The Locomotive Magazine and Railway Carriage and Wagon Review

Volume 48 (1942)
Key file

Number 593 (15 January 1942)

Balancing locomotives. 1-2.

4-6-2 metre gauge locomotives, Assam-Bengal Railway. 2-3. illustration.

Stirling Everard. Cowlairs commentary. 3-6. 4 illustrations (drawings: side elevations)

Locomotive balancing. 7-11. 2 diagrams, table

Fireboxes. 11

H. Fayle. The Belfast & County Down Rly., and its locomotives. 12-14. 6 illustrations

Miniature railways. 14-17. 5 illustrations.
Duffield Bank Railway

Correspondence. 18

L.N.W.R., S.D., No. 300. Henry W. Dearberg.
In reply to Mr. Dendy Marshall's letter on the subject of McConnell's locomotives on the L.N.W.R. No. 300, the engine referred to, was a double-frame single with 18 in. by 24 in. cylinders with driving-wheels 7 ft. 6 in. in diameter. The cylinder with valve-chests above the cylinders, were 1 ft. lO½ in. between centres. The outside journals of the driving-axles were 7 in. diameter and 10 in. long. The inside journals were 7 in. diameter and 4¼ in. long. The eccentrics were between the cranks. . The inside-frames extended from behind the crank-axle to the tube-plate of the smoke-box. The cylinders were anchored to the smoke-box and by diagonal-stays to the outside-frames.

Locomotive performance on the G.W.R. H. Holcroft. 18
There is one statement in Nock's excellent article on the performance of G.W.R. two-cylinder engines which, for the sake of accuracy in historical record and due credit to the designer, calls for amendment. He states on page 260 of the December issue of The Locomotive that the 43XX Class were originally designed for fast goods traffic and goes on to say that at the time of their design passenger duties contemplated were excursion trains and other classes of traffic, which, if heavy, would not require high sustained speed.
In actual fact the class was originally designed for mixed traffic in order to supersede the double-framed engines originating in Mr. W. Dean's time and continuing under Mr. Churchward with standard tapered boilers. These included the 4-4-0 types with 6 ft. 8½ in. wheels (Atbaras, Flowers, etc.), 4-4-0 types with 5 ft. 8 in. wheels (Bulldogs, etc.) and the 2-6-0 type with 4 ft. 7½ in. wheels known as the Aberdare goods. By 1909 these older 4-wheel coupled classes had been relegated to semi-fast or branch line passenger working and when more engine power was needed for this secondary traffic and for main line freight, it was not felt to be desirable to perpetuate out-of-date designs, although many of the parts were interchangeable between the various classes of double-framed engines.
The 43XX Class was evolved to take their place, a single class improving the availability of engines at sheds and reducing the number of spare parts required to be kept in stock. Their tractive effort and boiler power made them the equal of the Aberdare goods, while the wheel diameter enabled them to run as fast as the Bulldogs." As compared with the 6 ft. 8½ in. wheel engines, it was thought that while their maximum speed on the level and down grades would not be as great, they would make up for it by higher acceleration and better speed on up gradients, so that in many cases they could maintain the same average speed as the bigger wheeled engines. The 2-6-0 general purpose type with 5 ft. 8 in. wheels was therefore a new departure in locomotive practice and it should be acknowledged as such.
Its success is evidenced by the hundreds built, not only for the Great Western, but in later years for the other British railways.
What happened to the first batch of engines handed over to the locomotive running department is another matter. It may be as Mr. Nock says, that they were at first used on fast goods and heavy excursion trains until their capabilities were known, but in any case it was not long before they were also put to work in passenger service, as intended by their designer, Mr. Churchward.

Southern Railway.  18
Bishopstone Beach Halt on the Seaford Branch was closed for traffic as from 1 January.

Railway Club. 18
At a meeting held in London on 6 December G. A. Newman read a paper on the Midland & South Western Junction Railway.

Rolling stock for Iran. 18
To improve war transport in Iran locomotives have been shipped from Australia. It is also proposed to borrow some from Egypt and replace them from America.

G.N.R. Stirling passenger tank, No. 121, passing the 10th mile post in Hadley Woods on an up main line local train. 18. illustration
The scene depicted is just south of the bottle neck from Greenwood box to Potters Bar where only a double line exists for all classes of traffic, no relief roads having so far been provided on account of the three tunnels which would have to be duplicated. The down train shewn is an empty passenger stock one waiting to proceed after the passage of a down express. The engine on the up train was one of the 13 0-4-2 well tanks designed and built by Stirling in tbe: yens 1868-1871. They were numbered 116 to 119, 121 to 123, 125 to 127, 129 and 131 and 132. All except two, Nos. 126 and 127, were fitted with condensing apparatus for the London underground working. These two exceptions never came to London, but remained throughout their career in country' districts mostly in the West Riding of Yorkshire.

Southern Railway.  18
The fourth engine of the Merchant Navy class Pacific type locomotives, No. 21C4, has been named Cunard White Star. The ceremony took place at Charing Cross Station on 1 January when Sir Percy Bates, Bart., G.B.E., chairman of Cunard White Star, Ltd., named the engine after inspecting a guard of honour from the Southern Railway Home Guard. It may be recalled that the White Star line inaugurated a service between the ports of Southampton and New York in 1908. The Cunard and White Star lines were merged in 1934.

Railway Clearing House. 18
The first meeting of the Railway Clearing House was held on 26 April 1842, at 111, Drummond Street, near Euston Station. The building was destroyed in an air raid last year. The larger premises in Eversholt Street (formerly Seymour Street) were opened in 1847. About thirty years ago the staff totalled nearly 2,400.

Number 594 (14 February 1942)

A large locomotive. 19

Southern electric locomotive. 20. illustration, diagram (side & front elevations)
CC1 Alfred Raworth, O.V. Bulleid [misspelt as Bullied] design, built at Ashford

E.C. Poultney. Union Pacific 4-8-8-4 locomotives for fast freight. 21-3. illustration, diagram
Diagram shows arrangement of blast pipes. Deasigned for working between Ogden in Utah and Green River in Wyoming. 150ft2 grate area.

Obituary. 23

A.C.W. Lowe
It is with deep regret that we have to record the death on February 3rd of A.C. Willoughby Lowe, at the Julian Courtauld Hospital, Braintree. He had been associated with The Locomotive from its birth in 1896—contributing regularly and checking the proofs of every issue until last month. "The Locomotives of the Great Eastern Railway" was one of the many articles he compiled.
Lowe was we believe one of the greatest authorities on railway history and devoted a lot of time and energy investigating some of the mysteries surrounding early developments, especially points in connection with the older locomotive designs. He travelled over almost every mile of railway in this country and made numerous journeys to the Continent in search of material for his records.
For many years Mr. Lowe was with the old Great Eastern Railway—first at Stratford and latterly at Norwich where he held the post of District Locomotive Superintendent. Lowe was Master of Arts and Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge.

W.F. Pettigrew
Death, on January 22, of William Frank Pettigrew who from 1897 to 1918 was Locomotive. Carriage and Wagon Superintendent of the Furness Railways.
Mr. Pettigrew received his training at the Stratford Works of what was at that time the Great Eastern Railway being articled to W. Adams, the Locomotive Superintendent. When Mr. Adams left to go to the London and South Western, Mr. Pettigrew completed his pupilage with Massey Bromley the new Superintendent and subseqluently served as Assistant Manager of the works, first under T. W. Worsdell and then under James Holden. Later Pettigrew re-joined his old chief Adams as Works Manager of the Nine Elms Shops in which capacity he remained until his appointment in 1897 to the post of Locomotive, Carriage and Wagon Superintendent of the Furness Railways. At the time, this was an entirely new position, previously the duties having been shared between R. Mason in charge of locomotives and Sutton the carriage and wagon stock. Pettigrew retired at the end of March, 1918, after 21 years' service, during which period great and far reaching changes took place not only in the provision of larger and more powerful locomotives, but also in the design of the carriages as well, which were greatly improved in respect of the comfort of passengers and in appearance. It may be recorded that the Furness line was one of the first to standardise electric lighting using the Stone's system.
Pettigrew was a well-known and greatly respected member of the engineering profession. He contributed to the proceedings of the Institutions of the Civil and the Mechanical Engineers, both of which he was a member, and also to the proceedings of the Iron and Steel Institute. Pettigrew was a Past President of the Association of Railway Locomotive Engineers of Great Britain and Ireland, President of the Barrow Association of Engineers, in addition he tuok great interest in technical education during the time he lived at Barrow. In 1905 he acted as reporter on Automatic Couplers to the International Railway Congress held at Washington, D.C., U.S.A .. Pettigrew, died at his home Cashel. Redhill, Surrey, in his 84th year. E. C. P.

James McEwan. Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 33-7. 2 illustrations
SCR No, 7 with Alexander Allan on footplate.

Number 595 (14 March 1942)

Electric locomotives. 41.

Rebuilt 2-8-0 locomotives Central Uruguay Railway. 42-6. 2 illustrations, 6 diagrams (including side elevation)
Rebuilding work of P.C. Dewhurst, Chief Mechanical Engineer on locomotives supplied by Beyer, Peacock in 1907. As built had slide valves and an out-dated form of Walschaerts valve gear. They had been built as coal burners, but had been converted to oil fuel and been fitted with steel fireboxes. In the current rebuildimg they had acquired the boilers of the type used to convert 2-6-0s into 2-8-0s in 1939 described in Locomotive Mag., 1939, 45, 99 and been fitted with new cylinders, piston valves and long-travel valve gear.  They also had electric cab lights and head-lights.

Stirling Everard. Cowlairs commentary. 48-9
Continued from page 6. After a year of experience w:ith the Bury and Hawthorn engmes on the main line Paton decided upon the six-wheeled types as being the more satisfactory, and in 1844 the Edinburgh and Glasgow took delivery of several standard 0-4-2 Hawthorn tender engines with 15 in. by 21 in. inside cylinders, 5 ft. 3 in. coupled wheels and the normal type of double sandwich frames of the period. True, in the follownng year two more four-wheeled " Burys " were bought—goods 0-4-0 design with 4 ft. 6 in. wheels and 14 in. by 18 in. cylinders—but these had been built for the Edinburgh, Leith and Granton company, and were taken over from the makers by ohe Edinburgh and Glasgow, possibly as a result of the negotiations for amalgamation between the two railways. The Edinburgh and Glasgow, which used these engines for mineral traffic, placed no further orders with Bury's firm, and purchased no further engines elsewhere of this type. Of these engines nine "Hawthorns" became N.B.R. Nos. 242, 246 and 255-261, while one of the "Burys" became 267.
By 1846 the passenger traffic of the company had inoreased to a large extent, and the small 13 in. engines were quite inadequate to deal with it. Paton now placed orders for six of Hawthorn's latest heavy passenger type, a 6 ft. sandwich-framed 2-2-2 with 16 18 in. inside cylinders, for six heavy type 6 ft. sandwich-framed 2-2-2 with 15 in. by 20 in. inside cylinders from Neilson, for six medium type 5 ft. 6 in. singles with 15 in. by 20 in. inside cylinders of Sharp Brothers' standard design, for two engines from B. Hick of Bolton, and for two of Neilson's 0-4-2 goods engines with 5 ft. 1 in. coupled wheels, 16 in. by 20 in. inside cylinders and sandwich frames. He further designed and built at Cowlairs two smart little medium singles, not unlIke Hawthorns; with sandwich frames and large domes at the centre of the boiler barrel. These engines, Orion and Sirius, had 6 ft. driving wheels and 15 in. by 20 in. inside cylinders. The Hawthorns, it is interesting to note, were fitted with gab motion when new, despite the general acceptance of the link motion by this time. Later they had the Stephenson gear substituted for this. In Patorr's own design Gooch gear was used, in the Neilsons the builders' own gear, and in the " Sharpies" Stephenson. Only three of the " Hawthorns " survived until North British days, when they became Nos. 219, 221 and 222. Orion and Sirius became 223 and 224. Neither the " Hicks" nor the "Neilson" goods engines lasted until the amalgamation. The subsequent history of the other engines is mentioned later.
By now additional bankers were required for assisting trains out of Queen Street station. Hercules and Samson were not successful engines. They were heavy and imperfectly balanced, and they played havoc with the permanent way. Paton, therefore, decided not to perpetuate his own design, but ordered instead from R.&W. Hawthorn two, for the time, very powerful 0-6-0 tender engines with 18 in. by 24 in. inside cylinders and 4 ft. 3 in. diameter wheels. They were named Hawthorn and Miller after the builders and the engineer responsible for the construction of the line. In these locomotives there were several details which were not in accordance with the builders' normal practice. The outside frames were not of the familiar arch pattern usually associated with the firm, but were exceptionally deep, and were slotted out between the w:heels. The safety valves, moreover, were on the dome, and not, as was usual in engines designed by Hawthorn, over the firebox. These modifications suggest that Paton had at least some part in the design.
Almost as soon as the 0-6-0s were delivered it was decided to revert to the stationary engine on the Cowlairs bank, this time using a wire rope in place of the troublesome hemp variety. Hercules, Samson, Hawthorn and Miller were then without jobs. The last two were transferred too mineral work, where their long coupled wheelbase proved a decided disadvantage on the colliery lines. In 1854 an opportunity arose to sell them to the .Stockton and Darlington Railway, and they were dispatched to the south and " far in the distance their forms disap.pearing, they faded away, and they never came back. Hercules and Samson were rebuilt, not being suitable for service elsewhere in their original form, and in due course they also were sold, going to the Monkland Railway. By the time that the acute competition had developed with the Caledonian all the new engines had been delivered, and, therefore, the Edinburgh and Glasgow were well equipped to uphold their part in the struggle.
Paton's policy of purchasing outside framed engines of types directly derived from Stephenson's Planet provided a locomotive stock which was susceptible to one particular form of trouble, broken crank axles. This was due to the weakness of the design of frames, wherein the subsidiary inner frame members were not attached to buffer beams, and consequently tended to work independently from the outer frames, setting up stresses in the axle and strain on the boiler. If the permanent way was in good order, the trouble did not become serious, and on the Edinburgh and Glasgow the mortality of axles does not seem to have been great. On the neighbouring North British it became an epidemic, and finally cost the locomotive superintendent his job.
Broken crank axles on the outside-framed engines of the Grand Junction Railway had become a very worrying problem to the locomotive department of that concern as early as 1841, and Alexander Allan, then at Crewe, had solved the problem by rebuilding the machines in question with inclined outside cylinders mounted between and slightly above the inner and outer frames, the inner frames being extended for .the full length ofthe engine. This allowed a straight axle to be provided for. the driving wheels with inside bearings only, while the. can:ymg wheels, except when coupled had bearings m the outer frames only. After' the first conversions had proved satisfactory the design was adopted for all new Crewe-built locomotives. When the Caledonian Railway was formed the initial engines were built to Crewe designs, while Allan himself became locomotive superintendent of the associated Scottish Central and carried the type to Perth. Robert Sinclair, the Caledonian company 's locomotive superintendent, developed the designs,. so that at the time of the fares war his company relied exclusively upon 2-2-2 and 2-4-0 Allan-type passenger engines on the main line, these having 6 ft. driving or coupled wheels.
The Edinburgh and Glasgow and the Caledonian therefore, rivals commercially, were unable 'to agree even on technical matters.
Illustrations (alll side elevation drawings; all E. & G.R Hawthorn, 0-4-2, 1844;  Sharp 2-2-2 Diana, 1847; Paton's 2-2-2 Sirius; 0·6·0 banking engine, Hawthorn

GWR. 50
On and from 9 February the Lostwithiel and Fowey branch had been reopened for passenger traffic on weekdays only. The passenger service on this line was withdrawn shortly after .the outbreak of the present hostilities

L,M.S.R.  50
With the withdrawal. of th Baltic engine No. 11110 (class 5P) from the active list, an interesting class of L.M.S. locomotives became extinct. No.11110 was the only survivor of ten 4-6-4 (Baltic) passenger tank engines which carried L.M.S. runmng numbers 11110-11119, built for express and semi-express work on the steeply graded main lines of the L.M.S. Central Division (formerly the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway). These engines were the first to be specifically designed for the L.M.S. itself, as distinct from locomotives ordered by the constituent Companies and ultimately taken into L.M.S. stock, and they were built at Horwich from designs by the first C.M.E.,of the L.M.S. George Hughes.

R. A. Whitehead. Miniature railways 50-2. 3 illustrations, 3 diagrams (including 2 side elevations & plans), map
Continued from page 17. Includes dining and sleeping carriages designed by SIr Arthur Heywood: these reproductions, as well as those appearing in the January article, are taken from Minimum Gauge Railways. Another 0-6-0 tank engine, Shelagh, was constructed at the Duffield Bank Works in 1904 for the Eaton Hall line. It was sirnjlar to the Ella, but of slightly improved design, incorporating .the following dimensions: cylinders 5½. by 8 in., wheels 16 in. diameter, heating surface 80 sq. ft., steam pressure 175 lb., grate area 3. ft2.The increased dimensions allowed a larger load to be hauled, but the running of the engine, compared with that. of the Katie was very poor at speeds exceeding 20 m.p.h. The maximum load hauled on test was 3½, tons. It was disposed of in 1922 when the petrol Locomotive was introduced.
(b) Eaton Hall.
Encouraged by the success of the Duffield Bank Railway, the Duke of Westminster decided to lay a similar line to connect his residence at Eaton Hall near Chester with the Great Western Railway at Balderton sidings. The length was three miles not including sidings. Construction was begun in August, 1895, the earthworks having been advanced beforehamd ; no contractor was employed, as the estate authorities feared that imported labourers might not be sufficiently convinced of the sacredness of the ducal game preserves. The work was carried on under the direction of Sir Arthur Heywood who also prepared the plans. The track was composed of 16 lb. per yard rails bolted to cast iron sleepers. The maximum gradient was 1 in 35. A substantial saving was made in cartage costs. Katie was sold to the Fairbourne Miniature Railway and replaced by a Simplex which worked until 1938 when replacced by a similar machine.

Some reminiscences of the late A. C. W. Lowe by an Old Friend (signed T.F.B.: KPJ must be Budden). 56
We first met on the platform of the G.E.R. Station at Cambridge in 1886, we were both looking at an engine, and on speaking to one another we soon found that we had many interests in common. He was an undergraduate at "Trinity" and I was at "Gonville and Caius." After that we met casually many times at the same place, and struck up a friendship which lasted over 50 years. In those days the G.E.R. trains were mostly worked by Worsdell's compounds or the old "Sinclair" 2-4-0, while the "Doncaster" or in common parlance "The Donkey" had one of the Bromley 4-2-2 type. The L. & N.W.R. often used a 2-2-2 Fortuna or a 2-4-0 Sphinx. The G.N.R. had usually a "Stirling" 2-4-0 of the 87 class or occasionally an old "Sturrock" 2-2-2. The G.E.R. down trains stopped at the North end of the long platform, and the up trains at the Southern end, this of course necessitated a crossing in the centre, usually called the Scissors. There was great interest when 710 the first of Holden's 2-4-0s made its appearance. The reversing gear was worked by a wheel instead of the old-fashioned lever; Lowe and I were watching a down-train pass over the "scissors" and the driver had his hand on this wheel. A stranger came up to us and remarked "That driver steers well doesn't he "! This amused Lowe immensely, and we often used to refer to it in later days. Lowe was very interested in the Paris Exhibition of 1889, to which three English Railway Companies sent engines. The Midland was represented by one of Johnson's singles, the L.B. & S.C.R. sent Edward Blount a 0-4-2, and the S.E.R. 240 a Jarnes Stirling 4-4-0. A special trial was arranged over a stretch of line on the P.L.M. ; the Midland was an easy winner. Then the coupled engines had their coupling-rods removed and ran as singles. They did better, but even then were not so fast as the Midland. For experimental reasons one of Holden's 2-4-0 engines had its coupling rods removed and was tried as a "single." The results were so successful that No. 789 a 2-2-2 was built and was followed a little later by a batch of very similar engines.
When Lowe left Cambridge he went as a pupil to Stratford Works and I became a medical student at University College in Gower Street. He had lodgings first at Stratford and afterwards at Wood Green where at both places I frequently visited him. We also used to meet at various Termini and look round the engines. On one occasion when we were at Euston Greater Britain made one of its first visits to London. "Almost long enough for a cricket pitch" remarked Lowe. We both admired the beautiful way in which the Midland engines were kept, Lowe said "he believed they varnished their chimneys every day." Even the lamps had the drivers' names neatly painted on them. One day I received a letter from him asking me to meet him at Stratford the following afternoon, and "bring your camera" he wrote. On a siding a "Sinclair" 2-2-2 was standing, waiting its turn for the scrap heap. I was fortunate enough to get a fairly good photo of this old veteran.
Later on he went to Norwich as District Locomotive Superintendent and I took a medical post at Worcester, so our opportunities of meeting were very much reduced but we corresponded fairly regularly; whenever I wanted information about railways I always asked him, and I think that in practically every instance he was able to tell me what I wanted to know. I never knew anyone with such a good and accurate memory, and his knowledge of railway matters was simply colossal! In his death railway enthusiasts have suffered a great and irreparable loss! T.F.B.

The Irish Railway Society's Bulletin. 56
No. 50, contains amnng its interesting contributions one by Mr. H. Fayle, "Waterford as a Railway Centre." In describing the Waterford and Tramore Railway and - its rolling stock, the author refers to the chief officers and says:-" undoubtedly the locomotive superintendent, Henry Waugh, was one of the most remarkable railwaymen that it has ever been my good fortune to meet; born in Dublin in 1827, he was apprenticed to Rendell & Lamphrey, a Dublin firm of engineers, in 1841, and remained there till JS5I, when he went to the Dublin & Drogheda Railway as a fitter till 1854. He then joined the Waterford & Kilkenny Railway as a driver and fitter, becoming assistant locomotive superintendent in 1858, and locomotive superintendent of the Waterford & Tramore Railway in 1860. He held this last post right up to his death, about 1905, and when I met him, he was already approaching eighty.
In his early years he must have been a striking figure about 6 ft. in height, though a slight stoop and considerable lameness, necessitating the use of a stick, had somewhat reduced his activities; his hair was white and his face was bearded. The remuneration attached to the job cannot have been very high, it is-doubtful if it reached £3 a week, so Henry had a second string to his bow in the form of a shoe-repairing business, which was carried on in premises not far from the station. Just how he came to take up this profession has never been explained, but my own surmise is that he inherited the business from a relative. I regret to say that I sadly neglected my opportunities, as Henry Waugh would have been just the person to clear up the lacunae in our early locomotive histories. He told me the Tramore Board of Directors had never grudged him a penny for repairs or paint for the rolling stock, and certainly it was always very spick and span during his period of office; indeed he made a very good job of reboilering and rebuilding three of the locomotives, considering the limited resources at his command.
" When the D.W.W.R. extended their line to Waterford in 1904 he opined that this railway' would be a very useful feeder to the Tramore line,' a somewhat naive statement considering the relative sizes of the two systems. He could not understand why Waterford had not a tramway system, though it was patent that there was not sufficient traffic to support one. On one point, however, Henry was firm- riding on the footplate could not be permitted; , it's against Board of Trade regulations' he exclaimed in horror when the subject was broached, and nothing would induce him to budge from this attitude."

