Locomotive Magazine and Railway Carriage & Wagon Review
Volume 47 (1941)
Key file

 Number 581 (15 January 1941)

Railways and coal. 1-2
The effect of WW2 on the transport of coal for export. a market mainly lost; the difficulties of war on railway transport (notably the blackout) and the dependence on coal for locomotive power.

G.W.R. Norton Fitzwarren accident. 2
Lieut. Colonel Mount's Ministry of Transport report into 4 November 1940 accident in which driver forgot on which road he was travelling and the 21.50 Paddington to Penzance express was derailed at catch points at the end of the four track section leading to 26 deaths

L.N.E.R. 2
Driver G.W. Trower had retired after 47 years service. He accompanied Cock o' the North on the Vitry tests in France.

L.M.S.R. 2
Portable buffet-canteens to set up in ordiuary third class compartments to serve tea, coffee and other refreshments to H.M. Forces in transit over long distances.

Articulated railcars Kenya and Uganda Railways. 2-3. illustration
Built by D. Wickham & Co. Ltd to inspection bythe Crown Agents for the Colonies to operate on the Kisumi to Yala branch in Kenya and the Jinga to Kampala section in Uganda. Silentbloc suspension

O.S. Nock. British locomotive working 1934-9. Footplate observations under service conditions. 4-8. illustration, 6 diagrams
At this time Nock used a series of diagrams showing the gradient profile plotted against the speed attained over faily short distances to accompany his texts which tended to brief. Great Southern Railways 4-6-0 No. 800 Maeve (illustrated) which Nock called "a locomotive of closely comparable dimensions to the 'Royal  Scots'" was timed on the up afternoon Mail from Cork to Dublin. A4 No. 4498 Sir Nigel Gresley hauling 510 tons was observed accelerating on the levels; Stanier 4-6-2  No. 6200 The Princess Royal was observed climbing from Symington to Beattock Summit with 500 tons and two Schools class 4-4-0s were observed:: No. 916 Whitgift on the climb from New Cross to Knockhold and No. 925 Cheltenham between Portsmouth and Waterloo with emphasis on the 83½ mph achied at Liss and the careful running between Woking and Waterloo in heavy traffic.

