (Engineering) College spending his long vocation in I927 as a student at BTH. After taking his degree he went to the Metropolitan-Vickers Company as a College Apprentice in 1928. In 1931 , he joined that Company's Traction Control Department and six years later transferred to Traction Sales. During WW2 Colhs served with the Royal Corps of Signals, being awarded the M.B.E. (Military Division) in 1940. Later he was appointed to the General Staff of the War Office. On demobilisation he returned to Metropolitan-Vickers. After holding appointments in London and Manchester. he was appointed In 1953 Assistant Sales Manager in charge of the M-V Traction Staff in London. The British Thompson-Houston Co. also announce that J.N. MacDonald, B.A., A.M.I.E. (India), Executive Director BTH Export Company retired at the end of April 1955, and Mr. H. E. Wethered has been elected to the Board to fill the vacancy.

Krupp Works for Argentina. 82
After prolonged negotiations, Krupp decided to participate in the industrialisation ot Argentina and to establish, first of all, a locomotive works. Initially imported parts were to be assembled but production of whole units was to be undertaken at a later date. Argentine interests will participate in the new venture.

A Western Region "Castke" on the Lickey Incline. 83
For photographs see page 122. A special excursion organised by Ian Allan Ltd. on 16 April had several interesting features. The route followed was the Western Region main line from Paddington to Bristol; from there the Bristol-Birmingham line of the former London Midland & Scottish Railway; and from Birmingham to Paddington again the Western Region main line via Bicester. A novelty was the use of the same Castle class 4-6-0 that worked the train from Paddington, No. 7017 C.J. Churchnvard, from Bristol to Birmingham also, so that an opportunity might be given of watching the working of a W.R. engine of this type up the famous Lickey Incline. It was also of interest that the train, which included two restaurant and kitchen cars, carried on the rear one of the two beaver-tail observation cars of the former L.N.E.R. Coronation streamline train. The tare weight of the ten coaches was 329 tons, and the gross weight, with 420 passengers, 355 tons.
In the early stages of the run from Paddington, therc was a severe permanent way slowing at Old Oak, followed by signal checks at West Drayton and Slough, and after the attainment of 72 m.p.h. on the level before Reading, there was a further 45 m.p.h. check at Tilchurst . With a clear road beyond, 69 m.p.h. was reached at Didcot, and the gradual rise from there to Shrivenharn was negotiated at no lower speed than 67 m.p.h. Thus, although Mlaidenhead, 24.3 miles, had been passed in 30 min. 48 sec.. over 3 min. late, Reading, 36.0 miles, in 40 min. 52 sec.. and Didcot, 53.1 miles, in 57 min. 17 sec., by Swindon, 77·3 miles in 78 min. 35 sec. the train was 1½ min. early. A speed restriction to 5 m.p.h. over Cricklade Bridge, at present under reconstruction, was then observed with such rigour as to bring the speed down to 2 m.p.h. for some distance, and to cause the loss of at least 5½ min. After that a maximum of 85 m.p.h , down Dauntsey bank, 66 m.p.h. minimum at Corsharn , and, following a 28 m.p.h. slack through Bath, 69 m.p.h. at Keynsham, sufficed to take the train through Chippenham, 94.0 miles, in 97 min. 3 sec., Bath, 106·9 miles, in 108 min. 46 sec.. and with a very slow approach to Bristol, to the Temple Meads stop, 118.3 miles, in 122 min. 35 sec. The net time of this excellent run may be put at about 110 min.: the schedule was 122 min.
From Bristol to Birmingham no high speed was possible, as the special was immediately following the 2.15 p.m. LM.R. express to York. The W.R. Castle made a good climb with this load up Fishponds bank, with its 2½ miles rangmg m steepness from 1 in 69 to 1 in 90; Fishponds, 3.0 miles was passed in 10 min. 10 sec., and Mangotsfield, 5.0 miles, in 14 min. 3.1 sec., 3½] min. early but after that many signal checks were experienced. The major interest of this section was concentrated in the ascent of the Lickey Incline where the services of the well-known 0-10-0 No. 58100, were obtained as banker. By extremelv vizorous work this engine and W.R. 7017 accelerated the 355-ton train to 24½ m.p.h. up the 1 in 37¾ from the Bromsgrove start, passing Blackwall, 2.2 miles, in 6 min. 28 sec.-that is, within ½min. of the LlVLS. "Special Limit" timings of pre-war with considerably lighter loads. The unusual sight of a Western "Castle" working up the bank had attracted a large crowd of spectators to every vantage point, and innumerable cameras recorded this unique happening. For clearance reasons, the W.R. "Castle" could not work through into New Street, Birmingham, and so had to be detached at Bournville and replaced by LM.R. Class 5 4-6-0 No. 44842. After 1½ hours at Birmingham, No. 44842 worked. the tram on via Grand Junction and St. Andrews Junctron to Bordesley Junction, where W.R. Castle No. 7007 Great Western was waiting to continue to. Paddington with a timing of 122 min. for the 109.0 miles to Paddington non-stop. The up running was of less note, however. than that from Paddington to Bristol, and with permanent way slowings at Hatton, West Wycombe and Old Oak, and an unfortunate emergency stop at Saunderton due to the tail-lamp of the train being out, the arrival was 13 mm. late. Net time was about 119½ min. We are indebted to Cecil J. Alien, the well-known authority on locomotive performance, for the foregoing particulars.

G.E.C. to equip new traction works. 83
Located at Dudley Port to manufacture motors and associated traction equipment to meet demand from British Railways. The new works are situated within easy reach of the Company's Enginecring Works at Witton, Birmingham, from which it will be controlled. It will form a self-contained manufacturing unit handling all processes from the raw material stage to the final assembly, testing and despatch of the machines. Flow-line methods representing the most up-to-date production practice will be adopted, and the works, which will be in full production within twelve months, will have et potential output of over £1,000,000 of equipment per year.

Colour light signalling Stockport-Levenshulme. 83
During March British Railways brought into operation new colour light signalling between Stockport and Levenshulrne on the L.M.R., which will give better sighting to enginemen, greatly improve train working in foggy weather and enable trains to be dealt with more expeditiously on this busy stretch of line.

S. African Order. 83
The Financial Times 18 March noted that the South African Railwavs awarded a contract for 300 8,000-gallon tank wagons to a Belgian firm at a total cost of approximately £800,000. The deciding factor in this order was understood to be the ability of the Belgians to undertake delivery before the end of this year. There was no doubt that the placing of this urgent order for tank cars and the current agitation in South Africa to build a petrol pipeline from Durban to Johannesburg were not unconnected.
During 1954 the railway administration's total purchases of locomotives, rolling stock, equipment, materials and stores amounted to about £65M. South African industries supplied about £21M. of the railways requirements, and the remainder represented imports.

Japanese Exports. 83
Japan's rolling stock exports in the current fiscal year became increasingly active during the second six-monthly period. By the end of September of last year, i.e. at the end of the first half-year, only two export contracts valued at Yen 200 million had been concluded, one for the shipment of eleven steam locomotives to India, the other for two passenger coaches for the Phillippines. However, business improved in the second half and the total value of contracts completed has already risen to no less than four billion Yen. Moreover, several overseas enquiries were pending and should these result in the signing of further contracts, the grand total for the current fiscal year may well amount to 10 billion Yen, against 5,500 million for the 1953 fiscal year.
Contracts concluded since October include (all figures in million Yen): Thailand 200; Argentina 460; India 3,260; Formosa 25; and Burma 750. Goods involved include steam and diesel locomotives, passenger coaches, tank cars, freight wagons, etc. Negotiations were pending with Egypt, Argentina, the Phillipines, Pakistan and India.

Brush Group Film. 83
Press viewing of a new coloured film, produced by The Brush Group Ltd., with the title To Build an Island's Future. This shows in action the 1,000 h.p. Brush-Bagnall diesel-electric locomotives supplied to Ceylon. A description and illustration of these units, 25 of which were ordered, appeared in our 1952 Volume, (page 191 etc.}. Conditions in Ceylon, as was pointed out by Miles Beevor, Managing Director of the Brush Group, when introducing this film, with their exacting requirements in regard to temperature.. curves and gradients, created a searching testing ground, but recent reports confirm that the locomotives are giving efficient service. So far sixteen locomotives  were in operation and the remaining nine would soon be in traffic.

Reviews. 84

British Railway History C. Hamilton Ellis. George Allen and Unwin .
The scope of the book is wide, being divided into three periods between 1830 and 1876, each Part comprising a general history of the inception, construction and progress of the lines and having a separate section dealing with mechanical development. The book provides a very readable "popular" account of a vast subject; to encompass railway history from 1830 to 1876—the principal formative period— in anything like detailed form would require far more space, and far more original research, than the Author has disposed of Nevertheless it is a laudable attempt to bring the principal doings of the various lines into a focus sufficient for those for whom it is evidently intended. The absence of any maps: however, eve-n of the simplest outline, is a great handicap to the reader of such a subject as railway history. The Author is very free with sometimes scathing condemnation of the actions of railway Boards, Chairmen and Officers, basing his judgment sometimes on questionable ex-parte opinions, contemporary or later; for instance, the Author's view that John Braithwaite "was idiotic" in respect to the five-foot gauge does not add to the value of the argument; on the other hand, that Stephenson foresaw the advance of electric traction in the twentieth century, is surprising. Apart from such irrelevances much space is occupied with quasi-political digressions; readers of railway history should be exempt from diversions into "the four Georges and Silly Billy," "the vested interest of the Church" and "fancy religion," that the Northampton Council prior to 1835 "was almost Feudal," "Nonconformist" etc. This blemish recurs often in the early portions and breaks out again when dealing with the "Mania," and later still when ascribing the slowness of railway building in the Highlands to Scottish "deer-chasing" land-owners, when the obvious cause was—as subsequently stated—the difficulty of obtaining capital for railway enterprises having so poor a prospect of being remunerative. Occasionally there appears a strong tendency to force facts or descriptions into a "story", in the course of some of which, especially in inter-company rivalries, a reader might be excused for supposing that the Author was present at the Board or other meeting concerned!
The sections on "Mechanical Development," although necessarily curtailed, give an adequate synthesis of the subject, although the reference to expansion link motion having first come into use with certain of the locomotives on the L. & S.W.R. in 1843 cannot be allowed to pass, whilst in "Signalling advance, in the 1870s" the site of the Thorpe (G.E.R.) collision of September 1874 was not on the single-track swing-bridge, which was, and is—but now double-line —on the Norwich-London line over the River Wensurn , but adjacent to a bridge lower down over a loop of the River Yare. There is also an error in ascribing the stationary engine at the Swannington Incline to Stephenson, whereas It was made by the Horsely Company.
There is a very fine series of illustrations; there being 44 displayed on 25 plates, amongst them being 10 portraits—including an extremely interesting group of the Stephenson family—a number of the pictures are seldom seen and some are unique; the reproductions of a number of fine contemporary paintings of railway bridges etc. are especially good, whilst those of three paintings by the Author—one, the coloured frontispiece—are so true to life as to lead the unwary to suppose them to be from contemporary pictures! A most agreeable feature is a description, in extenso, of each illustration, given at the end of the book and almost for ming a chapter itself.

50 years of Western express running. O.S. Nock. Bristol: Edward Everard Ltd., 84
The subject is a great one and the Author, who is an acknowledged authority on locomotive performance and a Great Western enthusiast of the front rank, does it full justice. Supporting the text are many logs compiled over the last half-century, gradient diagrams, diagrams of loco- motives, many reproduced photographs, and no less than eight coloured plates. The story, which includes the days of Churchwards stirring developments and the evolution of the Castles and the Kings, is admirably told and this is "meat" not only for Western enthusiasts, but also for all those interested in logical locomotive development and enterprising locomotive performance. There 'are some 350 pages and the standard of production is a high one.

Mechanical World Year Book, 1955. Manchester: Emmott & Co. Ltd. 84
This well-known year book has been subjected to detailed revision where necessary and maintains its high reputation as an exceedingly useful book of general reference at an exceptionally modest price.

Mechanical World Electrical Year Book, 1955. Manchester: Emmott & Co. Ltd. 84
Briefly this book may be described as a collection of electrical engineering notes, rules, tables and data. The edition under review is the 48th; the section on control gear has been entirely rewritten and deals comprehensively with the wide range of equipment used in industry today. Notes have also been added on the care of electric motors and on electric brazing and soldering. The price asked gives little indication of the real value of this book.

The Cambrian Railway, R.W. Kidner. The Oakwood Press. 84
The series of railway histories issued by the Oakwood Press occupy an important position in railway literature. In some instances they are the only histories published on cert- ain railways, whereas in other cases, although histories have previously appeared, they contain a wealth of additional information. The book under review falls in the latter category; within the space available it gives an excellent description of the railway from its inception to its being taken over, including its numerous branches, with appropriate references to the Welshpool and Llanfair, Vale of Rheidol, and Corris Railways. Locomotives and rolling stock receive oomparatively extended treatment. The illustrations are good, varied, and numerous and include a good map of the svstem, gradient profiles, etc.

Electric Railway Engineering. T. Ferguson. Macdonald & Evans Ltd. 84
The Author, formerly Chief Engineer, Traction Projects Dept., Metropolitan-Vickers Electrical Company, has produced a book which many people will regard as the most important publication of its kind in the English language. Electric Railway Traction publications are scarce and the really good ones are even scarcer. The young engineering designer and the student have hitherto been seriously hampered in their work by the lack of a comprehensive textbook informing them how to design electric railways, electric locomotives, and other traction vehicles. This book will be both of help in training the newcomer and of assist- ance to engineers in solving their problems. An enormous amount of ground is covered in the 20 chapters which deal inter alia with power characteristics and performance. braking, speed, rotary inertia, weight transference, auxiliaries, transmission, substations, etc. Three chapters are devoted to comparisons both between other forms of motive power and between different systems of electrification .The mechanical lay-out of electric locomotives is considered and while the information given is valuable, it is thought that this chapter could, with advantage, be substantially enlarged in future editions and should include the many remarkably successful designs developed in other countries.

Correspondence. 84

Natal Government Railways. John Poole. 84
I notice an error in the March number of The Locomotive,on page 42. No. 48, N.G.R. is not a rebuild of a Kitson 4-6-0T, but was built at Durban in 1888 as a 2-8-2T with a four-wheeled tender for coal only. This engine had radial axles at each end and for this reason was not too successful on the sharp curves of the N.G.R. and was later rebuilt as shown on page 42. It was named Havelock. The cylinders were 16in. x 21 in , and the coupled wheels 3ft. 3in. In spite of the drawback of the radial axles the engine has the elements of success and was the first step towards the standard 4-8-2T as shown at the bottom of the page. There were 102 of these and the illustration shows a rebuild by Hendrie, the round top narrow firebox being replaced by a wide shallow Belpaire.

Number 754 (June 1955)
Note: No. 754 was duplicated snd no mention appears to have been made to this

The Crosti boiler. 85
Editorial: see letter from P.M. Bishop on p. 135

Crosti-boilered B.R. 2-10-0 locomotive. 86-8. 4 illustrations, diagram.
The exhaust steam from the cylinders was diverted away from the smokebox and chimney (which were only used during lighting up) and through a welded water preheater constructed by Babcock & Wilcox to a chimney just in front of the fireman's side of the cab.

News of the Month. 89

Wagons.Lits Board. 89
General Sir Brian Robertson, G.C.B Chairman of the British Transport Commission, had been elected to a seat on the Board of the Compagnie Internationale des Wagons-Lits et des Grands Express Europeens.

The Festiniog Railway Company.  89
It is intended to re-establish a full passenger service, thus increasing employment and tourist earnings in Portmadoc and Festinioz areas. Good progress has already been made in clearing the line and in refurbishing equipment and already engineers' trains are running the full length of the line. Under the Order of 1923 a speed limit of 15 miles per hour is imposed.

Canadian National's new train. 89
The C.N.R. have introduced a new train, the Super Continental running both ways between Montreal and Vancouver. This train, which is composed of the most modern stock and is diesel-hauled throughout, cuts up to 14 hours from previous coast to coast schedules.

Metal Industries Board. 89
Metal Industries Limited an- nounce the appointment to the Board of J.O. Knowles. Chairman and Joint Managing Director of Brookhirst Switchgear Limited and J.T. Rymer. Managing Director of Sentinel (Shrewsbury) Limited. Knowles and Rymer will maintain their particular connection with these member Companies of the Group, as Chairmen respectively of them. The appointment to the Board is also announced of Sir Charles Westlake. at present Chairman. Uganda Electricity Board. R.W. McCrone had decided to retire from the Board after thirtv-three years as Managing Director and latterly as Chairman in order to devote himself more freely to other interests. The Directors will recommend the appointment of McCrone as one of the Honorary Presidents of the Company. The Directors have aopointed J.S. Hutchinson to succeed McCrone as Chairman.

Earlestown Wagon Works School. 89
Lord Rusholme. Chairman of the Midland Area Board, accompanied by the Region's General Manager. J. W. Watkins. opened the latest Aonrentices Training School at EarIestown Carriage & Wagon Works. The school. one of the best equioped of this kind in the country, is one of a number which the London Midland is introducing throughout the Region to g-ive the best opoortunities for boys wishing to follow a railway technical career. The underlving idea in providing apprentices training schools such as this one is to ensure each entrant to the service gains a thorough knowledg-e of his craft and be encouraced to take a nersonal interest in the work he performs. In the compilation of the curriculum his physical well-being. no less than his technical interests, have been carefullv catered for. The oueninz of this school at Earlestown will undoubtedly afford a notable advancement in the industrial life of the town.

BTH Chanaes. 89
H.J. Armstrong , Manager, BTH Coventry Works had retired, and E.G. Crossling had been appointed to succeed him. Armstrong joined BTH in 1940 as Manazer of the then-new Ministry of Aircraft Production Works in Leicester. In 1945 when W.W. Vinsen joined the Board as Director of Manufacture. Armstrong succeeded him as Manager of the BTH Coventrv Works. engaged principally upon aero equipment and FHP motors. Crossling served an apprenticeship in the BTH Ruzby Works terminating in 1921. After experience in various positions and works of the Comoany he returned to the Coventry Works as General Superintendent, becoming Assistant Manager in 1945.
In addition to the appointment of W.B.G.Collis as Manager of their Traction Department as previously announced, BTH have decided to re-orcanise that Department to cater for the exnandinary growth of Railway Electrification. J.H. Cansdale. M.I.E.E. in addition' to his duties as Deputv Manager—Trection Department will. in future. be primarily responsible for all contracts. M.W.T. Rees. had been apoointed Assistant Manager (Projects) of the BTH Traction Department.

British Railways. Scheduled Construction Pprogramme for 1955. 89
Steam Locomotives (196)

No. Type Nos. Buildings Works
50 4-6-0 Cl. 5 73075-73124 Derby (25)
Doncaster (25)
15 4-6-0 Cl. 4 75065-75079 Swindon
15 2-6-0 Cl. 4 76045-9, 76053-6 Doncaster
10 2-6-0 Cl. 2 78045-78054 Darlington
23 2-6-4T Cl. 4 80058, 80099-105 Derby (1)
80116-30 Brighton (22)
3 2-6-2T Cl. 3 82032-82034 Swindon
53 2-10-0 Cl. 9 92020-9. 92042-74, Crewe (43)
92087-96 Swindon (10)
12 0-6-0T 94XX 9488-9499 Hunslet Engine Co.