E.A. Phillipson. The steam locomotive in traffic. IX. Engine cleaning and management. Testing for blows. Temporary treatment of failures on the road. 57-60.
Engine management: (a) preparation (b) driving (c) firing and (d) Disposal. which must be carried out in' correct sequence in order to minimise the deleterious effects of temperature drop in the boiler.

Concrete sleepers. 60
Before WW2, to maintain British railway track in good condition, 3,000,000 timber sleepers were purchased annually, mainly from Baltic and Scandinavian countries, from Australia and Canada. Experiments with concrete sleepers were made as long as 25 years before, but not with very satisfactory results. Now, with many sources of timber supplies closed, coupled w.'th the need to save shipping space, concrete sleepers are being tried out again.
Generally the use of concrete sleepers is being confined to sidings, marshalling yards and branch Iines—places where high speeds are not required. .One Company, however,is shortly to make tests on a section of main line. Because full length concrete sleepers have been found to develop defects under traffic, attention has been turned to pairs of concrete blocks, either tied to keep the gauge correct, or interspersed with wooden sleepers. One railway is already using 35,000 pairs of such blocks, and by the beginning of next year the output will be at the rate of 70,000 pairs a year. In some centres women are employed on making the blocks.

L.N.E.R.  60
The sludge from locomotive water softening plants is being sent to market gardeners for use as a fertiliser.

Locomotives for India. 60.
The number of locomotives approved as replacements during 1942-1943 total 77 for the broad gauge and 20 for the metre gauge. The East Indian will take 57 XD class (2-8-2) and 6 WV type, and the North Western 4 XT class (2-4-2) and 10 XT class (0-4-2).
The metre gauge engines are required for the Bengal and North Western, and Rohilkund and Kumaon, 17 XS class for the former and 3 P class for the Lucknow-Bareilly section of the R & K.

Locomotive modernisation in the U.S.A. 60-1
Sheer speed, and hiaulage capacity at relatively high speeds, have been the reasons for many of the most up-to-date features now incorporated in American steam locomotives. In some cases, e.g., the B. & O. 4-4-4-4 engines, an entirely new design has been provided; in others, such as nhe New York Central J-3 class of 4-6-4, a previous successful design has been further developed all round. On the Pennsylvania the celebrated standard K-4-s Pacific has been tried out with poppet valves and a further lease of life given to a class whioh originated in pre-1914 years. But perhaps the most widely-spread modernisation has been in the rebuilding of engines built eight to 20 years ago with long-travel long-lap valve gears, improved E type or HA type superheaters, and better balancing.
With all these improvements have come greater reliability and more intensive utilisation. For example, on the steam-worked sections of the Norfolk & Western Railroad, compared with a period of 12 to 20 years ago, the present-day performance involves the handling of 10 per cent. more freight ton-miles with 47 per cent. less locomotives, corresponding almost exactly to the increased average tractive effort of the locomotives in use aod to the ,gross ton-miles per tram-hour. In the same periods the coal consumption per gross ton-mjle has deoreased by 39 per cent., and the locomotive 'repair costs by about 32 per cent. to a figure of 45 cents. per engine-mile for the average locomotive in use.
The New York Central 4-6-4 Hudson-type express engines are 255 in number—Nos. 5200-5254 in the company's list—and are compnsed of the J-1 class built between 1928 and 1937, and the improved J-3 class built from 1938 onwards. A total of 58 of these engines has roller bearings for all the driving and carrying axleboxes, and six of them also have roller bearings m the coupling and connecting rod ends. The entire series of 255 engines has roller bearings for the leading bogie and tender axles. The leading truck bearings have reduced the liability to delay by hot boxes 90 fold, the mileage per failure during the last five years having been 45,000,000 contrasted with one failure per 500,000 miles previous to roller bearings. As regards failures through driving and coupled boxes, over an eight-year period there were 3,376 delays due to heating or defects of plain Ibearings, whioh was equivalent to 297,000 miles per delay. Roller bearings in these boxes have caused no delays, although in the last three years the locomotives fitted with them have aggregated 20,000,000 miles. Over eight years, the roller bearings on tender axles made 60 times the mileage per delay of friction bearings, and on the engine trailer trucks the roller bearings h averaged 5,000,000 miles per delay contrasted with 200,000 miles for the plain boxes.
In 1928 the K-2 Pacific engines were making .200 miles per serviceable locomotive per day, taken over a year's average, but the newer K-3 Pacifies then being introduced were averaging 270 miles a day. A year later the J-1 Hudson's were being put into traffic and averaged 360 miles a day, a figure which they have at least maintained ever since, but when the first of the J -3 class were put into traffic in 1938 they began to average 450 miles a day, and this has been continued. Quite a number of the J-3 class have been making a monthly mileage of 18,000 to 20,000, and with the Hudson engines as a whole the mileage between heavy repairs seems to be in excess of 200,000, compared with an average of 110,000 for all steam engines on the N.Y.C. system. For 37 of the J-1 Hudsons given heavy repairs in a recent year, the average mileage was 221,000, and one engine reached 276,760 miles.
The modernisation of American locomotives to suit them for increased speed may be exemplified by a reference to practice on the Chicago &  North Western Railroad. A large number of existing 2-8-2 engines with 61-in. driving wheels were originally limited to a top service speed of 50 m.p.h., but by increasing the wheel diameter to 64 in., improving the steam passages, reducing the weight of reciprocating parts, and cross-balancing to eliminate the couple, the permissible speed has been raised to 60 Similar procedure, particuiarly as regards reciprocating weights and proper balancing, has been followed by the Chicago Great Western on some of its 2-10-4 engines built in 1930 with 29 in. by 32 in. cylinders and 63-in. driving wheels, in order to suit them to the faster freight schedules now in vogue. Originally the main driving wheels were deficient even in revolving balance, and the reciprocating balance was spread over the four pairs of coupled wheels. The improvements consisted of replacing the main and tandem rods by others of lighter weight which reduced the revolving weight in each main wheel by 309 lb., and by introducing disc wheel centres with a reduced weight of crank hub, which together resulted in no undenbalance of rotating weights. Cross-balancing was introduced at the same time, and test ruins made at a speed of 49/50 rn.p.h. over a fairly straight 20-mile section showed a great diminution in the number of shocks due to bad balance, and these in terms of the maximum allowable shock, based on rail stress, were as shown in the accompanying table

l\Iagnitude of shock No. of shocks in 20 miles.

Original engine

Improved engine

0.25 maximum



0.50 maximum



0.75 maximum



The shocks were recorded by an impactograph made by the Miner Draft Gear Company. On the St. Louis-San Francisco Railroad the Pacific express engines built a good number of years ago for top running speeds of 55/60 m.p.h. were quickly found to be unsuitable for speeds of the order of 70 m.p.h. or over. To enable cruising speeds of 70/75 m.p.h. and occasional top speeds of 80/85 m.p.h. to be attained, the light Pacific engine was given a new set of valve gear which, with the same maximum travel of 7½in., had  1½ in. lap in place of 1¼ in., and .had a lead and an exhaust clearance of 3/16 in. against ¼in. The boiler and cylinders were kept as before, but the wheels were increased in diameter from 69 to 73 in. The heavier Pacifies were rebuilt as 4-6-4 engines and the boiler pressure increased from 210 to 225 lb. per sq. in. but the cylinders and wheels remained as before. The valve travel was increased from 6¼in. to 7¼ in., the lap from 1 in. to 15/8 in., lead and exhaust clearance from 3/16in. to ¼in. For modern freight engines this company uses a Walschaerts gear with 8½in. maximum travel, 1 15/16 in. lap, and 3/16 in lead, but no exhaust clearance is given; the wheels here are of 64 in. and 70 in. diameter and the cylinders 27 in. or 29 in. diameter by 32 in. stroke.
To get increased speeds from locomotives of great tractive power, and thus be able to use eight- coupled engines on express passenger trains, the New York Central rebuilt two of the L-2 class of 4-8-2 with 69-in. wheels by increasing the boiler pressure, lightening the reciprocating weights, introducing cross-counterbalancing, and fitting roller bearing axleboxes for all or some of the axles. The new engines—now classified L-3-were proved capable of speeds up to 87 m.p.h. (425 r.p.m.) with effects on the track no more serious than those of the Hudson 4-6-4 engines with 79-in. driving wheels. At the moment, the L-3 engines are being assigned to fast passenger turns only in times of peak traffic or emergency.

Sourhern Railway. 61.
A new halt known as Hamble and situated between Bursledon and Netley was brought into use on 18 January.

L.M.S.R.  61
Scotby station on the Midland Settle-Carlisle main line closed for traffic. Minshull Vernon Station on the L.N.W. main line was closed for all traffic on and from 2 March. Broughton Cross Station on the Workington-Cocker- mouth line and Cledford Bridge and Billinge Green Halts on the Northwick Branch (L.N.W.R. section) were closed for traffic on  2 March 1942

Clogher Valley Railway. 61.
This railway closed for all traffic as from 1 January 1942.

Railways' central wagon control.  61
The good work accomplished by the Control is indicated by the improvement made in the average round trip time of wagons which had been reduced by 4/5ths of a day, although there are still over 60,000 wagons remaining unloaded after 48 hours. During the last months of 1941, 13,750,000 loaded wagons were forwarded on the railways—an increase of 110,000 wagon loads. The centralised control of wagons, vans, sheets and ropes has enabled emergencies to be met with greater flexibility, and the allocation of special types of vehicles and containers has been expedited. Urgent orders were promptly carried out and the movements of radiolocators, pontoons, aircraft parts and tanks were being helped by the classification of specially constructed wagons which  were allocated individually for their tasks.

Number 506 (15 April 1942)

The railway oil engine. 63-4
Editorial comment on Brian Reed's paper presented to the North East Institution of Engineers and Shipbuilders at Newcastle-on-Tyne: railcars and locomotives.

E.A. Phillipson. The steam locomotive in traffic. . -66

2-10-4 locomotive Central Railway of Brazil. 72. illustration
Metre gauge: very large (70.3ft2) grate due to low calorific value of Brazilian coal; 2250ft2 total evaporative heating surface; 20 x 24in cylinders; 4ft diameter coupled wheels; 243 psi boiler pressure.

Beighton accident. 72
Occurred on 11 February when a nortbound troop train on the LNER Nottingham to Sheffield line struck a heavy steel plate on a stationary wagon in Holbrook Colliery Sidings. The steel plate penetrated some of the coaches carrying 400 naval or military persons and 14 soldiers were killed and 35 were seriously injured. J.L.M. Moore, Director General of the Ministry of War Transport deprecated the lack of secure means for retaining the plate.

James McEwan. Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 73-6.

New 0-6-0 freight engines, Southern Railway. 79-81. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
Bulleid austerity 0-6-0 Q1. See W.B. Thomson comment on p. 116

Correspondence. 82

"Webb" compounds. John W. Smith.
Continuing to read with interest the excellent articles on L. & N.W. compounds, by F. C. Hambleton, I regret that they could not have been consecutively presented for easy reference. There now remains to be described the 5 ft. 4-6-0 machines of 1903—Webb's last compound—they were not very successful by all accounts. C. J. Allen, speaking some years ago to a branch meeting of the Institution of Locomotive Engineers remarked he would not refer to Webb's work—speaking on Compound Locomotives —as the engines were not well designed, though it cannot be said that interest in Webbs work is lacking as recent articles and correspondence show. The L. & N.W. locomotive remained consistently true to Crewe traditions right up to the grouping, a circumstance that can hardly be claimed by other contemporary systems. It is to be regretted that no illustration of Whale's modification to Joy's gear on the King Alfred compounds has ever appeared in The Locomotive and it will be recollected that the locomotive's appearance was not enhanced by such alterations. The standard tender until the end of Webb's reign was a singular, though attractive vehicle, it differed little from the days of Ramsbottom. The features were snap head rivets, large tool boxes, inclined coal rails and in a few cases towards the end sand pipes to the forward wheels: notable too was the wooden frame. The long continuation of wood brake blocks was remarkable, the hangers of which were in tension, a sound mechanical arrangement, specially on a vehi le whose running was mostly in a forward direction. Another feature of Webb's practice was the combined engine and tender brake actuating gear, whereby a floating lever self compensated both vehicles in exact proportion to their requirements.
Tenders on the L. & N.W. were separately numbered in the stock of that company, and doubtless they were changed about from engine to engine as required by repairs to either unit from time to time. Engineering for 1883, Vol. 37, describes the Dreadnought compound, with drawings and a fine woodcut, though no tender is shown, there are also details of the Metropolitan type of 4-4-0 tanks, while the same journal for 1887 contains the correspondence by "Argus" and others, which makes illuminating reading.

W.F. Pettigrew. H.W. Davis
In the obituary notice in your current issue concerning W.F. Pettigrew you refer to his contributions to the proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers and the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, but reference to his principal literary work A Manual of Locomotive Engineering published about 1895 is omitted. It was an outstanding work on locomotive practice of the period, was full of useful practical and theoretical information and had a large circulation. In fact no locomotive engineers library was considered complete without it forty years ago.

Great Western Railway. 82
The Southall & Brentford branch to be closed for passenger traffic on and from 14 May: this branch was one of those closed for a time during WW1.

Swedish Railways. 82
Locomotives in Sweden were burning wood as fuel, especially on the secondary lines. Wood firing necessitated the withdrawal from circulation of some of the large and heavier types of carriages.

Reviews  82

The Phillimore Railway Collection. Catalogue of Sale. Sotheby & Co.,   82
In connection with the sale by Messrs. Sotheby & Co., of the railway collection of the late John Phillimore on 28 April, an interesting and comprehensive catalogue has been received from that well-known firm of auctioneers. This publication comprises 52 pages in which are listed in detail the 345 items which are for sale, and is illustrated with eight half-tone plates depicting subjects in the collection.
Mr. Phillimore was an assiduous collector of railway material dating from the earliest days, including books, maps, manuscripts, coloured prints, pottery and snuff boxes with representations of trains or locomotives. There are many items in the collection relating to the Stockton & Darlington, Liverpool & Manchester, London & Birmingham and other pioneer railways. . The coloured prints and also the railway pottery are unique collections..
. The George Stephenson collection is worthy of special mention containing as it does numerous autographs, letters, portraits and relics of that great Railway Engineer. Other subjects included in the collection comprise railway medals and tokens, railway passes in gold, silver and other metals, etc., a selection of passenger tickets covering the years 1832-1873, and time tables issued during the period

Victorian Railways. 82
In 1922/23, the Department built at the Newport shops ten light line 2-8-0 engines of the K class, numbered 100-109 (Ref. LM. p. 7. 1923).
Though the design was then some 16 years old, the first draft had proved so successful, that further engines of the same class and dimensions, though with modifications, began to be added in 1940 and there are now 29 of the later engines, making with the original ten 39 very useful units. To make one" bloc" of all the" K's," the first ten were renumbered 140-149, and the newer ones bear numbers 150-178 (Re£. LM. p. 120/41).
Work was being pushed on with in the output of the much larger 2-8-2 X class engines and ten of these are more or less on order, though naturally nowadays all output is subject to availability of material. When in running these will be numbered from 46 onwards, there being' already 19 of the class in service, though the last eight are a modification of the first  eleven of the class 27-37 (Ref. LM. p. 139/29).
H 220, though designed for express running as far as Ararat on the Overland to Adelaide, is still prevented by road conditions from taking up this work and is engaged chiefly on fast freight to the New South Wales border at Wodonga/Albury, with an interlotted passenger trip on the same track (Re£. LM. pp. 99 and 164/41). The official figures as at June 30th, 1941 (and with additions and subtractions they must be still about the same) were:

Steam Locomotives


Electric Locomotives


Steam Cranes


Steam Coaching Stock


Electric Coaching Stock


Rail Motor Passenger Vehicles


Goods Vehicles.


Service Vehicles


L.N.E.R. (North Eastern Area). 82
On and from 4 May, High Westwood station on the Scotswood-Blackhill branch closed for passenger traffic.

Number 507 (15 May 1942)

The modern 0-6-0.  83.

Stirling Everard. Cowlairs commentary. 94-5. 3 illustrations (drawings: side elevations)
The competition between the Caledonian and the Edinburgh and Glasgow had, as was only to be expected, repercussions·on the locomotive department at Cowl airs. The Edinburgh and Glasgow, upon whose track the world's first electric locomotive had run in 1842 - if locomotive Davidson's machine can be called - was still receptive to new ideas.
In 1847 Mr. Samuel of the Eastern Counties Railway had introduced the steam rail-car, and this had developed into the 'Light express', consisting of a very small tank engine and three or four four-wheeled carriages. The intention was to run a frequent service with these cheap units to supplement the ordinary trains, thus gaining the advantage which the motor coach has exploited in recent years of departure times to suit everyone. The Edinburgh and Glasgow decided that 'light expresses' were the answer to the competitive Caledonian service.
Messrs. George England of London were builders who specialised in small tank engines, and from them the Cowlairs people hired a 2-2-2 well tank with outside frames only, the 9 in. by 12 in. cylinders being mounted inside the frames but behind the smokebox, and driving 4 ft. 6 in. diameter wheels. This engine, which was named England, had a wheelbase of 15 ft., a very long boiler of small diameter, and a haystack firebox. Before long it had broken its crank axle, and it cannot be said to have been an unqualified success. It is interesting in that it was the first locomotive to be built with a raised front or capuchon to the chimney to prevent a back draught. Ahrons commented on the unsuitability of this on a tank engine, designed to travel bunker first on branch lines, but in justification of George England's good sense it must be pointed out that this was a main line engine, which would normally be turned round at the end of each run.
Possibly as a result of criticisms of this engine, Messrs. England modified the design considerably in later engines, reducing the wheelbase to 12 ft. 8 in. and fitting flangeless driving wheels. The modified design incorporated a boiler of more normal proportions with a round- topped firebox.
Before long we find the Edinburgh and Glasgow operating an England 'light express tank' named Wee Scotland, and it is open to the reader to surmise whether this was England renamed, or whether the latter was returned to the owners as unsatisfactory, and was replaced by the makers with one of the later and even smaller locomotives; appropriately enough given the new name. Whether or no England and Wee Scotland were the same engine, an England tank bearing the latter name, which had been on hire to the Edinburgh and Glasgow, was bought by the railway in 1856 and was shortly afterwards withdrawn.
To work with England on the 'light expresses' the Edinburgh and Glasgow bought from Messrs. Neilson in 1850 another design of lightweight 2-2-2 well tank. This was designed by W. Bridges Adams, and was derived from the 2-2-0 type·built under Mr. Samuel's patents for such lines as the Londonderry and Enniskillen and the Morayshire. It was named Atalanta. The 10 in. by 14 in. cylinders were placed outside, but behind the smokebox, and drove 5 ft. wheels. Inside plate frames were used, with slots cut in them above the carrying axleboxes for the springs. A dome of prodigious height and slenderness was placed just behind the chimney, and from this outside steam- pipes led to the cylinders. There was no weatherboard. A minor but interesting point in all the Adam-designed light tanks was the use of nine spokes for the carrying wheels.
A photograph of Atalanta, taken at Cowlairs Junction in 1856, shows the engine in its original condition. It was then numbered 88, but the Edinburgh and Glasgow company followed a confusing policy of renumbering the locomotive stock from time to time. A sister engine of Atalanta was built at the same time for the Caledonian and Dumbartonshire Junction company, and ultimately came into the possession of the Edinburgh and Glasgow. The latter engine at some time in its career had a weatherboard added to it, mounted on a peculiar false casing well above the rear half of the firebox, and also had been graced by sandboxes added to the front of the driving splashers. This was the engine which became 'The Cab' on the North British, when it was numbered successively 312, 879 and 1079. Taken all in all the 'light expresses' were not a success, and after they had been ordered, but before they became an accepted part of main line operation, the fares war with the Caledonian came to an end. In consequence there was no reason to perpetuate such locomotives as the England and Neilson tanks, which drifted out of main line work, and were found to be unsuitable for the lesser traffic. The Edinburgh and Glasgow had disposed of their own examples of the type by the end of 1864, and only that from the Caledonian and Dumbartonshire Junction remained.
Paton now turned his attention to improving some of the original 13 in. passenger engines. The 'Burys' were quite unsuitable for main line traffic by this time owing to their lack of power and to the unsteadiness of four-wheeled engines at speed. Thanks to the competition with the Caledonian expenditure was an important matter with the Edinburgh and Glasgow, and he therefore set about rebuilding the 2-2-0 machines as cheaply as possible. The design of Bury's bar frames more or less determined the continued use of the D-shaped haystack firebox, and precluded the fitting of a larger boiler if the locomotive were converted into a 2-2-2 by extending the frames to the rear. Paton consequently lengthened the frames by 3 ft. in front and added a small pair of carrying wheels, converting the engine into a 4-2-0, thus, presumably, infringing Stephenson's 'Long boiler' patent. The cylinders were enlarged to 14 in. by 18 in., and were placed 3 ft. further forward, but the original connecting rods were used, necessitating very long piston rods and slides. Stephenson gear replaced the original gab motion, and a boiler of increased length was fitted, with, however, a small Bury-type of fire box. The resulting engine was peculiar in appearance and not very satisfactory in service, as it was still unsteady at speed. Only one or two conversions were made.
At this point Daniel Kinnear Clark comes into the story. A railway engineer, he found himself out of a job as a result of the slump in railway work following the Railway Mania, and he decided to make use of his time by writing an authoritative work on railway locomotives, rolling stock and equipment. To that end he got permis- sion from Paton of the Edinburgh and Glasgow and from Sinclair, by then general manager of the Caledonian, to conduct lengthy experiments on the engines of those two lines, in order to determine, as he hoped, once and for all the relative merits of locomotives with outside and with inside cylinders. Largely on data collected in 1850 and 1851 in these experiments he wrote Railway Machinery.
Clark carried out his work on several Caledonian engines of the outside-cylindered 2-2-2, 2-4-0, 0-4-2 and 0-6-0 types, on an ex-Glasgow, Paisley and Greenock Sharp 2-2-2 with inside cylinders, and on the following Edinburgh and Glasgow machines: the Cowlairs singles Orion and Sirius, the 16 in. Hawthorn singles Nile and America, the 13 in. Hawthorn single Euclid, the 'Sharpies' Hebe and Jupiter, the Neilson single Pallas, the England 2-2-2WT England and the Paton 4-2-0 rebuild of the Bury 2-2-0 Brindey. He also turned his attention to Paten's latest experiment, Edinburgh and Glasgow No. 61