PCD [P.C. Dewhurst]. L.M.S.R. Locomotives. History of the Somerset and Dorset Joint Railway. 8-9
Continued from page 314, Vol. 46. Resulting from trials referred to further on it was decided to utilize engines of the well-known 483 class rebuilds of the M. Rly. to increase the loading of the express trains; hence engines 70 and 71 were scrapped in 1914 and replaced by two superheated 7 ft. 4-4-0 engines of that class built—or reconstructed—at Derby in that year and numbered S.D.J. 70 and 71. These engines were identical with those used on the M. Rly. except in having 3,250 gallon capacity tenders. In 1920-21 three further engines of the same class were supplied from Derby, S.D.J. 67-69, replacing two 15 class 5 ft. 9 in. 4-4-0s and the one remaining 69-71 class 6 ft. 4-4-0 scrapped in 1919-21, and as the two sets were similar Fig. 66 of engine 70 represents the whole five, as does also the appended table of dimensions. A reduction of steam pressure will be noted—offset by an increased diameter of cylinder—and their power, nominally, was not much greater than the previous five 4-4-0s with 6 ft. wheels, but their performance was considerably better. The load on the Bath to Evercreech Junction section with its 1 in 50 grades was 212 tons later reduced to 190 tons compared with 160 tons to 170 tons for the smaller 5 ft. 9 in. and 6 ft. 4-4-0s which were unsuperheated.
These engines being well-known in their M. Rly. sphere it suffices to mention that their boilers were of the G.7 Superheated class having Belpaire fireboxes and moderately extended smokeboxes of the circular-extension pattern, that they had piston-valves-placed below the cylinders in the typical Johnson style for passenger engines from 1897 onwards—and that besides having brake-gear of typical late M. Rly. pattern with central pull-rods and steam-brake cylinder (vacuum-controlled) under the drag-plates at rear, the bogie was fitted with brake-blocks between the pairs of wheels, each side being operated direct from a " floating" brake-cylinder hung between them. The general appearance, including the form of running-plate—previously referred to in describing the small 0-4-0 shunting engines—was typically Deeley-Fowler.
The evolution of the design is interesting, but being concerned specially with the M. Rly. it must suffice to say that it derives from the M. Rly. 60 class—later numbered 523 onwards—having a 9 ft. 6 in. coupled wheelbase and piston valves which, firstly undergoing a more or less normal rebuilding with large boilers by Deeley, were, together with similar engines having a lesser coupled wheelbase—numbered 483-522-afterwards reconstructed or renewed by Fowler; the process being subsequently extended to earlier classes of engines not originally fitted with piston-valves; in the latter case the "reconstruction" being naturally still more drastic.
It is hardly necessary to add that these engines —and three more referred to further on—henceforth performed the bulk of the passenger work and so continued until the relatively recent introduction, made possible by bridge strengthening and turntable lengthening of entirely more powerful engines in the form of 4-6-0 locomotives of the Stanier class 5.
In 1928 engines 70, 71, 67, 68 and 69 became 39-43 in that order, displacing various Johnson goods engines as already mentioned, whilst when taken over by the L.M.S. in 1930 they became 322-6, and all are still in service—having now however all been removed to the L.M.S. parent line. In describing the advent of the foregoing M. Rly. 483 class engines to the S.D.J., reference was made to some trials leading up to their introduction. As there have from time to time been trials of M. R . and. .L.M.S. engines on the joint line, it may be of interest to briefly mention them here.
In 1911, when the capacity of the then-existing passenger engines was evidently becoming insufficient, a trial was made with one of Deeley's 0-6-4 tank engines, No. 2023. Although the engine did well as to 'loads the relatively small water-capacity was a disadvantage, also a tank engine on fast services was not considered desirable—rightly so with the type in question.
Some two years later, in 1913, No. 499 one of the then recently introduced M. Rly. 483 class was tried, doing very well and its joint success with a companion (No. 519) during sbme months working upon the S.D.J. led to the decision to supply that class for future joint line requirements. Subsequently, towards the end of 1924, a Fowler 4-4-0 compound (No. 1065) made trial runs, whilst shortly afterwards, during 1925, a Deeley 4-4-0 990 class (No. 995) was also tested. From the fact that the tests did not lead to the introduction of either class—on the contrary the next passenger engines supplied being the improved 483 class—it is evident they did not possess advantages, possibly their much heavier axle-loads were not then desirable. In 1926 one of the L.M.S. Hughes-Fowler 2-6-0 locomotives (No. 13064) was sent to the joint line for trial, but with a similar negative result.
In the same year, 1926, a Sentinel Rail-car was lent by the L.M.S. for trial on branch-line working on the Burnham Branch, etc., but did not remain very long, "push and pull " trains being adopted instead.
Some years later, in 1935, one of the ex-L. T. and S. Rly. 4-4-2 tank engines (No. 2103) was stationed at Templecombe to work stopping passenger trains between there and Bath and on the Burnham Branch. Being of much greater power than the 0-4-4 tanks, ,it had some advantage, but the experiment was not persisted in.

L.I. Sanders. Carriage and wagon design, and construction. III. The bogie. 10-12, 4 illustrations.
In Europe the built-up frame was common. In America the cast steel articulated frame was favoured. Specific bogie designs mentioned: Virginian designed to ensure equal weight distribution; the eight-wheeled motor bogie assemblies employed on the Union Pacific Railroad stramlined trains City of Denver and City of San Francisco; the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe pendulum bogie; the Zara bogie employed by the Swiss Locomotive Co.; Sheffield Twinberrow and Timmis designs. Hunting is considered at length.
An attempt has been made in this article to re- view the fundamental principles of the bogie, illustrated by some of the types most usually met with. There are a vast number of springing arrangements and other modifications in existence and far greater space would be needed for a comprehensive survey of them. Readers are referred therefore, to T.H. Sanders Springs and Suspension, in which illustrations and descriptions of many other early and contemporary bogie arrangements are to be found. *Patent Specification No. 221798 (1925).