Diesel Locomotives (144)

No. Type Nos. Buildings Works
110 0-6-0 350 h.p Shunting D.E. 13097-126, 13137-206 Derby (70)
13217-26 Darlington (40)
5 0-4-0 200 h.p. D.H. 11703-11707 North British Loco. Co
1 0-4-0 150 h.p. D.M. 11502 Hunslet Engine Co..
2 0-4-0 165 h.p. D.M. 11507-11508 Ruston & Hornsby
26 0-6-0 200 h.p D.M. 11121-41, 11149-53 Drewrv Car Co. (20)
Hunslet Engine Co. (6)

Passenger and Freight Vehicles

Loco. hauled  passenger carriages Diesel Multiple Units Electric Multiple Units Other Coaching Stock Wagons To be built at

194

114

4170

Derby

262

1

2430

Wolverton

97

Earlestown

146

Doncaster

246

York

7630

Shildon

28

2720

Faverdale

190

21

100

1750

Swindon

22

360

1

Eastleigh

50

2550

Ashford

50

Lancing

1060

135

360

277

21300

Total


B.T.C. Supplies and Production Adviser. 89
The British Transport Commission announce the appointment as Supplies and Production Adviser to the Commission of E.L. Gethin , at present Deputy Chief Contracts Officer at the London Headquarters of the Central Electricity Authority. Gethin will be responsible for the proper utilisation of the Commission's very large industrial facilities. and for the co-ordination of their purchasing programmes. The appointment is of special importance in view of the £1200 M. programme for the modernisation and re-equipment of British Railways.

W.R. Summer Services. 89
A Pullman Car train, the first to be run on the Western Region since 1929,was be introduced between Paddington and Swansea. Scheduled on Mondays to Fridays inclusive, this train to leave Paddington at 09.55 calling at Newport, Cardiff and Port Talbot and arriving at Swansea (High Street) at 14.00. It will return from Swansea at  16.35 serving the same stations and arrive at Paddington at 20.45 With the acceleration of the 09.30 Paddington to Plymouth and the 10.55 Paddington to Pembroke Dock, the number of trains whose average speed over long sections of the line exceeds 60 miles per hour now totals eleven.

Beyer-Garretts for East Africa. 90-1. 2 illustrations
59th Class metre gauge 4-8-2+2-8-4 with bar frames, 20½ x 28in cylinders and 72ft2 grate area built by Beyer Peacock. One photograph is of a Steaming Party held at Gorton on 20 April 1955

G.E.C. power equipment for B.R. standard 350 h.p. diesel-electric shunting locomotives. 92-3. illustration, diagram.
General Electric Co. supplied fifteen Lister Blackstone E.R. 6T six-cylinder diesel engines for the 1954 building programme. The associated self ventilated main gerators and twin robust force ventilated traction motors with their associated control equipment were also supplied.

Radio-controlled train on the French Railways. 94-5.
Tests of a driverless tran on the Paris to Le Mans main line on 18 April

British Railways. 95.
New steam and diesel locomotives and diesel railcars into service:
Eastern Region: diesel railcars: Motor third trailers: 79023; 79027-32. Driving trailer composites: 79615, 79619-24: all for service in Lincolnshire
Scottish Region: 4-6-0 Class 5 Nos. 73076/7
Western Region: 0-6-0PT Class 3 16XX Nos. 1665/6; 2-6-2T Class 3 Nos.. 82036/7; 0-6-0 diesel electric shunters Nos. 13115/6. 

Diesel-electric locomotives for The Steel Company of Wales. 96-7. 2 illustrations, diagram (side elevation)
Brush Bagnall

"Steam Locomotive" Exhibition. 97
The British Transport Commission arranged an historical exhibition at the Shareholders' Meeting Room at Euston Station which recalls the legendary achievements of steam on rails and at th« same time, by way of contrast, includes models of recent British-built electric and diesel locomotives. Utilising relics and models, paintings, photographs and drawings, the exhibition traces the development of the steam locomotive era by a retrospect of the work and lives of eight of the great locomotive engineers for which the period was remarkable. These eight men—Robert Stephenson, John Ramsbottorn Edward Fletcher, Patrick Stirling, S.W. Johnson, Dugald Drummond. G.J. Churchward and Sir Nigel Gresley—played leading parts in locomotive design, and a review of their work gives a picture of locomotive development from the Rainhill trials up to the present day. A feature of the Exhibition is the personal relics relating to the locomotive engineers concerned. These must have required an enormous amount of unearthing and it could well be that never again will many of the items be available for public inspection. Among these exhibits are the mag- nificent volume, containing signatures of those in the whole of the L.N.W.R. locomotive department, which was pres- ented to Ramsbottom, a silver model of the A4 Sir Nigel Gresley which the L.N.E.R. presented to that engineer, and a pair of scissors made by Stephenson in his apprenticeship days. The actual wooden pattern for the driving wheels of Stirling's famous 8ft. singles is displayed, and coloured pictures recall the different liveries used by S.W. Johnson, builder of the noted Midland "Compounds". Bringing the picture of the steam era right up-to-date is a full-scale mock-up of the cab of British Railways Standard Class 8 4-6-2 locomotive No. 71000 Duke of Gloucester. Visitors can see through the window a film showing a stretch of main line as seen from the footplate.
The selection of the eight engineers chosen must have proved an exceedingly difficult matter for there have been many who have made great contributions to the develop, ment of the locomotive. This Exhibition ought to be visited by every student of the locomotive who can get there; should it prove the success it deserves we hope that a further exhibition will follow, covering the work of other C.M.E's. As the series of articles which we published on "Famous Locomotive Engineers" showed, there is no shortage of eminent personalities.
The exhibition, open to the public from 20 May to 29 October 29 under the direction of John Scholes, Curator of Historical Relics, B.T.C.

B.T.C, appointments. 97
W. N. Turnbull, Assistant to Operating Superintendent (Passenger Trains) Eastern Region is to be Operating Assistant and R.H. McClean. Assistant, Motive Power Department, Euston had been appointed Assistant (Diesel). Both of these appointments were in the Operating ancl Motive Power Department of B.R. Central Staff.

H.M. Le Fleming. Malayan and F.M.S. Railways locomotives. 98-9. 2 illustrations, table
The actual existence of the Federated Malay States Railways began at the linking up of the Perak and Selangor Govt. Rlys. in 1903, although a General Manager had been appointed in 1901. At that time T.S. Gardner was in charge of the Perak locomotives at Ipoh and C. Wilson of the Selangor stock at Kuala Lumpur. In August 1903 G.C. Forbes was appointed the first Locomotive Superintendent of the combined organisation and work was begun on the Central Workshops at Sentul outside Kuala Lumpur, production starting in May 1906.
Details of old liveries are soon forgotten and later accounts are often contradictory so the following should be read with this in mind. The livery of the Selangor Govt. Rly. and the early years of the F.M.S.R. was dark green with black bands and borders picked out in vermilion. Underframes were black and buffer beams vermilion with black borders picked out in yellow. That the Perak Govt. Rly. was olive green (possibly a similar shade) but with borders picked out in yellow. Copper cap chimneys were in vogue up to 1927, the particular Malayan pattern originating about 1890 and brass dome covers were discontinued after 1903. Number plates were of brass with red ground. About 1910 the livery was changed to unlined black and the letters F.M.S.R. (in yellow shaded light blue) put on tenders. The flare at the top of the tender side was painted light french grey and boiler bands were often polished bright. The Q class of 1919 came out with planished steel boiler clothing and in 1927 this became standard with the addition of stainless steel bands. In the same year large yellow numerals were painted on tender and tank sides in place of number plates and lettering. Smokebox number plates were introduced about 1934, but were removed at the post war renumbering.
The first class designed under Forbes were the H class Pacifics with Walschaerts valve gear. Amongst the earliest 4-6-2s on the metre gauge, this type has remained standard ever since. With a small volume of highly rated freight traffic and a high proportion of braked or piped wagons it was possible to run passenger and freight trains under similar conditions with one class of engine. Between 1907-1914 60 H class engines were delivered. The F.M.S.R. H1 class consisted of:—Nos. 72-78, Kitson WN 4425-4431, built 1907. Nos. 79-82, Nasmyth Wilson WN 839-842, built 1908. Nos. 88-98, Kitson WN 4569-4579, built 1908. Nos. 113-114, Nasmyth Wilson WN 835-836, built 1908. Nos. 131-132, Nasmyth Wilson WN. 833-834, built 1908. Nos. 133-134. Nasmyth Wilson WN. 837-838, built 1908. Nos. 131-2, 113-4, 133-4 were delivered as Johore State Rly. Nos. 7-12 in that order. The livery of the J.S.R. was that of the Caledonian Rly.—blue lined out in black and white with claret coloured framing. The second pair of engines quoted above were taken over by the F.M.S.R. as Nos. 103-4 in 1910 and renumbered 113-4 in the following year. The other four were taken over as F.M.S.R. Nos. 131-4 in 1911. No 131 was renumbered 134 about 1933 and the whole sub-class withdrawn in the years 1930-1935. The frames of these engines were rather weak and the thickness was increased to l in. on the succeeding H2 and H3 classes. This and other minor modifications increased the engine weight to 49 tons with a maximum axle load of 10½~ tons. The overall dimensions for the whole class were:—Height, rail level to top of chimney 12ft. 15/8in.; Maximum width over platform 8ft.; Length over couplers 57ft. 107/8in.-figures comparable to contemporary British locomotives. The H2 class consisted of Nos. 103-106, Kitson WN 4835-4838, built 1911. Nos 107-112, Kitson WN 4866-4871, built 1912. Nos. 115-117, Kitson WN 4875-4877, built 1912. Nos. 118-121, R. Stephenson WN 3502-3505, built 1913. The H3 class differed only in minor details and were as follows —Nos. 135, 136, Kitson WN. 4955, 4954, built 1913. Nos. 137-144, Kitson WN 4956- 496.3, built 1913. Nos. 162-166, Kitson WN 5015- 5019, built 1914.
Nos. 162 and 166 were superheated in 1924 with a superheater surface of 217ft2. and later classified H4. At the end of WW2 Nos. 109-12/20/21/38/ 44'/62/63/65 were in existence and allocated new Nos. 501.01 to 501.11. All except No. 120 had been sent to South Siam during the Japanese occupation and Nos. 110111/21/44 were sold as scrap without being returned to Malaya in November 1951. Nos. 109, 112, 138 were withdrawn in 1947, Nos. 120, 163 and 165 in 1948 and No. 162 (501.09) were still in service. The other engines were withdrawn during 1935-1940.

L. Lynes. Stressed wagon underframes. 100-1. diagram
Bibliography which cites ILocoE papers Nos. 490 by Kreissig; and Paper 496 by Gammon

Model Railway Club. 101
Annual Exhibition at Central Hall, Westminster in Easter Week

Diesel engine examination. 102
One of the Paxman 250 b.h.p. 6RPH engines installed in a steelworks 40-ton diesel locomotive operating in the Midlands was opened up for its first general overhaul after about 18,500 hr. of work, built up at the rate of about 6,000 hr. a year. From first going into traffic the only part of the engine to need renewal had been the flywheel starter ring. On dismantling, all pistons were found quite free from ring sticking, and only very moderate wear was found in the ring grooves. Main journal ovality was nil on four journals and 0.0005in. on the other three. All bearings were in excellent condition and were put back after the main overhaul, and the same applies to all the big-end bearings of the fork-and-blade connecting rods. On five of the big-end bearings the original lead flash was still visible. All cam followers were also put back after the general overhaul, and all the inlet and exhaust valve seats are still within "new" limits. Though in common with a large number of shunting locomotives this unit has not operated under an exceptionally high load factor, it has normally been on 24 hr. a day service.

Merryweather inspector's car. 102. illustration
Illustration from The Fireman shows an inspection car built by Merryweather & Sons, well known for their steam tramway locomotives in the latter part of the nineteenth century shows vehicle built in 1886 and was of a type popular on overseas railways.

Publications received. 102

The Fireman for February . 102
Contained an illustrated article on "The Days of the Steam Tram". Merryweather & Sons occupied a very prominent place in the tram-locomotive world and this narrative of their great activities in this connection is well compiled.

Talyllyn Railway's official guide for 1955. 102
This contains a detailed description of this well-known line, a map, and many illustrations. Postcards of a train hauled by Sir Haydn and the locomotive Douglas have been added to the 9 views previously available.

Davey Paxman & Co. Ltd., 102
Of Colchester brochures produced to give an indication ot the range of their diesel prime movers to locomotive builders. Available in English, French and Spanish, these booklets illustrate many locomotives recently placed in service and give details of the power units employed and the types of transmission. The variety of sizes available is large, at one end of the scale is the 75 h.p. 4-cylinder 4YE engine and at the other the 2,000 h.p. 16-cylinder type 16YLX unit. Applications—many examples of which have been described in our pages—extend from small industrial locomotives to the largest main line passenger engines, all forms of rail traction being provided for. The Company has been steadily developing diesel power units for almost 30 years and has great experience in this field as is immediately evident from a perusal of these publications.
Also to hand from the same source are booklets on the series YH and YL diesel engines. Both of these types have been designed for rail traction; the former is available in sizes from 200 to 1,000 h.p. and the latter in powers ranging from 533 to 2,000 h.p. Technical details and performance data are given in each case and the exploded views and illustrations of components are very well executed and convey a wealth of information regarding the design and layout of these engines.

Mirlees. Birkerton &  Day Ltd. 102
Members of the Brush Group, have produced a well-illustrated booklet describing production methods in their Hazel Grove, Stockport, works which is believed to be the only factory in the world manufacturing industrial, marine and rail traction diesel engine, from 157 to 3,060 b.h.p. by modern flow-production techniques.

Reviews. 102

Industrial locomotives of Yorkshire. The Birmingham Locomotive Club.
The latest pocket-book—No. 8—in this well-known series, follows the established style of these popular publications. The area concerned contains many industrial railways and l00 pages are required to list and illustrate the engines in the two Ridings. The compilation of these booklets must involve an enormous amount of work which benefits all interested in industrial traction.

Midland railway exhibit. Derby Museum. 102
The Derby Museum fittingly contains many excellent models of locomotives and rolling stock of the former Midland Railway. Particular interest is lent to these exhibits by reason of their forming part of a well-made working model railway. The whole reproduces with great fidelity representative equipment in use on the M.R. between 1844 and 1922. The exhibit is described in this booklet which also details some of the methods of construction employed. The conception and construction of the exhibit—in which the Curator A.L. Thorpe and the Derby Society of Model Engineers have taken prominent parts—have been excellently carried through and the idea is one which we would like to see emulated in other railway towns.

Number 755 (July 1955)

Seventh Annual Report. 103-4

S.R. change-of-frequency. 104. illustraion
To 50-cycle high voltage supply via 71 rectifier substantions controlled from three control stations at Raynes Park (illustration of interior), Lewisham and Selhurst

B.R. Modernisation. 105
The B.T.C. announce that further contracts, totalling over 3,300 vehicles of various types, have been placed in connection with the £1200M. modernisation scheme as follow:—Park Royal Vehicles, Ltd., 20 power cars and 20 trailer cars for multiple-unit diesel trains. The power equipments for these cars will be supplied by British United Traction Ltd., who are supplying over 1,000 power units in connection with the programme of diesel trains recently announced by the Commission. Birmingham Railway Carriage & Wagon Co. Ltd. 41, 20.ton ballast plough brake vans. The Cambrian Wagon & Engineering Co. Ltd. 50, 42-ton bogie plate wagons. Head, Wrightson & Co. Lid. 110, 50-ton rail, sleeper and ballast wagons. Metropolitan-Cammell Carriage & Wagon Co. Ltd. 59, 19-ton hopper ballast wagons, and 17, 14-ton steel tipping wagons. Charles Roberts & Co. Ltd. 376, 24-ton hopper ballast wagons. Contracts for 21-ton hopper coal wagons have heen placed as follow:—Fairfield Shipbuilding & Engineering Co., Ltd.. 550 wagons; Cravens Ltd., 700 wagons; Metropolitan- Cammell Carriage & Wagon Co., Ltd., 1,000 wagons; The Birmingham Railway Carriage & Wagon Co.. Ltd., 750 wagons.

Toronto Rapid Transit Cars. 105
Such has been the success of the Toronto Rapid Transit Subway, that the 104 British built cars (described on p. 43 of our last valume) with which the Subway was inaugurated in March 1954 are now numerically insufficient to carry the increased passenger load. In consequent, the Toronto Transit Commission have placed an order for 34 additional cars, the manufacture of which has again been entrusted to the Gloucester Carriage & Wagon Co. Ltd., despite severe competition from Continental arid Canadian manufacturers. The 136 traction motors, and all batteries and auxiliary supply equipment for these cars will again be manufactured by Crompton Parkinson Ltd.

Manufacture of Bagnall diesel locomotives in Australia. 105
W.G. Bagnall Ltd. announce that they have entered into an agreement with Morison & Bearby Ltd., of Newcastle, New South Wales. covering the manufacture in Australia of diesel-mechanical shunting locomotives. The locomotives will be built at Newcastle to Bagnall standard designs modi- lied to suit local conditions in Australia. Morison & Bearby Ltd. are general engineers and iron founders and have already considerable experience in locomotive work. The' firm was founded as long ago as 1874 and is, therefore, as old as the Stafford company with which it will now be associated in the manufacture of diesel locomotives for the Australian market.

Western Region Plans. 105
Plans were well advanced for the introduction of express diesel rail car services between Birmingham (Snow Hill) and Swansea. The trains, which were being constructed at the \Vestern Region Carnage & Wagon Works, Swindon, had First and Third class accommodation and buffet car facilities. The main services comprise two trains daily in each direction between Birmingham and Swansea, with intermediate calls at Gloucester, Newport, Cardiff and Port Talbot. There will also be a midday express service and a late evening service in each direction between Birmingham and Cardiff.
Included in the schemes for diesel services is the extended use of diesel cars on suburban and local lines in the Birmingham area. The introduction of diesel shunting engines for use in marshalling yards had already commenced, .18 out of a total of 72 ordered for the Region having already been delivered and put into service.

British Railways. 105
The following new steam and diesel locomotives have recently been placed in service. London Midland Region. z-r o-o Cl. 9, (Crosti Boiler) Nos. 92020-92026; 0-6-0 350 h.p. diesel electric shunter Nos. 13117-13119. Scottish Region. 4-6-0 Cl. 5, Nos. 73078, 73079. Southern Region. 4-6-0 Cl. 5, Nos. 73080, 73081. Western Region, 0-6-0PT Cl. 16xx, Nos. 1667-1669; 2-6-2T Cl. 3. Nos. 82038-82040.

E.S. Cox. 105 . illustration (portrait)
Appointed Mechanical Engineer (Development) on the British Railways Central Staff in which capacity he will act as deputy to the Chief Mechanical Engineer. Cox was educated at the Merchant Taylors School, Crosby, and received his engineering training at the Horwich Works of the former Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway under George Hughes. After a period in the Drawing Office at Horwich and, after the formation of the L.M.S. Railway. at Derby, in 1927 he was placed in charge of the Dynamometer Car at the latter centre. In 1931 he moved to Euston as Technical Assistant, and in 1935 returned to Derby as Assistant Locomotive Works Superintendent. In 1938 he became Personal & Technical Assistant to the Chief Mechanical Engineer and in 1941 Chief Technical Assistant. On nationalisation Cox was appointed Executive Officer (Design), dealing with both locomotive and carriage and wagon work, under the R.E. Mlember for Mechanical & Electrical Engineering, which post he held up to the time of his present appointment. Cox is a member of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, whose George Stephcnson Research Medal he holds. He also holds the Gold Medal of the Institution of Locomotive Engineers of which he is a Vice President. He is a Lt.-Colonel in the Engineer & Railway Staff Corps and is a member of the Control Committee of the LUR. Office of Research & Experiments. He visited India with the Pacific Locomotive Committee in 1938, and was member of a party sent by the L.M.S. and L.N .E. Railways to the U.S.A. in 1945 to report on motive power development.

Lougrnoor Public Day. 105
The Transportation Centre, Royal Engineers will he open to the Public from 1.30 p.m., to 7.30 p. m., on September 3. There will be displays and demonstrations showing the full range of Military Transportation, also an exhibition of Engineer Plant. These will include prefabricated plate-Iaving , mobile railway workshops, the railway signalling school, port operating, driving, the Movement Control model room, and other items. There will be trips on the Longmoor Military Railway and rides on the footplates of main line locomotives.
Cheap day return tickets will he available from stations within 60 miles radius of Longmoor, and frequent services on the Longmoor Military Railway (no charge) will connect at Liss and Bordon. There are also good bus services from the Aldershot and Petersfield areas.