Number 598 (15 June 1942)

Freight stock of the future. 101
There are a good number of pointers to indicate that English railway operation in the years subsequent to the war and the chaotic period immediately after it, w'ill not be entirely along the lines to which we have been accustomed, and several major changes in principle are not unlikely. Although improvements and alterations will pr~bably be made in every phase of railway workimg , none should exceed in Importance those made to freight rolling stock and Its operation, not only by reason of the technical modifications but also because of the vast number of vehicles involved.
Even though more traffic goes to the roads, and some of the longer-distance high-speed passenger traffic to the an as foreshadowed already by Sir Ernest Lemon, of the L.M.S.R., increased track capacity of main and suburban lines and certain other routes will certainly be included in the desiderata. Yet whatever the signalling improve- ments adopted, there will have to be a smaller differential between the speeds of passenger and freight trams. As the greater bar at present to the increased commercial speed of goods trains is inadequate braking power, the fitting of automatic brakes t? a'11~ or the great majority, of goods vehicles m this country should be the first major task m this field., Moreover, if a big programme of fittmg automatic brakes was to be initiated one might as well go further to automatic couplers at the same time, and have the braking connections embodied in the couplers.
More than once the larger capacity wagon has been mooted, and sometimes pushed, as one of the best solutions to the difficulties of freight train working. In this country it is largely a fallacy. It IS true that for certain specialised traffics, such as coal,. bricks, and iron ore transported over specific routes or area, much can be done in this direction, but for the huge amount of miscel- laneous freight traffic the trouble has been to get a constant sbrearn of similar or suitable paying Ioads to fill 10-ton wagons going to the same destination. If the track capacity was increased by better si,gnalling and braking, another method of speeding up trains would be to run lighter local and stopping goods trains, and more of them; the time lost in wayside shunting by anyone train would thus be greatly reduced, and the locomotive itself would handle the train more smartly, and might even be of smaller size. The type of working resulting from all these improvements would thus be a httle closer to the operating ideal of every unit with rts own :power, although still a long way from it. In fact, i't would not be surprising to see frelg;ht traffic on branch lines, at least, handled by some type of railcar which would have a coosiderable am~unt of revenue earning space, and thus reduce stILl further the trailing weight for any given weight of pay load.
Improved design and construction of the wagons themselves — leadmg to economy in cost, lower tare weight, and easier mamtenance — can be anticipated along a number of avenues. For example, roller bearings not only reduce the rolling resistance of the stock considerably, but also effect a great. savmg m the maintenance labour and material charges because of the extraordinarily Iittle attention they need while in traffic. Greater attention will be needed in the design of the suspension to provide the right characteristics for both loaded and empty vehicles, and this problem is sure to become more acute with any reduction in tare load for .a given carrying capacity and with any geeneral increase in speed. Fewer vertical oscillations and lesser amplitude are required to eliminate empties jumping off the rails at speed. For some time after· the war it is unlikely that many high-grade metals, such as aluminium or high-alloy steels, will be available in any great quamtities for freight stock construction. Home and foreign production may be needed for more urgent purposes. This is not altogether a disadvantage Use of a high-alloy high-tensile steel, or of aluminium alloys, could result in a great decrease m tare weight, but to be economical all round — that is, in weight saving, construction cost, maintenance cost, and depreciation — full use would have to be made of these expensive materials, and the proportion of the tare weight to the gross weight would then, in many examples, be so low that trouble would be met in getting brake equipment which would give an adequate retaJrding. force for a fully-laden wagon and yet one not higih enough to cause the wheels of empties to slide. Lower-alloy steels with a slightly greater ultimate tensile strength, and appreciably greater ducti:lity and resistance to corrosion, than ordinary carbon steels, seem to offer the best solution at the moment, particularly if used in conjunction with welding, either complete or with welded sub-assemblies riveted together, and with balanced design ensuring equal stress through all members. See also letter from Hoffman Manufacturing Co p. 148.

E.A. Phillipson. The steam locomotive in traffic. X. Engine failures. 102-4. 3 diagrams (facsimile forms)
As defined on Great Western Railway: where a mechanical or boiler defect results in delay to train; where a mechanical or boiler defect causes engine to come off its train, or turn, short of the destination; any failure as previous which necessitates an engine being kept out of traffic and unable to work its next turn. The Southern Railway was slightly stricter in that any locomotive having to come off its train, even if no delay occurred, had to be regarded as a failure; and any train delayed by 10 minutes or more due to the locomotive had to be reported as a failure.

Brunel's broad gauge. 104-6. 6 illustrations
A brief appreciation which notes Brunel's perverse addiction to non-elastic permanent way with its unnecessary piles; the genius of Gooch's locomotive purchases, but the failure to develop broad gauge locomotives and the long period of decline and atrophy. Photographs: final broad gauge 17.00 Paddington to Plymouth awaiting locomotive; cab view of 8 ft single Iron Duke; Bulkeley at head of final broad gauge 17.00 Paddington to Plymouth; standard gauge coach running on broad gauge (KPJ Looks odd); mixed gauge track at Torquay; track near Teignmouth with junction between modern permanent way and baulk road

L.M.S.R.  106
All of the L.M.S. Holiday Camping Coaches that in peacetime were allocated at beauty spots throughout the country are now on war work. These coaches that once provided holiday homes, are now being used in a variety of ways. Some of them are Home Guard posts and Guard Rooms; others are in service as Naval or Military posts, etc. Certain of the coaches form part of the L.M.S. Engineering "Flying Squad" repair gangs and provide accommodation and feeding facilities for the engineering staff who dash out to repair tracks damaged by enemy air attack.

Southern Railway. 106
Another engine of the Merchant Navy class No. 21C 6 named Peninsular & Oriental has been put into service.

Railway operating conferences.  106
To meet the growing needs of national war production, far-reaching steps have been taken by the Railways. In addition to the normal daily conferences which take place on each of the Railways a daily Central Operating Conference has been introduced to obtain the best possible use of all available routes to their utmost capacity.
These meetings take place every morning, including Sundays, by means of special telephones which link up the Chief Operating Officer of each of the four Main Line Railways at his own desk. Immediate decisions are reached involving railway operating over the whole country. Movements of train loads of goods and thousands of wagons are allocated to the routes which give the best possible operating conditions, irrespective of the commercial or other individual interests. Actual operating conditions are discussed by the Chief Officers who are fully advised by their staffs of the latest position. If a particular route is over-taxed arrangements are made for trains to be diverted by alternative lines.
Extensive efforts are being made to achieve an even greater utilisation of motive power by the exchange of locomotives between the railways. Firemen belonging to one railway are working with engine drivers belonging to another; repair staff, and equipment for engines from one railway are being made available to others to speed up the turnround of engines. Locomotive coal supplies are being obtained jointly, and engines are coaled irrespective of their ownership.

Withdrawal of restaurant cars. 106
Dining cars, buffet cars, kitchen cars and Pullman cars on some 400 train services have been withdrawn.
An indication of the sacrifices being made to increase the carrying capacity of the greatly reduced number of passen- ger trains in order to release locomotives for vital goods services can be gauged by recalling that before the war 800 restaurant, buffet and Pullman cars were running on the railways to and from London and on cross-country and excursion trains. Railway catering was a vast business. It was estimated that 7,000,000 meals were served aboard cars. Some of the travelling kitchens were capable of supplying 200 meals at a single sitting.

James McEwan. Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 107-10. illustration, 3 diagrams (including 2 side elevations)
During December 1857 Fairburn & Sons of Manchester built to Allan's designs six "Crewe" type 2-4-0 goods engines with 16 x 22 inch cylinders and 5ft 2in coupled wheels. The firebox was made of steel and had a mid-feather. The valves were ectivated by Allan link motion. Boilerr pressure: 120 psi. The running plate was stepped originally, but was altered in 1865/6. The steel fireboxes were removed at the first rebuilding, although Conner stated in 1870 nthat all the steel fireboxes were still in service. The tender framing had a high proportion of wood and this caused trouble due to leaking water tanks. No. 57 was fitted with a throttle valve and may have been in connection with counter pressure braking. The class was withdrawn in 1888. In April 1860 two 2-4-0 locomotives were purchased from the Dundee Perth & Aberdeen Junction Railway: these had 16 x 22 in. cylinders and 4ft 9 in coupled wheels and vhad been buit by George England in 1854

Briquettes for locomotive fuel.  110
It is estimated the British railways can take up to 25.000 tons of briquettes per week and by co-operation with manufacturers the most suitable weights and shapes are being investigated. 10.000 tons of 10 lb. briquettes weekly are being used in South Wales which is saving long distance haulage. The use of briquettes for locomotive fuel is being adopted in order to increase the local stocks of coal of the railways during the summer months.

Wartime economy in paint.  110
As they become due for repairing all locomotives on the British railways are to be painted black as a wartime economy. The distinctive colours of the different Railways. also linings. emblems. gold-leaf and other decorations are to be discontinued for the duration of the war.
Further savings in labour and materials are being made by the decision not to paint new and repaired open wagons. with the exception of a single bottom board which is to be painted lead colour. and on this the number and ownership of the wagon is to be indicated.
Carriages are also to do with less paint. Only painting or varnish absolutely necessary for protection against weather conditions is to be carried out. Green and cream carriages on the L.N.E.R. will be painted brown and the minimum number of coats of varnish applied.

C. Hamilton Ellis. Famous Locomotive Engineers. XX. James Holden. 110-15. 4 illustrations
Includes a portrait of Holden, a picture and extensive description of Decapod locomotive

Dr. Church's tank engine of 1837. C. F. Dendy Marshall. 115
In the course of looking through a series of reports of railway accidents sent to the Board of Trade in 1840, I have found an interesting passage about the above on page 14 of D.K. Clark's Railway Machinery, there is an illustration of a very remarkable design of tank engine, designed by Dr. Church of Birmingham and built in 1836 or 1837. It had a single pair of driving wheels 6 ft. 2½ in. diameter under the barrel of the boiler, with a small pair of carrying wheels behind the firebox. The cylinders were 11¼ in by 24 in., horizontal, at the rear; the boiler contained 81 tubes, 2 in. diameter. Named Eclipse, Clark says it was employed as a ballast engine on the London and Birmingham Railway in the spring of 1838, hauling trains of 100 tons with ease; and on one occasion running 12 miles in 12 minutes light. Until now, I have never found any other reference to this engine. The following communication finishes the story (see also letter from J.H. McDowell page 148).

Birmingham and Gloucester Railway. Reporting an Accident, attended with Loss of Life, on the Line on the loth. Birmingham, 14 November, 1840.
It becomes my painful duty to report to the Lords of the Privy Council for Trade, a melancholy accident which occurred at the Bromsgrove station on this railway, on the loth instant, by the bursting of an engine-boiler. The engine was of a peculiar construction, having been made about three years ago by Dr. Church of this place, and soon after tried both on the London and Birmingham and Grand Junction Railways. It was then found necessary to make some alterations for the purpose of producing steam more quickly, but not at all affecting the safety of the engine. The engine then passed into the hands of Mr. S. A. Goddard of this place, and a short time since, the necessary alterations being made, he applied to the directors of this company to allow a trial of the engine, stating, at the same time, that his object was to sell this engine to the company, and make others like it for sale. The company's engineer of locomotives and his foreman were sent to examine the engine, and they having reported favourably of it, the directors allowed the trial. The engine was consequently placed upon the line, and put under trial before proceeding to use it. On the occasion of the steam being got up the second time, and after several short runs had been made, but the engine being stationary at the time, the boiler burst, and Thomas Scaife, one of the company's best drivers, was killed on the spot. John Rutherford, the foreman of the engines, was so much injured, that he survived only 12 hours. Thomas Williams, another of the company's servants, and Edward Paul, a stoker, in the employ of Mr. Goddard, were also severely hurt, but are doing well. The engine-man in the employ of Mr. Goddard, and who was in charge of the engine, and two or three other persons, were slightly hurt, but are very much recovered. A coroner's jury has sat upon the bodies. The evidence goes to show that no neglect or want of caution existed on the part of the company's servants; but that the boiler plate, although it had resisted a much higher pressure of steam than it then had on it, was not strong enough. The inquest is adjourned until next Monday week, for the purpose of affording the boiler-maker an opportunity of giving evidence. Wm. Burgess, Sec. S. Laing, Esq., Railway Dept., Board of Trade.

Modernising Stephekson link motion.  115
J. N. Maskelyne, A.I.Loco.E., in his Presidential address to the Stephenson Locomotive Society, described recent experiments which have led to successful results on a scale model steam locomotive built for 5 in. gauge. Long-lap valves, he said, read to lively and economical miniature engines and so much is this so, that many scale or free lance models are now fitted with Walschaerts gear arranged for long travels, though fiat valves are usually employed. The older British classes are, however, increasingly popular as prototypes, with a consequent tendency to return to Stephenson link motion which, in conjunc.tion with scale (large) cylinders and (small) boilers' working at low pressures, is liable to produce poor results in miniature practice. After studying the Churchward 2-cylinder valve setting as employed on standard G.W.R. outside cylinder engines, model enthusiasts were able to devise a scale gear employing link motion having a travel equivalent to about 6 in. full size which gave most satisfactory results provided that the workmanship and fitting were of high standard.

Correspondence. 116

McConnell's 300 class singles. P.C. Dewhurst
I have been interested in the letters from Mr. Dendy Marshall and Mr. Dearberg in Issues for December. January and February last. particularly because to the writer the design has always appeared inexplicahle. From the enormous amount of shaping-up of the boiler- barrel to clear the big ends as shown in the plate in Colburn & Holley, 1858. it is evident the cylinders were unusually close together and the fact. evident in the same drawing. that the inside frames were bar-pattern forgings, makes clear that the distance centre-to-centre of the inside bearings was also less than usual. Now a customary distance out-to-out of the inside bearings (= approx. the distance between wheelbosses) on normal double-framed engines of the period was 4 ft. 4½ in. and hence this distance in the case of 300 could have been anything less than about 4 ft. 1 in. With cylinders at 1 ft. 10½ in. the centres of inside bearings would become about 3 ft. 4¼ in. (compared with about 3 ft. 11a in. normal) whilst out-to-out would be 3 ft. 8½ in. leaving a bare section of axle some 2¼ in. between bearings and wheelbosses.
The explanation is evidently that these forged inside frames were spaced much closer together than usual in order to suit the cylinders and to be close to the crank-webs and that it was this unusual spacing which governed the width of inside bearings—it being of course impossible to have the inside bearings loaded "off centre." The only real difficulty in accepting the 1 ft. 10½ in. cylinder-centres is the very reduced space left for the four eccentrics as taking normal crank-webs and crank-pins there would only be 9 in. left for the eccentrics, thus giving no more than 2¼* in. for the width of each; but "it could be done."
D. Marshall is mistaken in considering that Ahrons drawing (Fig. 106. The Railway Locomotive) shows inside framing passing alongside the cylinders, on the contrary the smoke box supports controvert this, as also is evident— indeed so stated by Ahrons in his remarks—that the smokebox wrapper-plate extended downwards to carry the cylinders. The attachment of the inside frame to the cylinders is not shown in Ahrons drawing, which in fact delineates a connecting-rod in an "impossible" position altogether above the cylinder-centre-lines. Indeed from the absence of details behind the leading wheels, it seems clear that the drawing (but not Ahrons description) is a "build-up" from Colburn and Holley's plate and the well-known perspective view of engine 300 showing a large number of workmen around it.
The closeness of the cylinder centres, together with the short inside bearings. are just two instances, of which there appear so many in this particular design, of the incorporation of troublesome features which could have been avoided —no wonder the career of the engines was short. Ahrons considered" that they would have been able to perform the two-hours (London-Birmingham) run is possible"; to which the present writer would add "but not for long." It has always appeared a mystery how McConnell, who was generally addicted to exceptionally simple and straight-forward designs should in this case have produced one which for its date was decidely "freaky." Ahrons noted the probability of McConnell having tried to meet almost impossible conditions. the writer finds difficulty in accepting the engines as substantially a McConnell design at all.

W.B. Thompson.
Your picture of the new Southern Railway goods engine recalls to mind a long article describing the Brighton engine Grosvenor in the year 1875. The writer. using words with which everyone who remembers the Stroudley locomotives will agree. referred to the "dainty excellence of design." and said that "the general appearance of the engine is elegant in the extreme." He would not have found this language adequate for Grosvenor's latest successor.
The Midland company's Pullman drawing-room cars which you illustrate on page 69 were the most attractive vehicles. in which I have ever ridden on a British railway, but unfortunately the cost of travel in them was high and they were little used. The open platforms at the ends made them more convenient for passengers with hand luggage than the vestibule entrances provided in later cars. Once; when a boy. to see what it was like I went out onto the end platform and stood there in the dark while the train was. running at full speed through Bleamoor tunnel. It was an experience to be remembered but not repeated. The letter which you publish on the subject of the Webb compounds says that Engineering for 1883 described and illustrated the Dreadnought engine. To be strictly accurate the first engine of the Dreadnought type was not built until the middle of 1884; I saw it out on the line in the late summer of that year before it had been painted.

Sampling and testing of coal and coke. 116
Since 1930' the British Standards Institution has published methods for the sampling and !l-nalysis of coal and coke to suit industrial requirements. During the preparation of these specifications experimental work has been carried out continuously by the members of the Committees. both upon the principles of sampling and upon the methods of analysis of the laboratory sample, A position has now been reached where. in view of war conditions. it is desirable to review all this work and to publish two comprehensive specifications at this stage does not mean that the work of the Committees will cease. but since it was inevitable that the work would be slowed up owing to war conditions. it is more than ever important that the present stage should be made public.
One of these specifications (No. 1016) covers the sampling of coal and coke down to the stage of the preparation of the laboratory sample; the other (No. 1017) details the treatment of the laboratory samples and gives all the methods of analysis that have been approved after examination by the Committees.
In specification 1016. on the sampling of coal and coke. the weights of the gross samples specified are based on the size of the coal, on its variability and on the degree of accuracy required of the analysis, The number and size of the increments required are chiefly determined by the variability of the coal. as indicated by the average deviation of the ash content from the mean. Since this deviation increases with increasing ash content. the coals are grouped for sampling purposes according to the amount of ash they contain,

James Watt International Medal. 116,
The Council of the Institution of  Mechanical Engineers has unanimously awarded the James Watt International Medal to Mr. A. G. M. Michell , F.R.S .. of Melbourne, Australia. on the nomination ot:the Institution of Engineers. Australia, the South African Institution of Engineers. and the Engineering Institute of Canada. The Medal was founded by the Institution in 1936 to commemorate the bicentenary of the birth of James Watt on 19 January 1736—an event which was destined to bring about a revolution in the utilisation of power. The Medal is awarded every two years to an engineer of any nationality who is deemed worthy of the highest award that the Institution can bestow and that a mechanical engineer can receive. In making the award the Institution has secured the co-operation of the leading Mechanical Engineering Institutions and Societies in all parts of the World. Mr. Michell's name is best known because of his work in connection with thrust and journal bearings. but he has in addition made a number of extremely valuable contributions to the science of engineering in connection with centrifugal pumps and crankless engines.

S.R. Camel's Head Halt. 116
Situated between St. Budeaux and Ford (Devon), had been closed for traffic.

Number 599 (15 July 1942)

Post-War locomotive practice. 117.