James McEwan. The locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 12-14.
Continued from page 294, Vol. 46. The next class were four wheeled saddle and well tanks with dummy crankshaft drive. It is said that the design and details were given to Sinclair by a French friend. The cylinders were 12 in. in diameter.and the wheels were at 12 ft. centres. The crankshaft axle was at 5 ft. 11 in. centre from the leading axle. The boiler barrel was 9 ft. 4in. long by 2 ft. 9 in. dia. maximum inside. The firebox casing was 3 ft. 9 in. long. Boiler pressure 110 lb. Water was carried in a saddle tank of semi-circular shape which stopped at the boiler centre-line. A further three tanks were fixed between the frames, all of which were joined by piping, and were filled through the top tank which was connected to the centre well tank. The frames were 22 ft. 3 in. long, 2 ft. 3 in. deep, and were parallel for the full length. The class was built for shunting yards, and oolliery sidings where short haulage was required. That it was not efficient may be assumed from the fact that within two years of being constructed the engines were being altered. They were numbered 136 to 143 and came from the company's works at Greenock in 1853.
Nos. 136 and 142 were altered but owing to conflicting records it is not possible to say with certainty how they were treated although it is likely they were altered to the four wheeled tender type similar to No. 140 which was the first to be altered. It would seem that the well tank at the front end and that between the front coupled axle and the dummy crankshaft were not taken out although the saddle tank was removed from No. 140. The appearance of the engine after the removal from the saddle tank was ungainly owing to the high smokebox which was made originally to the same contour as the saddle tank. As Nos. 140 and 141 ultimately became four wheeled saddle and well tanks there is the possibility of Nos. 136 and 142 being similarly treated. In all four locomotives, when the alterations were made, the coupled wheelbase became 6 ft. 5 in. In the illustration of No. 140 as first altered the ungainly high smokebox is clearly shown. The other four locomotives, [os. 137, 138, 139 and 143 were altered to 0-4-2 saddle and well tanks by the transposal of the rear driver to the dummy crank-shaft and the altering of the crank pin. New horns and guides were fitted at the trailing end and a pair of 3 ft. 6 in. wheels fitted. A small hand brake was fitted actuated by a vertical hand- wheel and bevel gearing. On the firemen's side of the footplate a small pet cock was fitted to the bottom of the saddle tank so as to try the water level. The class was withdrawn as follows:- No. 136 in 1869, No. 138 in 1870, Nos. 142 and 143 in 1871, No. 137 (renumbered 182 in 1870) in 1872, Nos. 139 and 140 (renumbered 562 and 563 in 1870 and 590 and 591 in 1871) in 1871 and 1872 respectively No. 141 (renumbered 592 in 1871) in 1872, after a period as the "Shop engine," at St. Rollox Works.
In 1853 it became evident that a more powerful main line passenger type was needed for the fast trains. The loads were getting hopelessly beyond the capabilities of the original. passenger series and double heading of all main line trams was the rule rather than the exception. Sinclair seriously considered the introduction of a four coupled engine with 6 feet wheels and a preliminary design was made. Somehow he was compelled to abandon the project and instead he brought out another class of single driver. The C. Ry. were at this period in a very precarious financial state and perhaps the directors felt that the coupled design, which was then more or less unknown, might be a costly proposition for the company. The first engine of the design appeared m 1854. The general design followed previous practice. The cylinders were outside, between the frames, and were 15¼ in. stroke. The dnvmg wheels were 7 ft. 2 in. diameter. and the carrying wheels 3 ft. 6 in. diameter. The boiler was of the raised firebox casmg design with the dome and Salter safety valves mounted over the firebox. The heating, surface was—tubes 838 ft2., firebox 53 ft2., total 891 ft2. Grate area 12.12 ft2. Boiler pressure 110 psi. Weight about 30 tons. The tender ran on four wheels 4 ft. diameter and had a capacity of 900 gallons of water and 3½ tons of coal. The valve gear was of the Gooch box link type. The class was rebuilt at varying dates with boilers identical with the original. At the time of rebuilding the cy linders were bored to 16 in. diameter. The whole class came from the Greenock works.