District Railway electrification jubilee. 112-13. 3 illustrations
The Metropolitan District Railway formed the Metropolitan District Traction Co. to electrify its services. In June 1903 the Ealing to South Harrow section was worked by electric cars; from 1 July 1905 the service between Ealing and Whitechapel was electrified and from 5 November 1905 all steam services wwere withdrawn

Conference on Combustion. 113
Joint Institution of Mechanical Engineers and American Society of Mechanical Engineers to hold conference in London from 25 to 27 October 1955

H.M. Le Fleming. Malayan and F.M.S. Railways locomotives. 114-15. 3 illustrations.
F class 0-6-4T: Kitson WN 4946-53/1913 RN 145-52: 5021-30/1914 RN 167-76. Hawthorn-Leslie 3146-50/1916 RN 177-81. In 1908 the Sungei Ujong Railway was taken over which provided a link to Port Dickson. Nos. 1-3 were 0-6-2T built by Dubs WN 2462-4/1891, They were converted to 4-4-2T and became FMSR Nos. 99-101 of the J class. No. 99 was sold to the Malayan Collieries in April 1922; and the other two were withdrawn in 1919 and 1924. No. 4 was built as a 4-4-2T and was larger: Dub WN 3621/1899 and is illustrated as is Sungei Ujong No, 3 Lady Dickon in its original conditiion. In 1902 the Singapore Railway was taken over with its four A class and 3 B class 4-4-0Ts. The livery had been green. 13 old 4-4-0s were purchased from the Burma Railways and some of these were loaned to the Royal Siam Railways in 1918-19.

British motor coach for Portugal. 115. illustration.
General Electric Co. for the Estoril Railway

Swedish power-gas locomotive. 115. illustration.
Described in Volume 60 p. 177

Crosti Boiler, Italian State Railways. 116. illustratiion
Italian State Railways No. 743.433 as rebuilt with Crosti boiler in 1954 illustrated.. The Crosti boiler, a development of the Franco-Crosti boiler—some 130 of which are at present in service on the Italian State Railways and Germany —was described and illustrated in our last issue. The first two Crosti boilers, put into service during 1954, on Italian State Railways 2-8-0 Nos. 743.433 and German Federal Railways 2-10-0 No. 50.1412 are reported to have given very satisfactory results on trial. The main dimensions of the Italian locomotive are tabulated together with those of the 740 class locomotive with a normal boiler from which it was rebuilt. It will be noted that the fitting of the Crosti boiler entailed only just over a ton increase in weight.

Appointment. 116.
Percy Evans had been appointed home sales manager, Brush Electrical Engineering Co. Ltd., Loughborough.

Electrical equipment for new L.M.R. trains  116
The General Electric Co. Ltd. received an order from the British Transport Commission for the complete traction equipment of 57 new three-coach multiple-unit train sets to replace existing rolling stock on the Euston-Watford service. Each three-coach set will consist of a motor-coach, trailer and driving trailer. The rolIing stock, to be built in British Railways workshops, will be of the compartment type with central corridor. This will be the first order for which the G.E.C. will manufacture all the traction motors and auxiliary machines in its new factory at Dudley Port, acquired recently to meet the growing demand for electric and diesel-electric traction equipment. The value of the order is approximately £741,000. The Euston-Watford line is electrified ou the third- and fourth-rail system at 630v. D.C. Each motor coach will be powered by four axle-hung self-ventilated motors of 206 h.p. at the one-hour rating. A ductless ventilation system will be adopted, the motor air intakes themselves being provided with air cleaning arrangements. The electro- pneumatic contactor control equipment will be underframe-mounted and will provide series-parallel and parallel con- nections of the four motors, which will be grouped in pairs, the motors of each pair being permanently in parallel. There wil! be four economic running speeds, two weak-field steps being provided in the parallel connection. The equipment is designed for an initial rate of acceleration of 1.27 m.p.h. per sec. and a maximum safe operating speed of 70 m.p.h. This will be the fourth order placed with the G.E.C. in connection with the Euston-Watford trains. Since 1926 the Company has supplied traction equipments for 25 motor coaches, 25 driving trailers and 22 trailer coaches operating on this service.

E.E.C. Atomic Power Department. 116
The English Electric Company Ltd. announced the establishment of a special department to deal with atomic power station development. The headquarters of the company's atomic power work was at Whetstone near Leicester, where the administrative, design, experimental and drawing office staffs were already established. P.H.W. Wolff had been appointed Chief Engineer of the atomic power department at Whetstone. Previously he was engaged on gas turbine development work for The English Electric Company at Rugby. An important section of English Electric's engineering activity, including that relating to all prime movers, atomic power and the new mechanical engineering laboratory, is now centred round Rugby. The main works are at Rugby, and the mechanical engineering laboratory is at Whetstone. Considerable expansion of technical staff and facilities was taking place In the Rugby area, both for established products and new lines. Dr. H. S. Arms is now the Chief Engineer, English Electric, Rugby and is responsible for the overall technical policies to be followed by all departments at Rugby and Whetstone.

Austrian railway electrification. 116
Work started on the electrification of the Austrian Southern Railway. The 75 kilometres line from Vienna to Gloggnitz is the first to be taken in hand and it is expected that the service will be inaugurated in the autumn of next year.

O.S.M. Raw. Some locomotive reminiscences. 117-18
Concluded from p. 74)
The new 15F and 23 Classes were generally similar and of the same tractive effort; the Class 23 have 3in. larger wheels, a higher boiler pressure and also a mechanical stoker. They were used for all the main line trains in the Cape up to Kimberley and for some of the through trains into Johannesburg and Pretoria. Although some of the fast trains were Pacific handled on the flatter sections as also were branch trains and the Pretoria-Johannesburg fast trains, these are now all electric. The ISF's were largely based at Germiston, near Johannesburg, handling heavy coal traffic in from Witbank and the Transvaal coalfields and this was heavy traffic, some 20 coal trains a day at least running into Germiston. As a temporary expedient some of these engines were delivered without mechanical stokers and with their 62 sq. ft. of grate area they were very tiring on the fireman for hand-firing, though the Ajax steam-operated firedoors certainly lightened his work and at the same time effected an appreciable saving in coal consumption.
The last of the Cape designs were the 12th Class and the 14th Class on the Natal section, both very fine classes of 4-8-2s and in 1939 still putting in an immense amount of heavy main line work. The Class 20 and Class 21 were solo experimental designs which were not repeated, the five coupled axles did not take too kindly to the sharp curves, but they were both a fine conception.
The few remaining Mallets were still putting in some good work on the heavy line up to Eshowe, the capital of Zululand, but they were a wasting asset and by now must all be scrapped. They were nearly all built by the North British Locomotive Co. Ltd. and were of the 2-6-6-2 type with compound cylinders. The biggest Garratts were, and still are, the 8 GL's with the immense tractive effort of over 89,000 lb., quite the most powerful locomotives ever built in Europe. The Natal line was first electrified between Pietermaritzburg and Ladysmith and it was. then extended some 20 miles further towards Durban to Mason's Mill where large concentration sidings and a locomotive depot were put in. The electric locomotives were of the double bogie Bo + Bo type of one standard type, three being run in multiple unit for main line goods, two in multiple unit for main line passenger and singly for local trains. Two 14th Class engines brought the freight trains up to Mason's Mill, but they could not handle the load of three of the electric units which meant quite a lot of remarshalling. Came the G.L. Garratts and they could then unaided haul up to Mason's Mill more than the electrics could take forward so that the boot was on the other foot with remarshalling still required. This particular knot was cut by electrifying right through to Durban and later to the North up to Volksrust on the Transvaal border. The G.L's were then transferred to the Glen- coe- Vryheid section and once again revolutionised working on heavy coal traffic over steep grades and a single line with widely spaced passing loops.
From the Cape it is an easy run out to Worcester where assistance was taken on to get up the heavy drag through the Hex Mountains to Touws River where engines were changed. The line has now been electrified to Touws River. It was one hard pound up this section and stifling in the small bore tunnels. It is. the policy nowadays to ease and re-align all the main lines, as an example they were then and still are hard at work easing the main line from Port Elizabeth to 1 in 75 instead of 1 in 40. It is hard collar work all the way up to Beaufort West where engines are again changed and thence into De Aar for a further change. From Touws River the line runs across the Karoo Desert, one of the world's finest sheep raising tracts, yet from the train it does not look as though it could support any form of life. De Aar sprang up as a junction where the East Cape and Cape Midland lines from East London and Port Elizabeth join up. Apart from this, it has nothing to recommend it and is quite the most unattractive railway junction it has ever been the writer's misfortune to meet, and being a large depot he had to put in quite a lot of time there. It hardly ever seems to rain at De Aar, though rain will fall frequently all around it. All along this section water conditions are very bad despite constant adjustment of the treating plants and it was no uncommon thing for a boiler to have to be washed out after a single run of 200 miles approximately, say from De Aar to Beaufort West. It always seemed to the writer that these sections would make a condensing locomotive a sound proposition and condensing locomotives are now being delivered for use on this section.
The Reef suburban traffic was worked by very fine multiple unit electric stock and the electrification to Pretoria was then in hand, now the bulk of the Reef lines are electrified with a big new station in Johannesburg which has at last swallowed up the Wanderers Cricket Ground. Steam trains, of course, still work into Johannesburg station, though goods trains are now routed by an encircling line, a very great improvement. In 1939 the G.M. Garratts were introduced and put to work on the J ohannesburg-Zeerust run of the Mafeking line. These were the biggest and most powerful engines for 60 lb. rails and easily handled the loads. They had mechanical stokers so that the engine at all times was on top of the job. The G.M's were erected in the Durban shops and were fitted with a large trailing bogie water tank, their own water tanks had been cut down to keep the axle load down. They were designed for a maximum speed of 45 m.p.h. and have proved an excellent engine. Twenty-five more have recently been delivered.
Great attention has always been given to the comfort and arrangement of footplates on the South African Railways and this is, of course, essential in the Union climate. All new types had the footplate projected back into the tender with a protective hand- rail at the back of it, so doing away with the fall plate and making things much easier and more com- fortable for the fireman. All motion details were fitted with soft grease lubricators, and also the little end bearings, brake hangers, etc., whilst the big end and coupling rod bushes and hubs were all lubricated with hard grease, so that an engine could very rapidly be prepared for the road or could be serviced at intermediate points. Hard grease was used for the axleboxes, also with excellent results and freedom from hot boxes. One live and one exhaust steam injector were fitted as also a steam operated soot blower. On the narrow gauge the author assisted to put the 2-6-2 + 2-6-2 Garratts into service on the Esperanza-Donnybrook section in South Natal. Here grades were as steep as 1 in 30 but they gave first class service immediately and many more have been ordered during the years. On a sugar estate there was a diesel mechanical locomotive with a rather primitive fluid coupling between the engine and gearbox. Starting the diesel was by compressed exhaust gas and this often gave trouble through pressure leaking off. It was then impossible to start the engine by turning owing to the fluid coupling; this engine certainly generated much blasphemy. The compressed exhaust gas starting was one of these simple ideas that just do not work out and the more complicated independent system is to be preferred.
The writer's experience in South Africa ended in 1939 when he returned to England to join H.M. Forces.

Fatigue of Metals. 118
The Council of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers are arranging an International Conference on Fatigue of Metals to he held from September 10-14 inclusive. It is hoped to obtain up to sixty papers covering the whole field, and these will be divided into groups. the papers in the various groups being presented for discussion in abstract form by Reporters. The Presentation of the papers will be preceded by an address reviewing the field of knowledge of fatigue. The address will be presented by Dr. H. J. Gough, C.B., M.BE., F.R.S:, a Past-President and Honorary Member of the Institution.

Appointment. 118
R.M. Robbins, B.A., Secretary to the London Transport Executive, has been appointed Chief Public Relations Officer in succession to D. McKenna who was recently appointed Assistant General Manager of the Sonthern Region. He will continue as Secretary to the Executive.

H.C. Hughes. Early locomotives of the East Indian Railway. 119-20. diagram
The first section of the East Indian Railway was opened for traffic on 15 August 1854, but it was not until 3 February 1855 that the whole length of the "experimental" line from Howrah to Raneegunge was officially opened with due ceremony and celebration. The following account of the early locomotives will therefore serve to mark the centenary of this important event in Indian railway history.
The East Indian Railway Company was formed in London in June 1845 to undertake the first line of railway to be selected by the Honourable East India Company and by April 1846 Rowland Macdonald Stephenson, the Managing Director, had completed a survey for a line from Calcutta to Delhi via Mirzapore and Allahabad. There followed a long period of negotiation, chiefly with regard to financial arrangements, and it was not until August 1849 that a contract was signed for the construction of an experimental line at an estimated cost of one million pounds. In August 1850, largely on the advice of the Governor General, Lord Dalhousie, the Government of India determined that the line should run from Howrah, across the Hooghly from Calcutta, to the Raneegunge coalfields, a distance of approximately 120 miles, and in January 1851 the first section of land was made available to the Railway Company and construction was commenced. The gauge was fixed at 5ft. 6in.
In May 1851 the Chief Engineer, George Turnbull, submitted an indent for 6 six-wheeled tender engines with 16in. cylinders for the passenger traffic and 5 four-wheel coupled engines for the goods trains. However Major W. E. Baker, Consulting Engineer to the Government of India, was of the opinion that mixed trains would be sufficient for the early traffic and recommended six powerful engines capable of drawing 500 tons at 25 m.p.h. The Government of India agreed with this recommendation and the indent was then forwarded to London for the attention of the E.I.R. Board.
The Consulting Engineer to the E.I.R. Company in London was James Meadows Rendel, founder of the present firm of Rendel, Palmer & Tritton. He did not favour one mixed-traffic type of locomotive and, with the approval of the Board, specifications were prepared for five goods locomotives capable of drawing 650 tons at 15 m.p.h. and five passenger engines of similar power designed for lighter loads at higher speeds. In April 1852 the tender of Tayleur & Co. was accepted for the supply of these passenger and goods engines at £2,050 and £2,120 each respectively, together with a set of duplicate parts for each type, and this was duly sanctioned by the Hon. East India Company. The story of this particular indent is an interesting example of the procedure governing the supply of railway materials to India at that time. The first three engines were ready by April 1853 but they were not shipped immediately owing to the lack of suitable accommodation for their reception at Howrah and the intention of the E.I.R. Board not to open any part of the line until it was completed throughout to Raneegunge. After representations from the Indian Government however, it was decided to open the first section as soon as possible and four locomotives, two of each type, together with a large quantity of ironwork for the railway, were shipped on the 686 ton barque Kedgeree from Birkenhead in December 1853. The ship duly arrived at Howrah on 2 May 1854 and considerable difficulty was experienced in extricating the locomotives trom the hold with the lifting tackle available. A contemporary account (Bengal Hurkaru,  9 June 1854) states that "when a boiler was upended on the kelson, the other end was touching the comins of the hatchway on the upper deck, and the main hatchway is so small that there was not one inch to spare when getting the boilers out, and the distance between the lower deck beams is the same as the size of the hatchway. The frames are as wide as the boilers and there is the same tight fit in getting them up." Even with the assistance of steam cranes some trouble had been experienced in loading the engines at Birkenhead, one of the boilers having been "let down by the run into the hold, carrying away one of the beams and the comins of the main hatchway, and had the ship not been particularly well built it would in all probability have gone through her bottom."
However under the supervision of John Hodgson, who had been appointed Locomotive Superintendent in 1852, the engines were duly erected and the first trial trip took place on 27 June 1854. Great difficulty was experienced in keeping the local populace off the track, and in dissuading the children from putting bricks on the rail for the engine to crush. On 6 July there was a trial trip with a locomotive pulling a carriage containing distinguished guests; the engine reduced the local animal population by two goats and a bullock and demolished a large gate across the line near Howrah which some sleepy attendants failed to open for the train's return journey.
The carriages. all four-wheeled, were built in India, the ironwork being sent out from England. Unfortunately the sample carriages, one of each type, sent out to India as patterns, were lost at sea and this delayed the construction. Nevertheless the section to Hooghly (23½ miles) was opened to public traffic on August 15, 1854 and a further 14¼ miles to Pundooah on September 1. Finally on February 3, 1855 the whole length of 121¼ miles from Howrah to Raneegunge was officially opened, and although the height of the engine of the first special train proved to be a little too great for the floral archway at Howrah the proceedings culminated in fine style with a banquet at Burdwan and the customary speeches and celebration.
Diagram shows East Indian Railways 2-2-2 as modified in later years
The illustration representing the five passenger engines (makers' Nos. 337-41 of 1853), as running in later years, is based on a drawing supplied by the Vulcan Foundry Ltd. They were ot a straightforward 2-2-2 design with horizontal inside cylinders, similar in general dimensions to contemporary English practice but of course modified to suit the wider gauge. The dimensions were:
Diam. of driving wheels 6ft. 6in.; Diam. of carrying wheels 3ft. 9in.; Cylinders 15in x 22in.; Boiler, length 10ft 7in., inside diam. 4ft. 07/8in.; No. of tubes 161 (2¼ in diam.); Heating Surface, tubes 1,051 ft2., firebox 105 ft2., total 1,156 ft2.; Grate Area 18 ft2.; Boiler Pressure 120 psi.; Wheelbase, engine 7ft. 6in. +7ft. 8in., tender (6 wheels) 6ft. 6in. + 6ft. 6in.; Fuel 190. ft3.; Water 1,500 galls.
According to E. L. Ahrons the weights of this class. in working order were 27¼  and 20½ tons for the engine- and tender respectively. (To be continued)

F.J.G. Haut. German industrial electric locomotives. 120. illustration
Siemens locomotives to serve lignite (brown coal) mines where 2000-ton trains had to climb 1 in 40 gradients

Benelux railway electrification. 120
The Netherlands and Belgium have recently concluded an agreement relating to the electrification of the railway linking Rosendaal in the Netherlands with Antwerp. The connection between Brussels, Malines and Antwerp and Dordrecht and Rotterdam, the Hague and Amsterdam will then be fully electrified. Both countries have agreed to construct 12 electric locomotives incorporating units which will eliminate the difference in voltage between Belgium and the Netherlands. These locomotives are scheduled for delivery in the summer of 1957. By that time, electrification of the Brussels-Luxemburg line is expected to be completed so that the three Benelux capitals will be linked up by a fully electrified railway system.

British Electrical Power Convention. 120
The above meeting which has now become an important event of the Electrical Supply and Manufacturing Industry, is this year being held from 27 June to 1 July at Brighton. Among the principal speakers are Sir Harry Railing, Managing Director of the General Electrical Company Ltd., the Deputy Chairman of the Central Electrical Authority, Sir Henry Self, and Mr. B.L. Metcalf, the Chief Electrical and Mechanical Engineer of the National Coal Board. Coincident with the Convention an exhibition will be held where manufacturers will show their most up-to-date products.

Diesel-electric locomotive for Switzerland. 121. illustration.
Co-Co with two Sulzer 850 hp diesel engines: intended for shunting in hump yards.

Longsight Motive Power Depot. 121
Work is to begin shortly on a £100,000 scheme for the reconstruction of the south shed at Longsight motive power depot. A modern electric wheel drop and electric lighting will be installed with fluorescent lighting in the pits for under-engine inspections and repairs.