Converted 0-8-0 tank, London and North Eastern Railway. 118-19. 3 illustrations
Q1: No. 5058 and Q4 No. 5059 0-8-0 (then converted to 0-8-0T and O2 No. 3834 fitted with tender from Q4 converted to shunter

2-6-6-6 articulated locomotive, Chesapeake and Ohio R.R. 119. diagram (sectionalised side elevation)

L.L. Sanders. Carriage and wagon design and construction. III. The bogie. 120-2, diagram

O.J. Morris. Standardising Southern Railway locomotives, Central Section. 122-5. 3 illustrations
Notes that George Thompson the painter at Brighton Works who painted the names of the Stroudley and Robert Billinton locomotives had inspired Eric Gill to produce his famous typefaces and quotes Peterborough in The Telegraph

Stirling Everard. Cowlairs commentary. 125-7. 3 illustrations (drawings: side elevations)
No. 61 was the most unusual of all Paton's designs. It was a 0-4-0 mineral engine built in 1850, with a coal-burning firebox - this at a time when coke was the normal fuel for British locomotives. It would seem that the system adopted was that of M. W. Ivison in which a jet of steam was introduced into the firebox above the level of the fire, with the intention that the oxygen from the steam should complete the combustion of the coal. The firebox itself was 7 ft. long and very shallow; the tubes only 8 ft. 2 in. long. An enormous dome was placed just behind the chimney, and the steeply inclined cylinders, which measured 15 in. by 22 in., were mounted on the side of the boiler barrel, between and above the coupled wheels. They drove the rear wheels, and from the nature of the design, since the rear axle was immediately under the firebox, it is probable that outside eccentrics were used. In this connection Paton appears to have been influenced by the work of T. R. Crampton.
Clark had very little good to say of No. 61, but perhaps his second thoughts were more favourable, for shortly he brought out a patent coal burning firebox in which jets of steam were introduced to induce air currents above the fire, with precisely the intention that was in Paten's mind. Clark's experi- ments began on the Great North of Scotland Railway when he was locomo- tive superintendent of that line, but since he had left the Great North in 1856, before he had perfected the firebox, the first applications of the final design were on the North London and Eastern Counties Railways in 1858. In the latter case Robert Sinclair, who had by then left the Caledonian, was respon- sible for the trial of the device. Two years later the Great North of Scotland adopted as standard Clark's method, although he was no longer associated with the company.
Paton, for his part, was also dissatisfied with the results attained by No. 61, and in a very short time its place was taken in the Edinburgh and Glasgow lists by another, and more orthodox, engine. Clark's final conclusion on locomotive design was that the outside-cylindered engines of the Allan type were all in all more satisfactory than those with inside cylinders, and when he himself was shortly appointed locomotive superin- tendent of the Great North of Scotland Railway he adopted a modification of the Crewe design of 2-4-0, in which he placed the cylinders horizontally and, therefore, below the outside frame members.
Paton was not converted to Clark's views, but remained faithful to the double framed engine with inside cylinders in his next purchases. These were two 0-4-2 .goods engines from R. & W. Hawthorn and two from Simpson of Dundee, delivered in 1853. The former had 16 in. by 24 in. cylinders, the latter 15 in. by 21 in. Both series had 5 ft. coupled wheels. They became in due course N.B.R. Nos. 249, 250, 247 and 248 respectively, one of the 'Sirnpsons' replacing the original No. 61 on the Edinburgh and Glasgow.
In his next order Paton decided on inside frames, four further 0-4-2 goods engines being required. These came from Messrs. Neilson. 5 ft. coupled wheels were employed, with 15 in. by 21 in. cylinders, though the stroke of some of the batch was subsequently lengthened to 22 in. They became N.B.R. Nos. 251-254.
The firm of Neilson was by now a power in Scotland, well known for its excellent locomotive designs. Neilson's had followed the lead of Alexander Allan in developing the 0-4-2 mineral engine with outside cylinders and inside plate frames. The Neilson engines had 5 Ft. coupled wheels. Paten, despite his adherence to inside cylinders for passenger work, had, as has been seen, no such fixed ideas where slow moving traffic was involved. The six-wheeled engine with outside cylinders had a tendency to unsteadiness, which did not matter on coal trains. He therefore felt that he could not do better than adopt the standard Neilson engine for his company's mineral traffic, then rapidly developing. Six of the engines were delivered in 1855 and six more in 1856/7. Subsequently they became N.B.R. Nos. 283-294. It is said that Paton, fearing trouble from the heating of the inside axleboxes of Neilson's standard design, specified outside bearings for the trailing axles of the machines for the Edinburgh and Glasgow, and it should be added that on other lines the Neilson locomotives of this type with inside bearings throughout proved eminently satisfactory.

On passenger work Paton seems to have been dissatisfied with the Neilson singles, which he converted to double- framed 0-4-2 goods engines with 5 ft. coupled wheels. Four lasted till N.B.R. days, and became Nos. 239 and 243-245.
Two more Sharp singles were bought in 1854, doubtless due to the success of the six earlier machines from the same makers. It should be said that in the earlier 'Sharpies' the inside frame, unlike that of other contemporary designs, extended from the smokebox to the rear buffer beam. In the later 'Sharpies' the inside frame extended for the full length of the engine, a very great improvement, providing a more rigid frame throughout. When the Edinburgh and Glasgow Sharp singles became North British property they were renumbered 225-232.
The designer of the Sharp singles was Charles Beyer, and when in 1855 he left the firm to found his own with Peacock, the late locomotive superintendent of the Manchester, Sheffield and Lincolnshire line, the Edtnburgh and Glasgow company's custom was transferred to the new undertaking.
In 1856 there appeared from the works of Beyer, Peacock six 2-2-2 engines for the Edinburgh and Glasgow which were, perhaps, the most important engines which that company ever owned. They were followed in 1861 by two further engines, the whole series becoming in due course N.B.R. Nos. 211-218. The design, based on that ofthe 'Sharpies', incorporated the best of the experience of Paton and Beyer, the latter being responsible for the detail. They were express engines with 6 ft. 6 in. driving wheels and 16 in. by 20 in. inside cylinders. Mixed frames were used, the carrying axles having outside bearings, the drivers inside. Domeless boilers were fitted. The Edinburgh and Glasgow had experience with domes in all positions, the 'Sharpies ' carrying theirs just behind the chimney, the 'Hawthorns' and Paten's Hercules and his singles theirs mid-way along the boiler barrel, the Neilson designs above the firebox. The domeless boiler was not typical Edinburgh and Glasgow practice, but was derived, it is said, from some Gooch singles built by Beyer, Peacock for the Great Western Railway in 1855.
The finish of the engines was very ornamental. with their brass chimney caps, safety valve casings and beading to the splashers. The design was to be the inspiration of later Beyer, Peacock engines for other lines, in several of which, however, the mixed frames were abandoned in favour of inside frames.
It is of interest that, while the express engines of the Edinburgh and Glasgow were provided with 6 ft. 6 in. driving wheels, the Caledonian had already adopted 7 ft., and were shortly to introduce driving wheels of 8 ft. 2 in. diameter, on the grounds not of speed but of economy in operation, as Clark points out in one of his later works. In this, as in all other matters at this time, Cowlairs did not see eye to eye with St. Rollox.
The coming of Paten's express Singles allowed of the disposal of the Hick engines (of which details will be given later), and the gradual scrapping of the early passenger 'Burys' and small 'Hawthorns'. Other engines came in for modernisation, for example, four of the original Bury engines were converted to 0-4-2, while the cylinders of some of the remaining early machines were increased to 14 in. diameter.
Paton turned to Beyer, Peacock for his next engines, four 2-4-0 passenger machines with 6 ft. coupled wheels and 16 in. by 20 in. cylinders, and twelve 0-4-2 goods engines with 5 ft. coupled wheels and 16 in. by 22 in. cylinders. Two of the former type and six of the latter came out in 1859, and the balance in 1861. Both types had mixed frames. In the case of the 0-4-2 design this was a deviation from Beyer, Peacock's usual practice, for their standard 0-4-2 had inside plate frames only. The outside trailing axleboxes of the Edinburgh and Glasgow 0-4-2 engines were to Paten's requirements. Both the 2-4-0 and the 0-4-2 types provided the basis for Beyer, Peacock designs for other railways, for example the 2-4-0 of 1862 for the West Midland Railway and the 0-4-2 for the Smyrna and Cassaba company.
Messrs. Beyer, Peacock and Co have kindly supplied prints of these designs, which had domes over the firebox. Subsequently, during S.W Johnson's time, domeless examples to the same general design were added to the stock, and these will be mentioned later. Of the Beyer, Peacock machines the 2-4-0s became N.B.R. 237, 238, 233 and 234; the 0-4-2s 317-328.
Illustrations (drawings): E & G R Beyer Peacock 2-2-2, 1856-1861 (later NBR 211 Class); E & G R Beyer Peacock 2-4-0, 1859 (later NBR 333 Class); E & G R Beyer Peacock 0-4-2, 1859-1861 (later NBR 317 Class)

R.A. Whitehead. Miniature railways. 128-30. 2 illustrations
Ravenglass & Eskdale Railway: brief mention of 2ft 9in gauge line, but mainly 15in developments including the Poultney patent articulated locomotive

New L.M.S. control office. 131. illustration

Number 600 (15 August 1942)

Locomotive boiler balance. 133
It is often claimed that all engineering solutions are compromises, and in certain ways this is true of the locomotive boiler, the design of which is a compromise between a steam-raising equipment and something that will act as the backbone of the locomotive. without overstepping the limits of weight, bulk, and maintenance cost. But, given the limitations in these directions, locomotive boiler design is far more a question of good balance than of cornprormse.
There is, in any case, a type of balance in that the complete boiler-with draught arrangements is automatically self-regulating, and more or less adjusts of itself the water evaporation to the steam demand. For a given pressure the amount of steam exhausted through ,jjhe nozzle is fixed, and a certain amount of combustion gas is drawn through the tubes and flues from the firebox to the smokebox and so cut off the chimney. This process evaporates and superheats a oertain amount of water and steam, and the steam is in turn exhausted from the engine. If the speed of the engine and the cut-off are varied, then the back pressure and the evaporation are varied also. By assuming certain back pressure and draught values it is possible to figure the amount of coal burned in the firebox and the amount of heat generated; and by other calculations it is possible to make a fair approximation of the heat absorbed and transmitted, and so evaluate ,bhe evaporation of water.
But above all this, .if the boiler is to operate with reasonable efficiency over bhe normal wide range of load, there must be in the constituents a certain balance which must extend right through from the ashpan damper to the top of the chimney. And in endeavouring to get such a balance—if he does attempt it—the designer ought to be quite clear in his own mind as to just what it is he wants to obtain, e.g., the highest possible efficiency over a small, but selected, range of firing; the highest possible evaporation corresponding to working all-out, and with efficiency a rather more secondary consideration; or whether really high efficiency over a small range can Ibe sacrificed in favour of a considerably lower peak efficiency and a more level line of efficiency plotted against firing rate. Yet whether or not the designer realises the desirability of any such basic approach, the boiler cannot have anything like the highest possible efficiency or the highest possible evaporation if there is no balance.
In boilers burning the anthracite types of fuel, adequate grate area lis probably the most important of the factors which are under the control of the designer. With the much more common bituminous and semi-bituminous coals, the important factors in the boiler are the firebox volume and the free gas area through the tubes and flues. Yet it is not much.use the designer going right up to the limits of weight and bulk to get the maximum possible size of firebox and the biggest possible boiler barrel diameter, if the ashpan damper opening approaches Euclid's definition of a line as length without breadth. There have been cases where a small ashpan air opening increased to proper dimensions has enabled the blast pipe orifice to be increased by ½in. in diameter, giving a substantial saving in fuel and better efficiency all round. The necessary ashpan openings, and also the air openings in the grate, for any class .of coal can. be checked reasonably closely ifa maximum working firing rate is assumed; as a definite a!ll0unt of air is always required for the combustion of any given class of fuel. Balance must extend not only to the aggregate area of the. grate openings, but also to the size of the individual openimgs ; if they are too big the air current is strong enough .to blow particles and pieces of coal off the grate into the high turbulence zone below the end of the bnck arch, and the loss through unburnt fuel is increased.
The shape and size of the brick arch also. needs consideration in relation to the shape and volume of the firebox, and to the normal working rates and types of fuel. If the grate area and firebox volume can be proportioned to give low firing rates in ordinary service it is possible that. a shorter brick arch might increase the evaporation by exposing more of the luminous firebed to the firebox walls, but this must again be balanced against the draught to prevent any increase m the unburnt fuel loss. Efforts to get a big tubeplate and large- diameter barrel in order to provide a large number of tubes and flues must not be nullified by fitting a superheater which blocks up most of the gas area through the tubes. Finally, the firebox crown must not be carried so high that all the good of the greater firebox volume is brought to nought by too restricted a water level and steam space.

Institution of Locomotive Engineers. 133
At a general meeting held in the hall of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, on 29 July 29 Paper [439] entitled Power to Pull by L.K. Sillcox was read by J.S. Tritton on 29 July. The president, O.V.Bullied was in the chair.

Indian locomotive coal. 134-5.
Institution of Locomotive Engineers Paper No, 434

E.A. Phillipson. The steam locomotive in traffic. X. Engine failures. 136-8. diagram

James McEwan. Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 139-41. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
Continued from page 10. After the lapse of eight years the Scottish Central recommenced the contruction of locomotives at Perth. These were 2-2-2 type passenger engines and were designed by Allan for light passenger duties and goods work on the branches which were being worked by the S.C.R., and to use up the spare boilers made for the rebuilding of the six original smgles but which were found to be unsuitable for rebuilding in an improved form. These engines did not actually have the complete new barrel and firebox made for the rebuilding as the steel fireboxes from the six new boilers were put into six engmes of the No. 7 class which had been rebuilt. The class designed to make use of the spare barrels was augmented until ten engines were in  the class. The new fireboxes had the trough m the crown plate of the firebox and a transverse mid feather with the result that the firebox was divided into two parts. The grate of the "fore" part was sixteen inches long and the "after" part 3 ft. 4 in. long, and in consequence two ash pans were fitted. The distance between the top and bottom mid feathers was 12 inches, and it is therefore concluded that the firemen of the S.C.R. were a steady lot and had an aim in firing which was second to none. It is hardly likely that Allen intended the front portion for combustion only.
The leading dimensions were:-cylinders 16 in. diam. by 20 in. stroke, diameter of driving wheels 6 ft. 1 in.; of carryiog wheels 3 ft. 7¾; in., wheel- base 6 ft. 9 in. plus 7 ft. 3 in., total 14 feet. The overhang at the leading end was 4 ft. 5½ in. and at the trailing end, 3 ft. 10½ in. The frames were 22 ft. 4 in. long. The boiler barrel was 9 ft. 6i in. long and 3 ft. gin. diam. The distance between the tubeplates was 9 ft. 11 ftr in. and there were 207 tubes of 1¾ in. diam. giving a heating surface of 919.56 sq. ft. The firebox and midfeather had a heating surface of 95.2 sq. ft., which gave a total heating surface of 1,014.76 sq. ft. The grate area was 16.06 sq. ft., and workmg pressure 125 lbs. Boiler centre line 5 ft. 107/8t in. The mid feathers were removed about 1872 by Conner, although it was admitted by McIntosh in later years that these engines were excellent steamers on account of the midfeather. The tenders ran on four wheels and carried 1,383 gallons of water and 2½ tons of coal.

No. C.R. No. Date Reno. to "A" list Withdrawn

294 1866 1882
295 1866 1883
83 (a) 296 11/1865 1883
84 (b) 297 10/1865 1883 1892
82 298 6/1865 1883 1888
81 299 3/1865 1883 1888
4 306 3/1864 1882
5 307 9/1864 1883 1884
16 308 11/1864 1883 1884
18 309 5/1865 1886 1888

Notes (a) and (b) see nndernoted text.
The engines which became C.R. Nos. 296 and 297 were laid down as S.C. Nos. 83 and 84 respectively. In the building of this class some odd spare parts from the withdrawn locomotives of dasses No. 1 and 7 were used. In August, 1868, No. 307 was provided with a new tender of the six-wheeled pattern and soon after No. 308 was similarly fitted. In the latter oase the old tender was transferred to No. 499, an ex-Scottish North Eastern engine whose page in the accounts was debited with the new tender for 308. These singles finished their days around Perth, two working regularly on the Dundee and Arbroath Joint line, and No. 297 employed on the Perth to For far stock train until withdrawn. A direot acting steam brake was fitted to one ofthe engines of this class in 1864.
Although the locomotive history of the Scottish Central is now completed and includes locomotives actually laid down after the amalgamation it seems suitable at this point to refer to some of Allan's duties and work when at Perth.
The Soottish Central introduced gas lighting to trains in Scotland and the first train fitted to Allan's design and system left Perth for Edinburgh at 10.45 on 8 December 1862, and returned from Edinburgh at 16.00 that day. It was one of the usual block trains carrying first and second class passengers only, and the gas was carried in a tamk in one of the vans. Subsequently the Glasgow "set" was so fitted. As already referred to Allam had the repair of an the Aberdeen Railway engines during the period of the "pooling" arrangements and quite a number of the locomotives were heavily overhauled at Perth. There also existed from about 1855 until March, 1866, a tri-partite arrangement for the pooling of traffic and stack between the S.C., Edinburgh and Glasgaw and Caledonian Railways. Only certain routes were affected and under this arrangement one of the Caledonian Railway's carriages which had broken down at Perth in October, 1859, was ovenhauled and two new hammered axles provided. Round about the period from 1855 to 1857 several engines from the Edinburgh, Perth and Dundee Railway, appear to have been sent to Perth for overhaul instead of being done at the E. P. and D's own shops at Burntisland. The attempt to repair No. 9 appears to' have baffled Allan for ultimately it is recorded after several parts had supplied that "No. 9 was loaded into wagons and sent to Burntisland." No. 1 was similarly dealt with. The locomotives from the Dundee, Perth and Aberdeen Junction Railway were also repaired at Perth probably dating from the time when Brittain took up his past as "superintendent" at Dundee. Allan also fitted two engines experimentally with a water type pressure gauge in 1861 but unfortunately no record of the actual engines fitted is extant although it is known that the idea was none too successful, being susceptible to the shortcomings of the drivers and firemen. The six Neilson engines delivered in 1863 were fitted with a coiled copper pipe of elliptical section between the engine and tender for the feed water. Steel tyres were used on the S.C. in January, 1859, when No. 54 was fitted, although It was not until 1862 that these first appeared on the C.R. At the same time No. 19 was fitted with old rolled tyres on the driving wheels. It has been said, but with what authority it is not known, that Allan submibted a set of names for his engines to 'the directors in 1854 but the idea was turned down as it was thought to be out of the general harmony of the policy of the S.C. In January, 1865, No. 8 was given new driving tyres with patent fastenings and No. 32 was similarly fitted in the follawing month. In the following May the fastenings were first used on the small carrying wheel tyres. Unfortunately the method of effecting repairs prior to the arrival of Allan are unknown but after his arrival it became common practice when an engine required slight repairs and another of the same class was in the works and likely to be in for some time, that the required part was removed from the greater "crock" and used to get the other engine aut as speedily as passible. In January, 1854, No. 15 came in with a broken rear axle and was sent out two days later with the corresponding axle and wheels from No'. 18. In the same month No. 13 was hauling the 16.55 down train and became a casualty through the tap of the under clack breaking off and falling inside the pump which was smashed.
During the "pool" period S.C. No. 12 was sent to Stirling as No. 50 (an Aberdeen Railway engine) had one of the leading tyres so bad that it was impossible to run the engine to Perth for overhaul and Stirling begged the loan of a spare pair of 3 ft. 6 in. wheels so that No. 50 could go to the shops. The engine was apparently lying at Greenhill. The depot promised the return of No. 12 after the return of their owm engine. Several of the S.C. section engines were shedded an the Aberdeen section of the line. No. 35 was about the same time booked in by its driver as "having the leading springs an the one side higher than an the other, slide blocks out of line, pistons requiring examination, damper handle spring too weak, etc., and buffers lost." No. 11 turned up to be squared as the tyres an one side were wearing excessively. No. 46 was booked by its driver, John Knox, who despite his great Scottish name did not ascend to the same level as his earlier historical namesake, for when reporting states "weigh bar shaft broke, both feed pipes broke, one buffer head broke, one buffer Iost, ashpan bent and other damage which may ha» been caused by the accident with running into the wagon at Stirling station." Mr. Davidson who was foreman at Arbroath stated that the tender tyres of No. 31 were in bad order and new ones were needed. Either a new tender or new wheels and axles for in their present state the engine could not go out as working tender first was considered too risky. In the same periad an interesting note appears concerning No. 35, viz.:-" on taking off the right-hand cylinder cover five pieces of boiler plate were discovered inside the cylinder, the largest being 4½ in. by 2½ in. and 3/8 in. thick and are supposed to have been wilfully put into the port when the cylinder was waiting far a new cover." Nos. 28 and 39 suffered from the same trouble, the rear axle would not clear the bolts under the footplate. Stirling again had more trouble, No. 52 (Aberdeen) had broken its leading springs and just "sat down" The engine had apparently been loaned in place of No. 40 and Mr. Bone writes, "let me have No.. 40 back as soon as possible for this one is no use at all." To please Bone, the leading springs from No. 40 were sent to' Stirling so that No. 52 could go into traffic. No. 24 at this time was driven by H. Ogilvie, referred to' in the part of the history dealing with the Conner 2-4-0 engine of class 92, and he is always booking engines for repair. If it was not loose wheels, it was axle trouble or shaky motion.
James Winterbottom, who will be remembered long frorn the fact that he took a pet monkey around on the engines with him, had a bad mishap in February, 1854. The driving axle broke at the left-hand bearing and both the connecting rods were bent. The stay behind the cylinders broke anjd the tender appears to have been badly shaken and knocked about. The damage was reported, and is concluded by asking "that the chimney be turned the other way round." Aberdeen depot announces that a pair of wheels from the tender of No. 15 were borrowed to bring No. 17 home for repair. Cheeseboro who handled No. 14 asked that new pins, new brasses, etc., be fitted and also that a "bit be cut off the valves," and that the regulator be examined "as the gland nuts wont fit the holes." Lake, who was driver of No. 21 intimates that "the wheels on the driving axles are slack and that the engine that the" trailing wheel tyres have side play." So far as the tender was concerned, "the tank leaks on to the journals, and the hand rail is slack and the water leaks at the bolts, the angle iron round the tank is broke, and the wheels want seeing too as the tyres are broken." These incidents cover a period of only three months and are quite apart from the many bookings of loose motion, bolts or screws, journal boxes requiring re-lining and the various repairs to springs and axles too large for the running depots to handle are cited as an example of what the locomotive superintendents of all railways had to put up with.
Ere leaving the history of the S.C. it will not be out of place to refer to a design which Allan had prepared for a small 2-4-0 type side tank engine, presumably for shunting duties. This was single framed with outside cylinders. The boiler had raised firebox casing. The dimensions were to have been as follows—Cylinders 14½ in. by 22 in. Leading wheels 3 ft. 7¾ in. and driving wheels 4 ft. 7 in. diameter, and axle centres 6 ft. plus 7 ft. 11 in., total wheelbase 13 ft. 11 in. Frame length 23 ft. 8¼ in. Boiler barrel 3 ft. 6¾ in. diameter by 9 ft. 4 in. long made of three rings butted together with butt straps at the joints. 191 tubes 1¾ in. diameter and 9 ft. 8½ in. between the tubeplates giving a heating surface of 850.3 sq. ft. The firebox had two mid feathers, one across the grate. There were consequently two grates, fore and aft arrangement, but two ashpans only were to be provided. There were to be two firedoors fitted, one slightly higher than the other but alongside it. The reason for this arrangement appears to have been based on the lack of "elbow room" for the firing of the engine. The cab could only be entered from the left-hand side and the back cab sheet after forming an entry passage curved towards the backplate and crossed the the footplate floor to meet the tank on the right- hand side leaving a space of 3 ft. 6 in. between the back plate and the back of the bunker which the lower part of the cab sheet had formed. The tanks had a capacity of 300 gallons and the bunker carried about 18 cubic feet. The regulator handle worked in an "OG" quadrant, and as it rotated it withdrew a plug regulator lying in a horizontal steam pipe supplied by steam from the dome through a vertical collector pipe. An improved type of self-acting steam injector was to have been fitted, in lieu of the Giffard pattern then being used. The coupled axle springs were to have a compensated lever attachment. The valve rod was cranked over the leading axle. An interesting feature with the links supporting the firebox crown bridge bars was that half were riveted to, the roof of the outer firebox and the remainder were to be inserted through holes cut in the plating of the outer firebox. The cylinder exhaust pipes were covered by false sheeting until they entered the smokebox and then passing above the top row of tubes turned into the chimney with the mouth about six inches .below the base of it. It will be recollected that the Highland Railway in the 1870s built three generally similar locomotives.Illustrations: C.R. No. 294. Allan's 2-2-2 passenger engine, 1866.(photograoh) S.C.R. Allan's proposed 2-4-0 side tank. (diagram)

S.A. Forbes. Majorca and its railway systam. 142-4. 5 illustrations

hollow arid passing a conduit tube through it to carry the cable. The conduit tube revolves with the jib, while the shaft is free to revolve around it as required in the rprocess of hoisting and lower- ing. At the bottom end of the conduit tube is a disc of insulating material carrying two slip rings connected to each of the cables for energising the magnet. These slip rings are supplied with cur- rent by brushes connected to the generating set. For connecting the magnet to the cable of the jib two single core extra flexible cables are used which are wound on to and unwound from a spring operated cable drum of the usual con- struction. The current for operating the magnet is sup- plied by a turbo-generator set mounted on one of the side tanks of the locomotive. Tihe looomotive is of Barclay's standard S-tOlIl type, but the addition of the lifting magnet which, with its appliances, weighs 18 cwt., reduces the lifting capacity of the locomotive to 4 tons 2 cwt. at 16 ft. radius. If it were desired to lift 5 tons this could be done by temporarily discard- ing the or, alternatively, the length of the jib could be red uced to 13'-6", in which case 5 tons could be lifted with the magnet or a greater load without the magnet. The locomotive cylinders are 14" diameter x 22" stroke, giving a tractive effort of 14,200 lb. at 85% boiler pressure, so that it is an effective shunting engine. The weight in working order is 42 tons 14 cwt.