No. Built. Rebuilt. Withdrawn.
65 7/1854


66 7/1854


67 9/1854


68 10/1854


69 12/1854


70 1/1855


71 5/1855


72 5/1855


73 7/1855


74 9/1855


75 9/1855


76 10/1855


No 67 was given a new boiler in 1872 after a "pitch in" at Kirtlebridge. .No. 67 was the innocent by-stander on this occasion. The Connor "eight footer" No. 82 ran into a goods tram which was being shunted and pushed the g:oods engine into the boiler of No. 67. The incident will be referred to later. _
No. 76 exploded at Rockliffe Station on 18 Apnl 1856, killing the driver and fireman. Driver was Musgrave and fireman Cessford, both of Carlisle depot. The cause of the incident has never been properly explained but the general assumption at the time was that the valve seating had insufficient clearance with the result that the safety valve stuck.
In 1854 the locomotive stock was increased by the purchase of eight locomotives from George England & Co. From the details available the present eminent authority on locomotive history, A.C.W. Lowe, believes that these formed part of an order for Russia which was thrown back on the builders owing to financial troubles which unfortunately caused the collapse of G. England's business. The locomotives were dated 1852 and 1853 but were not purchased by the C. Ry. until 1854, which tends to confirm the origin of the type. These locomotives were purchased for mineral traffic, and at this point it might not be out of place to remark tha't a number of the colliery companies in Scotland purchased several engines of this type from G. England & Co. The tenders for the railway company's lot" were made at the Greenock works. All the axles were placed in frorrt of the firebox. The type was 2-4-0, driven on the rear axle. The coupled wheels were 5 ft. 0¾ in. diameter and the leading wheels 3 ft. 05/8 in. diameter . The wheelbase was 11 ft. 5½ in. of which the coupled wheelbase represented 5 ft. 6 in .. The cylinders were outside and were 15 in. diameter by 22 in. stroke. The total heating surface appears to have been about 850 ft2, of which the firebox oontributed 69.4 ft2. The grate area was 14 ft2 and boiler pressure 108 lb. The weight empty was 29½ tons, and in road trim 30¾ tons. The locomotives were numbered 144 to 151, the last two being made new in 1853 and the earlier ones in 1852. No. 144 was renumbered 182 in 1872 and withdrawn in 1874. Nos. 145, 146, 147 and, 149 were withdrawn in 1872 without any renumbering, while No. 148 renumbered 183 in 1872 was withdrawn in 1873. Nos. 150 and 151 were renumbered 184 and 185 in 1872 and almost simultaneously were taken from stock.
Note.-The illustration of the 2-2-2 (65-76 class) express engines was unfortunately destroyed in the recent fire at our Amen Corner premises. but we hope to' include one later.-Ed.
Fig. 13. plan showing position of tanks, Nos. 136-143.
Fig. 14. No. 140 class: 136 as first altered four wheeled tender class.
Fig 15 Class 136.Nos. 137, 138, 139 and 143 rebuilt as 0-4-2 saddle ta:nks.
Fig. 16. G. England 2-4-0 Nos. 144 to 151

E.A. Phillipson. The steam locomotive in traffic. 14-16. 2 diagrams (facsimile forms)
Continued from page 315, Vol. 46. It is suggested that if an engine tool box carried on the engine, possibly within a larger tool box, be made sufficiently light and portable, this may be handed in to the stores with all the spanners, In punches, water gauge glass and chisel contai ed therein, as previously recommended, 111 xed places. With this system also, the oilissue ea be effected direct into the bottles at the time they re handed out to the enginemen preparing the engin . The practice of painting the engine number and the name of the shed to which it is allocated on head lamps, cannot be unreservedly recommended. Confusion frequently arises when one of the lamps has to be withdrawn from use temporarily for repairs, and there is of course no object in follow- ing this practice when head lamps are pooled. In some cases however it has been found desirable to exclude the lamps' of express passenger engines from an otherwise general pooling, the object of the latter being to minimise the total stock of head lamps carried.
Each shed should be held responsible for the tools of other depot engines during the time they are stabled there and the balancing of engine tool stocks is simplified by the use of a form similar to that indicated by Fig. 80.
The issue of sponge cloths varies on individual railways. In some instances every footplate man is issued with a new cloth dally, provided he returns a used cloth in exchange. In others, the footplate staff are issued on alternate days with new and "first washed" cloths, the exchange stipulation being in force as before; the issues to cleaners shed conciliation and sometimes workshop grades comprise cloths which have been washed twice or more. On some railways, cleaners and/or workshop grades are issued with waste in place of sponge cloths. The function of the stores is to see that the number of new cloths issued is as nearly balanced as possible by the number of cloths returned to the laundrv; the adverse balance has to be writtent off as depreciation. In order to avoid any disputes which may otherwise arise over the numerical value of fragments of cloth, which alone survive after a succession of washes, it is desirable that these be withdrawn from further use at the sheds, and not returned to the laundry for cleaning; allowance for them is then included with the depreciation.
Distribution and Consumption of Fuels and Lubricants.
The method of fuel distribution adopted is governed by such factors as whether the fuel concerned is indigenous, the maximum haulage distance from colliery, oil field or port to the depot,

O.J. Morris. Standardizing Southern Railway locomotives, Central Section. 16-19.  3 illustrations, diagram

New design of welded wagons, the Butterley Co. Ltd. 20. 3 illustrations

Obituary. 20
Viscount Wakefield founder of C.C. Wakefield & Co.