London Midland Appointment. 121
For six years Public Relations & Publicity Officer of British Railways (London Midland Region), Mr. George Dow , M.Inst.T., A.I.Loco.E .. is moving to the Chief Commercial Manager's Department at Euston on July I, 1955 as Chief Assistant (Sales). This is a new post created for the development of passenger and freight business on the London Midland. After considerable railway experience Mr. Dow , in 1939, was appointed Information Agent and redesignated Press Relations Officer 5 years later. On the nationalisation of the railways he became Pre3S Relations Officer E. and N.E. Regions. He was appointed Public Relations & Publicity Officer to the London Midland in 1949, in which capacity he was responsible for the complete re-organisation of the department, and has initiated numerous developments in poster technique and improvements in the sphere of modern signs and advertising display equipment and layout at stations.

Reviews. 122

Report on Canals and Inland Waterways by the Board of Survey, British Transport Commission.  122
The Report, running to 129 pages, consists of nine sections ranging from an Historical Background to a Summary of Recommendations, and there are eight Appendices; the latter mostly statistics relating to receipts and expenditures of the six Divisions into which the canal system is now divided; there is also a small-scale diagram-map of the canals under the jurisdiction of the Transport Commission — but not including all the statutory navigations. The whole furnishes a condensed account of the present state of inland navigation.

The Plynlimon and Hafan Tramway, Lewis Cozens, 36 pp. 122
This is a further addition to the series of booklets by the Author dealing with light railways. The history and a description of the line are accompanied by details of rolling stock. The tramway was constructed to serve the lead mine and granite quarry at Hafan, Cardiganshire. Ten illustrations and a map are included in the booklet which fully chronicles this short-lived venture.

Notre Metier—La Vie du Rail. Special issue on 50 cycle traction. No. 496. . 122
Our contemporary, "Notre Metier, La Vie du Rail", brought out a special issue on 50 cycle traction, on the occasion of a conference held on this subject at Lille in May of this year.
We have referred already to the important decision of the French National Railways to electrify one of their main lines, the section Valenciennes-Thionville, with 50 cycle single phase A.C. and the various types of motive power to be used. Since then, the electrification work has made steady progress, some of the locomotives have been built and have undergone tests. The conference at Lille reviewed the work done so far and forecasted future developments. The special issue is extremely. well produced and includes a number of coloured sectional and Isometric drawings of the new locomotives, as well as a detailed history of electric traction developments m France, startmg first with 1,500 v. D.C. and, from 1947 onwards, also 50 cycle A.C. of 20/25,000 v. tension.

The end of the line: a book about railways and places, Bryan Morgan. Cleaver Hume Press. 122
The writer takes the reader on a tour of discovery in Western Europe and seasoned travellers will be surprised at the number of little railways—many, alas, nowadays mere tramways—that. he has unearthed. There is nothing technical in the'book but the author discourses in a humorous and illuminating manner on the various peculiarities of each line. His style is attractive and very readal;>le and the book will be eagerly sought after. by the many interested m the smaller railways of the continent: There are 61 illustrations,

S.N.C.F. performance. 122
During tests on 5 May 1955 a Freuch Railways electric locomotive BBI2006 with ignitron rrctifiers and weighing 80 tons hauled a tram of 1,710 metric tons from Lumes to Valenciennes and back on the line between Valenciennes and Charleville, electrified for the use of 25,000v. alternating current at the industrial frequency of 50 cycles. Twice during these runs it vas successful in starting and hauling this heavy load on a. rising gradient of 1 in 100. During these tests the maximum effort at the drawbar reached 39 tons with a sustained effort of 35 tons for 21 seconds. The corresponding adhesion factors may be fixed at between 41% and 48% which. for simple adhesion locomotives, exceeds the best results achieved hitherto so far as IS known. Although this consti- tutes a remarkable performance for a locomotive of this type, the load hauled does not represent the heaviest which is being handled on this Iine , Locomotives .of the CC14100 class, weighing 120 tons, have succeeded in starting. and hauling trains of well over 2,000 tons also on a rising gradient of 1 in 100.

Special train hauled by W.R. Castle class No. 7017 G.J. Churchward ascending Lickey Incline banked by 0-10-0 No. 58100. 122
Two photographs by R.J. Blenkinsop, See page 83

Number 756 (August 1955)

The Clean Air Bill. 123
The work of the Parliamentary Committee chaired by Sir Hugh Beaver was mentioned in the December Issue. Clauses 1 and 2 prohibited the emission of dark smoke except for a few minutres during lighting up. The Editorial considered that the Modernisation Programme move to replacement of steam traction was the solution to the problems raised.

British Railways. 123
New steam and diesel locomotives and diesel railcars:
Eastern Region 0-6-0 diesel shunters class DJ.12 Nos. 11121-2; diesel railcars: motor third brake Nos. 79033-4; 79036-9. Driving trailer composite No. 79625. Driving trailer third NNos. 79250-5. These railcars were for Lincolnshire and East Anglian services.
London Midland Region: 2-10-0 Class 9 (Crosti boiler) Nos. 92027-9; 0-6-0 diesel electric shunter No. 13120
Southern Region 4-6-0 Class 5 Nos. 73082-3
Western Region 2-6-2T Class 3 Nos. 82041-3.

Stainless steel coach  on L.M.R. 123
First mentioned in Volume 53 p. 182: was employed on Ulster Express between Euston and Heysham.

Diesel-electric locomotives for C.I.E. 124-6. 6 illustrations, diagram
Metropolitan-Vickers Electrical Co. Ltd. Co-Co 1200 hp locomotives with Crossley ttwo-stroke diesel engines for Coras Iompair Eirann. Photographs show F. Whyman (Chief Engineer Traction Projects, Metropolitan-Vickers, F. Lemass General Manager, C.I.E., T.C. Courtney, Chairman CIE and H. Desmond Carter Managing Director of Crossley Bros and a locomotive in the hold of SS Westfield in Manchester Docks.

Bagnall 0-6-0T locomotives for N.C.B. 127. diagram (side elevation)
Three standard saddle tank locomtives for North Staffordshire Area of West Midlands Division of the National Coal Board. For illustration see page 178

An historic Norwegian locomotive. 128. illustration
2-4-0 Caroline and three historic coaches had been preserved, Locomotive built by Robert Stephenson & Co. in 1861 had 12 x 20in cylinders, 8ft2 grate area, 4ft 9in coupled wheels and boiler pressed to 120 psi.

B.R. wagon for pig-iron traffic. 128. illustration
Built at Shildon to handle billets loaded hot and sprayed in wagons which had to be capable of handling hot loads, being sprayed with cooling water and draining wateer away: therfore  had ½in steel plate floors

R. Burrows. Battery electric railcars. 128-30
Mentions the Drumm battery electric railcars: an articulated vehicle was constructed at Inchicore under W.H. Morton see Locomotive Mag., 38, 120. There were charging points at Dublin Amiens Street and at Bray and exploited the Shannon Power Scheme. Six battery electric railcars were employed on the metre gauge lines operated in the Clarentes Departmenr in France.  These exploited hydro-electric power and regenerative braking. Ten further cars were obtained in 1929. Similar railcars were used on a 54km  Italian line between Torino and Saluzzo. Both Faure and Planté cells were employed. Mentioned that the Prussian State Railways had been early users.

2,000 h.p. diesel-electric locomotives for Rhodesia Railways. 131. illustration
For working 850 ton trains betweeen Salisbury and Umtali: !-Co-Co-1 supplied by English Electric with 16 SVT Mk II diesel engine. Suprvised by Freeman, Fox & Partners.

Atomic power stations. 131.
Following from Calder Hall threefirms were cooperating to construct power stations; Babcock & Wilcox, English Electric and Taylor Woodrow.

4-8-2 oil-buring locomotive, Sudan Railways. 132-3. 2 illustrations, diagram (side elevation)
42 locomotives under construction at the Hydepark Works of the North British Locomotive Co. Fitted with Laidlaw, Drew oil burning equipment. One photograph shows locomotive being shipped at Gllasgow Docks

B.R. Productivity Council. 133
Chairman J.C.L. Train: inaugural meeting  in July. Involved British Transport  Commission, Railway Trade Unions and Confederation of Shipbuilding & Engineering Unions.

Chile's projected underground. 133
10M Pesos for preparatory work on Santiago underground railway.

Bo-Bo locomotives, Steel Company of Wales. 134-5. illustration
Brush-Bagnall 515 hp Bo Bo with Mirlees six-cylinder engines

Canadian orders. 135. illustration
The all-steel coaches ordered by the Toronto Transit Commission from the Gloucester Railway Carnage and Wagon Co. to be equipped as before with BTH electro-pneumatic camshaft control equipment. The present order for 34 cars follows the very satisfactory operation of the first 106 cars which went into service in Toronto in March 1954.
This form of BTH control equipment is fitted on the majorrty of motor coaches now operating on the surface and tube lines of London Transport, who have three 7-car trains now under construction as prototypes against future requirements. In this connection they have placed an order with BTH for fifteen PCM electro-pneumatic camshaft control equipments—to be of the same type as already in service on 1,285 of their cars.
As recorded in our last issue the 136 traction motors and all batteries and auxiliary supply equipment for these cars will again be manufactured by Crompton Parkinson Ltd.

E.E.C. Appointments. 135
D.G. Welton left the Stoke-on-Trent Sub-office of The English Electric Company to take up an appointment in the London Office of the Company. R. Edwards, previously of the E.E.C. Birmingham Office, has taken charge of the Stoke-on-Trent Sub-office.

Correspondence. 135

[Crosti-boilered locomotives]. P.M. Bishop
Re the detailed way in which you dealt with the new Crosti-boilered locomotives in the June Issue there is one small point. You state in your editorial, "The Crosti boiler may be shortly summed up as a feed-water heater". We maintain that this is not so; the Crosti boiler is an integral unit and can be properly considered as an improvement on the "Stephenson" boiler which, with the single addition of the superheater, has reigned unchallenged with a few unimportant exceptions for 125 years. Thus each part of the Crosti boiler is dependent on the functioning of the other parts and the subtraction of, say, the preheater drum would render the main boiler useless, or at any event a grossly uneconomical unit to have in traffic. On the other hand feedwater heaters are pieces of apparatus which can be fitted to the Stephenson boiler, or indeed the Crosti boiler if a case can be made for them, or not as circumstances dictate. They are not essential to the proper functioning of the hoiler and have in times past often been fitted with scant regard for the exact needs of the boiler to which they have been applied. British Empire Agent London. Franco-Crosti Locomotives

Transandine Railway electrification.  135
The head of the Electrical Department of the Fcrrocarril Nacional General Belgrano, Wilke, has stated that it was hoped to complete the first stage of the electrification of the Transandine Railway via Mendoza within the next 18 months and the whole project by the summer of 1958. Five electric locomotives, out of a total of 11, had already been bought in Germany. Power for the 200 km. stretch in the Provinces of Eva Peron and Mendoza will be supplied by two plants. One of these, at Alvarez Condarco, has two hvdraulic turbo generators with a capacity of 15,000 kW., and wilI be inaugurated in the near future. The second, at El Nihuil, has a capacity of 80,000 k W. The locomotives to be used will be able to pull trains up to 220 tons. The use of rack rail will not be necessary and the time taken for the journey between Los Andes in Chile and Mendoza (Argentine) will be cut by nearly one third. Total cost of the scheme is estimated at 71M. pesos.

The Swedish Railways. 136-9. 4 illustrations

Recent acquisitions include the first Swedish-built electric locomotive, constructed by ASEA in 1909 which, while having two 4-wheeled bogies, has only drive to one. The first Swedish 8-wheeled coach, built as long ago as 1877 has also been presented and some interesting narrow gauge locomotives and stock have been acquired. While great resourcefulness has been displayed in showing the many items, we would express the hope that perhaps more suitable premises will become available in the future in order that this magnificent collection may be exhibited to even greater advantage. The Model Hall contains many exhibits illustrating the development of Swedish railways, including some magnificent models. Some of these are shown working, including one of the Rainhill trials. It is a pleasure to record our appreciation of the great assistance extended to us by Mr. M. Bjorkman, Manager of the Press Dept., and Mr. S. E. Brunnsjo, Press Officer of the Swedish State Railways, and the kindness of Mr. ils Ahlberg, who went to much trouble to show the many interesting features of the great collection over which he presides.

Drawing office lighting. 139. illustration
A new fluorescent lighting system, in , stalled in the main drawing office of the Birmingham Railway Car- riage & Wagon Co. L td ., gives an average service illumination meas- ured on the drawing boards of 45/50 lumens per sq. ft. The installation was planned by The General Electric Co. Ltd., and carried out by the Birmingham Railway Carriage & Wagon Co.'s own electrical staff. The office is 300ft. long and 33ft. 6in. wide and there is a total of 991ft. of G.E.C. continuous lighting trunking in four rows. Illumination is by Osram 5ft. 80 watt natural fluorescent tubes housed in 163 two-light Perspex reflectors attached to the trunking at 6ft. centres. Instant-start control gear is accommodated inside the trunking adjacent to each fitting and is accessible by removing cover plates. The trunking, which is at a mounting height of 9ft., is suspended from the roof trusses above the left sides of the drawing boards with the outer rows about 20in . from the windows.

Bagnall Locomotives for N.C.B.  139
W. G. Bagnall, Ltd. have received an order from the National Coal Board for two diesel-mechanical shunting locomotives for use at the new Lea Hall Pit. The locomotives, which will be powered by National M4AAS diesel engines developing 220 h.p. at 1,500 r.p.m., are of the 0-6-0 type suitable for 4ft. 8½in. gauge track. These locomotives weigh 28 tons in working order and are capable of hauling trains of 1,000 tons gross weight on the level. The mechanical transmission includes a Fluidrive traction type hydraulic coupling, Self Changing Gear Company's four speed, air operated gear box, and an Alfred Wisernan air operated reverse and final drive gear box. From the final drive gear box the drive is taken by jackshaft and coupling rods to the wheels.
Nearing completion are two diesel-electric, 0-6-0 shunters powered by National R4AA6 diesel engines developing 366 horsepower, which are being built to the designs of Brush Bagnall Traction. Ltd., for the N.C.B.'s South Wales area.

L.M.R. Railcar Service. 139
A new diesel railcar ser vice was inaugurated between Watford and St. Albans on 25 July. The trains for the service have been supplied by British United Traction Ltd. as part of the £4M. order which British Railways had placed with the Company. The railcars used are special B.U.T. Iight-weicht models which have already been thoroughly tested in service. showing an average fuel consumption of 11½ to 12 m.p.g. per car, or 5¾ to 6 m.p.g. for a twin car train with or without a trailer car. Units of two power cars and one trailer car will be used on the new service, although the cars can he used in a variety of combinations. Each power car is driven bv a 125 h.p. B.U.T. diesel engine developing a maximum speed of 1,800 r.p.m., and driving through a four-speed epicyclic gearbox. The reverse gear is incorporated in the double reduction final drive mounted on the axle between wheels and a free-wheel is incorporated in the propeller shaft between the engine and gearbox.
Seats are provided for 110 passengers and there is considerable standing room. Although the bodies are of similar construction, each car has a different interior layout and seating arrangement. One power car has seats for 34, the second seating only 28 but including a separate luggage compartment. The trailer car is given over entirely to seating, with accommodation for 48 passengers. Maximum comfort for all passengers in cold weather is provided by combustion type heaters in each car which provide warm air through outlet grilles at each seat position. The bodies on these railcars are designed by B.U.T. and manufactured for them by Park Royal Vehicles Ltd.

Atomic Locomotives.  139
It would cost about $20M. at the present time to develop an atom-powered railway locomotive, according to Mr. B.C. Gunnell, Chief Mechanical Engineer of the Southern Railway system, in an address to the Atomic Industrial Forum. He fixed the annual operating cost, for such a locomotive at about 52.40 a mile, compared with 94 cents a mile for a standard diesel locomotive at present in use on American railways, and with comparable horsepower.
The foreaoin« information is extracted from a recent copy of The Financial Times
.

Nils Ahlberg. Swedish steam locomotives. 140-1

P.C. Dewhurst. Commentary on "Railway locomotives down to the end of 1831". 141-2. illustration
Hedley and the eight-wheelers (Pp. 73 & 85-89; Figs. 24, 26, 27 & 28)
Finally perhaps it may be permissible to refer to two connected matters where opinion rather than research is involved. Firstly, in respect to the vexed question of the eight-wheeled "Chapman or Hedley" locomotives— whether the drawings (they are obviously all from the same original) given by Wood 1825, Partington 1826 and Gordon 1832 represent a Chapman or a Hedley locomotive. This matter was extensively treated by the present commentator ("The Engineer" 3 October, 1941) but a fresh approach to the subject may here be given.
If the arrangement of motion, cylinders, boiler-length etc. of "Puffing Billy" (D. Marshall Fig. 26, p. 85) and the broadside view of the sister engine "Wylam Dilly" (here illustrated by the kindness of the authorities of the Royal Scottish Museum, Edinburgh, where the engine is preserved) is studied, the differences between the component parts of the working gear and their position compared with what is shown for the eight-wheeler are seen to be major ones. yet neither necessitated by nor incidental to the change from eight to four wheels. If therefore the present "Puffing Billy" and "Wylam Dilly" represent Hedley's eight-wheelers merely changed to four wheels—as is generally accepted—then in their eight-wheeled form they were not like the drawing of the eight-wheeler in respect to the mechanical parts. This fundamental difference seems explainable only by assuming that the eight-wheeler drawing represents the Chapman engine(s), upon which point it is significant to note that one of the three drawings-that given by Gordon-actually bears the title "W & E. Chapman." The other examples carry no such titles and it will be found that the text references by Wood and by Partington never categorically state the design was Hedleys. The present writer believes the drawings all show the Chapman engine, and that in "Puffing Billy" and "Wylam Dilly " we have the clue to the working gear of Hedleys engines when they were eight-wheelers.
Secondly, respecting D. Marshalls refusal to accept that the eight-wheelers were upon bogies, (this point was also dealt with in "The Engineer" as mentioned above) the present writer would only here say that if the two separate sub-frames were not provided with swivelling motion the truck-bolsters (K in Woods drawing) would have racked themselves loose under the main-frame front and rear cross- "Wylam Dilly" constructed by William Hedley at Wylam 1813 pieces resting upon them. Scrutiny of Wood's drawing shows shading indicating a lateral over-sailing of these cross- pieces beyond the ends. of the truck bolsters under them, thus substantiating-as much as such a poor drawing can- that there was not a close contact between the upper and lower members there. The meshing of the gear-wheels has been suggested as a bar to there having been swivelling action, but the teeth of gear-wheels on such a job as this would not be "machine-cut" but a rough casting merely trimmed, and having ample play to allow for necessary displacement when the trucks swivelled.
Additional pre-"end of 1831" locomotives
There are three possible additional candidates for the pre- "end of 1831" period. One being a locomotive built bv Eason & Dotterer of Charleston, U.S.A. In the U.S. Government Return referred to in the early part of this commentary, in the section concerning the South Carolina R.R., there is recorded a stationary engine by J. Ross of Charleston dated 1838, having the remark appended "From a locomotive built by Eason & Dotterer, Charleston, 1831." The latter firm must have had a capacity adequate for this because it built at least seven other locomotives in Charleston—all for the South Carolina R.R. —at an average of about one a year during 1833-38. This firm seems to have mostly escaped mention by locomotive historians both in U.S.A. and here; even Sinclair in his "Development of the Locomotive Engine," New York. 1907, makes reference only to a Thomas Dotterer as possessing a workshop m Charleston—at which the locomotive "Best Friend'— was rebuilt after its explosion in June 183l. (Sinclair p. 58 and D. Marshall p. 245). Sinclair also refers to a D.H. Dotterer as having been engaged prior to 1850 on the desultory building of locomotives, but at Reading Pennsylvania and thus not concerned in pre-1832 matters at Charleston.
.The second additional locomotive is one by Rothwell, Hick & Rothwell. The engine built by this firm for the U.S.A. named "Pontchartrain," is dated 183I in Whishaw 's tables—where he describes it as for the "New Orleans Rly" —and as the engine appears in the 1839 U.S. Government Return as. in service on the Pontchartrain R.R. from 1832, there is little doubt that Whishaws date is correct. It was a 2-2-0 type having 10in x 18in. cylinders and 5ft. 0in. driving wheels.
The third "possible" derives from Colburn, generally so well informed about U.S. locomotive history, who says ("Recent Practice in the Locomotive Engine," 1860) that a locomotive by Bury for the Petersburg R.R. named "Liverpool" —four-wheeler and having 9in x 18in. cylinders —was imported mto the U.S.in 1831. A Bury engine named Liverpool is shown m the U.S. Return mentioned previously as on the Petersburg R.R., but as working only from 1833; further, m the same Return there appears on the Richmond, Fredericksburg & Potomac R.R. a Bury engme "Roanoke" which that line had purchased from the Petersburg R.R., and as the date given on the purchaser's return is 1832, it is probable that this was the original "Liverpool" of the latter line (where it had already been named "Roanoke") and so was possibly of 1831 build.
Nevertheless there is a certain difficulty in accepting this engme as of 1831, although Colburn was writing before 1860, not because it figures also in dubious lists of the 1890s of Bury's engines, but because no engine having 9in. x 18in. cylmders appears in the only authentic Bury list known to the present wnter. Bury's no. 5 in that list, however, with 8in x 10in. cylinders and 4ft. 6in. wheels, although following numerically after his nos. 3 and 4 to the Liverpool & Manchester and Bolton & Leigh lines respectively and both dated Apnl 1832, was of the small light pattern supplied to U.S. railroads at this time. It may have been completed before nos. 3 and 4, and thus be of 1831 date, although it is considered more likely to have been a year or so later.
Mention should also be made here of a supposed Bury locomotive referred to by T. West in his Paper of 1886 already mentioned. In the Amencan section he says that "'Spitfire' by Bury, Curtis & Kennedy, 1831 [the firm was not so named at that time] was another of the early English engmes sent to America," adding that he saw and sketched it at a large railway works at Scranton, Pa. It is shown as a typical Bury 0-4-0 in his plate XIII, Fig. 8, with the title "Spitfire 1831, S. Carolina R.R. Bury, Curtis & Kennedy, Liverpool."
The only English-built locomotives named "Spitfire" known to have been in the U.S.A. was one of a set of four-wheeled Bury-pattern engines built by Braithwaite & Co., London for the Philadelphia & Reading R.R. and delivered in 1838. These engines were four-wheelers as stated, but they appear—from a contemporary drawing made in the U.S.—to have been originally uncoupled (i.e. 2-2-0 type with equal-sized wheels) and some tradition of this may be the reason why the only survivor, "Comet," was equipped with even-sized uncoupled wheels when prepared for exhibition. This commentator believes there were other such cases, including a few of R. Stephensons. Some of these Braithwaite engines were long-lived, one, named "Comet" being in use until 1879 after which it stood neglected until 1893 when it was "restored" and exhibited at the Chicago Exhibition of that year, being now preserved in the Franklin Institute, Philadelphia. "Spitfire" itself, however, was sold by the P. & R. R.R. about 1849 to a line afterwards part of the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western R.R. (an important station upon which is Scranton) and the engine after further changes in ownership is recorded as finally being dismantled in the 1880s. The last news of this Braithwaite "Spitfire" being. at Scranton makes it probable that this was the engine which T. West saw; either at the works of the railroad or at those of the Dickson Locomotive Works in that town. The conclusion must be that West mistook the Braithwaite for a Bury—with which it was of course almost identical—he probably adding the date 1831 from a knowledge of Colburn's attribution of a Bury engine to the U.S.A. in that year—and so was locomotive history made!
It will have been noticed that an appreciable proportion of the corrections in this commentary concern locomotives built in 1830-31 for America; this arises from the Author (D-M.) having accepted—vide his "Two Essays, Part II"— an account published in 1898 purporting to relate the productions of English locomotive-builders for America. Later knowledge has shown this account to be largely apocryphal.
Finally, this commentator must not omit to acknowledge research amongst north-west of England newspapers etc. of the 1830s by Mr. S. H. Pearce Higgins and by Mr. W. H. Wright of North Wales and their kindness in furnishing him with results affecting a number of matters dealt with in this commentary. A History of Railway Locomotives down to the end of the year 1831. C. F. Dendy Marshall. Demy 4to, 283 pages, 105 illustrations.