L.N.E.R.-The story of how L.N.E.R. men during the air raid on York of April 29 made efforts to restore services to normal was recently revealed by Mr. C. ]VI. Jenkin Jones, Divisional General Manager of the Company's North Eastern area. "So far as York station was concerned," he said, "the first bomb to cause damage fell shortly after the 10.15 p.m. ex- press from King's Cross to Edinburgh had arrived, and the passengers had been warned to leave the train at once to take cover. Some of the passengers appeared to be more concerned about their luggage than their lives and did not alight when they were advised to do so!
"Then another bomb fell, this time near the Parcels ? .fice, and simultaneously a large shower of incendiaries hit the station buildings, the roof, the track and the 10.15 p.m. express. The buildings and the roof were ignited and burn- ing debris fell upon the express, which also caught fire. Our staff brought hoses into play at once, supplementing them with the smaller fire-fighting appliances.
"With the aid of a soldier and shunters Wharton and Lee, the Assistant Station Master divided the ro.I5 p.m. express and thereby saved 14 of the 20 coaches.
A bomb hit one of the engine sheds containing more than 20 locomotives but fortunately only three of them sustained serious damage. "As soon as the raid was over our first thought was to get going with the restoration of services and facilities," continued Mr. Jenkin Jones. "Thanks to smart work on the part of the staff, and a number of voluntary helpers, who whilst the buildings were blazing, dragged out heavy desks, ticket racks and other furniture across the road to the moat beneath the city walls, we had established a temporary booking office in the tea room within a few hours of the raid. The money in the booking office tills, by the way, was saved by two of our firewatchers, who carried it to safety in our hotel in a Wellington boot, 'borrowed' from the Passenger Agent. "The damaged No. 1 Refreshment Room was brought into use as a temporary parcels and left luggage office on the day of the raid, and the loud-speaker installation was in operation on the following day. During the first week of May we had the booking office and two of the refreshment rooms in service again, and the tea room thus released be- came a temporary parcels office. The remarkable speed of the erection of temporary station buildings reflects great credit on Mr. Love, the L. .E.R. ''''orks Superintendent, and his staff.
"Valuable aid in clearing away the debris was given by the military. and the world-famous rapidity with which British railway engineers repair air-raid damage was aptly demonstrated at York. Some damage to running lines was inevitable, but I am proud to say that our Engineer's Department had all affected running lines available for traffic by the early evening of April 30, and actually the majority of them were in use on the evening following the raid." Correspondence. 148

Pullman cars. C. Hamilton Ellis.
Re Canon Fellow's most interesting and valuable article on the early Pullman car trains, I would suggest that the woodcut showing an interior represents a parlour car on an American railroad, and not on the Midland. Its impression of greater loftiness may be due to exaggeration, a not uncommon practice on the part of Victorian artists when depicting Pullman car interiors. The lamps, however, are of a type employed on the first Union Pacific trains of 1869. I think that by .1874 the balanced kerosene lamp, with burner and reservoir separate, was the standard Pullman fixture. The windows also are set in pairs, and not in threes as on the early Midland Pullmans. This view also appears in the later editions of Williams's Our Iron Roads, and it would seem, from the spacing of the windows and deck-lights, to portray the interior of the rz-wheel Pullman car Ocean, a U S. vehicle, which Williams illustrates on the opposite page. It would be interesting to know whether any photographs still survive showing the interior of a Midland Pullman drawing-room car. Later Pullmans on British railways were much photographed, and in 1908, when the Southern Belle was built in England, a sumptuous booklet, illustrated in colour from a series of paintings by Fortunino Matania was published by the Pullman Car Company. Was anything similar done when the first Midland train started running in 1874?

Dr. Church's tank engine of 1837. J.H. McDowell.
Further to Dendy Marshall's letter in "The Locomotive" of June, page 115, both the victims of the boiler explosion at Bromsgrove. Stat!on (Thomas Schaife and J. Rutherford) were buned SIde by SIde m Bromsgrove Churchyard. At the top of their tombstone. is cut in high relief the representation of the Norris engme brought from Philadelphia, U.S.A., to compete with Bury's on the Lickey Bank, and on Schaife's tombstone is the famous epitaph in verse which has made them so well known, viz.:- " My Engine now is cold and still, No Water does my boiler fill," etc. In 1932, F. W. Brewer mentioned in an article that in Whickham Churchyard, near Gateshead-on-Tyne, there was another epitaph in similar verse to a driver on the Newcastle and Carlisle Railway, who was killed a year or two previously (due to injuries from the boiler of his engine) and suggested that the author might be the same in both cases. As the writer was in Newcastle at the time he visited the Whickham stone and copied it carefully, sending a copy to Brewer, and it was certainly very similar.
Re "The Bloomer Engines" of McConnell. In the National Encyclopaedia of the '70s (Article "Locomotive") a good cross section plate of a 7' Bloomer of the later design was given, evidently inserted in error for one of "Lady of the Lake," which was an exhibit in the 1862 exhibition. After the death of the late Mr. David Joy photographs were found among his papers of McConnell's later engines, 6'6 and 7', as well as the exhibition 7'6 engine number 373. Apparently no photograph of the latter was known to the late C.E. Stretton, as he gives a line drawing (from memory) of this engine in his book On Locomotive Development.

Freight stock of the future.  Hoffman Manufacturing Co., Ltd 148
We have read the Editorial article on page 101 wi th considerable interest and are in perfect agreement with your remarks in paragraph 4, where you emphasize the saving in labour and material charges in addition to the reduction of rolling resistance of stock equipped with roller bearings. In this connection we may mention that it is the practice of one railway company to lubricate our roller bearing axle-boxes once only every 16 months, and that it finds this to be quite satisfactory. The above applies, however, more particularly to a locomotive tender, so that for freight wagons the intervals will probably have to be somewhat shorter, especially in such cases as coal wagons, where dust and grit are in evidence. Even so the reduced attention over plain bearings is most marked.

Reviews. 148

British railway rolling stock. H.C. Webster. 159 pp. Oblong 8vo. Oxford University Press.  148.
An attractively produced book of oblong format, giving' illustrations and a brief non-technical description of a. comprehensive range of modern British rolling stock: 25 locomotives, 26 carriages and 24 freight vehicles are dealt with, each one at an opening. The more spectacular vehicles are treated in detail, but no example is included of an 0-6-0 tender or tank, which outnumber by far any other class of locomotive in this. country. Produced for the non-technical public, one must not be too critical, but it is surely incorrect to say that superheating was "the great discovery of a Sir John Aspinal ill 1906" and that the Southern Railway tube between Waterloo and City is known as the City & South London, Electric. Of the Southern Lord Nelsons the author says that the class has been improved recently by the substitution of a. large boiler with combustion chamber. The facts are, of course, that one engine only of the class was so fitted as an experiment, and this was subsequently removed as its retention was not justified.

Squared ruled paper projection. Sir Charles V. Boys. Reprint—8 pp—from the Journal of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 19, No. 5, May, 1942:-
A method is described for making a projection drawing' from any point of view in which the drawing is set out directly from the dimensions of the object without the use of intermediate plans and elevations. Seven key figures are- given with the necessary numerical factors which give directly the proportions for forty-two points of view. By the use of square ruled paper and these figures, aided by the· slide rule, figures may be drawn in which the dimensions are found by means of the rulings on the paper only, so that scales of length are not needed. An example of the use of the method is an illustration of two pentagonal dodecahe- drons, one that of Euclid and the other that of a crystal of iron pyrites. The last part of the paper deals with the solution of the spherical triangles on which the method depends.

Paper on diesel locomotives and railcars: their development and suitability, with special reference to their future in railway traction in Indiaand post-war reconstructi . P. R. Argawal, B.Sc.(Eng.), A.M.I.E.,
Assistant Chief Controller of Standardisation, Central Standards Office for Railways, Railway Department Governnment of India, New Delhi. (Institution of Engineers. India) . A comprehensive review of the progre~s in ~iesel ~rac~ion on railways throughout the world, including historical notes. The author refers in length to the various services and the types of vehicles most suited to work them. Maintenance, Repairs, Fuel costs, etc., are dealt with.

E.Q.A. engineerikg questions & answers. Vol. III. Emmott & Co., Ltd., London and Manchester.
Third volume, consisting of 176 pages in stiff covers, continues the. record in permanent form of selected answers. from the Questions and Answers columns of the Mechanical World. The subject matter is wide, and to aid reference an index has been included as in the first two volumes. The numerous line illustratibns are clear and well selected.

Number 601 (15 September 1942)

Diesel-electric locomotives. 149.
The paper by L.K. Sillcox Power to pull Institution of Locomotive Engineers Paper No. 439 is discussed (it was originally presented at a meeting on 29 July, This was a welcome contribution on the Important subject of Diesel traction. We say important advisedly, for there can be little doubt that recent developments of this type of locomotive have certainly given it a position of standing as a motive power unit, even though somewhat limited, not because of any mechanical ImperfectIons, but rather due to the economic possibilities governing its general use for main line requirements. In this country we have no experience of this class of rnotrve power, excepting in a relatively small way for shunting operations on the L.M.S. Railway, an account of the locomotive for which was given in an informative paper by C.E. Fairburn, read last year before the Institution of Locomotive Engineers. The paper by Mr. Sillcox Iis based entirely on experience in the United States, and, to some extent, may be compared with one on the same subject presented last year at a meeting of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers by E.E. Chapman, Mechanical Assistant, Atchison Topeka and Santa Fe Railway, and to which it bore some resemblance. This is, however, hardly surprising, for so far as main line working is concerned, the Santa Fe Iine has probably. more experience of high powered Diesel-Electrics than any other in the world. . Both Sillcox and Chapman are enthusiastic supporters of the Diesel driven locomotive, and it must be admitted that under certain operating conditions it seems to show definite advantages when compared with steam engines. For mstance, under conditions which will permit of long through runs with heavy trains, the Diesel, on account of the fact that it needs comparatively small quantities of fuel and water can make very lengthy runs without taking on additional supplies, whereas high powered steam locomotives obviously require tenders of considerable capacity, and even then are limited as to the distance that can be run before having to replenish supplies of either water or fuel. While this is, of course, an elementary fact, whether or not it is a disadvantage depends upon operating conditions quite apart from considerations as to the suitability or otherwise of the two types of locomotive for working the traffic as such. From the point of view of power production the Diesel differs considerably from the steam locomotive of equal nominal power. Data given by Sillcox indicates that for a given tractive effort at the driving wheels at running speeds common in practice the Diesel-electric must have at least double the maximum tractive force of the steam locomotive. This means two things; one is that its powers of acceleration are much greater, and the other that if the Diesel is to replace the steam engine and is to show to full advantage, something will have to be done about carriage and wagon stock draw gear if the maximum pull of, say, 40,000 in the case of a steam engine is to be raised to some 80,000 pounds or more for a Diesel of the same nominal power. If now the two engines be compared on the bases of draw bar pull then it would appear, from particulars given by both Sillcox and Chapman, that the pull at running speeds is greater in the case of the steam locomotive, but the Diesel, on account of its much higher initial pull shows to advantage through the lower speed range, meaning higher accelerations, and thus, it is argued, high mean speeds are attainable without recourse to very high maximum speeds possible with the steam engine due to its greater powers through the higher speed range. In shunting service the case is rather different, because it is not a question of building a Diesel to equal in power a steam locomotive at high speeds, therefore the maximum tractive effort of the Diesel need not materially exceed that of the steam engine, because operating speeds are very low, especially in "Hump" shunting, and the rapid drop in tractive effort of the Diesel engine is of no importance. Sillcox opens his paper by briefly reviewing the relative positions of steam, electric and Diesel traction, pointing out that before the advent of the Diesel, electrification was the only alternative to steam where conditions were such as to make the use of the latter prohibitive, instancing such cases as tunnel operation, and making much of the real or supposed smoke nuisance. With the advent of air conditioning and Diesel power, electrification is said to have Iost its inherent advantages. Conceding steam to be quite unsuitable where there is much tunnel working, it is surely true that air conditioning must, if the smoke nuisance is what it is made out to be, be advantageous to the continuance of steam operation. Actually, the real battle would seem to be between electric traction and the Diesel-electric, for both in comparison with steam, claim the same advantages. It is entirely possible that in the long run the Diesel will prove to be a substitute for the electric, for the simple reason that its running characteristics are similar to the latter

O.S. Nock. A new cab signal development.150-1. illustration, diagram
Pennsylvania Railtoad: visual signals in cab

L.E. Sanders. Carriage and wagon design and construction. III. The bogie. 152-5. 5 diagrams
Equalized or sandwich type; helical springs; diamond frames and cast steel

F.C. Hambleton. L.B.S.C. Ry. "E" class goods engines. 155. diagram (side elevation)
No. 110 Burgundy illustrated. Stroudley design. No. 110 as hundredth locomotive to be built at Brighton Works and was celebrated by a banquet given at the Old Ship Hotel for the foremen on 13 April 1877. It was fitted with the steam brake known by the drivers as a wim-wam

Stirling Everard. Cowlairs commentary. 156-8. 3 illustrations (drawings: side elevations)
Continued from page 127.
The small shunting "pug" came into being towards the end of the eighteen fifties, but here the railway companies were prepared to leave the design entirely in the hands of the builder. The engines were, for the most part, of 0-4-0 design with square pannier tanks, inside frames and outside cylinders. Those on the Edinburgh and Glasgow came from Messrs. eilson, being varia- tions of the design used by railway contractors, and to be found also on the Caledonian, the West of Fife and the Findhorn Railways among others. In 1861 there arrived at Cowlairs as works manager a young Englishman, William Stroudley, who had just left the employ of the Great Northern Railway. The locomotive department of that line was presided over at the time by Arohibald Sturrock, whose choice of engines was in accord with that of William Paton, so that Stroudley was already acquainted with the mysteries of " Sharpies;" "Hawthorns" and similar machines; while Bury's goods locomotives were to be found at Doncaster as at Cowlairs. Stroudley had had the further advantage of a period at Swindon under Gooch.
What he found on the Edinburgh and Glasgow fitted in with his past experience, and he was to be influenced more by the work of William Paton than has, perhaps, been hitherto recognised.
At Cowlairs, however, there were changes. Paton had been succeeded by William Steel Brown, who held the view, then becoming prevalent, that a main line railway should not be entirely dependent upon contractors for its new locomotive construction, but should build at least a proportion of ats engines in its own shops.
It has been seen that, after the purchase of the Sharp singles of 1854, Paton abandoned the use of double frames for new construction, and adopted types with only inside bearings for driving and coupled wheels. In 1862 this policy was reversed by his successor when a new series of double-framed 2-4-0 passenger engines began to appear from Cowdairs, built under Stroudley's supervision, to Brown's designs. They later became North British Nos. 351-354. The coupled wheels were 6 ft. in diameter, and the cylinders 16 in. by 22 in. Except for the domeless boilers they were very unlike previous Edinburgh and Glasgow types, but bare a resemblance to the contemporary designs of Messrs. R. & W. Hawthorn. It is, perhaps, pertinent to remark upon the similarity between the Cowlairs engines and another design, namely Stroudley's Belgravia, built in 1872 for the London, Brighton and South Coast Railway, in which the double frames and  the domeless boiler again appeared, and to draw the conclusion that Stroudley was not unmindful of the Edinburgh and Glasgow machines when he set out to design his first main line passenger engines for the Brighton concern.
Turning to engines received by the Edinburgh and Glasgow from other lines. The agreement to work the Stirling and Dunfermline in 1855 spread the Cowlairs influence. Matthew Holmes was appointed superintendent of the railway as nominee of the larger company. The locomotive stock appears to have been somewhat nondescript, which is not surprising under the circumstances, the Hawthorn types being used, and the designs those not unknown at Cowlairs. In 1862, however, the amalgamation of the Glasgow, Dumbarton and Helensburgh brought into the Cowlairs' fold a handful of locomotives of a very alien conception, namely one Allan type 6 ft. 2-2-2, one Allan type 6 ft. 2-4-0 and an outside cylindered goods engine, all by Messrs. Jones & Potts, and dated 1857/8. Jones & Potts had been one of the suppliers of the original Caledonian engines, but had modified that company's specifications in building domeless boilers with safety valves on the front and rear of the barrel.
Together with the Allan-type engines the Edinburgh and Glasgow received from the Glasgow, Dumbarton and Helensburgh four Neilson outside-cylindered 2-2-2 tanks of 1850, sometime the property of the Caledonian and Dumbartonshire Junction Railway, one of which was the sister engine of Atalanta, while the others were larger and of more orthodox design, having 5 ft. driving wheels and 14 in. by 20 in. cylinders. The North British renumbered the latter 309-311.
The Caledonian and Dumbartonshire Junction Railway, small as it was, is interesting in that Patrick Stirling was at one time its locomotive superintendent, while the father of Dugald and Peter Drummond was also in its employ.
Dugald Drummond joined the Edinburgh and Glasgow at Cowlairs shortly after Stroudley, and when in 1864 Stroudley was appointed locomotive superintendent of the Highland Railway in succession to Allan's nephew, Barclay, Drummond went with him. At Lochgorm the two men gained experience with the locomotives of the rival school of thought to Paton, for all Barclay's engines were Allan-type singles and 2-4-0 goods. Stroudley, as is well known, left Lochgorm in due course for Brighton, where Dugald Drummond followed him, to be his works manager. Many of Stroudley's designs showed marked traces of Paton's influence. Grosuenor and the other singles were derived from Paton's Beyer, Peacock singles, with, however, the improvement of inside frames in place of Paton's relatively heavier mixed frames. Stroudley's 0-4-2 types were not radically different from the Edinburgh and Glasgow Beyer, Peacock goods.
S.W. Johnson became the Edinburgh and Glasgow company's next locomotive superintendent, taking up office in 1864. He made few changes, contenting himself with building. at Cowlairs four further double framed 2-4-0 engmes of the 1862 type (subsequently N.B.R. Nos. 355-356 and 349-350) and three of the Beyer, Peacock design of 2-4-0, modified by the adoption of the domeless boiler, for passenger service. The last named engines became N.B.R. Nos. 235, 236 and 239. It is rather a mystery why he found it necessary to turn out during the same period engines of two different types but of very similar power for the same class of work. For goods traffic he built six additional 0-4-2 locomotives of the Beyer, Peacock type, but with domeless boilers, which became N.B.R. Nos. 329-334, and one double-framed 0-4-2 of very similar dimensions (N.B.R. No. 262) to replace an old Bury goods of which the boiler had regrettably exploded. He also received from Messrs. R. & W. Hawthorn two inside-framed inside-cylindered 0-4-0 tender engines (N.B.R. Nos. 268 and 269) with, 4 ft. wheels and 16 in. by 20 in. cylinders. These machines of apparently obsolete type were necessary for use on the tortuous and lightly built colliery branches, the requirements of these lines accounting also for the complete absence of six coupled locomotives on the Edinburgh and Glasgow except for the special Cowlairs bankers. At about the time of the amalgamation with the North British three heavy double-framed 0-6-0 tanks with 4 ft. 2 in. wheels and 16 in. by 22 in. cylinders were delivered by Messrs. Dubs. Two at least, Nos. 209 and 210, were delivered to the North British company, but the first of the batch, N.B.R. No. 282, may have been built for the Edinburgh and Glasgow to Johnson's requirements, in which case this was the first deviation from the general rule to employ only singles and four-coupled engines.
There are certain further points in connection with the earlier Edinburgh and Glasgow engines which should be mentioned here.
The author is indebted to Mr. Jas. McEwan for pointing out that 0-6-0 tanks Hercules and Samson were not, in fact, sold by the Edinburgh and Glasgow, but were cut up at Cowlairs in the early sixties. There is also some doubt as to the diameter of the coupled wheels of the Hawthorn 0-4-2 engines Nos. 23-31, some accounts giving 4 ft. 6 in., against the 5 ft. 3 in. quoted in t:hese articles. Mr. McEwan gives the cylinders of Nos. 23 and 24 as 14 in. in diameter when built. A further point that he raises is that the photograph of the 2-2-2 "light express tank" No. 88, mentioned in the May number, was taken. not in 1856, as has frequently been stated, but in 1864, and, in consequence, it shows not the Edinburgh and Glasgow's company's Atalanta but the sister engine, builrt originally for the Caledonian and Dumbartonshire Railway.
Finally, before leaving the history of the Edinburgjh and Glasgow in Paton's days, through the courtesy of Messrs. Hick, Hargreaves & Co., Ltd., who have supplied a drawing, it is possible to give some details of the two E. & G. locomotives supplied by Benjamin Hick & Son. In ordering these machines Paten deviated from his general rule to use inside-cylindered engines for passenger duties, for the "Hicks" were 5 ft. 6 in. singles with 15 in. x 22 in. outside cylinders, 10ft. boilers, 3 ft. 6 in. in diameter, pitched very low: in the frames, and inside Stephenson link motion. The dome, a very large one, was placed well forward.
These engines, No. 42 and 43 in the Edinburgh and Glasgow Iist, remained in service for a few years only, when they were sold , It is recorded that they went to the Fife and Kinross Railway m June, 1857, but it is felt that there may possibly be an element of doubt in this, for Mr. L. Ward points out that in 1855 the Stockton and Darlington acquired two identical engines named Uranus and Neptune, which were bought second hand, and which ran on that line until the late sixties. The data still available of Hick-built engines of the forties makes no suggestion that further engines of the Edinburgh and Glasgow type were built for any other Iine, and when it is remembered that the Stockton and Darlington company had already bought second-hand engines from the Edmburgh and Glasgow in 1854 the possibility that Uranus and Neptune had once been Edinburgh and Glasgow Nos. 42 and 43 cannot be oompletely dismissed.
When in 1865 the Edinburgh and Glasgow and the Monkland concerns were absorbed into the North British the locomotive affairs of the original North British and the Edimburgh, Perth and Dundee, together with those of several smaller constituent companies of the enlarged North British, continued to be run from St. Margarets works, Edinburgh. Cowlairs became responsible for the engines taken over from the Edinburgh and Glasgow and the Monkland, which undertakings constituted the Western Division.
The Monkland contributed a number of additional Neilson outside-cylindered 0-4-2 mineral engines, which were numbered 295-303, and also some Hawthorn double-framed 0-6-0 locomotives built between 1850 and 1856. These were numbered 276-279. All had 16 in. by 24 in. cylinders, while all but No. 277 had 5 ft. wheels. Those of No. 277 were 4 ft. 6 in. The greater number of the remaining Monkland machines were of the 0-4-0 tender mineral type or were "pugs." A Hawthorn 0-6-0 similar to the Monkland batch was No. 280, sometime the property of the Stirling and Dunfermline Railway.
For a year after the amalgamation Cowlairs remained under the control of Johnson; but in 1866 he became locomotive superintendent of the Great Eastern, succeeding Robert Sinclair. At Stratford he immediately set to work to replaoe the St. Rollox sohool of rthoug;ht by that of Cowlairs, for he built a large number of 2-4-0 mixed-traffic locomotives which were small editions of the Paton-Beyer, Peacock engines of the Edinburgh and Glasgow. Illustrations: E. & G.R. W. Steel Brown's 2-4-0. 1862-1867; E. & G.R. 2·2·2 Benjamin Hick & Sons' 1846; Monkland Ry. Hawthorn's 0-6-0 1850 (later NBR 276 class).