Engine depots and the Black Out. 20-1.

Pneumatic tie tamping equipment. 21-3. 3 illustrations
Broomwade compressor

Number 582 (15 February 1941)

Rolling stock in India. 25
Use of colour to distinguish classes: white for first, but others lesss standardized..

4-4-4 (A class) tank locomotives, Bombay, Baroda & Central India Railway. (metre gauge). 26. illustration
Built at the Ajmer Works.

O.S. Nock. British locomotive working, 1934-9. Second line express passenger locomotives. 27-31. illustration, 6 diagrams
The diagrams are gradient profiles, with train speed correlated against. Locomotives considered: NBR Atlantic No. 9509 Duke of Rothesay on Dundee to Aberdeen route (high acceleration and speed) and C1 Atlantic on Queen of Scots with particular reference to Newark to Peterborough stretch where speed in excess of 90 mile/h attained.short cut-off was being employed. In  Ireland some very fast  uphill running was achieved by the Great Northern Railway three cylinder compounds between Portadown and Dundalk: No. 84 Falcon was the locomotive. On another run the same locomotive achieved 86½ mile/h on a downhill stretch. The Northern Counties Committee 4-4-0 Carrickfergus Castle was also capable of achieving 70 mile/h on the Larne boat express from Belfast and the 2-6-0 No. 90 Duke of Abercorn worked up the 11-mile bank from Antrim to Kingsbog Junction at an average of 54 mile/h., from an initial speed of 69 mile/h. The gradients vary a good deal, averaging 1 in 330 for the first half, and steepening to 1 in 180 for the last 5 miles; yet this fine climbing was achieved on a cult-off nowhere later than 30 per cent., and only very gradually increased to this figure from the 15 per cent. on which the engine was working when the ascent was begun..)Illustration: NCC 2-6-0 No. 96 Silver Jubilee.

Great Indian Peninsula Railway. 31
Five WM type locomotives had arrived in India for the G.I.P.R. One of these engines was shown at an exhibition of locomotives in Bombay.

L.M.S.R. 31
Major F.A. Pope had been appointed to succeed Major Ma1colm S. Speir as Manager of the Northern Counties Committee, Belfast.