South African 2-8-4T.  142. illustration
The locomotive illustrated, now owned by Clydesdale Collieries Ltd., Coalbrook, O.F.S., was orginially built for the Western Australian Government Railways by Neilson & Co. Six similar locomotives were constructed (Works Nos. 5897-5902) all being taken over and sent to South Africa to ease the locomotive shortage on the Imperial Military Railways during the Boer War. They were afterwards taken into stock by the Central South African Railways, numbered 203-208 and classed "C". Three were sold in 1904,. two to Clydesdale Collieries, Nos. 204 and 208 and 205 to Oogies Colliery, the others being scrapped before Union. The only one still in existence is the one at Clydesdale, No. 204 (Neilson No. 5898) the others having been scrapped. This locomotive was fitted with a new boiler in 1939, the pressure being increased from 160 to 180 lb. sq. in. These engines were found to ride very roughly at speed owing to their small wheels and short connecting rods. The large side tanks carrying some 2,000 gallons of water made the footplate rather cramped as they protruded right into the cab. The C.S.A.R. decided to use them for shunting purposes. until they were disposed of or scrapped.
We are indebted to Mr. R.L. Hardy of Johannesburg for the reproduced photograph and these particulars

Number 757 (September 1955)

Fair competition? 143
Editorial based on Financial Times article of 17 August which noted that the Indian Railway Board had placed orders for YL class locomotives with Henschel for 151; Hitachi for sixty and forty from the Hiungarian State Works. Orders for the YG class had been placed ithe Nipon Works in Japan and with Wiener Neustadt in Austria. Skoda of Czechoslovakia had also been successful. The Iron Curtain did not seem to be a hinderance. The lack of gratitude by the Indians for the Chittaranjan Locomotive Works which came into being with with the "assitance" of the British Locomotive Industry rather blunts the tirade.

West African Railways Beyer-Garratt "59" Class locomotives. 144-6. 6 illustrations, diagram

New axle forge of Steel, Peech & Tozer. 147. 2 illustrations

750 h.p. diesel-electric locomotives, N.Z.G.R. 148-9. illustration, 2 diagrams (including side elevation & plan)
English Electric Co. Ltd with Vulcan Foundry Ltd and Robert Stephenson & Hawthorns Ltd were supplying A1A-A1A type locomotives for service on the North Island of New Zealand Government Railways.

R. Burrows. Battery electric railcars. 149-51. 3 illustrations, diagram
ETA 176 built in 1952 for the German Federal Railways. These were streamlined and had a maximum speed of 90 km/h and could attain 35 km/h on a 1 in 33 gradient. Heating was a problem and a warm air system with an oil-fired heater was used. A London Transport charging point is illustrated.

Historical Model Railway Society's Journal No. 11. 151
Contains drawing by J.N. Maskelyne of W. Brittain 0-4-2 built by Dubs & Co. for Caledonian Railway.

Oerlikon Safety and Viligance Control. 152-3. illustration, diagram

Meadows diesel railcar engine. 153-4. illustration, diagram
Henry Meadows Ltd 6HDT970 engine

Power units for B.R. shunting locomotives. 154-6.

Atlas "Standard" wheel profile turning machines. 156-8.

F.J.G. Haut. Swiss rack and adhesion motor coaches. 159. illustration.
St. Gallen Gais Appenzell Railway received three motor coaches from Brown Boveri with a section of Riggenbach rack

Personal. 159
R. Tildesley, formerly district motive power superintendent Rugby moved to similar post at Willesden

Nils Ahlberg.  Swedish steam locomotives. 160-1. 2 illustrations
L class 2-6-0 with Kruass-Helmholtz lever on leading coupled axle. Introduced in 1904. Piston valves actuated by Helmholtz gear. Known as Lapland and Nortland express locomotives.

Brake manufacturing  agreement. 161
Laycock Engineering Co. of Sheffield and Knorr-Bremse of Munich braking systems for railway vehicles

Improving Thailand's  railways. 161
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development $12m loan to State Railways. Five year investment programme centred on Bangkok; rail renewal on 875 miles of track; 170 passenger carriages; 850 freight cars; 30 diesel locomotives; telecommunications and bridges. In 1950 a $3m loan had been received from the World Bank.

News of the month. 162

Swindon to build diesels. 162
Representatives of tha Swindon Works Negotiating Committee had a further meeting on 23 August with K.W.C. Grand, General Manager of the Western Region, and R.A. Smeddle, Chief Mechanical & Electrical Engineer, for the purpose of discussing .the allocation of work arising out of the Modernisation Plan. The General Manager informed the deputation that the British Transport Commission have agreed that 25 200 h.p. diesel shunting locomotives will be allocated to Swindon. The work, which will be commenced next year, will embrace the construction of all mechanical parts, and the complete erection, including the diesel engines and transmissions supplied by contractors, will be carried out in the locomotive works. The Carriage & Wagon Department at Swindon were already ngaged on the building of multiple unit diesel cars.

Netherlands Railways in 1954. 162
The following new rolling stock was deli vered to the Dutch Railways: one electric and 62 diesel-electric locomotives, four carriages, five single diesel-electric coaches, 32 diesel-electric two-coach sets, 1,030 closed and 466 open wagons. With the exception of the last-named, all rolling stock was made in the Netherlands.
The building of 166 coaches for electric traction with, in all, 10,000 seats, was added to the investment programme. Together with orders placed in the previous year, total orders now comprise 21,500 seats. The scrapping of the last wooden carriages will cause a loss of 9,600 seats. As a result of the delivery of diesel-electric passenger rolling stock and diesel-electric locomotives for the goods transport service, steam traction in the three northern provinces of the Netherlands could be completely replaced by electric traction.
The electrification of the section Eindhoven-Venlo will be completed at the beginning of the 1956 summer service. With respect to the electrification of the section Roosendaal- Antwerp, an agreement was reached with the Belgian State Railways concerning the joint execution of this project. Electric traction on this section will be introduced with the summer service 1957.
Upon the initiative of the Netherlands Railwavs, an agreement was reached with the railways of Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, W. Germany and Switzerland with regard to a scheme for the improvement of international railway passenger traffic by running rapid diesel trains between the major European centres, under the name of Trans-Europ Express (T.E.E.). Together with the Belgian and Swiss railwavs , the Netherlands Railways will order the construction of T.E.E. rolling stock, to be taken into service at the end of 1956. The Netherlands Railwavs have been entrusted with the management of the T.E.E. Bureau which will take a hand with the organisation of this project.

NOHAB Diesel Locomotive on tour. 162
The new diesel locomotive built by the Swedish NOHAB Works in collaboration with General Motors had returned to Trollhattan , after a goodwill tour of the Balkans and Turkey. Great interest is said to have been shown in the engine in Yugoslavia and especially so in Turkey, for long an important customer of the Swedish firm. A possible tour of the Iberian Peninsula is contemplated later on this year.

British Railways Wagon Contracts. 162
The B T.C. announced that the following contracts had been placed for flat trolley wagons:-
R.Y. Pickering & Co. Ltd., one 35-ton flat trolley wagon and eight 45-ton flat wagons; Head, Wrightson & Co. Ltd., five 40-ton flat trolley wagons. The 35-ton flat trolley wagon is specially fitted for Continental working via train ferries.
The B.T.C. also announced that contracts had been placed with the following firms for 319 twenty-ton ballast and sleeper wagons:-
The Derbyshire Carriage & Wagon Co. Ltd., 100 wagons; The Cambrian Wagon & Engineering Co. Ltd., 169 wagons; and The Gloucester Railway Carriage & Wagon Co. Ltd., 50 wagons.

I.L.E. Programme 1955-6. 162
The Syllabus of General Meetings to be held by fhe Institution of Locomotive Engineers during the forthcoming Session.

British Railways. 162
The following new steam and diesel locomotives had been placed in service.
Eastern Region. 0-6-0 diesel-mechanical Cl. DJI2, No. 11123; 0-6-0 diesel-electric Cl. DEJ6, No. 13159.
Scottish Region. 2-6-4T Cl. 4, No. 80021.
Western Region. 0-6-0PT Cl. 94XX, No. 9498 (Built by the Yorkshire Engine Co. Ltd.).

G.E.C. exhibits at Copenhagen. 162
The stand of The General Electric Co. Ltd., of England at the British Trade Fair, to be held at Copenhagen September 29 to October 16, will be of particular interest to overseas visitors in that it will display a very wide and representative cross-section of the Company's exportable products. Equipment, models, and photographs will illustrate the generation and industrial utilisation of power, electronics and communication, lighting and ventilation, and domestic equipment.

Personal. 162
J.W. Tonge, appointed Public Relations & Publicity Officer of British Railways (London Midland Region) had, since August 1951, been Assistant Public, Relations & Publicity Officer of that Region. Tonge, a Mancunian, began his railway career in the former Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway Head Office at Manchester in 1920 after his demobilisation from the South Wales Borderers and subsequently gained experience at a number m goods and passenger stations in Lancashire and in the District Goods Manager's Office of the L. & Y.
He had been at Euston since June 1927 filling posts in the Overseas and Continental office and Chief. Commercial Manager's Office, being Chief of the passenger trains section in 1941, and Chief Clerk of the Personal and General Section in 1946. Tonge was Assistant District Passenger Manager. Euston in 1947 and in 1948 Trade Advertising Assistant to the Chief Commercial Manager. During the last war Tonge served on the Passenger Trains Committee and the Ad Hoc Standardisation of the Passenger Rolling Stock Committee.

S.N.C.F. new 2nd class accommodation.  162
French Railways announced that one of the new 2nd class carriages with adjustable reclining and reversible individual armchair seats for 56 passengers, was in service between Paris and Coire in Switzerland.

S.N.C.F. exceptional availability. 163
The French Railways electric locomotive CC7147, a sister engine of CC7107 the joint holder of the world rail speed record of 205 m.p.h running between Paris and Lyons in normal service covered during the month of May last, a total distance of 38,086 miles, which is practically equivalent to travellIng one and a half times round the world at the Equator In 31 days. Between two regular overhauls on April 30 and June 21 it covered a total of 64,148 miles in 5It days. This means that it was, on an average, hauling trains for 19 hours 39 minutes out of every 24 during that period. Both there performances constitute a world record for locomotive endurance.

B.T.C. Appointments. 163
J. A. Broughall, Executive Officer (Electrical Engineering, New Works and Development) , B.R. Central Staff has been appointed Electrical Engineer (Development), Chief Electrical Engineer's Dept. Mr. L. B. Marson , formerly Works and Civil Defence Officer, B.T.C. Headquarters, is now Modernisation Assistant, Chief Operating and Motive Power Officer's Dept.

Steel Company of Wales Order. 163
Brush Bagnall Traction Ltd. received a further order from the Steel Company of Wales for three Bo-Bo diesel-electric locomotives of 600 h.p. These locomotives are similar to three: described on p. 134. which are at present being supplied to the Steel Company of Wales by Brush Bagnall Traction, Ltd., except that the output of the Mirrlees diesel engine is to be increased by the fitting of a turbo charger and the complete weight of the locomotive will be increased. to 90 tons compared with the 70 tons of the type now being supplied.

Diesel Traction in Scotland. 163
Five 200 h.p. diesel-hydraulic shunting locomotives were being built by the North British Locomotive Co. Three of them will be allocated to the Edinburgh District and two to the Thornton District, where they will displace J88 and Y9 class engines. These new locomotives are the first of their type to be employed permanently in Scotland and are fitted with. Paxrnan engines and Voith hydraulic transrrnssions. Their duties will include shunting of a lighter nature than that undertaken by the larger 350 h.p. engine.
Also due for service in 1955 year were twenty 350 h.p. diesel-electric shunting locomotives for use in the Glasgow North and South Districts. These engines, ten of which are being allocated to each district, will be stationed at Eastfield, Parkhead, St. Rollox, Polmadie, Motherwell and Hamilton Depots, but will be serviced and fuelled at Eastfield and Polmadie. They will replace steam engine Classes Q1, J69 and J88.
During 1956 it is anticipated that thirteen diesel-electric locomotives of the 350 h.p. type will be brought into use, seven in the Glasgow North District and six in the Glasgow South District. In addition twelve 200 h.p. diesel shunting locomotives will be introduced, four in the Glasgow North District and three in the Glasgow South District and five in the Thornton District. It is anticipated that the 350 h.p. engines will release 15 steam locomotives and a similar number will be displaced by the 200 h.p. type diesel.
Delivery of six six-car sets and two four-car sets with additional spare vehicles for the multiple unit diesel trains between Edinburgh and Glasgow is expected to commence towards the end of the year. These cars which are being built at Swindon will include power units each having two 150 h.p. A.E.C. engines and mechanical transmissions. The six-car sets will comprise four power cars and two trailer units, whilst the four-car sets will contain three power cars and one trailer unit.
To house, service and fuel these cars, intensive modification to Leith Central Station is being undertaken. As the engines in the power vehicles are placed under the carriage body, special facilities for examination are being provided in the servicing roads. This includes not only a pit placed centrally in the track, but also pits on each side of the track which will enable staff to reach the engines and other fittings more easily. When completed, Leith Central will be the first diesel depot of this type in the country.
Other schemes relating to the use of multiple unit diesel sets and high power diesel-electric locomotives are under examination for long distance and local passenger services, as well as for freight working.

First Japanese-built locomotive preserved. 163. illustration
Through the efforts of Yoneo Oguma the locomotive seen in the illustration, which was the earliest built in Japan, had been preserved. Constructed in 1895 at the Temiya Works of the Hokkaido Colliery & Railway Co., Ltd., it was commenced during the Chino-Japanese War (1894-5) to cope with the great demand for coal, but as construction occupied 17 months, the War was completed before the locomotive. The design was based on the American-built 2·6-0 locomotives Benkei and Yoshitsune . The engne was retired In 1953 and after restoration to its original condition at the Japanese National Railways' Shops was placed in the Museum of Hokkaido University in November last year. We are indebted to W. A. Smyth, Managing Director of W. G. Bagnall, Ltd. for his kindness in forwarding these particulars, and the reproduced photograph.

E.R. Diesel Maintenance.  163
As part of the modernisation plan, two main works in the Eastern Region had been scheduled for diesel locomotive maintenance. Doncaster was to be the maintaining works for the North Midlands and the North East and Stratford for the London area and the South East and East Anglia geographical regions. On completion of the current diesel shunting locomotive plan, 204 of these locomotives will be based on Doncaster for works maintenance and 213 on Stratford.
At Doncaster provision of the new maintenance facilities will involve re-organisation in the tender bay of the new ercting shop and in the main boiler shop. The tender bay will be cleared of existing plant, some of which will be re-sited elsewhere in the erecting shop and some transferred to the boiler shop and the bay will then be re-equipped for the complete overhaul of diesel locomotives. Separate buildings are being provided to house the fuel injector repair equipment and the diesel locomotive load test tank and associated test equipment. A second entry road is being built to improve access to the shop and alterations to the pits and lighting will also be carried out. In the main boiler shop an extension to one bay will be carried out. The alterations at Doncaster will also involve the provision of a new 12½ ton electric overhead travelling crane. At both Stratford and Doncaster main works the alter- ations and modifications have been carried out by the Chief Mechanical & Electrical Enaineer in coniunction with the Chief Civil Engineer and include the provision of shop stores, jib cranes, test tanks and associated equipment. battery charging sets, injector servicing equipment and sum o oil cleaning plants.
At Stratford part of the Engine Repair shop has been adapted to deal with intermediate and heavy repairs to both diesel electric and diesel mechanical locomotives. Also provision has been made for the servicing of fuel injectors in a portion of the Inspection Shop.
The total cost of the alterations carried out at Stratford and Donr aster is approximately £48,000.
In addition to the above it is proposed to provide two Regional Stores, one at Doncaster and one at Stratford in order to supply the outstations and the main works with spares required for the repair of the diesel locomotives.