R.A. Whitehead. Miniature railways. The Romney, Hythe and Dymchurch Railway. 159-61. 3 illustrations
The South Eastern Railway had obtained powers for a steam tramway, but these had lapsed. The Miniature Railway Company was formed in 1926, but it changed its name to the Romney, Hythe and Dymchurch Railway. Captain J.E.P. Howey was the main mover and he was joined by General Sir Ivor Maxse as Chairman, Major W. Bertram Bell, K. Lee Guiness and A. J. Lucas. A Light Railway Order was obtained from the Ministry of Transport. The Engineer was Henry Greenly. The 8½ miles of 15 inch gauge railway from Hythe to New Romney were opened quickly and the major work a skew girder bridge across the New Sewer was assembled from steelwork supplied by Francis Theakston Ltd of Crewe in time for the Duke of York to open it on 26 August. Except for the four-wheel original coaches, nothing was skimped. 24 lb/yd flat bottom rail was used; full signalling was provided and bogie coaches for winter use featured steam heating and electric light. A 5½ mile extension to Dungeness opened in 1928. The three main steam locomotive types are illustrated: Gresley style Pacifics (including two three-cylinder); Gresley style 4-8-2 and Canadian Pacific style Pacifics. Accidents, including some fatal, at level crossings were a problem.

S.R. 161
Two more Merchant Navy class Pacifics into service: 21C7 Aberdeen and Commonwealth and 21C9 Shaw Savill 

L.M.S.R. 161
American rail in 39ft lengths was being welded into 78ft and 117ft lengths for relaying.

G.W.R. 161
Passenger service between Didcot, Newbury and Southampton suspended from 4 August except for one between Winchester Cheesehill and Sutton Scotney. Lostwithiel and Fowey closed to passenger traffic from 22 August.

The North London Railway. 162-4. illustration
Incorporated in 1846 as East & West India Docks and Birmingham Junction Railway to provide access for the London & North Western Railway to the London docks. It eventually grew into a mjor urban railway with a City terminus at Richmond and formed alliances with other railways to provide services over a wide area including Richmond and over the Great Northern network See also letter by Reginald B. Fellowa.

Locomotive repairs. Derby Works. L.M.S.R. 165-6. 4 illustrations
Use of welding to repair portway in cylinder and to a feed pump

M.A. Crane, A.M.I.Mech.E., A.M.I.Loco.E. 166
Joined staff of Beyer, Peacock & Co., Ltd., in London. Mr. Crane was, until recently, Senior Locomotive Superintendent of the Gold Coast Government Railway.

Swiss Federal Railways. 166
To celebrate the Railway Centenary in 1947 preparations are being made to enlarge the railway museum at Zurich and to transfer it to a new building.

Rubber tyred railcar. 166
For working in a large U S.A. ordnance plant a special rubber tyred railcar (petrol driven) is running trials. It has been designed to run on the roads as well as on rails.

L.N.E.R. 166
A large electic stator weighing 130 tons and capable of generating 50,000 kilowatts, was transported from the North-East to the Midlands mounted on a transformer wagon-set running on 40 wheels. It was accompanied by three guards' vans, a plate wagon for the constructing firm's gear, and a mess van for nine members of their staff, some of whom were detailed to guard their charge night and day.
The extreme height of the stator loaded was 13 ft. 6½in., which was 1½ in. greater than the height of the load gauge of the Great Central section over which it passed for a portion of the journey.
Its width of 13ft. 6½in. necessitated blocking the opposite lines and the adjoining line in many places throughout the journey, and nearly 200 disc signals had to be dismantled to provide the necessary path.
On thirty-eight occasions the load had to be wound out of centre to enable it to pass platforms, tunnels and bridges, and in many instances clearance was effected with only Iiin. to spare. The maximum speed when loaded centrally was IS m.p.h. and when 12 inches out of centre-I2 inches being the maximum out-of-centre move-speed did not exceed six m.p.h.
The most notable engineering achievement was the slueing of seventy yards of track in Mapperley tunnel, yet despite this the load travelled through the tunnel 12 inches out-of-centre to the 6ft. side.

Correspondence. 166

James Holden. C. Hamilton Ellis.
I was most interested to read the late Mr. Fred V. Russell's letter on Great Eastern locomotive practice under James Holden, a propos of my article, and shocked to learn of Mr. Russell's death a few days later. The true origins of the design of the "Claud Hamilton" class, as well as of the "Decapod", provide an example of the extent to which the Man on the Throne may at times delegate authority and, etiquette being what it was and often, is, obtain all the kudos over a period of many years following. My suggestion of Holden being a pioneer of modern democracy was som~what wide of the mark, unless one accepts the celebrated dictum of a Very Hostile Personage that Totalitarianism is the only True Democracy. Let us call Holden's philosophy Paternalism; things like the Stratford Enginemen's Dormitory exemplified paternalism at its best. By the way, you make me say that Holden's three-class dining car train came out in 1893, two years before the northern lines provided third-class diners in I895! The dates I really gave were surely 1891 and 1893.

L.N.E.Ry.  166
South Pelaw derailment. J. L. M. Moore's report to the Director-General of the Ministry of War Transport: A down mineral train from Morrison Colliery to Stella Gill, consisting of twenty-five wagons loaded with coal, and a brake van, weighing in all 675 tons, had traversed only a short distance of the seven-mile almost continuous steep descent between Annfield Plain and South Pelaw when the steam brake on the engine and tender became inoperative, owing to the failure of one of the main brake rods. More than the stipulated number of wagon brakes had been ap- plied at the summit and, after the failure of the power brake, the engineman and guard apparently did what they could with their respective hand-brakes, but it is evident that the train quickly got out of control. After negotiating the facing junction at South Pelaw , where it was being diverted to a mineral line, at an estimated speed of about 40-50 miles an hour, the engine overturned, and the entire train was derailed, all but two of the wagons being damaged beyond repair. The train crew acted with great credit to themselves by remaining at their posts, and it is regretted that fireman Walter Stanley was killed instantly when the engine overturned, and driver Ernest Matthew Ridley died shortly afterwards. Fortunately, the brake van in which the guard was travelling was only slightly damaged, and he escaped with a severe shaking and bruises.
Several days elapsed before the junction could be restored as, intermingled with the wreckage of the train, there was about 420 tons of coal, most of which had to be cleared before the more important repairs to the track could by commenced, or even surveyed with any degree of accuracy.
Owing to the severe gradients on this line, the braking regulations stipulate that all down goods and mineral trains must have one double brake that is, affecting both axles, fastened down for every two wagons, and that the trains must stop at a specified point about half a mile east of West Stanley station for brake examination and readjustment if the load of the train is more than half the authorised load of the engine working it. Guard Stephenson stated that while the train was drawing slowly out of Annfield sidings he pinned down fifteen double brakes near the leading end, applying rather more than the required number, as the rails were inclined to be greasy. This statement was confirmed by evidence arid by examination of the wreckage. The guard did not hear any whistle signals from the engine owing to the noise of the intervening train, but, realising that the speed was higher than usual. he applied his van brake and maintained the maximum pressure until the derailment.
The train was being hauled by engine No. 2286, Class Q6 0-8-0, the maximum load for which is 710 tons over this line in the down direction.
On this class of engine the steam brake is actuated by a single cylinder which, by means of a connecting link, also applies the brake on the tender, and the failure of the brake in this instance was due to a fracture of the connecting link. As the rigging throughout is compensated, the failure. of the link in question rendered the power brake on both engine and tender inoperative. The link parted through a single eye at the front and has not been found, but the main portion remained attached to the tender brake riggmg.
The sectional timing, which allows 29 minutes for the 7¼ miles, represents an average speed of 1S m.p.h.; at first sight this timing appears to be sufficient, but it must be remembered that it includes the slow start at Annfield and the stop at South Pelaw, also an intermediate stop of uncertain duration at West Stanley. It is recommended that consideration he given to the question whether this timing is altogether consistent with the low speed which is required; also whether the necessity for slow speed might be brought more tangibly to the notice of drivers by the inclusion of an appropriate Appendix speed restrictioested , firemen, who perforce are having to be em- ployed on many freight engines. Under the same conditions, an examination ought to be made of the tube and tube-plate clea.ning practice, and of a1ny methods suoh as rearranging rosters or flue cleaning which might lead to fewer steam raising's from dead cold.
In many cases there must be opportunities of in creasing locomotive efficiency by comparatively trivial alterations at the time of heavy overhauls. Valves and valve gears form an example. Often a newgear designed to give somewihat longer travel and longer lap could be fitted at little or no trouble extra to that needed to keep on maintaining the existing gear and dealing with troubles such as hot boxes, insufficienrt: power, and slug,gish running which arise from out-of-date valve gear char- acteristics. This is especially the case where, be- cause of wear in old engines, or because of cracking or accidents in more modern types, new cylinders have to be fitted: And there are places up and down the chassis and mechanism where welded con- struction could, in existing engines, replace riveted and bolted connections, with subsequent saving in maintenance labour.
The ultimate goal of the minimum number of locomotives doing the maximum amount of work with the minimum amount of maintenance is far too serious a matter for any details to be over- looked and the problem needs urgent attention now. It is a great pity that the commission set up under the presidency of Sir Ernest Lemon by t~e chairmen of the four group railways early this year to consider post-war problems, ,,-"as not also charged with solving some of the existing wartime problems, for responsible officials are at the moment far too busy keeping their departments running on transport and war-production work to spare time for the intensive investigation of the motive-power problem. n.

W.A. Stanier, Chief Mechanical Engineer, L.M.S.R. 166
Appointed Scientific Adviser to the Ministry of Production.

L.M.S. and L.N.E. Rys. 166
St. Ann's Road Station on the Tottenham and Hampstead Junction Railway was closed for traffic on and from Sunday, 9 August 1942.

Number 602 (15 October 1942)

Locomotive utilisation. 167-8
Given suitable maintenance, there has been no indication up to the present that the limit of economic utilisation of steam locomotives has been reaohed. In 1939 monthly mileages of 14,500 were not uncommon in this country, and 20,000 miles in countries where longer through runs were possible, although the general level of performance even of express passenger classes was much lower. The performance at the present time is below the 1939 standard, not only as regards mileage but also as measured by that yardstick of traffic movement, the percentage of punctual arrivals and departures of passenger and freight trains.
A great deal of this falling off is due to the apparent impossibility of keeping up, under war-time conditions, a high standard of maintenance for the motive power, and another part must be blamed to the poorer fuel which now seems general. But some blame, also, must be attributed to lack of discipline, which in some districts is, frankly, quite poor among the driving and maintenance personnel, yet, even under such circumstances, the standard of reliability and the degree of utilisation would have been higher if more modern equipment had been fitted to the majority of what may be termed "ordinary" locomotives in immediate pre-war years.
The provision of roller bearings for axleboxes is a case in point. The plain type of bearing takes up a good deal of time and trouble. Before each trip the driver must examine the boxes and the lubricating pipe connections and any trimmings. There is now an increased number of hot boxes, a type of failure which before the war had been reduced to small proportions; and particular care is needed in re-erection jf the wheels have been dropped for any reason. Compared with this work, roller bearings do not need opening up more than once a year, and require only refillings of grease at monthly or similar light overhauls or inspections. On one line engine trailing trucks with plain bearings averaged one delay every 200,000 miles due to these axle-boxes, whereas roller-bearing boxes averaged 5,000,000 per delay. For driving and coupled boxes delays averaged one per 297,000 miles due to heating and other causes for plain bearings, whereas 58 engines equipped with roller bearing boxes for driving and coupled wheels have run over 20,000,000 miles without a single box failure.
Unfortunately, although a few roller bearings might be obtained at the present time for application to locomotives known to be bad "box" performers, or to locomotives confined to certain lines carrying important war traffic and little else, there seems no possibility of turning over a proportion of the war production of roller bearing factories to the better equipment of one of the most vital factors in the war machine-railway motive power. Such reasoning applies also to the alteration of most other details which have a bearing on locomotive unreliability, and means of trying to arrest the decreasing standard of performance under wartime conditions must be found first along other avenues in which specialised labour or direct war material production would be effected literally to no degree. But it should not go unrecognised any longer that in reality transport equipment is war material of the most vital kind, and that if the position is not taken in hand immediately and sensibly, very drastic measures will eventually be required to meet a serious situation, for there is no question that as a whole the railway motive power of the belligerent countries is at the moment being greatly over-taxed.
Particularly in hard-water districts the state of the boiler is often the limiting factor, not only as to periodic inspeotions and main overhauls, but also as to punctual working. Water treatment may favourably affect the length of time between washing-out days, but material for a full-scale purifying plant is not likely to be obtainable. Yet it is not impossible that some simple chemical means could be made available for widespread use which, in addition to softening the water, might also eliminate one of the most serious disadvantages of water-softening as practised on at least one British railway, viz., the necessity of continuous blow-down. Hot-water washing-out plant, again, is not likely to be available for many new installations, but in many of the small depots a considerable improvement in washing-out plant and practice might be made with little troubleand at a small cost, with a consequent better utilisation of the motive power and a better condition of the locomotives, removing sources of delay on branch and secondary lines and on sections of main line over which engines from these small depots travel.
If the coal being used is of a brand inferior to that burned in pre-war years, and looks Iike remaining so for the duration of the war,. a review of the grate bar and air opemng proportions may prove advantageous, and more precise instructions might be giverl as to firing, particularly to the young, inexperienced, and very often uninterested, firemen, who perforce are having to be employed on many freight engines. Under the same conditions, an examination ought to be made of the tube and tube-plate cleaning practice, and of any methods suoh as rearranging rosters or flue cleaning which might lead to fewer steam raising's from dead cold.
In many cases there must be opportunities of increasing locomotive efficiency by comparatively trivial alterations at the time of heavy overhauls. Valves and valve gears form an example. Often a newgear designed to give somewihat longer travel and longer lap could be fitted at little or no trouble extra to that needed to keep on maintaining the existing gear and dealing with troubles such as hot boxes, insufficienrt: power, and sluggish running which arise from out-of-date valve gear characteristics. This is especially the case where, because of wear in old engines, or because of cracking or accidents in more modern types, new cylinders have to be fitted: And there are places up and down the chassis and mechanism where welded construction could, in existing engines, replace riveted and bolted connections, with subsequent saving in maintenance labour.
The ultimate goal of the minimum number of locomotives doing the maximum amount of work with the minimum amount of maintenance is far too serious a matter for any details to be over-looked and the problem needs urgent attention now. It is a great pity that the commission set up under the presidency of Sir Ernest Lemon by the chairmen of the four group railways early this year to consider post-war problems, was not also charged with solving some of the existing wartime problems, for responsible officials are at the moment far too busy keeping their departments running on transport and war-production work to spare time for the intensive investigation of the motive-power problem. See also letter from A.J. Walter in Volume 49 page 16

Edward H. Livesay. Transatlantic footplate experiences. 168-9. illustration
Riding on the locomotive through the Rockies both on the footplate which could be exceedingly hot in some of the narrow bore tunnels and on the pilot (the front of the locomotive) through the spiral tunnels on the descent. Includes notes on oil-firing. Photograph of train in Fraser Canyon.

E.A. Phillipson. The steam locomotive in traffic. X. Engine failures. 170-1. XI. Breakdown work and equiment. 171-2.
Causes: defective brakes, regulators stiff to operate, fractured draw gear, blower ineffective, injector not working, fractured piping, joints blowing, drop grates seizing, collapsed brich  arches, fusible plugs blowing, tubes leaking, engine priming, engine not starting, engine not steaming. breakdown work and equipment also composition of breakdown gangs

L.M.S.. 172
During the past twelve months thirty-eight tons of metal bands taken from old fish boxes at Fleetwood had been collected for salvage.
An average of 350 special O.H,M.S. freight trains were run each week during the first six months of this year—an increase of thirty-five per cent. over the corresponding period of 1941. This traffic was additional to the regular handling of loaded freight wagons for a total distance of over thirty million miles every week.
Three new 2-6-4 tanks Nos. 2663-5 were in service.

Personal. 172
C.E. Fairburn had been appointed Acting Chief Mechanical Engineer of the L.M.S.R. during the absence of W. A, Stanier.

L.N.E.R. 172
To assist in fuel economy—briquettes, composed of coal dust, sawdust and tar or oil residue, are being used on engines hauling-freight trains.

L.P.T.B. 172
An "Auto Announcer" was installed at a London underground station. It called out the name of the station before the train stops and after announcing its destination repeats the name of the station.

L.N.E.R. and' L.M.S. 172
As a wartime measure the L,N.E.R. and L.M.S. decided to close Gorleston North station for both goods and passenger traffic as from Monday 5 October.

U,S.A. 172
During recent months the War Production Board has requisitioned about 1,000 miles of abandoned and non-essential railway track for scrap and relaying purposes.
37,760 new freight cars were authorised to be constructed during 1942. All but 2,102 had been delivered. A further 18,000 cars had been ordered by the War Production Board.
During the first five months of 1942 the locomotive builders of the U.S.A. shipped 557 locomotives, including 216 steam, 6 electric, 312 diesel-electrics and 23 diesel.