F.C. Hambleton Alexander Allan. 31-6. 6 illustrations (5 drawings, plan)
Alexander Allan. is perhaps best remembered as the inventor of the straigiht Iink valve gear. Amongst the various locomotives fitted with this excellent gear the L.N.W.R. Precedents and the Fowler side-tanks for the Metropolitan Railway come quickly to rmnd, and its adoption no doubt largely contributed to the remarkable suocess of these two celebrated classes.
But the fame of this eminent engineer rests principally on a system of plate framing which he introduced in his early life, and which may be consrderered as the foundation of most of the Iater designs of locomotive framing. The engines built on these Iines became widely known as the Crewe Type,and will be described in due course. Meanwhile a few particulars of the designer's life will be of interest.
Alexander Allan was born at Montrose Scotland, in 1809. He served his apprenticeship at Lochside, near Montrose, under Gibb, the local rnillwright , and then joined the famous firm of Robert Stephenson at Forth Street works Newcastle-on-Tyne, in 1832. Three years had elapsed since the Rainhill trials of the Rocket but already the Stephensons had evolved a new type of locomotive WIth the cylinders placed at the front end. Planet, a 2-2-0 built on this plan was thus the forerunner of the engine of to-day, and dunng the two years that Allan worked at Newcastle he witnessed the extension of this basic idea, inasmuch as Patentee, a 2-2-2, was constructed, as well as a four coupled version of the Planet class. WIth these experiences fresh in his mind he moved m 1843 to Liver:pool, where at the Vauxhall Foundry he was engaged by George Forrester in the important job of erecting the locomotive Swiftsure for the Liverpool & Manchester Railway. [An illustration and description of the type is given on page 52 of Ahrons British Steam Locomotive, 1825- 1925 (Locomotive Publishing Co., Ltd.}. thus in these four engines the germ of the two well-known Crewe Types, which a httle later on were to flourish over most of the railway systems of the British Isles]. This engine was the first to have outside horizontal cylinders placed at the leading end, and secured to double frames. It also had outside bearings to the leading wheels, and was the first locomotive to boast of four eccentrics. Allan then went to Ireland in the same year with three similar engines for the Dublin & Kingstown Railway, and as he had the charge of them during a year's maintenance contract he must have become well acquainted with their capabilities.
Returning to Liverpool he contmued to take charge of the locomotive work at Forrester's until he gained, in February, 1840, the position of works manager and assistant supenntendent .of the Grand Junction Railway at Edge Hill, Liverpool, under W.B. Buddicorn. He found here 61 engines of various makers, all.of the 2-2-2 Planet class, with, of course, inside cylinders and crank axles. Now crank axles in those days were formidable items, and an alarming number were broken when the engmes negotiated the sharp curves near Newton-le-Willows where the Grand Junction Railway had junctions with the Liverpool & Manchester Railway.
Allan mindful of his expenence with Swzftsure came to the rescue of this serious situation by submitting drawings of his own, based on the Forrester engine, to Mr. Buddicom and Mr. Locke, who was engineer in chief to the Grand Junction Railway.
These drawings met with muoh approval, and permission was given for the expenditure necessary to make the experiment on three engines having moderate size boilers but requiring new frames and crank axles. These three engines, built by Tayleur & Co., in 1889, Aeolus, Sunbeam, and Tartarus, were accordingly reconstructed to Allan's design. Aeolus was at work .at the close of 1840, valued at £1,300, and in 1841 had run 2,600 miles. At this time also Hecla was converted to a 2-4-0 goods engine with outside cylinders. There was thus in these four eengines the germ of the Crewe types which a little later on were to flourish on most of of the railway systems of ths British Isles.
Locke now left the Grand Junction Railway to construct the Paris & Rouen Railway, and Buddicom also resigned to form the firm of Allcard, Buddicom & Co., of Warrington, who contracted with Joseph Locke for the supply of locomotives of the Allan design to the new French railway.
Meanwhile Francis Trevithick, a son of the famous Richard Trevithick, took the place of Buddicom, and for some time he was busy planning the new works to be erected at Crewe. These were opened in December, 1843, with the customary celebrations, which included a magnificent feast for the employees, fireworks, and a ball, the whole concluding with the skirl of the Highland bagpipes! After these stirring events had taken place the machinery was installed, and Crewe started on its career as "The grand manufactory of the whole of the Grand Junction Railway," as a contemporary writer put it.
Before, however, any locomotives were built there for the Grand Junction Railway, the Directors of the Western Railway of France visited Crewe, at Locke's invitation, to inspectthe drawings of Allan of the 6 ft. and 5 ft. engmes of the Grand Junction Railway. The upshot was that permission was granted to supply the same to the 'Western Railw:ay and the engmes were built at Chartreux near Rouen in 1844, Allan receiving payment for his designs.
The first Crewe built engine for the Grand Junction Railway appeared on 20 February 1845. This was the celebrated No. 49 Columbine, constructed from Allan's drawings. Happily this engine is preserved at York Museum, and presents as it were, a miniature history of Crewe practice, since most of her is the original Allan, whilst some details are Ramsbottom, and the cab, chimney, painting, etc., are Webb's. . . . Her little four-wheeled tender also is historically of great interest as it was the forerunner of a type almost as widespread as that of the engme itself.