Bassett-Lowke Ltd. 164
Supplied the British Transport Commission sixteen display sets. each comprising a gauge 0 Flying Scotsman locomotive and two B.R. coaches standing on permanent way affixed to a polished base. These sets are to be distributed on loan to Continental agents for display. Each set carries descriptive tablets in English and German, and is fitted in a special case to facilitate transport. The base size is 4ft. 6in. long which is a convenient dimension for requirements.

Newcomen Society. 164
On 12 October Sir William Stainer, F.R.S., will present a paper entitled "G.J. Churchward , Chief Mechanical Engineer, G.W.R.—thc Man and his work," to the Newcomen Society. The meeting will be held at the Science Museum, South Kensington, and those readers who are not members of the Society but wish to be present on this important occasion should apply for a ticket to the Society's Secretary, at the Museum.

Reviews. 164

Famous Trains, Nos. 1-4. G. Freeman Allen. Ian Allan Ltd. 164
First four booklets of this new series deal with the Elizabethan, Royal Scot, Cornish Riviera Express .and Atlantic Coast Express. An itinerary and diagram of each route is given together with interesting particulars ,of notable railway installations. Brief details of the locomotives which haul these trains are included.

A handbook on closed passenger lines of England and Wales 1827-1939. M.D. Greville and Jeoffrey Spence. 164
The authors have listed no less than 411 lines that have been closed to traffic in the period covered. The opening dates are also given. The list will be invaluable to railway historians, who have in 40 pages the results of the authors' researches spread over twelve years.

Supplement No. 3 to The New Zealand Railway Observer, 1954. Royal Visit 1953-54. compiled by J. M. A. Edgar and D. Cross. 164
A summary of the services provided by the New Zealand Railways on the occasion of the visit to New Zealand of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II and His Royal Highness The Duke of Edinburgh. There are 23 pages (foolscap) of text and seven pages of photographic reproductions. A very effective colour frontispiece shows the Royal Train hauled by two diesel-electric locomotives on the 1 in 53 Papatawa bank on the way to a pier.

B.S. 2618:1955. British Standards Institution, London. 164
This British Standard specifies performance requiremerits (or traction and auxiliary control equipment for use -on electrically propelled road and rail vehicles. Vehicles which are internally powered and those which draw power from an external supply are dealt with; and sections give requirements for creep age and clearance distances, temperature limits, resistance limits and operating tolerances. Type tests and routine tests are specified and an appendix .gives guidance on apparatus coding and terminal markings,

Publications received. 164

As this year sees the centenary of the production of Aluminium in Great Britain, it is fitting that the June issue of The Aluminium Courier should be devoted to some of the developments which have been made in the production and use of this metal in many industries. Included in the issue mentioned is a paper by F.L. Stafford, M.I.Mech.E., M.I.Loco,E" Chief Engineer of the Aluminium Development Association on the part of aluminium in Rail Transport. The Association held an exhibition, at South Bank, during June, showing the growth of the application of aluminium in 12 specific fields, one of these being railways, and it was during their exhibition that the paper, referred to above, was presented. Exhibits at South Bank included a London Transport District Line trailer coach and a B.R. multiple-unit diesel railcar.

Copper Developmeent Association. 164
Latest edition of the Technical Survey published twice a year by the Copper Development Association. It gives a comprehensive review of recent technical developments in the production, properties and applications of copper and its alloys, with an extremely useful bibliography. A copy may be obtained by any reader who applies tu the Association at Kendals Hall, Radlett, Herts, with a request to be placed on the mailing list for future issues. The above mentioned Association has also sent us a copy of their publication "The Strength of Copper Tubes and Cylinders". In it are considered the effects of working conditions, and, after referring to recently published research work, guidance is offered on design principles. The booklet is well illustrated and includes a bibliography, a list of British Standards and some alignment charts.

The Westinghouse Brake & Signal Co. Ltd. 164
Excellently produced and well-illustrated brochure on "The Jubilee of Automatic and Power Signalling on London Transport Lines." The story is a very interesting one and is supported by many good illustrations; the whole reveals the enormous contribution made bv this Company to the services of London Transport, for without the progress made in automatic and power sig- nalling, the advantages accruing from traction developments over the period concerned could have been only partially realised.

Number 758 (October 1955)

The steam locomotive: a machine of precision. 165-6
K.J. Cook's Presidential Address to the Institution of Locomotive Engineers 1955/56, from which the following is abstracted. Presented  in London on 21 September. The President pointed out that the technique of constructing and maintaining steam locomotives on British Railways is now at the summit of accuracy, and if and when the steam locomotive fades away in this country it will not be on account of any decline in the excellency of its mechanism. A number of factors have combined to bring a point in the history of this country at which the steam locomotive must decline. In the decade which was closing in 1939, there is no doubt that the British steam locomotive was in its ascendancy, and able to hold its own generally against other forms of prime movers on economic as well as mechanical grounds. There were plentiful supplies of large coal, shed maintenance was at its best and continuity of railway employment was attractive. Then there were counter attractions in the form of a short regular working week in lighter industries, a dearth of large coal and there is no longer a fear of shortage of oil in case of emergency. Nevertheless, the supercession of steam in Great Britain would take a number of years and in the meantime the steam locomotive will be called upon to meet many and urgent calls.
The basic mechanism of an orthodox locomotive is unique in that its power is transmitted equally through two or more axes whose centres are partly fixed but are subject to considerable movement relative to their locations and to each other. Concentrated power is transmitted between the axes by rigid couplings subject to rotating and alternating tensional and cornpressive forces. These movements, caused from within the locomotive by its direct or induced forces and from without by irregularities of the track, have an effect upon the dimensions between axis centres and argument may therefore develop as to whether extreme basic accuracy is necessary. It is true that if there are errors in original setting, the movement of axles during motion and power transmission may tend to cancel them out, but they may equally add to the error and also to the stresses set up. It is therefore fairly clear that the greater the original accuracy the lower will be the maximum stresses set up in components and it also enables initial tolerances of working parts to be reduced to a minimum, which in itself reduces hammering effects in bearings and the rate at which wear and slackness develop. The President emphasised that the above remarks applied to certain parts of the locomotive and not necessarily to each and every part. In general, it is probably correct to say that the more accurately centres of holes are maintained the better, but there are some components in which very close tolerances are detrimental and therefore, a proper balance is necessary. But on the basic components of power transmission in the locomotive, and in many other parts, a high degree of accuracy is highly desirable and economical. All would probably agree that the economical criterion of locomotive performance is cost per mile in similar conditions of operation and one of the greatest factors in producing a low cost per mile is mileage obtained between heavy repairs. In carrying out a heavy repair, the dismantling and erecting costs are fairly constant whatever the mile- age, and a higher mileage enables these to be spread and to produce a lower overall figure. High precision in basic details of a locomotive can make a big contribution to economy.
After mentioning that there are two ingredients in the production of accuracy in a locomotive mechanism, viz., measurement and working to measurement, it was pointed out that measurement has to cater for three-dimensional requirements over an extensive area and many years have been needed to arrive at the present possibilities. Each Works has to cater for a number of combinations of these dimensions within the overall maxima and hence any system must be flexible enough to cater for these at reasonable cost and facility.
With good craftsmen working under favourable conditions fairly good results were obtainable and high speed locomotives were repaired and maintained by the old methods, although in general at the expense of slack initial fits of some wearing parts. But when things did not proceed according to schedule considerable inaccuracies did occur.
Turning to more scientific methods of frame alignment, it was stated that the general term "Frame Alignment" used in connection with optical methods rather camouflages the main quest. More important is the setting of horn centres relative to each other together with length of coupling rods and throw and angle of crank pins. The President proceeded to show that following on this a complete alignment throughout of wheels relative to framing is achieved
Following upon experience with German equipment which was installed in about 25 German Railway Works and one Works in Great Britain, but later became inaccessible, a British optical exhibit was noticed at the Machine Tool Exhibition of 1952 which appeared to be capable of development, although, at that time it had no reference to locomotives. The makers became very anxious to co-operate and quite quickly a method much simpler than the German, and capable of proceeding very much further in the quest for accuracy was produced. It became known as the Auto-Reflection method, utilising instead of a collimator a reflecting mirror fixed parallel to and in line with a straight edge. The method of utilising this equipment was described. The President said he considered at the outset that the essential requirements of a satisfactory Locomotive Frame Alignment System should embrace the following features: (1) It should be universally applicable to all classes of locomotives; (2) Axlebox-guide faces should be equidistant about axle centre-line and axleboxes bored centrally; (3) Axle centre lines should be parallel to each other and at right angles to the established frame centre line; (4) Horizontal centre distances of coupled wheels should be maintained to drawing dimensions within limits specified; (5) Driving axle distance from cylinder centre should be maintained to drawing dimensions; (6) Tyre line of all wheels should fall along straight lines parallel to the established frame centre line and spaced equidistant about it.
While the apparatus described is fully usable in the construction of locomotives to ensure initial accuracy, in railway shops the predominating use is in connection with general repairs to ensure and maintain accuracy over a long working life and it was primarily with this aspect that the illustrations and descriptions dealt. An accurate survey of all horn faces relative to cylinders at commencement of repairs enables a decision to be taken as to the most economical directions for correction.
A component on which it has proved difficult to ensure accuracy is the set of crank pins, three, four or five pairs, as the case may be, affecting the tolerances which can be worked to on coupling rod bushes. Not only is it difficult to ensure accuracy of machining but again so is the matter of measurement, which is desirable particularly as a check of 'the continuing accuracy of quartering machines.
The development of a gauge which employs a spirit level tube was described, this has a high degree of accuracy and a form has been produced applicable to crank pins at '90 or 120 degrees, and capable of measuring the angular setting and throw of crank pins of all normal two, three or four-cylinder locomotives with strokes varying from 20 to 30in. One of the most imporant uses of this gauge is to ensure that wheels are coming from the quartering machines correct. At general repairs there is nearly always ovality, taper or angularity error and it is good practice to quarter all pins in order to turn engines out with the pins as near correct as possible. While it is not politic to check all pins on arrival at the wheel shop, it is very desirable to know that when they come from the quartering machine the desired accuracy has been achieved. Periodical checks on machined pins ensure this. It was mentioned that a particular feature of value is that, should the setting of pins be suspect on a locomotive in service, a fully accurate check can be made on all pins, whilst the wheels are under the engine. This enables {he offend- ing pair or pairs to be located with certainty and only these removed for rectification. The President mentioned that it was his experience that when the phenomenon of slipping at high speed with steam off occurs, the crank pins of at least one pair of wheels are out of angle.
In the quest for accuracy the wheels form a good starting point. They can contribute to improved results even though other factors do not initally keep pace but, of course, until frames and horns and rods are brought up to the same standard, the full benefits of closer tolerances cannot be obtained.
Referring to coupling-rods it was stated that the ideal method of finishing the bearing surface of coupling and connecting rod bushes is for a final precision bore to be made after the bushes have been pressed into the rods. At the same time, in order to facilitate renewal at Sheds when necessary, the final boring of the bushes must be central with the holes in the rod. Hence the holes in the rods must first of all be correct. The old method of trammelling must of necessity give place to positive measurement in order to ensure lengths being within the specified tolerances.
The method of checking rod centres was described and it was explained that the fit of bush in rod is becoming of greater importance with felt pad lubri- cation in order to effect an oilseal and therefore, the ovality of the bore is not allowed to exceed .010 in. Should either the ovality or centre distance exceed the limits specified, the rod is corrected by boring out either one, or both, of the bush holes.
From experience gained the bush clearances on both coupling and connecting rods have been further reduced on subsequent locomotives optically aligned, the clearances now range—from .004in. + .002in. – .000 in. for pins of 3in. to 4in. diameter to .01in. + .002in. – 000in. for pins 9in. to l0in. diameter.
It has taken a long time on steam engine practice to get away from the hand-scraped and bedded down bearing but there is no doubt that the accurately machined finish is greatly superior, and reduces initial wear. Such practice is essential in diesel engines and also applies to locomotive connecting rods, both of the solid bush and split brass inside big end types.
In conclusion, instances were quoted of the valuable assistance rendered by railway workshops in World War II and the President gave examples of some of the difficult work which they were capable of producing with great accuracy when this was necessary.
A large and appreciative audience was present to listen to this latest addition to the many notable Addresses which have been presented by Presidents of The Institution.

B.T.C. Appointments. 166
The following appointments are announced by the British Transport Commission:—Central Services of the Commission. Carriage and \Vagon Engineering Department, W. Vandy. Works Manavcr. Wagon Works. Shildon to he Assistant Carriage and Wagon Engineering Officer; and W. Rhodes. Technical Assistant. Carriage & Wazon Engineering Department to be Assistant (Carriage Design).

0-8-0 tender-tank locomotives for Nigeria. 167. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
Six supplied by Hunslet Engine Co. for 3ft 6in gauge.

New training school at Crewe. 168-9. illustration, plan
Crewe Locomotive Works Training School opened by Sir Brian Robertson on 23 September.

B,R. Modernisation Plan. 169
D. Wickham & Co. Ltd. to supply five power cars and five trailer cars with 150 h.p. British United Traction Co. Ltd. engines: to be supplied to Eastern Region.

East African Railways. 170-1. 2 illustrations
Governor  class 4-8-2+2-8-4 Beyer Garratt locomotives wwith Timken roller bearings. One illustration shows Sir Evelyn Baring in service near Mombasa and the other a part of one being loaded at Birkenhead.

Metallic steam heating couplings. 172-3. 2 diagrams

S.N.F.C. Lille-Bale electrification. 176. illustration
BB 13000 single phase AC class entering Valenciennes Station

Jubilee of the London "Circle" electrification. 177.
The Metropolitan and Metropolitan District Railways replaced ssteam trains with electric trains during the week of 17-24 September 1905. P stock was introduced in 1938

Vehicle-and-Track Test Plant for B.R. 177.
Proposed site alongside Birmingham to Derby between Branston and Wicknor Junction to be run by British Railways Research Department. To have a staff of 40.

Battery-trolley locomotives for Tanganyika. 178
Two units supplied by Clayton Engineering Co. Ltd. 2ft gauge for use in a gold mine

Steel Company oof Wales. 178
Repeat order for 0-4-0 diesel electric shunting locomotive from Brush Bagnall Traction

"Civils" President. 178
W.A. Wallace for year 1955-6> Chief Civil Engineer London Midland Region; Locomotive Superintendent Northern Counties Committee 1922-30.

Bagnall 0-6-0T. 178. illustration
Saddle tank locomotive of type simlar to ones described on p. 127

A new vacuum brake system for diesel locomotives. 179-81. 5 diagrams.
Gresham & Craven Ltd.

H.C. Hughes. Early locomotives of the East Indian Railwsy. 182
In April 1854 a further 35 engines of the same design were ordered in readiness for the opening of the first sections of the main line to Delhi, sanctioned earlier that year. This new line left the experimental section near Burdwan and continued via Mirzapore, Allahabad and Cawnpore. The number built by each maker, the makers' numbers and the dates of construction were as under:

5 Stothert & Slaughter 1854
10 Tayleur & Co. 372-76/87-91 1854/55
10 E. B. Wilson 430-39 1855
10 Beyer Peacock 5-14 1855

An additional engine of the same type, built by Fairbairn in 1855 for the Madras Railway, was also taken over by the E.I.R. owing to the difficulties in landing the engine at Madras. There were thus 41 of this design, 24 of which were put into service on the Bengal Division, which included the experimental line.
The remaining 17 were allotted to the North West Provinces Division, the first section of which, from Allahabad towards Cawnpore, was hurriedly opened in October 1857 for Government use during the Mutiny. The engines were shipped in fiat boats up the Ganges to Allahabad, a long and difficult journey, .and it was some years before they were all in service. Originally they were allotted numbers from 201 upwards but shortly afterwards a separate list was adopted for this Division. Two of the Tayleur engines were sold to the Government and do not appear in the N.W.P. list (it is believed that they were used in the steamer Sir William Peel built by the Government about 1858); they were replaced by two new engines built by the same firm in 1859, makers' numbers 432 and 433.
The running numbers of the whole class, with dates of eerection and withdrawal below:

NWP Builder On Line Withdrawn
1-4 Tayleur 1854 1882/74/82/81
5 Tavleur 1855 1880
6-9 Slaughter 1855 1874/81/75/84
10 Tayleur 1856 1874
11 Slaughter 1856 1878
12-13 Beyer Peacock 1856 1880/80
14-18 Beyer Peacock 1857 188I/80/81/73/82
19 Beyer Peacock 1858 1879
20 Fairbairn 1857 1880
23-24 Beyer Peacock 1858 1883/82
28-29 Tayleur 1860 1871/71
1-2 81-82 Tayleur 1858 1880/78
3-4 83-84 Wilson 1858 1875/78
5-6 85-86 Wilson 1859 1877/80
8-9 87-88 Wilson 1860 1882/82
10 89 Tayleur 1861 1879
11-12 90-91 Wilson 1861 1879/80
13-14 92-93 Tayleur 1862 1881/82
15 94 Wilson 1862 1880
16-17 95-96 Tayleur 1862/63 1880/74
86 80 Wilson 1865 1881

The last engine had been used as the motive power for a steam-boat named Monghyr which maintained a ferry service across the Jumna at Allahabad from 1862 to 1865. In the latter year the Jumna bridge was completed and through communication established between the two divisions. The N.W.P passenger engines were soon afterwards renumbered into the main list as shown above; according to Vulcan Foundry records Nos. 92 and 93 were the two Tayleur engines built in 1859.
All these engines carried names and were painted green. They proved fully adequate for the traffic and gave good service. However by 1868 the E.I.R. found themselves with a surplus of engines and in that year the Board sanctioned the condemnation of all locomotives more than 10 years old when they required repairs costing more than £700. Under this ruling withdrawal of the old passenger engines began in 1871 and at the end of 1881 the nine survivors were renumbered 606 to 614 in the order of their previous numbers. By this time various modifications had been made, the working pressure had been reduced to 110 lb., the heating surface was given as tubes 1,038 ft2. and firebox 102½ ft2, and the engine weight in working order was 29 tons with 13½ tons on the driving wheels. 1,400 gallon tenders from a later class, weighing 24 tons and with an equally divided 12ft. wheelbase, were then in use. The last survivor in traffic was No. 608 (old No. 9). (To be continued)

Portuguese order for Dutch rolling stock. 182
N. V. Allan & Co's Koninklijke Nederlandsche Fabrieken van Meuhelen en Spoorwegmaterieel, Rotterdam, is working on an order received from the Portuguese State Railways for the construction of 35 diesel-electric motor coaches (25 for broad gauge and 10 for narrow gauge) and for 20 trailers (12 for broad gauge and 8 for narrow gauge). Delivery of this is due to be completed at the end of this month.

Publications received. 182

Rail Traction Supplies. 182
Informative and well-produced puhlication on the Hadfield Precision Power Reverser. This gear, which gives fingertip control, has had an extensive application in recent years, over 700 locomotives being so fitted.

African Transport Review, No. 1 Vol. 1. 182
This is a new journal published by the Southern Africa Division of the Institute of Transport. The issue before us contains a number of informative articles on various aspect of transport in South Africa, including one which deals with the expansion plans of the South African Railways. It is pointed out that faith in the future of rail transport in South Africa is implicit in the decision to spend millions of pounds on doubling track, building new lines, modernising workshops, extending electrification and buying equipment and the policy of the South African Railways support a recent statement by an American railway authority who said that there was nothing in sight to take the place of the train.