James McEwan. Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 173-5. illustration, 3 diagrams (side elevations)
Continued from page 141. When dealing with the locomotives which came from the Scottish North Eastern Railway it is necessary in view of the very complicated manner in which these lines had existed to refer to all the lines north of the River Tay and south of the Dee which had, with the exception of the Highland Railway, been in use prior to the date of amalgarmtion of the S.N.E. with the Caledonian. The peculiar history was caused by the operation of leases, joint working or operating agreements.
Dundee and N ewtyle Railway. This was the oldest company in Angus and was operated by cable traction on the hills, and horse haulage on the level stretches up to 1833 when locomotive traction on the level was introduced and completed. in 1836. The first two locomotives for the line were built in 1833 by the firm of J. & C. Carrnichaels of Dundee, the first, No. 1 Earl of Airlie, was delivered on 20 September and the second, No. 2 Lord Wharncliffe, on the 25th, respectively. Both the names were those of directors and land owners connected with the line. Each locomative cost £700, and the tenders, which were merely wagons fitted with a water butt, £30. These two engines were of the 0-2-4 type with vertical cylinders, one on either side of the boiler, which drove the driving wheels in front through return cranks and connecting rods. The crosshead was above the cylinder. The firebox rested on the bogie. The cylinders were 11n. diameter in No. 1 and I1¼in. diameter in No. 2, while both had the same stroke, namely 18in. The driving wheels were 4ft. 5in. diameter. Working pressure 50 psi. Weight 9 ton 10cwt. Jarnes Carmichael, in a letter some years ago, referred to the engines and was quite emphatic that these engines had bogies. These, however, only pivotted, and had no side or end play. The bogie pin was made from best forged scrap quenched in brine but had to be renewed frequently owing to wear. No. 3 Trotter, was slightly smaller, lower set: in the frames and lighter, but otherwise of similar type, and came from the works of Stirling & Co., of Dundee, on 3 March, 1834. The cylinders were 11in. diameter by 18in. stroke, and driving wheels 4ft. 6in. diameter, which appear to have been altered later to 4ft. 8in. diameter. The weight in working order was 8 ton 3 cwt. 2 qr., and empty, 7 ton 3 cwt. 2 qr. In passing it is interesting to note that Patrick Stirling, later locomotive superintendent of the Great Northern Railway, served his apprenticeship with Stirling & Co., John Stirling being his uncle. No. 4 John Bull, was delivered by Robert Stephenson & Co. (their No. 137), in April 1836, and was one of the Planet class of four wheeled four coupled design. The cylinders were inside and were 11in. diameter by 16in. stroke. The coupled wheels were 4ft. 4in. diameter spaced at 4ft. l0in. centres. The boiler was 7ft. 0in. long by 3ft. 0in. diameter, with 94 tubes 15/8in. diameter, which gave a heating surface of 291.68 ft2. The firebox added a further 39.14 ft2 making a total of 330.82 ft2. Grate area 6.8 ft2_ The working pressure was 501b. psi. Weight about 9.3 tons.
In 1846 the line was leased to the Dundee and Perth Railway and when this line in turn joined with the Dundee and Arbroath Railway in 1847, to form the Dundee, Perth and Aberdeen Junction Railway, the Dundee and Newtyle locomotives became Nos. 1 to 4 in that list. In September, 1849, the gauge of the Dundee and Newtyle section was altered from the Scottish (4ft. 6in.) gauge to the standard 4ft. 8½in., and Nos. 1, 2 and 4 were altered to suit the new gauge while No. 3 was scrapped. In 1850 the three remaining D. & N. engines Nos. 1, 2 and 4 were renumbered 10 to 12 respectively. Four years later (in 1854), they were withdrawn from service, No. 10 becoming a pumping engine at Errol. No. 11 filling a similar duty at the Seabraes shops of the company, while No. 12 was scrapped. About ten years later Alex. Allan had the Earl of Airlie fettled up and photographed prior to scrapping it, and the former Lord Wharncliffe. Unfortunately in the renovation modern spring buffers were added instead of the padded horse hair type with which the engine had been fitted when at work on the line. It is regretted that the engine was not preserved as a museum piece. No. 3 used to be borrowed by the Newtyle and Glammiss Railway when the engine of that line was laid off for repairs or when traffic was heavy and the services of two locomotives were required.
Dundee, Perth and Aberdeen Junction Railway
Authorised as the Dundee and Perth Railway, the larger title was adopted when the D. & P. amalgamated with the Dundee and Arbroath Railway in 1847. The first four locomotives in the list of stock of the D.P. & A. Junction Railway were from the leased Dundee & Newtyle, and the next six were from the former Dundee & Arbroatn Railway. The details of these D. & A. engines are very incomplete as the early drawings of the makers were discarded by their successors many years ago. All six were of the 2-2-2 type and had outside cvlinders 13in. diameter by 18in. stroke. Inside framing was used and all the bearings were inside. The dome was placed in the centre of the boiler barrel and had a large brass cover. One safety valve was enclosed in a brass funnel and was located on the raised firebox casing, while a smaller one was placed between the dome and the chimney. The front one was subsequently removed. These engines were not dissimilar to Nos. 14 to 16 built later, but were slightly smaller. The working pressure was 50 psi. There was a difference in the diameter of the driving wheels, three having wheels 5ft. Oin., and the other three wheels 5ft. 6in. diameter respectively. All the carrying wheels were 3ft. 6in, diameter. In road trim the smaller wheeled engmes weighed 12 tons of which 3 ton 16 cwt. rested on the leading axle. and in the larger wheeled class the weight was 13 ton 13 cwt. of which weight 4 ton 11 cwt. rested on ,the leading axle. All six engines had originally been built for the 5ft. 6in. gauge, but when the gauges were stabilised in 1847, all were altered to the 4ft. 8½in. gauge. When new the two Classes cost £1012 and £1270 respectively, inclusive of tender, which was in the form of a wagon for coal carrying on which a large water butt was placed. This tender was very shortly replaced by a more orthodox one. An interesting feature of these engines was that part of the exhaust was diverted into the water tank in the new tender to heat the feed water. According to Whishaw the resulting economy was satisfactory. The tender weighed 3 ton 6 cwt. empty and 5 ton in road trim. On 9 March 1850, the Dundee and Arbroath withdrew from the group taking with them five of these engines and a further four from amongst the new ones added during the grouping.
All six engines were made by Kinmond, Hutton & Steel, the three engines with 5ft. wheels were named Fury, Griffen and Rapid and were built in 1838, 1838 and 1839 respectively. They had no number on the D. & A. but on becoming part of the stock of the D. P. & A. Jct. the numbers 5 to 7 were allotted. The three engines with the 5ft. 6in. wheels bore the names Wallace (1840), (after the foundry in which it was built), Dart (1840), and Queen (1841), becoming D.P. & A. Jct. Nos. 8 to 10. The first three locomotives added to the group stock were of the 0-4-2 type. These had inside cylinders 15in. diameter by 20in. stroke. The driving wheels were 5ft. 0in. diameter, and the trailing wheels 3ft. 6in. diameter. Double framing was used, while the boilers fitted were almost D.P. & A, 0·4·2. Nos. 11 to 13 (later 2 to 4). identical with those fitted to the 5ft. 6in. singles Nos. 8 to 10. These engines .had no names and like the preceding ones were from the works of Kinmond, Hutton & Steel. All three were made in 1847 and their railway numbers 11 to 13. Following these were a further three singles, 2-2-2 type with inside cylinders 15in. diameter by 20in. stroke. The driving wheels were 5ft. 0in. and the carrying wheels 3ft. 6in. diameter respectively. Double framing was used and the boiler was similar to that fitted to the 0-4-2 type engines. Again the makers were Kinmond, Hutton & Steel. The numbers and names were: 14 Vulcan (1847) , 15 Lucifer (1847), and 16 Dundee (1848). The next addition to the stock was No. 17 Kinnaird, built in 1847, and although in service that year was not taken into stock until 1848. It was named in honour of Lord Kinnaird who had at no time impeded the formation or location of the Dundee and Perth Railway so far as his lands were concerned. This was of the Crampton 4-2-0 (or 2-2-2-0) type and was one of six built to the order of T. Crarnpton by Tulk and Ley in 1847. Tulk and Ley's numbers were 10, 11, 13 to 16. Nos. 10 and 11 were sold to the Namur and Liege Railway, No. 14 to the D.P. & A. Jet., and Nos. 13, 15 and 16 to the South Eastern Railway. All were similar in dimensions which were: cylinders (outside) 16in. diameter by 20in. stroke, driving wheels 7ft. 0in. diameter, carrying wheels 3ft. 9in. diameter, total wheelbase 13ft. 0in. The small leading wheels did not form a bogie truck. The heating surface of the tubes was 927 ft2, and of the firebox 62 ft2., making a total of 989 ft2. The grate area was 14.5 ft2 , and working pressure 50 lb. sq. in. The weight of the engine was about 24 tons.
The boiler had 215 tubes l5/8in. diameter, and 11 ft. long. A mid-feather is said to have been fitted to the firebox subsequently and while this may be accurate, no definite record of this alteration can be traced in the records available, the possible solution is that the engine although not quite worn out may have been given a partly used firebox with mid feather to wear out until a replacement engine was ready. For almost all of its life the engine was driven by George Davidson, who, in later years, remarked that .it was always a difficult job, even with a light four coach train of the period, to get the engine started, and once it was started there was no holding of it in check. It is claimed that on one occasion with a three coach train and a following wind the engine ran a stopping train from Dundee to Perth (Barnhill) in 35 minutes, which was a remarkable feat in view of the permanent way of the period. The next additions were two 0-4-0 type tender engines built by Stirling & Co., of the Dundee Foundry. These were numbered and named: 18 Caledonia, and 19 Gowrie. The only record of these is that the driving wheels were 4ft. 6in., although an old Arbroath Works record suggests that the cylinders were in 1865, 14in. diameter by 18in. stroke. The engines were built in 1847 and 1848 respectively. In 1849 Stirling & Co. delivered two 0-4-2 type tender engines with 14in. diameter and 20in. stroke cylinders and 4ft. 6in. ooupled wheels. The cylinders were inside. The road numbers were 20 and 21. There were no names on them so far as is known. The last locomotive added was the Eclipse, one of George England's small 2-2-2 well tanks. There were 90 tubes l5/8in. diameter by 11 ft. 4in. long between tubeplates giving 541.0 ft2. of heating surface. The boiler barrel was 11 ft. long. The firebox measured 26in. by 33in. by 38in., giving a heating surface of 36.2 ft2., making a total of 577.2 ft2. Grate area 5.03ft2. The carrying wheels were 3ft. diameter and wheelbase 8ft. 0in. plus 7ft. 0in., 15ft. 0in. total. It was sent out on "approval" in June, 1849, and in 1850 was added to the stock of the company. The cylinders were outside the frames and measured 9in. diameter by 12in. stroke. The driving wheels were 4ft. 6in. diameter.
Figures: Carmicihael's Dundee and Newtyle Earl of Airlie 1833 (The Engineer Swain) ; .D.P. & A. 0-4-2 Nos. 11-13 (later 2 to 4); .D.P. & A. 2·2·2. No. 3, 14 to 16 (later 5 to 7); .D.P. & A.  No. 1  Crampton locomotive Kinnaird

L.N.E.R. 175
St. Botolph's Station, Colchester, re- opened for traffic on 28 September.

F.C. Hambleton. L.N.W. compounds: Metropolitan, 5ft. 6in. tank, and Triplex classes. 176-7
To complete the series of drawings of Webb's compound locomotives for the L.N.W.R., the three following illustrations have been prepared. One shows the first tank engine to be compounded. She was one of a set of sixteen engines ordered in 1871 by the Company from Beyer, Peacock & Co., for working over the underground system. No. 2063 was set to work on  4 June 1884 as a 3-cylinder compound with two cylinders 13in. diameter, and one low pressure of 26in. diameter, with a common stroke of 24in. The heating surface was increased to 1028 ft2., and the working pressure to 150 psi. As can be seen, the new boiler provided had all the standard Webb fittings. In a test of 161,985 miles, run between Mansion House and Willesden, there was a saving of 81b. of coal over her "simple" sisters, but against this advantage had to be set the slowness in getting away from stations and the surging motion of the engine before getting into her stride. Her original Bissel leading truck was replaced by an Adams bogie. It is interesting to note that she was the onily one of the Beyer engines to run without a cab throughout her career. She was renumbered 1914 in 1885, 3026 in 1889 and was broken up in March 1897.
The second illustration represents the only 2-2-2-2 compound tank with 5ft. 6in. driving wheels, No. 600, which was built in July 1887, with 2 h.p. cylinders 14in. diameter, and one L.P. cylinder 26in. diameter, all with a stroke of 24in. Outwardly this engine, which bore Crewe 'Works No. 3000, was somewhat like the 5ft. 6in. double-enders, the first of which, No. 910, appeared in 1890, and which, in reality, were tank engine versions of the older 5ft. 6in. straight link 2-4-0 engines of the Precursor class. No. 600 was renumbered 1963, and scrapped in December, 1901. She was one of the few tank engines of the day to be fitted with the waterscoop and carried independent reversing gear, consisting of a hand wheel for the H.P. and a lever for the L.P. cylinder. The last drawing represents both the first and last attempts of Webb to develop the compound system. An Allan 6ft. passenger engine, No. 54 Medusa, built in 1846, as converted by Webb in 1878 to a two cylindered compound (cylinders 9 and 15in. by 20in.) on the Mallett system—a scheme which had attracted Webb's attention when Anatole Mallet had exhibited one of his compound locomotives at the Paris Exhibition. The starting valve, a kind of slide valve which allowed high pressure steam to pass direct to the low pressure cylinder to assist starting, can be seen on the side of the smokebox. This little engine, weighing only 23¼ tons, and carrying a pressure of 120 psi, was put to work on the Ashby and Nuneaton branch, and its performance was so far satisfactory as to encourage Webb to design a 3-cylinder compound for express work, which, of course, was the celebrated No. 66, Experiment. No. 1874 was renumbered 3088 in July, 1887, and eight years afterwards was again chosen by Webb as an experimental engine, for in August, 1895, she appeared as a triple expansion locomotive bearing the name Triplex. Her cylinders were 9¼, 13 and 19½ inches in diameter, with a stroke of 20in. The intermediate-pressure cylinder was fitted with a by-pass valve, and the low pressure cylinder, which was inside and between the frames, had the loose eccentric valve gear as already applied with success to the Teutonic class. The boiler pressure was 200 lb. She was attached to the Engineers' Saloon, but her performance was poor, and she was scrapped iln 1903. In conclusion it can be remarked that although the Webb system of compounding became a highly controversial subject—largely owing to the fact that the performances of the engines were at times erratic, nevertheless many of the compounds put in good mileages on low coal consumption, often showed a high turn of speed, and carried many engineering details which, like the appearance of these locomotives, excite admiration.

E.C. Poultney. Single driver tank engines Furness Railway. 177-9. illustration
When the first part of the Furness Railway was opened in 1846 the small amount of traffic, mostly mineral, was worked by four coupled tender engines of the Bury type; in fact, the first locomotives the Company possessed were actually of the Bury bar framed design built by the famous firm of Bury, Curtis and Kennedy, of Liverpool, and it may be mentioned that one of these, No. 3, delivered to the line in 1844 worked till as late as 1900. This notable example of locomotive construction is preserved at the Central Station, Barrow-in-Furness. Following the use of these engines the next to be delivered, in 1852, to the Furness comprised some little 2-2-2 type well tank "singles" for passenger trains, designed and built by another well known firm, Sharp Bros., of Manchester. There were two of these, which proved to be the forerunners of a total of thirteen of generally similar design, and of  the same wheel arrangement, which at different periods did service first of all on the main line sections and some more recently towards the close of their careers in branch line passenger traffic. One of the last of this class of engine built for the Furness is shown by. the accompanying photograph of No. 37, built by Sharp, Stewart & Co., in 1866, when the last four of the type were delivered. In 1857 two more of these engines were put into traffic, these along with a further two obtained in 1864 and the four built in 1866, were alike in their principal d imensions, except that the 1857 lot had 14in. cylinders as against 15in. for all the others. In 1866 the Furness acquired the Whitehaven and Furness Junction Railway, and with it, a rather heterogeneous collection of engines including two single wheel 2-2-2 type tank engines built by E.B. Wilson & Co. Leeds, of Jenny Lind fame.
There was also another engine of the same general design, built by Hawthoms, which had 5ft. 6in. drivers, and 14in. by 20in, cylinders; it bore the Furness No, 46, and was ultimately sold to the Isle of Wight Central Railway. The E.B. Wilson engines were also sold, and the writer has no recollection of them, The Sharp engines of 1857 carried Furness Nos. 11 and 12; and the latter, renumbered 12a was disposed of to the Clevedon and Portishead Light Railway, in 1898. Two further engines  built for the Furness, in 1864, were numbered 21 and 22 and worked for many years on the Lake Side (Windermere) branch between Lake Side and Ulverston, where connections were made with the main line trains between Whitehaven and Carnforth Junction. These were exactly like the one shown by the photograph, but it should be pointed out that when these and the four of 1866 were first built they simply had a spectade plate or weather board, the covered over form of cab, as shown, was added later, as was also the vacuum brake gear, Greshams, and com- plementary steam brake. These six engines were built in Manchester, by Sharp, Stewart &Co., and between them worked for some years the Coniston branch extending between that point and Foxfield Junction on the Whitehaven main line, and also between Grange-over-Sands and Kendal, running via Arnside and Hincaster Junction, between which point and Oxenholme they ran over the L.N.W.R. West Coast main line. They were excellent little engines in every way, being very simple they apparently gave little trouble and ran very freely with the light trains of four wheeled passenger stock of the period. They were distinguished by having polished brass casings for the dome, and the Salter balance safety valves, and brass strips round the driving wheel splashers. The cylinders, inside, were in two castings, with valves between operated direct by Stephenson's gear, like all Furness engines of the period, as supplied by Sharps they had the original type of Giffard injector. The writer had the pleasure of knowing Nos. 21 and 22 rather intimately. When in service, either one or the other, as the case might be, lived at Lake Side where there was a small shed just about big enough to hold it and close the doors comfortably. During the number of years the writer knew these and other Furness engines the Lake Side branch was worked, except during the summer season, by one of these engines only, and for years the same driver and fireman had charge; the former, a well-known character, Tom Mawson by name, and whenever there was a quick run from Ulverston to Lake Side and back to be made on account of making main line connections, " Old Tom" could always be relied upon to do it. Circumstances such as this could happen when a main line train from Carnforth was late at Ulverston, meaning that the branch train was also behind time in getting away, thus giving little time to run the nine miles with two stops, in those days, to Lake Side, and return in time to make a booked connection with an "up" train from Whitehaven to Carnforth. What ultimately happened to the last four engines of 1866, the writer does not know, but so far as 21 and 22 are concerned, the former was used as a stationary engine for driving the machine tools at the Barrow shops of the Company, and 22 went to a Colliery Co. So far as the Lake Side branch traffic was concerned, the "singles" retired from service in 1891, their place being taken by 2-4-0 type tender engines converted to 2-4-2 side tanks for the purpose. These, with their 16in. by 20in. cylinders were, of course, much more powerful, and for the heavier traffic, together with larger coaches were rather more certain on the "banks," and got away better, especially between Haverthwaite and Lake Side where the line passed through a tunnel. See "Locomotives of the Furness Railway." Vol. V. Locomotive Mag. (1900). Illustration: 2·2·2T No. 37 (F. Moore)

Crampton's patents. 179-80. 2 diagrams
It is perhaps fitting that this year should witness some account of Thomas Russell Crampton's inventions in connection with the locomotive engine, since it was in 1842 that he, in conjunction with John Coope Haddan, took out his earliest patent (Feb. 15, No. 9261), the first ten claims of which all relate to improvements in locomotives. The three remaining claims, being mainly concerned with springs, wood or papier mache wheels, and wheels with wooden felloes, etc., more particularly applying to rolling stock, hardly call for attention in the notes which follow. Biographical details of this great engineer have already been ably dealt with by Mr. Hamilton Ellis in our pages for March, 1940, and it will, therefore suffice if we confine ourselves strictly to a record of his inventions. About the time of his first patent, mechanicians were much exercised to find some way of obtaining variable expansion of steam in the cylinders. It had long been known that the addition of lap to the slide valves whereby the cut-off was made to take place before the end of the piston stroke resulted in an important economy of steam, but when used in combination with gab- motion or other gears giving no variability of admission, serious limitations to the flexibility of the engine were at once apparent.
It is, therefore, not surprising that the young- engineer (he was at this time twenty-six years of age) should devote his abilities to this problem; and the first three claims of his patent read as follows: " Firstly, an improved method or methods. of reversing or altering the cut-off of the steam by varying the position or inclination of one eccentric. rod to each cylinder of locomotive, stationary, and marine steam engines. Secondly, an improved method or methods of altering the lead of admis- sion by giving various inclinations to the valve rods. of locomotives, etc. Thirdly, an improved method or methods of cutting off and varying the lead of admission (without increasing or diminishing the traverse of the slide valve) by varying the inclinations of the eccentric rods."
Figure 1 illustrates the first and second improvements, and it may be well to note here that in redrawing the figures from this and subsequent Patent Specifications certain crudities and obscurities have, as far as possible, been corrected, and the somewhat prolix wording (so beloved by the lawyers of that time) has also been shortened; without, it is hoped, detracting from the comprehensibility of the matter, but rather to the contrary. The remainder iof the text only makes sense if accompanied by the diagrams

O.J. M[orris]. The first bogie coaches in the Isle of Wight. 181. illustration, diagram (side elevation including section)
Isle of Wight Central Railway bought two coaches from the Lancaster Carriage  and Wagon Co, in 1889. They were originally oil lit, but later gas lit and fitted with the Westinghouse brake. For a time they were used on the seasonal Ryde to Freshwater service. The Southern Railway used them on the Brading branch hauled by a Terrier locomotive. Photograph by A.B. MacLeod shows No. 9 Fishbourne on this duty. Thhe coaches were taken to the mainland to be scrapped in 1938

Correspondence. 182

North London Railway. Reginald B. Fellows.
I have been greatly interested in the historical article on the North London Railway in the September LOCOMOTIVE, and I wonder if the author or any reader can clear up a matter connected with the Hammersmith branch, opened as you point out, for freight in 1857, and for passen- gers in the year following.
The late W. J. Scott, a recognised authority on railway history, wrote in the" Railway Magazine" of February, 1899 (p. 122) as follows:-" Even the little single line branch to Hammersmith (North London) has seen many alterations. In early days there was one composite coach for it on each of the trains from Camden, these being stopped at the junction box known as Acton Gatehouse. The' ups' stopped at this point to pick up the Hammersmith vehicle. On the opening of the City line to Broad Street, the through vehicles were given up, and the branch train (engine and one coach) ran to and from Acton (N.L. main, or Church- field Road). From the junction box to the station and vice versa the train was ptshed, the engine being at the rear. Then in 1880 South Acton station was opened, and the branch was prolonged beside the main line for about a quarter of a mile into the new station."
I am anxious to know if the Hammersmith coach was actually slipped in 1858 off the down train at the junction. Some years ago my enquiries led to a negative conclusion. It is, however, certain that slipping coaches at speed began in 1858 on L.B. & S.C., S.E.R. and G.W.R.-so the possible North London Railway slip is not unlikely.

Cowlairs commentary. Norman Duncan. 182
It frequently happens that through these pages  it is possible in middle age to re-live the boyishly enthusiastic days of our earliest locomotive passions and so discover the orrgms of locomotive types which long years ago fascinated our interest. Stirling Everards admirable "Cowlairs Commentary" has enabled me to do this. In the early years of this century my uncle, William Buchanan Cape, was Goods Superintendent of the North British Railway at Falkirk Grahamstown (later District Traffic Superintendent, N.B.R., Dundee), and lived in the Station House at Grahamstown. The line from Waverley to Larbert which passes through Grahamstown was evidently the final happy hunting ground of many of the Edinburgh & Glasgow engines described by Everard. During the summers of 1902, 1903 and 1904 when I spent my holidays at Grahamstown, the beautiful 2-2-2 single express engines Nos. 1001, 1004 and 1007 which regularly hauled the Edinburgh (Waverley) to Larbert trams greatly took my fancy. As they merely carried the works brass plate Rebuilt 1880 Cowlairs I could not at that time establish their origin but through Stirling Everard's articles I now see these were part of the Beyer Peacock six which were later put on the duplicate list and renumbered in the 1000s. They were at that time exceedingly pretty engines and their company on. the Larbert turns was augmented by the Jenny Lind engine No. 1009. The first  journey I ever made on the N.B. was behind No. 1004 from Waverley to Grahamstown, while at the end of the holiday returning from Falkirk High at midnight our train engine was the 2-4-0 double-framed passenger engine No. 351.