Mechanically the special features of Columbine were the double frames which extended the whole length of the engine. Between each pair of frames the cylinders were attached, and the frames were further stiffened by the cross stays at the leading and trailing ends, and by the three motion plates and the stretcher plate in front of the firebox. The boiler rested on its smokebox and firebox and was thus free of strains trans- mitted by the frames.
The driving-wheels had plain solid axles, 6 in. in diam., to which they were attached by four keys. They had inside bearings, whereas the carrying wheels had outside bearings only. The journals of these worked in axleboxes of special design, in which Allan had provided pads of sponge bearing up against the lower side of the journals, thus causing a marked economy in oil consumption. Indeed, they were the precursors of the usual modern type of box. The Stephenson valve gear had links with lugs cast on them to take the ends of the eccentric rods, a form sometimes called "Launch links." The motion was balanced by a coiled spring, and the feed pumps were driven off the eccentric straps. Another interesting feature was the 5 in. cylindrical regulator valve which was withdrawn from its seating by a rotating movement imparted by skew guides embracing the regulator handle. There was no weather board originally, and the engine must have presented a beautiful and graceful appearance, enhanced by the polished copper dome, the copper-capped chimney, and the bright brass name plate with its black lettering of a form familiar to all those who have known Crewe engines since the early days.
Early in 1846 the first 2-4-0 type 5 ft. goods engine was built at Crewe, No. 78 Lonsdale, and Columbine and Lonsdale were the first examples of the two Crewe types which numbered on L.N.W.R. alone over 400 engines in all, to say nothing of the many examples to be seen in Scotland, France, and elsewhere. On 16 July 1846, the amalgamation of the western companies was given the official title of London & North Western Railway, and the following year, 1847, is likewise noteworthy in the annals of railway history, for it was then that a meeting of the Locomotive Committee, which included Mr. Hardman Earle, and Mr. Henry Booth, was held in Liverpool. By this time Crewe had built upwards of 50 engines, had set up a turntable which floated in water from designs of Allan, and had witnessed the trial of the first 7 ft. Crampton built by Tulk and Ley of Whitehaven far the Namur & Liege Railway. The Committee fully discussed the various types of engine with the result that Allan was instructed to build a 7 ft. Crampton (with modification to certain parts) and to make an engine of the " Columbine" type, but also with 7 ft. wheels, while Trevithick was to design an 8 ft. 6 in. locomotive with its boiler placed below the driving axle, the latter idea already having been suggested previously by Crarnpton. These three trial engines were named Courier, Velocipede, and Cornwall, respectively, and were all finished by November. Judging by the later history of these engines it would appear that the Committee was well satisfied with the existing" Crewe Types," for during the remainder of Allan's time at Crewe, and indeed until Ramsbottom took charge in 1857 no other class of locomotive was built, other than slight enlarge
ments of Allan's designs. The Crarnpton type was never adopted on the Northern Division of the L.N.W.R., Cornwall did no work until rebuilt by Ramsbottom in 1858, and Velocipede remained the only 7 ft. Allan engine for the next five years.
There were two other events which make 1847 a memorable year. Allan made drawings of his 6 ft. passenger engines for the Caledonian and Scottish Central Railway, twenty of these being built by Tayleur & Co. These were the first of many Scottish locomotives of Allan's design, and so successful were they that he began to find himself consulting engineer to the majority of the Scottish lines. Tihe other event of this year was the founding of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. The President, George Stephenson, took the greatest interest in the new Institution, and among the foundation members were such worthies as Ramsbottom, Beyer, Peacock, Sinclair, and Allan himself who served on their Council from 1857 to. 1865, and who read a number of papers at their meetings.
At the end of 1848, Crewe had built 129 Allan engines, Buddicom, now in charge at Rouen had bui1t several more with 5 ft. 7 in. wheels, and J.V. Gooch introduced the same design in the Snake class on the L.S.W.R. The Crewe type was becoming widespread.
The little dock tower of the works, part of the original 1845 buildings still standing to-day, must have looked down on an interesting event when, an the 11 August 1851, Francis W. Webb, then a youth of sixteen, was articled to Francis Trevithick. In his first two years of pupilage he came into close contact with the locomotive activities of Allan, which during this period included the building of 66 more engines, of which No. 132 Pelican, was the first L.N.W. side-tank 2-4-0, and No. 310 Isis, the first of the famous large "Crewe goods" engines, of which ultimately 106 were built. Incidentally, Webb's pupilage lasted until his master, Trevithick, resigned from Crewe in 1857, when Webb was placed in the drawing office under Ramsbottom. It is hardly surprising, therefore, that a strong Crewe tradition in matters of design should have existed throughout the whole history of the L.N.W.R. locomotives.