News of the Month. 183

N.Z. order for Bagnall diesels.  183
W.G. Bagnall Ltd. contract from the New Zealand Governmcnt Railways for the supply of seven 0-4-0 diesel-mechanical shunting locomotives. Two of the locomotives will be powered with Gardner 6L3 engines and the remainder with Mclaren Nl6 engines. The nominal horsepower will be 150 and the weight in working order, 20 tons. The transmission will consist of a Fluidrive hydraulic coupling and four speed gear box (type S.E.4) and a reverse and final drive box (type R.F11) to be supplied by the Self Changing Gear Company. Thc drive to the wheels will be by coupling rods from fly-cranks keyed to the output shaft of the reverse and final drive box. This order follows a contract from New Zealand placed for ten 240 h.p. 0-6-0 diesel shunters, powered by National M4AA6 engines, then under construction at Castle Engine Works.

Krupp's Brazilian Locomotive Works. 183
The Brazilian affiliate company of Krupp expects to start producing locomotives fifteen months after its plant is installed in Sao Paulo. Output is estimated to be 200 locomotives during the first fivc years and 100 locomotives yearly thereafter when all the materials used will be of Brazilian origin.

U.S. Diesel Locomotives for Argentina. 183
An Argentine Government decree approves the purchase by the Ministry of Transport of 100 diesel-electric locomotives and spare parts for the Argentine State Railways. The purchase is to be made from the United States at a cost of $27.5M. The decree authorises the Ministry to pay a further sum of $4.3 M. to cover possible price fluctuations. Payment is to be made from the proceeds of exports of Argentine produce to the U.S.A

40-ton wagons for B.R.
TIle B.T.C. placed a contract for two 40-ton flat trolley wagons with Head Wrightson & Co. Ltd. These wagons to be 58ft. long over headstocks and fitted with two 54ft. longitudinal baulks over which the load is spread. They will be used principally for carrying bulky machinery and awkwardly shaped loads which cannot he carried on ordinary wagons.

L.M.R. Winter Services. 183
Improved inter-city services, more cross country trains including a new Sunday express from Gloucester to Darlington, sixteen main line trains introduced for the first time in winter, and 23 expresses with point to point average speeds of 60 m.p.h. or over were included in the L.M.R. winter timetable which came into operation on 19 September.

I.L.E. Awards—Session 1954/55. 183
The following Awards were announced at the General Meeting held 21 September. The Frederick Harvey Trevithick Award to J.F. Thring, Associate Member, for his paper "The Design of Light Alloy Coaches for East African Railways". The Institution of Locomctive Engineers' Award to R.H. Pett for his paper "A Modern Hydraulic Drive for Locomotives". The Charles S. Lake Award to E. Kreissig, Member, for his raper "The Uerdingen Railbus". The Alfred Rosling Bennett Award to G.V. Davv, Associate Member, for his paper "Recent Trends in Electric Locomotives". The Stewart-Dyer Award to L.R. Gosain, Associate Member, for his paper "Impressions of American Railway Workshops". A Special Award to W.C. Blakeney Britter for his paper "Thermodynamic Road Testing of Steam Locornotives on the Western Australian Government Railways". The Graduatcs' Award to J. Fore, Graduate, for his pappr "Footplate Impressions"

G.E.C. rectifiers for Netherlands Railways. 183
The General Electric Co. Ltd. has been entrusted with a further im- portant contract for pumpless steel-tank rectifiers for the expansion of the electrified sections of the Netherlands Railways. The order covers ninc 1,224 kW., I,500v., twin- cylinder units fitted with electronic arc suppression equipment. and brings the total quantity of rectifiers supplied and on order from this administration in the post-war period to 100 cylinders with a combined rating of 60,000 k W.

W.R. new Chief Operating Superintendent. 183
Gilbert Matthews, C.V.O., C.B.E., Chief Operating Superintendent, Western Region, B.R., to retired on 31 December and, at the request of the B.T.C. S.G. Hearn, O.B.E., Chic! Operating Superintendent, L.M.R., who was formerly Assistant Operating Superintendent W.R. had accepted appointment to the vacancy.

Industrial leader's Silver Jubilee. 183. illustration
Twenty-five years of brilliant leadership of one of Britain's great industrial organisations was marked on 7 October, by presentations from the Company's employees to Sir George H. Nelson, Chairman and Managing Director of The English Electric Company Limited. A gift of Georgian silver and a hand-made leather-hound book, containing the signatures of many thousands of English Electric employees who had subscribed to a Presentation Fund, were handed to Sir George by Percy Horsfall, a director of the company. Sir Georgc Nelson became Managing Director of English Electric in 1930 at a difficult moment in the Company's fortunes. But, under his guidance, it has become an industrial group with an immense range of activities all over the world. Sir George is a powerful advocate of international and Cornrnonwealth co-operation. Since the war he had travelled thousands of miles on behalf of the Company and the Federation of British Industries, seeking new markets overseas for British products. Elected to the Institution of Electrical Engineers at the earliest age possible, he is now its President—one of his many institutional appointments. Sir George Nelson became Chairman of English Electric in I933, and was knighted in 1943. He was created a baronet this year.

Institute of Transport. 183
Peter Masefield gave his Presidential Address in London on 10 Octoher, with the title "British Transport in the National Economy". Transport he defined as "the act of conveying passengers, goods and mail from the place where they happen to be to the place they require, or are required—or can be persuaded-to go". He analysed the various forms of transport and postulated six essentials: safety, economy, re- lia bili ty , frequency, regularity and cheapness. By statistics a nd a series of simple diagrams he compared rail, road, water and air and indicated the advantages and disadvantages of each.
Lord Hurcomb, a past president and late chairman of the British Transport Commission has been elected an honorary member.

Reviews. 184

British Standard for Pallets. 2629, 1955. B.S. Institution, London,
This new British Standard standardizes a series of sizes and capacities of two-way and four-way pallets which are acceptable to transport organizations and convenient for transport and storage within individual organisations. Six sizes, giving an opportunity of wide application, have been specified, and there are three ratings for each size. The work of the technical committee on pallets for unit load methods of materials handling, of the International Organisation for Standardization (ISO), has been taken into account and the nominal plan sizes of pallets which have been recommended for International use are indicated in the standard. Nominal plan sizes, height from ground to underside of the top deck, free height for the entry of forks or fingers, bottom deck dimensional limits, and width of wing for winged pallets are specified. An appendix contains 13 drawings. They show the dimensions of the minimum openings in the bottom decks of double-decked pallets necessary to permit the use of pallet trucks. This standard does not deal with methods of construction or with quality of materials.

The Great Eastern Railway, Cecil J. Allen. Ian Allan, Ltd. 184
The Great Eastern Railway is one in which much interest is taken by many people and the book under review should satiate the requirements of these enthusiasts. The well-known Author was formerly on the Staff of the G.E.R. and he is well qualified to produce a record of the Railway. Within the 222 pages much information has been presented in an interesting manner. As would be anticipated, locomotives and their performance receive treatment at some length, and the whole is well illustrated. The book covers the early days, the period as the G.E.R. entity, and the post-grouping period. The locomotive section is not devoid of errors and some cf these are difficult to account for, having regard to the intimate knowledge of the line possessed by the Writer. While these are regrettable, the book as a whole is a good one, well worth the price. C.K. Bird, the General Manager of the Eastern Region, has contributed a foreword, in which he refers to the pioneering spirit of the line. Oil-firing, the Decapod, and an extremely intensive surburban service are examples of developments which will always be associated with the G.E.R.

BEAMA Guide to British Arc Welding Electrodes. The British Electrical and Allied Manufacturers' Association, London. 184
The latest edition of this Guide, which is a standard source of references for those requiring information on metal arc welding electrodes manufactured in Britain by members of BEAMA, contains, in addition to the familiar contents of previous editions, a complete new section covering the wide range of special electrodes now available. Information is included on electrodes for welding high-tensile steels, corrosion and heat-resisting steels, cast iron, aluminium and its alloys, bronzes, nickel and its alloys and for hard-surfacing. There are, in addition, notes on the application of these electrodes. As before, the Guide includes a brief description of the British and American classification systems for electrodes and summaries of the British specifications and Lloyd's Regulations covering arc welding electrodes. There is also an up-to-date classified list of mild steel electrodes showing the British and nearest equivalent American Code Numbers and any Admiralty, Ministry of Transport or Lloyds Approvals where such apply.

Locomotive stock alterations 1952-54. The Railway Correspondence and Travel Society. 184
This most useful publication contains accurate summaries of all the stock alterations which have taken place in Britain and Ireland during the period concerned and a yearly analysis of class totals from 1951-54. The many illustrations include all the types which became extinct curing the three years ended 1954. This book is remarkably good value.

Steam road vehicles and railcars in Germany. J. N. Walton. "Light Steam Power". 184
As the Author points out in the Preface, the information contained in the British Intelligence Objectives Sub-Committee's Final Report No. 1748 is the basis of this booklet. The descriptions of vehicles are accompanied by numerous illustrations; the railcar particulars will be of especial interest to our readers.

The Leek  & Manifold Valley Light Railway. Manifold. J H. Henstock Ltd., Ashbourne. 184
The story of this railway is well told and the Authors must have gone to great trouble to amass all the information and illustrations which are included in this book. Of the subject matter we have nothing but praise, but we fail to find any logic in including the map in the index

Modelling the old time Railways. Edward Beal, Adam and Charles Black. 184
It is a fact that the modelling of pre-grouping Railways is today pursued more than ever but the model maker who seeks out to simulate the period from the turn of the century to the 1920'S mav run into difficulties. Generally speaking there is no problem in obtaining particulars of locomotives, but it is a different matter where rolling stock, line-side fixtures and the general atmosphere are concerned. The book under review contains a wealth of information, and many excellent ill ustrations of almost everything material relating to a railway during the period mentioned and it should prove of great val ue and assistance to those engaged in—or contemplating taking up—this absorbing hobby.

Locomotives of the British Railways: L.M.S. Group. H. C. Casserley and L L Asher. Andrew Dakers Ltd. Cloth bound 8/6.
Casserley is well known as an indefatigable photographer of locomotives and this book contains about 180 examples of his work. There is a preface with a synopsis of the present day numbering and the illustrations are arranged in numerical order with informative captions and these cover every type, from the well known "Jubilees" to the rarely seen dock shunters. Being essentially a pictorial record, it is to be regretted that the printing of some of the blocks leaves much to be desired.

Directory of Railway Officials & Year Book, 1955-56. The Tothill Press, London.  184
This well-known and valuable reference book is now in its 61st year of publication. While the latest edition retains the same layout and general arrangement as that of former years all necessary revision has been carried out. Since the former edition appeared many important changes have taken place in the entries relating to the British Transport Commission and a new scheme of railway organ- isation has become effective." These developments are all covered as in fact are alterations everywhere. While the word "indispensable" is an overworked one, this is a publication where it may be applied in the fullest sense for we cannot imagine anyone whose business bnngs them irrto contact with Railways being Without this most useful and reliable publication.

Publications received. 184

The Model Engineer. 184
Appeared in a new and enlarged form. More space is devoted to full-size locomotive and railway topics; among the articles which have recently appeared is one on the restoration of the Festiniog Rail- way. Model locomotives continued to be featured regularly in each issue.

The General Electric Co. Ltd.
The Present... The Future covers many aspects of the present state and future outlook for the electrical and electronic industries. It illustrates its theme by a series of short surveys of topics of. urgent importance in which The G.E.C. has a specialist interest. These inelude the influence of atomic power on the future generation of electricity, the growth of automation in industry, the Company's corrtribuition to Britain's railway modermsation, and many other subjects.

No. 759 (November 1955)

The Modernisation Plan. 185-6
J.C.L. Train, Member of the British Transport Commission, delivered an Address to the London Lecture and Debating Society, British Railways (Western Region) in October 1955. While this Address was comprehensive, the Editorial confined its extract to those aspects relating particularly to motive power and rolling stock. After referring to the reasons for the replacement of steam, Train explained that recent electrification developed on British Railways had been under two principal systems, both D.C., viz. the 750v. third-rail system as used on the former S.R., and 1,500v. overhead as employed between Manchester- Sheffield-Wath and from Liverpool Street to Southend. The Southern system is well suited for its special and limited purpose, that is the operation of multiple-unit passenger trains, both local and express, at frequent intervals, and is cheap to install and simple to maintain. Its main disadvantage is that owing to the gaps in the conductor rail at junctions, it can only be used by multiple-unit trains which are long enough to bridge any such gap, unless one is prepared to face the high cost of constructing electric locomotives which contain special devices enabling them to carry on should they become stationary at a gap. The Southern Railway has continued to haul all freight traffic in the electrified area with steam locomotives, apart from using three experimental electric locomotives.
The Manchester-Sheffield-Wath electrification proved far more costly than originally estimated, largely owing to the interruption caused by the war and the subsequent rise in prices, but much more work in the shape of trailing ton-miles is being obtained from both train crews and locomotives than was possible from steam traction.
When we come to the major extensions and new main line electrification schemes proposed under the Modernisation Plan, it cannot be assumed that past practice will be followed. Serious consideration is being given to the use of alternating current at 50 cycles, that is at industria! frequency, taken straight from the national Grid at a relatively high pressure, say 25,000v. or 6,600v. Such current can be transformed at a low cost to any voltage required for traction purposes. It also requires a comparatively small number of sub-stations. On London Transport electrified lines using D.C. at 630v. sub-stations average only 1.73 miles apart, on the Southern Region they average four miles apart. The distance increases on the 1,500v. system to 6.2 miles apart between Manchester and Sheffield, and ten miles apart on the Dutch Railways.
With high voltage A.C. the picture is quite different. For the whole of the lines from London to Liverpool, Manchester and Birmingham only some dozen sub-stations would be required, compared with 70 or so for direct current at 1,500 volts. In short the A.C. system requires a much less costly and complicated distribution system, both as regards sub-stations and switchgear, than is required for D.C. and it also uses a conductor wire with a much smaller cross-section. This yields a great saving in copper, and there is also a most important saving in the weight, enabling the whole of the supporting structures and catenary wires to be lightened and reduced in cost.
Lastly, the experience of the S.N.F.C. with the new electrified system between Valenciennes and Thionville has shown that the power characteristics of A.C. electric locomotives are superior, weight for weight, to those of D.C. locomotives. In fact, so far as can be seen at present, the only real drawback to the use of A.C. is the fact that high-voltage conductor wire requires an appreciably greater clearance from earthed structures than is the case with lower-voltage systems. Owing to the restrictions of the British loading gauge it will often be difficult to obtain this clearance and if A.C. electrification is adopted a larger programme for the reconstruction or alteration of bridges, tunnels and other structures must be faced or some other devices such as reduced voltage over short sections of line be sought.
Train said that he could not forecast what decision the Commission may take; but recent reports on the development of high tension A.C. have been most interesting and mean that careful thought must be given to the choice at this critical stage, when decisions of such importance for the future must be made.
In the opinion of Train future policy will clearly be to a void mixed steam-and-electric or steam- and-diesel working wherever possible and to change over whole areas of the country to the new forms of traction. Only by doing this can the substantial savings be realised that will accrue when it is possible to close down complete steam motive power depots, with all the associated paraphernalia of coaling plants, water tanks, water troughs and so on. The Western Region are preparing plans for eliminating steam on the lines west of Exeter and it is hoped that the initial order for 11 diesel-hydraulic locomotives will provide the data upon which this complete conversion can be worked out. Another scheme being examined is one in the L.M.R. for the replacement of all steam locomotives which work the cross-London freight services over the former North London line. It is also hoped that it will not be very long before steam can be eliminated from Liverpool Street as well, which is most desirable if the City of London's new "smokeless zone" is to be really effective.
Turning to speed of movement it was said that not enough attention has been paid in the past to the important fact that a very large proportion of railway costs are related to time rather than distance. The bulk of expenditure is on wages, and most wages are paid on a time basis. Furthermore, interest and depreciation charges on costly assets, such as locomotives and rolling stock, accrue irrespective of whether the asset is being employed in revenue-earning work or is standing idle. According to the last balance sheet of the B.T.C., the total investment at the end of 1954 was over £100M. in locomotives, nearly £150M. in coaching vehicles, and over £300M. in wagons. Mr. H. H. Phillips, Assistant General Manager of the W.R., not long ago (vide p. 29 of this volume) drew attention to the painfully inadequate proportion of time spent by much rolling stock in usetul work. He pointed out that on British Railways over a million wagons spend each, on the average, rather less than 55 minutes of each day in carrying a load along the running lines. The average revenue-earning employment of passenger train stock, according to Mr. Phillips' calculations, is less than 4½ hours per day. Drivers on an average only spend about 5 hours a day on the footplate of an engine in traffic; and the locomotives spend almost two-thirds of their life in motive power depots or repair workshops.
One of the most hopeful methods of improving efficiency and reducing costs must therefore lie in increasing speeds so as to get more revenue-earning work done in return for the expenditure on wages, interest and depreciation. High running speeds will not of themselves solve the problem of quicker turn- round and utilisation of wagons, but better terminal performance and better performance on the running lines are both necessary if we are to operate on an economic basis.
The main approach to higher speeds is directed at the freight side, where the adoption of continuous brakes is going to make it at long last possible for all freight trains to run at speeds hitherto regarded as the preserve of passenger trains. It has been assumed for the purposes of the Modernisation Plan that high-speed passenger and freight trains will in future run on the same tracks without serious detriment to head-way. This will lead to maximum track use and it will eliminate, or at any rate reduce, the need to segregate the two types of train on separate running lines. Tentative conclusions are that for express passenger trains average start-to-stop speeds of about 75 m.p.h. should be the target. This will require maximum speeds of 100 m.p.h., perhaps rising even higher, to say 120 m.p.h. at certain favourable locations. For freight trains maximum speeds of 60 m.p.h. are envisaged with average speeds of 45 m.p.h.; and for mineral trains maximum speeds of 55 m.p.h. with average speeds of about 40 m.p.h. These speeds incidentally are the highest that can be planned without involving reconstruction of the whole present stock of four-wheel wagons. To enable such speeds to be run changes in available motive power will be required. Both diesel and electric locomotives of the future will tend to be of the mixed-traffic type, capable of high running speeds. Mr. Train thinks that the heavy mineral locomotive of today with its low maximum speed will gradually disappear from the scene. The next step will be to get the track into condition for these higher speeds. At many places the formation and ballasting will require strengthening, and drainage will have to be improved. A national survey is being undertaken of permanent speed restrictions and a schedule prepared of those which can be eliminated, or whose severity can be mitigated, in return for a reasonable outlay.

Austrian Federal Railways 4-8-0. 186. illus.
The photograph reproduced illustrates a 4-8-0 locomotive of the Austrian Federal Railways, series 33 (formerly 113). This class has cylinders 560mm x 720 mm. and coupled wheels of 1,740 mm. The boiler, which is pressed at 15 atms. has an evaporative heating surface of 217.9 m2 and the grate area is 4.47 m2. These engines, which are designed to work at a maximum speed of 90 km/h., have a total weight in working order of 85.16 tonnes, of which 59.44 tonnes ranks as adhesive weight. The tender has space for 7.44 tonnes of fuel and 27 m2 of water. The photograph and particulars have been kindly forwarded to us by Herr Adolf Hofbauer. As will be noted the locomotive is fitted with a Giesel ejector.

B.T.C. Appointments. 186.
The British: Transport Commission announce the following appointments on their Central Staff: Operating & Motive Power Department, Mr. G. K. Lund, Assistant District Motive Power Superintendent, Edinburgh, to be Assistant (Motive Power), Research Department; Mr. J. C. Loach, Development Officer, (Vehicle & Track Testing), Derby, to be Superintendent (Vehicle & Track Division), located at Derby.

E.E.C. "Deltic" diesel-electric locomotive. 187-90. 4 illus., 3 diagrams (including side elevation section), plan
On page 190 there is an interesting gathering of British Railways officials and English Electric top brass at the roll-out of the Prototype. From BR: K.W.C. Grand, John Collins, D. McKenna and J.W. Watkins.

"Austerity" 2-8-0 locomotives in Sweden. 190. illustration
Modifications made in Sweden included a new cab, safety valves, turbo-generator. Locomotives were purchased from Holland and were working Halmstead to Nassjo line. See also letter from L. Derens.