L.M.S.R. 182
The old Midland 2-4-0 express engine, No. 20008 made her last journey, to the works for breaking up. Until recently she was serving as a pilot. Later she worked the Inspection Saloon in the Crewe district and finished her career shunting at Watford. Her total mileage reached 1,613,019.

Reviews. 182

How to draw locomotives. Paul B. Mann. London and New York. The Studio Ltd . 64 pp.  182
The author addresses himself primarily to enthusiasts showing them how to portray types of locomotives. Stationary and moving examples are clearly illustrated, and all details of draughtsmanship carefully described. The' fascinating sketches reproduced represent Canadian and Amencan as well as British locomotives and trains.

Inchley's theory of heat engines. edited and revised by H. Wright Baker, Longmans, Green & Co., Ltd. 455 pp. 182
This is the fifth edition of this text book which though considerably revised when compared with early editions. still admirably continues the object aimed at by its first. author, viz., giving in a complete and concise form the thermodynamical principles of the subject. In view of the fact that this established work was thoroughly revised and brought up to date as recently as 1938, large-scale revision was neither expected in the present edition nor was it necessary, but considerable extension has. been made to the section dealing with the important and difficult subject of heat transference by convection. In these times many people are making their first practical acquaintance with heat engines of various forms and will wish to develop an insight of the theoretical side; this book may be confidently recommended, as, due to the arrange- ment whereby simple sections precede those of a more difficult nature it will be readily followed by anyone who has the reasonable knowledge of mathematics essential to the theoretical study of any engineering subject.

Institution of Locomotive Engineers. 182
The May-June 1942 Journal contains a report of the General Meeting held on 12 June 1941, at Science House, Sydney, New South Wales. Chairman, Mr. H. Young. At this meeting R.S. York (member) read his paper Locomotive Superheating, with special reference to headers and elements in use in modern locomotives and their arrangement.
The author devotes particular attention to the practical side but includes an interesting historical account of superheating. After discussing forms of headers, improvements in elements are dealt with. It is recalled that in 1921 improvement was made in reliability and reduction of maintenance costs at running sheds when the integrally forged element was introduced. A further advance, both from engineering and operative standpoints was the introduction of the forged return end in which the tubes are joined together by a machine forging process, thus making the bend an integral part of the element tubing.
A cinematograph film was shown at the conclusion of the paper showing the manufacture of machine forged return bends at the Manchester Works of The Superheater Company, Ltd.
The Journal for July-August, 1942, contains a report of the General Meeting of the Indian Eastern Centre held at. the Imperial Hotel, New Delhi, on  7 February 194I. Chairman, Mr. Lean, Chief Mechanical Engineer, Madras and Southern Mahratta Railway. A paper was read by M. W. Bhote, entitled Modernisation of a B.E.S.A. 4-6-0 locomotive on the G.I.P. Railway.

L.M.S.R  182
F.J. Pepper had been appointed to succeed A.S. Bennett, retired, as Works Manager, Kilmarnock.

ERRATA.-Vol. xlviii No. 599, July, 1942, p. 121: The expression preceding M, for the increase in load on the soleplate should read Ph-, thus L2+ 21i slightly lowering the values of M and M. Similarly> Phl M should read CL 11), etc. 2 2+ 21

Number 603 (15 November 1942)

Locomotive tyres. 183.

L.N.E.R. class A4 Pacific locomotive: No. 4901 "Charles H. Newton". 184. 2 illustrations
To ease maintenance and reduce the risk of overheated bearings the side valences from the streamlining were removed. Locomotive was painted black with "NE" on tender: locomotive had formerly been named Capercaillie. Newton is shown on footplate.

The North London Railway. 186-7

Crampton's patents. 187-9

Stirling Everard. Cowlairs commentary. 190-2
Johnson's later work after he had moved to the Midland Railway at Derby was more distinctively his own, but it is nevertheless possible to trace a line of continuity from Cowl airs in 1842 to Derby in 1922, and through Johnson's son James to the Inverurie works of the Great North of Scotland. In 1866 the Western Division of the North British required additional passenger locomotives.
Cowlairs was busy on 2-4-0 engines to Johnsori's orders, and, therefore, a new design was prepared for construction by Messrs. Neilson. The new type was neither of pure North British nor of pure Edinburgh and Glasgow origin, It was a 6 ft. 2-4-0 with 16 in, by 20 in, cylinders and mixed frames, resembling in many ways a series of six 2-4-0s designed by Neilsori's to William Hurst's requirements for the North British in 1860, and numbered 90-95, The new engines, however, which were numbered 382-393, were given domeless boilers reminiscent of Paton's singles, They had polished chimney caps, the Edinburgh and Glasgow type of polished brass safety valve cover, and plenty of polished beading to the splashers, no doubt in deference to Cowlairs susceptibilities,
At the same time Messrs, Neilson added two new examples to the already large total of 0-4-0 mineral engines, These, N.B.R. Nos, 394 and 395, had 5 ft. wheels and 16 in, by 22 in, cylinders, At this point it is necessary to consider the complete locomotive stock of the North British Railway at the beginning of 1867, There were close on four hundred engines, of which a little over half belonged to classes of six or more approximately similar machines, and the early history of many of them was scarcely reassuring, The North British locomotive department had originally been under the charge of Robert Thornton. In his time the company standardised on Hawthorn designs, the only exception being one Crampton 4-2-0 of E.B. Wilson manufacture, Thornton's term of office was somewhat unhappy, The locomotives with the earlier type of double frames suffered from many broken crank axles, a complaint probably not unconnected with the appalling state of the North British permanent way, Thornton tried to remedy this by removing the inside frames, leaving the crank axle with outside bearings only, This effectively reduced the life of the axles to a few months, and brought Thornton's career with the North British to a close, Thornton was succeeded by William Smith, whose term of office was but two years, during which he attempted by alternative and equally unsuccessful methods to deal with the frame troubles, Things finally reached such a pass that the directors reported to the shareholders that "from mistaken notions of economy, a system of patchwork, in lieu of thorough repairs, has been the rule adopted from 1848 to 1854", while the Board of Trade saw fit to remark upon "the general want of system in the manner in which the North British is worked".
During 1854 Smith was replaced by E.G. Petrie. The directors now "took instant and energetic measures to place the locomotive department in the most effective condition", but to do so they found it necessary to hire locomotives to assist in working the line, and to send many of the existing engines to outside contractors for overhaul. The restoration of efficiency to the department was finally made the responsibility of Petrie's successor, William Hurst, whose energetic measures had, by the end of July, 1855, "in a high degree restored the public reputation of the company, which had suffered from nothing more than the inefficiency of their locomotive power", So much for the original North British, The Edinburgh, Perth and Dundee could show a better picture, There Robert Nicholson had been the locomotive superintendent, and had at first maintained a stock of Hawthorn types with considerably more success than was attained by his neighbours south of the Firth of Forth, The Edinburgh, Perth and Dundee had in the 'fifties bought additional locomotives from the firm of Neilson, and under Nicholson's direction several had been built to his own designs at the company's Burntisland works, From these sources and from many smaller companies the locomotive stock of the enlarged North British had come,
Of the passenger machines there were two relatively modern classes of 2-4-0, both having 6 ft. coupled wheels and 16 in, by 20 in, cylinders, The first of these consisted of the six engines, Nos, 90-95, built by Neilsons for the North British to Hursts requirements in 1860, while six somewhat similar engines, Nos. 341-346, came from Messrs. Dubs in 1865. They had mixed frames, inside boilers with domes over the firebox. The Dubs engines were provided with plain stovepipe chimneys. These, with the Edinburgh and Glasgow machines, were the only coupled express engines that the company owned. Of singles there were six efficient North Brlitish 6 ft. examples with 16 in. by 18 in. cylinders, which had been built by R. & W. Hawthorn in 1847. They were very similar to the Edinburgh and Glasgow's 'Large Hawthorns', One had been rebuilt with inside bearings to the driving axle. This was No. 35. The remainder, Nos. 33, 34 and 36-38 were more or less in their original condition. There were also five Hawthorn singles from the Edinburgh, Perth and Dundee, which had 6 ft. driving wheels and 15 in. by 20 in. cylinders. (N.B.R. Nos. 124-128). These had been rebuilt by Nicholson before the amalgamation, and he had added an inside framed single of his own design, but of similar dimensions, N.B.R. No. 147 which was built at Burntisland in 1861. The North British contribution to the pool included two further machines which are worthy of notice.
The first of these was the Crampton, No. 55, which was of the mixed frame type with 7 ft. driving wheels, 16 in. by 20 in. cylinders and outside Gooch motion. The acceptance of this revolutionary machine by the North British spurred Messrs. Hawthorn on to further efforts, and they offered the company a counter attraction in the form of a 7 ft. 2-2-2 of their latest type, the sister engine of the more famous Flews of the York, Newcastle and Berwick. In this design the usual double frames were provided, but the steam chests were outside the cylinders, and the Stephenson motion was between the driving wheels and the outside frame members. The overhang at the leading end was far too great for steady running on the North British permanent way of the period, and neither this locomotive, No. 57 Queen of 1849, nor the Crampton were very useful assets.
In addition to these were a large number of North British and Edinburgh, Perth and Dundee Hawthorn machines of 2-4-0, 0-4-2 and 0-6-0 types, subdivided into many classes. Under Hurst the North British had, moreover, amassed a large collection of small inside framed 0-6-0 goods engines, mostly with 15½ in. by 22 in. cylinders and 5 ft. wheels, built by Stephenson, Hawthorn, Dubs and at St. Margarets works.
Passenger tanks were represented by a series of fourteen 0-4-2 engines, designed by Hurst and built at St. Margarets. These had inside frames, 4 ft. 9 in. coupled wheels, 12 in. by 18 in. cylinders and domeless boilers. It is believed that two early Hawthorn 0-4-2 tender machines had also been converted to tanks for suburban service.
Of Nicholson's designs there were four capable 0-6-0 tender engines with inside frames, 16 in. by 24 in. inside cylinders and 5 ft. wheels, N.B.R. Nos. 145, 150, 159 and 160, built in 1861 and 1862, and also a small 0-4-0 mineral engine, No. 151, of 1860.
These engines and many others went to make up the locomotive stock of the enlarged North British. They came from innumerable builders in ones and twos, and provided a veritable Noah's Ark which it would take many articles to describe, even if details of all of them were still available. Suffice it to say that the maintenance of only a small proportion of them would have given a budding locomotive engineer a wealth of experience never to be gained in the present standardised age.

Number 604 (15 December 1942)

Diesel vehicle repairs. 201.
Diesel Vehicle Repairs A consideration af the maintenance and repair methods of diesel locomotives and railcars compared with those of steam locomotives indicates that the life of either type of unit may be virtually unlimited. It has not been uncommon practice to. glorify the performance of steam locomotives 30, 40 and 50 years old, regardless of the fact that at such an age there is little of the original locomotive left except the spaces between the wheels. Similar methods may be applied to. the engines and mechanical portions of diesel locomotives and railcars by routine renewals, and by building-up through welding and by metal deposition.
This passible similarity of the methods applied to. steam and diesel power an railways was not featured in the remarkably comprehensive paper an the repair of railway oil engines on the Central Argentine Railway presented recently by C.A. Parker, of that line, to the Diesel Engine Users' Association, and read in London, on November 5, before a joint meeting of that Association and the Institution of Locomotive Engineers. But that paper did result. in an appreciation of the way and degree in which the proportions of a maintenance-and-repair programme may vary. For example, with. the Chicago-California and other long-distance diesel-powered trains in the United States the travelling-fitter system and the work done during a few hours of lie-over time at each end of the run, mean that say, 75 or 80 per cent. of all maintenance and repair work comes under the heading of maintenance, and that repair work "within the meaning of the Act" is undertaken only at infrequent intervals. On the other hand, the method practised on the Central Argentine Railway for the power plants of the 12 twin-car 640 b.h.p. Ganz diesel sets incorporates the mmimum of shed work, and the running department has teen relieved of the responsibility for engine maintenance except for odd details, practically all of the necessary work being carried out in the course of visits to the central repair shops. The claim is made that this Central Argentme Railway practice in no way invalidates "preventive" maintenance and repair, which is probably the key to the successful running af motive pawer of all types. On the Central Argentine system the power plants are taken to. the repair establishment for a light overhaul every 43,000 miles, and for heavy repairs every 125,000/140,000 miles, and It is judged that these mileages enable attention to be given to all the major and minor constituents before they begin to give trouble either through excessive wear, fatigue, or deterioration. Nevertheless, the extent to which the Central Argentine Railway has relieved the running department of much minor work and tuning-up the engines is greater than found on the majority of railways owning diesel stock, and possibly the success with which this has been done may be traced in a large measure to. the fact that these twin-car trains are concentrated in one area and work an certain definite services without variation. For mare widely-scattered vehicles it would seem that the shed staffs would still have to. be entrusted with a greater proportion of the total maintenance-and- repair work. These remarks, of course, apply to. medium and large-sized railways, for an the smaller lines maintenance and repair are usually undertaken in the same shed by the same men just as they happen to be needed.
Although a certain amount of trouble has been experienced with the main constituents of these oil engines an the Central Argentine Railway—the shopping periods, for instance, seem to be governed by the mileage which can be expected before trouble is given by the inverted main bearings bolted to the light-alloy crankcase—Mr. Parker's paper emphasised the feature which has been found in practically all diesel railcars designed and built from about 1937 onwards, and that is the great majority of failures booked against the vehicles are not due to the engines or to the gearboxes themselves, but to. the auxiliaries associated with those two main constituents, Many of these troubles are trifling, and may result in the lass of only a few minutes on schedule, or a day laid off. On the other hand, the consequential damage resulting from the failure of a relatively unimportant part may be great, and that is one of the principal reasons for the necessity of an immediate advance in the standard of design and construction of all ancillary equipment. Far too often the standards have been almost nonsensical, and if found in conjunction with a conscientious running department officer who. books every defect, however small, may give a totally incorrect impression as to what modern diesel locomotives and railcars can do in the way of performance.

[United States locomotives for service in Britain]. 201
The first consignment of American built locomotives for service in this country recently arrived at a British port. These engines will be used principally for shunting and hauling short distance freight trains.

Ministry of Supply "Austerity" locomotive. 202. diagr. (s. el.)

L.N.E.R. 202
1942nd locomotive built at Doncaster Works: Works number plate identical to that of year. Running number 3844: 2-8-0 type

King's Cross Station. 203

The real team spirit: rail, road, Army and others worked as one after raid on Middlesbrough Station. 202-3. illustration.
Picture shows serious damage to station, locomotive (Gresley 2-6-2T) and train which led to several deaths and injuries. Repllacement bus services were provided by Middlesbrough Corporation and United Automobile Services for passengers and Stockton station handled the newspaper, mail, milk and parcels traffic swhich was forwarded by road.

E.A. Phillipson. The steam locomotive in traffic. XI. Breakdown work and equipment. 204-6.

Netherlands Railways. 206.
All forty articulated diesel railcars had been confiscated by the Nazi regime and sent to Germany

[Skefco Ball Bearing Co. Ltd.]. 206
G.A.R. Mead appointed Managing Director, formerly Assistant Managing Director.

Gilbert S. Szlumper. 206
Appointed Director-General supply Services to Ministry of Supply.

Southern Railway. 206
King Arthur class Nos. 739, 740, 742, 744, 747-51 and 754 lent to LNER North Eastern Area

James McEwan. Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 207-8.
Dundee & Perth and Dundee & Arbroath Railways.

E.C. Poultney. New York Central locomotives: further notes by . 208-12. 5 illustrations.
Information further to that in Volume 41 (1935) by same author.

Diesel locomotives for tunnels. 212

Obituary. 212
Charles S. Lake:
died 19 November 1942: engineer and technical writer
T.S. Finlayson:
former Chief Locomotive Draughtsman LSWR

Crampton's patents. 213-14. 7 diagrams
Continued from p. 189: GB 10854/1845

60 ton breakdown cranes: Victorian Railways. 214-15. illustration.
The Victorian Railways had recently constructed two 60 ton breakdown cranes at the Newport Workshops. The elements of the design were due to Cowans, Sheldon & Co. Ltd. of Carlisle with modifications introduced by the Chief Mechanical Engineer, A.C. Ahlston. In 1911 the Newport Workshops had built a 30 ton crane; and another in 1914, but these were inadequate for handling the Pacific and Mikado types introduced from 1928/9. The new cranes were fitted with squat Spencer Hopwood boilers.

The coming of the extended smokebox. 215-16. 4 diagrams.
In these days of multiple blastpipes, and the almost universal employment of extended smokeboxes an experiment tried by F. W. Webb on the L.N.W.R. as far back as 1897 is not without interest. The extended smokebox, apart from one or two tentative efforts on the G. & S.W.R. and G.E.R. was first brought into regular use in England by William Dean, who, in 1895, provided his Duke of Cornwall class with this novelty.
In America the idea had been adopted previous to this date, as it was found that an extended smokebox acted as a spark arrester, since there was both room for the provision of a wire net placed just below the level of the blastpipe orifice, as well as space to allow the hot cinders to settle on the floor of the box. This obviated the back pressure caused by the earlier forms of spark-arresters placed in the chimney itself. On the G.W.R. engines Dean followed the American scheme, and with cylinders 18 by 26 in., 5ft. 7!in. driving wheels and 160lb. pressure, gave the smokebox a length of 5ft. 0¼in., and an internal diameter of 4ft. 11¾in. The chimney had a liner with the rather small diameter of 1ft. 0in., and the spark arresting grid was made of No. 16 B.W.G. wire.
As is well known, these engines proved a great success, burning an average of 30.8 lb. of coal over the heavy road between Plymouth and Exeter. When, on 2 August 1897, the new L.N.vV.R. four-cylinder compound 4-4-0 Black Prince began her trial trips, it was seen that F.W. Webb had also given this engine and her non-compound sister, Iron Duke, extended smokeboxes. These were not so long as the G.W.R. examples, as they measured internally 3ft. 65/8in., and had a diameter of 4ft. 9in. They were also differently planned, since they contained a horizontal partition placed slightly below the centre line of the boiler. The blast pipes from the low pressure cylinders did not unite, but discharged into separate chimneys each 1ft, 0in. in diameter. The right-hand low-pressure cylinder blast pipe exhausted the upper part of the smoke-box, and the left-hand low-pressure blast-pipe exhausted the lower compartment. The two chimneys were made less unsightly by having side-plates fitted, which made the external shape that of a flat box with rounded ends, the whole being surmounted by the familiar standard L.N.W. chimney heading. For a short period Iron Duke was tried with the usual chimney, but the double one was soon replaced. Black Prince, in November, 1897, had the standard moulding replaced by a half-round beading, and thus adorned she resembled, in this respect, the 6ft. 6in. 2-4-0 Jumbo Hampden , to which Webb had previously fitted a cylindrical extension on the front of the smokebox when trying out the horizontal position and separated blast-pipes. In January, 1898, these unusual ideas, like so many locomotive novelties, passed into oblivion, but nevertheless, once Webb had settled the size of the low pressure cylinders at 20½ by 24in., and raised the boiler pressure to 200Ib., he placed the extended smokebox on the whole of the eighty 4-4-0 engines he subsequently built. From this time onwards, all L.N.W.R. and G.W.R. express engines carried these large boxes, and it was realised that the extended smokebox had become an essential part of the modern locomotive.

Correspondence. 216

Dr. Church's Tank Engine. P.C. Dewhurst.  216
The communication from Mr. Dendy Marshall in the June Issue of citing a report relatiring to the Bromsgrove explosion of November, 1840, raises the question of the relatively sparse—and sometimes inaccurate—information published concerning the above interesting engine. Mr. Marshall refers to the 1840 explosion as " the end of the story," but this is no longer the case as in recent years the writer has become able to supplement that information not only in respect to after, but also before, the event of November1840. It should first be emphasized that it is the victims of the said November 1840 explosion whose memory is perpetuated by the two well-known tombstones in Bromsgrove Churchyard—upon which most excellent representations of Norris pattern locomotives appear—and not as it often supposed— the victims of a Norris locomotive boiler explosion, which did occur—but of lesser gravity—in 184I. The results of this error have disfigured "railway" books and even as. late as 1912 these two occurrences were confused in the technical press and with the added embellishment that the victims were "two of the American drivers sent with the engines.
The engine was constructed during 1837 at Birmingham to the design of Dr. William Church for Mr. S.A. Goddard and it was placed on the London & Birmingham Railway in January, 1838, where it worked for a time as a ballast engine; later it went to the Grand Junction Railway, at that time having the name Victoria, but it was not a success. It was a tank, not a tender engine. In November, 1840—then named Surprise —it was sent for trial to the Birmingham & Gloucester Railway, but exploded at Bromsgrove before doing any service on that line. In 1842, by which time it had been re-named Eclipse, the engine was again offered to the Birmingham & Gloucester Railway for trial but was declined, and. later, in 1844, offered to the same railway a third time; on this occasion it was agreed to allow a trial to be made, but no record exists of such having actually taken place.
The next record of its "appearance" was. in 1850, as according to D. K. Clark (1855) it "stood" at Camp Hill Station, Birmingham in that year, from which date nothing definite is known of it until 1861, when it was authoritatively stated to have then been in use upon the Swansea Valley Railway, since its rebuilding there into a 0-6-0 tank locomotive about 1857-8. In this rebuilding, the boiler, which had been supplied to Eclipse somewhere between 1842 and 1850 and differed entirely from the original boiler of 1837, was utilised and there is reason to believe that this rebuilt engine eventually came into the- hands of the Midland Railway in 1874.

L.M.S.R. 216
Lt.-Col. Harold Rudgard, R.E. (Retd.), has been appointed to succeed Mr. D. C. Urie as Superintendent of Motive Power of the L.M.S. Railway. Lt.-Col. Rudgard was a pupil of the late Samuel Waite- Johnson, Locomotive Superintendent of the old Midland Railway. The position he held before being appointed Superintendent of Motive Power was Divisional Superintendent of Operation (Midland Division) of the Railway. which position he has held for over five years. Since the war he has been acting with Mr. J. E. Kitching, Mineral Manager of the L.N.E. Railway as Liaison Officer with the Midland (Amalgamated) District Coal Mines Scheme and jointly there has been developed a very successful system of Block Coal Train working.
Mr. J. W. Watkins has been appointed Divisional Superintendent of Operation at Derby