New coach for the Royal Train. 191.  3 illustrations
To accommodate Prince Charles and Princess Anne.

British Railways. 191

"31" class 2-8-4 locomotives for East African Railways. 192-3. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
Vulcan Foundry

Personal. 192
E. Theakston appointed London Director Hunslet Group

240 h.p. diesel locomotives for New Zealand. 194-5. 2 illustrations, diagram (side & front elevations, plan)
Seven diesel mechanical 0-4-0 with National M4AA6 six-cylinder engines and Self-Changing Gear transmissions supplied by W.G. Bagnall where W.A. Smyth was the Managing Director.

Electrification of railways. 196-7. illustration
F.A. Manley, Manager Traction Department General Electric Co., presented a paper at a Sales Conference of the North of Scotland Hydro-Electric Board at Lochearn. Mention was made of the 25 kv AC system adopted in France and Germanyand the use of mercury arc rectifiers, but with the prospect of semi-conductor systems.

Yugoslav State Railways 2-8-2 locomotive. 197. illustration
P.C. Allen photograph of Bosnische-herzogowinische Landesbahnen (Bosnia-Herzgovinia) locomotive in Belgrade: one of 35 built in Budapest in 1930/1.

Henry T. Crittenden. The Fitch model locomotive. 198. illustration
Held by State Museum, Columbus, Ohio due to a gift made in 1903 by A.N. Whiting. Charles Whittlesey's biography of Fitch published in 1845 [Justice to the memory of John Fitch : who in 1785 invented a steam engine and steam boat, planned, constructed and put in operation the steam boat "Perseverance," of sixty tons, moving at the rate of eight miles an hour, in 1788 (12pp) ] LoC online catalog notes that Fitch manufactured a low pressure steeple type engine in 1796 or 1797.

Appointment. 198.
G.S. Luttrell, former Assistant District Motive Power Superintendent Glasgow South moved to District Motive Power Superintendent, Thornton.

2-8-2 locomotives for Western Australia. 199-200. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
Beyer Peacock sub-contrcted to Robert Stephenson & Co. to the specification of C.W. Clarke Assistant Commissioner (Engineering) and ibpection by J. Hannah. For coal traffic from Collie mines to Perth/Freemantle. Total evapourative surface 1814ft2, grate area 40ft2, two thermic syphons, combustion chamber, 499ft2 superheat, Running numbers 1201-24.

Hudswell Clarke 204 b.h.p. diesel locomotive. 200. illustration
For National Coal Board N.E. Division, No. 2 Area (Hatfield Colliery). Fitted with six-cylinder Gardner 8L3 engines, Vulcan-Sinclair Scoop-control fluid couplings ansd Bostock & Bramley three-speed gearboxes

B.R. diesel traction instruction. 200
A senior instructor had been appointed at the Training College in Derby.

Personal. 200.
A.E. Durrant had left Swindon Works to move to the East African Railways in Nairobi

H.M. Le Fleming. Malayan and F.M.S. Railways locomotives. 201-2. 3 illustrations
P class 4-6-2 used wood fuel until about 1920. Malaysian coal deteriorated rapidly, but was used as fuel from 1915. During WW1 P new class were diverted from Malaysia to India. Sixteen were built (RN 186-201) by North British Locomotive Co. (Queens Park) WN 22505-20 and Kitson WN 5159-62. They had 17 x 24in cylinders, 4ft 6in coupled wheels and 160, later 180 psi boiler pressure. The heating surface was tubes 917.5ft2, firebox 82.5ft2, superheater 217ft2. The grate area was 18.5ft2. Bye-pass valves were fitted, but were replaced by new cylinders with piston valves. During the Japanese occupation thet were sent to the Siam-South Burma Railway. Two Baldwin Mallet 0-6-6-0 locomotives were acquired in 1919 which had been intended for Russia and retained their promenade decks to prevent slipping on ice and these lasted until 1930. They had 13in and 19in by 22in cylinders and 3ft 8in coupled wheels. The heating surface was tubes 1183ft2, firebox 125ft2, grate area 19.3ft2. Boiler pressure 180 psi. THey were used between Port Swettenham and Kuala Lumpur. Twelve Q class 4-6-2 were also bought from Baldwin: these had steel firebioxes and received RN 202-13. They had 17 x 24in cylinders, 4ft 6in coupled wheels. The heating surface was tubes 892ft2, arch tubes 11ft2 and firebox 97ft2; grate are 24.9ft2. They were sent to Siam in WW2.

Long-welded rails. 202.
Installation with concrete sleepers at Crewkerne, Southern Region

B.R. appointment. 202
Gordon Lloyd Nicholson [spelt Nicolson] had moved from District Motive Power Superintendent Stewarts Lane to Modernisation Assistant to General Manager Scottish Region.

C.W. Brett. Welding applied to maintenance requirements. 203-4. illustration
Managing Director of Barimar Ltd

No. 760 (December 1955)

British Railways diesel locomotive orders. 205-6. 2 tables
Engines being supplied by English Electric, Sulzer, Mirlees, Paxman, MAN and Crossley; transmission systems by English Electric, BTH. Crompton Parkinson, Brush, General Electric, Metro-Vickers an Voith Hydraulic; and mechanical parts by English Electric, British Railways, Birmingham Carriage, Bagnall, Metro-Vickers, North British and Clayton. T.A. Crowe, President of the Locomotive Manufacturers Association commented favourably on these plans.

Apprentice school for L.M.R in London. 206
Work had begun on altering a building in Purchese Street, St. Pancras to serve as a training establishment.

Rolling Stock for Netherlands Railways. 207.
N.V. Werkspcor. Amsterdam, Allan & Co, NV., Rotterdam and J. J. Beynes N.V., Beverwijk, had in hand an order for N.V. Netherlands Spoorwegen for building 248 units of electrical rolling stock for passenger transport. This order comprises 47 four-car sets and 30 two-car sets of a new type. Delivery expected to start in the course of 1956.

Canadian National Railways. 207
Placed in service their first double-deck car transport. Constructed by the Canadian Car and Foundry Company, it was one of 25 units ordered by CNR. The new all-steel car accommodated eight vehicles each weighing as much as 4,600 pounds, on two decks equipped with shock absorbing "hold-down" devices. Portable ramps provided with each unit or located at points of handling to facilitate loading and unloading both from ground level and between the cars themselves. Doubling the capacity of present car transports, they permitted the handling of vehicles with greater speed and efficiency, and had electric lights installed to facilitate loading and unloading. Latest air brakes, slack adjusters. coil springs and cast steel under-carriages were also modern features fitted. Designed jointly by the research and development and mechanical departments of C.N.R .. the new car transport  was the largest freight car on the system. Dimensions: 16½ft. high, 10 ft. 8 in. wide and 7S ft. long, (34ft. longer than an ordinary box car).

Potters Bar Widening. 207.
The bottleneck through Potters Bar had always been a handicap on the main line out of King's Cross. The difficulty of making extra tunnels through the treacherous clay soil caused the old GNR to shelve the idea of widening and build the Cuffley loop instead. British Railways decided to tackle the problem in earnest and the quadrupling of the line north of Greenwood Box (near New Barnet) to north of Potters Bar Station had been in progress for three years and the first stage of about. half a mile through Potters Bar Station had been completed. The improvements include the re-siting of the station and goods yard. The new station of pre-stressed concrete construction embodied centrally heated waiting rooms, lock-up garages for the use of season ticket holders and all modern amenities. Three/four-aspect colour light signalling controlled from a new box has been installed by Metropolitan-Vickers.

B.R. Training Scheme. 207.
A concentrated training scheme bv which suitably-qualified engineering graduates entering the railway industry may complete their training after only two years. instead of the former three years' period,  was announced by the British Transport Commission. This scheme of shortened, but intensive, training  was available to all engineering graduates who had successfully taken a full time three years' University or College course.

Second Class on British Railways. 207.
As from June 3, 1956, there will be only two classes of travel—"First" and "Second"-on British Railways, including Continental boat trains. This will conform with the arrangements which are being made by European railways generally to reduce the number of classes on their trains to two, as from the same date. So far as British Railways are concerned, the effect of this is simply to alter the name of "Third Class" to "Second", and to abolish the former designation. In recent years, Second Class on British Railways has been provided only on Continental Boat Trains to and from U.K. ports, in order to enable uniform through bookings to be maintained with Continental railways. On British Railways, only First Class compartments and coaches will bear numbers and labels on the outside to indicate the class.

Hungarian Transport Development. 207.
Hungary was investing £34.5 million~lVI. in transport development—a 46% increase on the previous year. This was reported to be only the first step in the large-scale reconstruction of the country's transport system, principally the railway network, which would be carried out in the next five years. Railways will go over more and more to diesel and electric traction, and industry has been ordered to achieve increased output of diesel engines. Serial manufacture of the 600 h.p. diesel- lectric locomotive is to be started and the prototype made of a 2,000 h.p. diesel locomotive. The programme of fitting automatic safety devices is to be stepped up 30%. New rolling stock to be added next year includes 55 steam locomotives, 20 diesel locomotives, five electric locomotives, 85 passenger coaches and 1150 goods wagons.

British Railways. 207.
The following new steam and diesel locomotives and diesel railcars had been placed in service.
Eastern Region. 0-6-0 diesel-electric shunter Cl. DJ12/2, No. 11132-33; diesel railcars, motor third brake No. 79044, ariving trailer third, No. 79260; These railcars were for East Anglian services.
London Midland Region. 4-6-0 Cl. 5, Nos. 73091-93; 2-10-0 Cl. 9, Nos. 92056-59; 0-6-0 350 h.p. diesel-electric shunter Nos. 13180-81.
North Eastern Region. 2-10-0 Cl. 9, No. 92060; diesel railcars, motor composite Nos. 79508-9, trailer third brake Nos. 79325-26, trailer third Nos. 79400-1, motor third Nos. 79151-52. These railcars were for use on the Newcastle Middlesbrough service.
Scottish Region. 2-6-0 Cl. 2, Nos. 78045-48; 2-6-4T Cl. 4, Nos. 801I25-26.
Southern Region. 4-6-0 Cl. 4, Nos. 75070-71.
Western Region. 0-6-0 350 h.p. diesel-electric shunter Nos. 13182-87.

Lecture on modernisation. 207.
The London & Home Counties Electric Traction Society arranged for a speaker from the British Transport Commission to give a lecture, illustrated by films, on the British Railways' Modernisation Plan, at Fred Tallant Hall, 153 Drummond Street, London, N.W.1. on 18 February 1956, admission free.

Locomotive utilisation. 207.
The August issue of British Transport Review contains an article by A.W.J. Dymond on Full Employment of Steam Locomotives. The Author raises a number of pertinent points and concludes by saying that in his view future use of steam locomotives lies principally in following two parallel lines of action, both of which derive from the Plan itself. One is to devote some of the new capital expenditure to modernizing a proportion of the steam locomotives and the depots which serve them; the other is to seize the opportunity presented by the necessity to devise new time-tables to suit the diesels and to give the steam locomotives schedules which will entail their operation within their most efficient range, and to link such schedules together to the greatest possible extent.

Hudswell, Clarke diesel for South Africa. 208-10. 3 illus. diagram (side elevation and plan)
3ft 6in gauge 450 h.p. with four axles and jack shaft drive for South African Iron and Steel Corporation. Paxman 12RPHL engine, Vulcan Sinclair scoop control fluid coupling and three speed Synchro-Self-Shifting-Power-flow gearbox. Taken by road to Liverpool where shown being loaded.

Netherlands Railway. 210.
Apart from the Rotterdam service the last steam tram in the Netherlands ceased running on 31 August 1955. It worked between Alkmaar and Bergen aan Zee an was known locally as Bello due the steam bell carried on the engine. One of the locomotives was preserved in Bergen.

Fell locomotive. 210.
Described in Volume 57 page 96. Noted purchase by British Railways and its use on mixed traffic duties.

B.R. corridor composite brake type D.  211-12. illustration
W21135 illustrated: first third composite with four-aside seating in third built Charles Roberts & Co painted in crimson and cream livery

H.M. Le Fleming. Malayan and F.M.S. Railway locomotives. 212-13. 3 illustrations
Photographs of R class oil burning outside-cylinder 0-6-0T No. 12 and L class 4-6-2 No. 217. Text includes M class 2-6-0

G.E.C. Depot at Preston. 213
General Electric had opened a new depot at Magnet House managed by R.G. Galloway.

Appointment. 213
Scottish Area Board announced that James Ness, Acting General Manager had been appointed General Manager of the Scottish Region with effect 21 November 1955 in succession to late A.E.H. Brown.

75 ton cranes for India. 214-15. illus.
Seven 5ft 6in gauge steam-powered breakdown cranes supplied by Cowans, Sheldon & Co. Ltd. to Indian Railway Board. Hopwood boiler fitted.

East African Railways. 215
Revenue from ports administered by East African Railways & Harbours totalled £317,429 for August 1955-£58,207 more than for the same month last year. The total tonnage handled was 387,317 tons, an increase of 35,333 tons. Imports and exports of general cargo were higher than for August last year, although there was a drop of 9,477 tons in coal imports. At Mombasa, where the port was not working to full capacity due to the effects of the United Kingdom dock strike, imports of general cargo increased to 94,901 tons, although general cargo exports were slightly below the August 1954 figure. The import tonnage of general cargo at Tanga was 17,981 tons-a record for that port, and the export tonnage also showed an increase of 3,802 tons over the corresponding month last year. At Dar-es-Salaam increased imports and exports were reported; while at Mtwara there was an increase in general cargo exports of 1,561 tons, although imports dropped slightly. At Lindi, imports were at about the same level as in August last year, but exports were 1,321 tons less, due to the transfer of timber traffic to Mtwara.

Personal. 215
C.S. Douglas, Assistant (Purchasing & Sales), British Transport Commission Central Services, has retired after nearly 49 years' service with the railways and the British Transport Commission; he has been responsible to the Chief Stores Officer for the supervision of the Central Purchasing organisation of British Railways. Mr. Douglas began his railway career with the former L.N.W.R. in 1907 and joined the Purchasing Office set up at Euston in 1910. During WW1. Douglas served with H M. Forces and later resumed duty in the Purchasing Office. In 1931 he was appointed Deputy Resident Storekeeper, Crewe Works. and in 1934 became Assistant Stores Controller (Locomotives). He returned to Headquarters of the L.M.S.R. in 1936, and took control of a Purchasing Section of the Stores Superintendent's Office, and during WW2 was active on many committees. In 1950 he was appointed Assistant (Purchasing and Sales), Stores Department, Railwav Executive Headquarters when the Central Purchasing Organisation was set up. He retained this position when the Stores Department was transferred to the B.T.C. Central Services under the new organisation which came into operation on 1 January 1955..

Preservation of Narrow Gauge Locomotive. 215
The 2ft. 8½in. gauge Furzebrook Tramway of Pike Bros., Fayle & Co., Ltd. near Wareham possessed a six-coupled well tank Secundus., built about 1874 by Belliss & Seeking, predecessors of Bellis & Morcom Ltd. So far as is known, it is the only Birmingham-built locomotive in existence and in 1953 the Birmingham Locomotive Club initiated negotiations to have the engine preserved, on withdrawal from service, in the City's Museum of Science & Industry. Earlier this year, the tramway was sold for dismantling to Abelson & Co. (Engineers) Ltd. who, hearing of the hopes and plans for preserving the engine, generously donated it to the City, the B.L.C. meeting the transport charges from Dorset as their share. The locomotive will not be on view to the public for some months, pending renovation.

International Meeting at Graz. 215
During the second week of May, 1956, an International Railway Meeting will be held at Graz in Styria: at which Mr. A.W.J. Dymond, British Railways (Western Region}, will speak on gas-turbine locomotives. Dr. A. Giesl-Gieslinaen , the inventor of the "Giesl" Ejector, which was described on page 133 of our 1953 Volume, and which has since that date been applied to a number of locomotives, will deliver a Paper on "Ejectors and Boiler Improvements". Dr. Altmann of the Austrian Railways, will address the Meeting on the results ohtained by the use of ejectors.

I.L.E. Paper. 215
On November 16, . G.S. Bingham, M.I.Mech.E., M.I.Loco.E., M.lnst.T. presented a Paper to the Institution in London, on "Railway Breakdown Organisation and Equipment in use on the London Transport System". This Paper reviewed the organisation and equipment used ir. dealing with breakdowns on the railways of London Transport. It dealt with the area of responsibility, the duties of the Report Centre concerned with requests for assistance from breakdown gangs, and described the breakdown lorries and the radio-communication with which each heavy road vehicle is fitted. Details were given of the wide variety of tools and equipment used, with special reference to certain items which were considered to be of particular interest. The methods of dealing with. flatted wheels, defective gears and broken axles were descnbed in detail. Particulars" were also given of the recruitment of staff and the method of operation at an incident, together with .a review of the responsibiliies of the Breakdown Engineer, especially in relation to other services.

Correspondence. 215

F.S. Middleton
The illustration showing the first Japanese-built locomotive and the paragraph relating to it which appeared in the September, 1955 Issue prompted the accompanying photograph taken at Wilderswil, near Interlaken, in May 1955, of one of the first steam rack-and-pinion locomotives used on the Schynige Platte Railway. Two were extant No. 1, shown in the illustration, was built in 1891, the year the Railway opened. No. 5 was placed in traffic in 1894. These locomotives were constructed by the Swiss Locomotive and Machine Works, the Works numbers being 692 and 881, respectively. Leading particulars are: Riggenbach-Pauli rack system; Gauge 800 mm. maximum incline 1 in 4; wheel base, fixed 1,350 mm., total 3,000 mm.; length over buffers, 6,050 mm.; uncoupled wheels, 672 mm. dia.; heating surface, 37.3 m2.; superheating was provided in 1929, the area of the superheater being 7 m2.; grate area, 0.7 m2.; steam pressure, 14 atms.; cylinders, 300.mm. x 550 mm.; weight in working order, 16.7 tonnes; speed, 7-9 km/h.: Tractive effort, 6,600 kg. Until the change-over to electric traction in 1914, the Schynige Platte Railway possessed six of these locomotives. After the electrification Nos. I and 5 were retained as spare. No. I is no longer in service, but No. 5 is used each Spring on the opening of the railway, doubtless for pushing the snow-plough—also seen in the illustration.

Mozambique locomotives. 216-18. 5 illustrations

Diesel locomotives for Iraqi. 218. illustration
Hunslet metre gauge diesel mecanical locomitive for Daura Oil Refinery

Midland Class 0 extinct. 218. illustration.
No. 41516 0-4-0ST withdraw in October; built at Derby in 1897 as No. 1132A, became No. 1516 in 1907 with 13 x 20in inside cylinders and 8ft2 grate.

F.J.G. Haut. Bo-Bo express passenger locomotives, French State Rlys. 219-21. illustration, 2 diagrams

N.C.B. diesel-electric shunter. 221. illustration.
Yorkshire Engine Company 400 h.p. for East Midlands Division of National Coal Board for working between Coppice Colliery at Shipley and Nutbrook Sidings on British Railways; replaced ex-Mersey Railway 0-6-4T Cecil Raikes (see Volume 59 p. 104)

Obituary. 221
R.A. Thom, O.B.E., Mechanical Enginneer,  LNER Southern Area, 1934-38. C.E. Williams, C.B.E. Chief Inspecting Officer, Crown Agents 1922-34.

E. Lassueur. The "Mountain" and "Santa Fe" locomotives of the Spanish National Railways: RENFE. 222-4. illus., 3 diagrams (side elevations)

Reviews. 224

Flat bottom railway rails.  (B.S. 11. Pt. 1:1955).  224
British Standard

Railway rolling stock material. (B.S. 24. Pt. 2B:1955). 224
British Standard for steels including spring steels

Design Magazine, No. 81. Council of Industrial Design. 224
Special railway number which included an article on station design by J.M. Richards and a section on railway publicity and graphic design