But now Allan was to find employment in the land of his birth. In September, 1853, he resigned his position at Crewe as "Foreman of the Locomotives," to become superintendent of the Scottish Central Railway. Before he left the scene of so many of his labours he had set up a coking apparatus, consisting of little four-wheeled wagons ("lorries" he termed them) whioh tipped up at the end of a hinged shelf overhanging the engine-tender. In the north his duties ranged between Perth, Greenhill, and later Dundee. The new S.C.R. superintendent was now 44, and in his prime, and the change in his position seems to ihave stimulated him to further efforts. This is to be seen in the number of inventions which he patented in the next few years. The most important of these was the straight link valve gear. An excellent description of this gear is to be found in The Locomotive of to-day (Loco. Publishing Co.): When Allan read a paper before the Institution of Mechnical Engineers on the 30 April, 1856, at their rooms at Newhall Street, Birmingham, he shewed two specimens of his gear, a full size, and a half size model. The latter he presented to the Institution. The gift was gladly received by the Vice-President, Benjamine Fothergill, who was in the chair, and who remarked that he hoped that other lecturers would follow suit, so that in time the Institution would possess many valuable models. A beautiful half size model in polished steel was also presented to South Kensington Museum in 1863. Allan claimed for his gear that it gave practically equal steam distribution at both ends of the cylinder, that the straight link was an easy job to machine, that the overhead room required was very little, thus allowing of a low pitched boiler, and that it was its perfect balancing which made it easy to reverse. James Fenton, of Lowmoor Ironworks, Bradford, confirmed the last point by stating that evening that the weighbar- shaft arm could be held by hand whilst' steam was on!
Allan first tried the gear on two 0-4-2 type S.C.R. engines, but its most famous example of employment was perhaps that on the 6 ft. 6 in. Precedent class of the L.N.W.R., and the Fowler side-tanks of the Metropolitan Railway. Other examples that come to mind are:-the Highland Railway 4-6-0 Jones's .goods, Beattie's Clyde" class for the L.S.W.R., Beyer, Peacock's 2-2-2 for the S.E.R. of Portugal, the North London crane engine, No. 29a, and the Aspinall 0-6-0 tanks, and 18 in. gauge Horwich works engines—probably its smallest version.
In the same year, 1856, Allan patented a form of cylindrical firebox of wrought iron with bars laid crosswise. When Allan described this to the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, he was immediately followed by Neilson, who read a paper on his proposals for a firebox having a concave roof. This idea sounds a little alarming!
But other inventions were to follow, for in 1859 we find Allan reading two papers to the Institution, one describing a steam "break," in which wooden brake-blocks were applied to the wheels by a small steam-cylinder, whilst counter-pressure was put on the pistons of the engine by closing the blastpipe by a suitable valve. As fitted to the S.C.R. engines it proved a very powerful device. The second paper described a most ingenious steam pressure gauge which was entirely without internal mechanism. It consisted of a conical glass vessel, closed at the top, and graduated into lb. per sq. in. Water was forced into this by the pressure of the steam in the boiler, and its level was proportional to the amount of the compression of the air imprisoned above the surface of the water. This gauge was so sensitive that when attached to the boiler of a stationary engine each stroke of the piston was recorded by a small fall in the pressure shewn by the gauge.
Again in 1860 Allan invented a gas meter, and followed this with a carriage lamp, and in 1862 he laid before the Institution a specimen of a coiled elliptical copper tube which he used as a flexible feed water connection between the engine and tender. David Joy, who was present at the meeting, was particularly pleased with this idea, and it is strange that after the success obtained with it on the S.C.R., it was not more widely adopted. During this period Allan had tried steel fireboxes, but although satisfactory they proved difficult to make.
And now came the last big change in the life of this eminent engineer, for in 1865 the Scottish Central Railway amalgamated with the Caledonian Company and Allan finally left Scotland to become manager of Worcester Engine Works. There he remained for the next seven years, but unfortunately he met with an accident on the railway near Birmingham, in which he seriously hurt his back. He then retired in 1872 to Scarborough spending his leisure time in making researoh into locomotive history. He was destined to see many more years of life, for he did not die until 2 June 1891, at the advanced age of 82. To the last he retained his interest in railway matters, and it must have been a source of gratification to him in his old age to know that F.W. Webb, the celebrated Chief of the L.N.W.R. to whom, as a lad, he must have given many a useful tip, was producing magnificent locomotives from the old works, which were still being fitted with his straight link valve gear.
Indeed, it has fallen to the lot of few engineers to be able to witness, as Allan had been able, the wonderful evolution of the locomotive from the far off days of the Rocket to the noble specimens which graced the British railways during the last decade of the 20th Century??, an evolution in which he himself had taken such a prominent and honoured part.
Illustrations: plan of Allan type plate frame for 2-4-0 freight engine; Crampton single Courier 1857 Crewe No. 76; passenger engine Velocipede as rebuilt in 1869; 8 ft. 6 in. single Cornwall, 1847, Crewe No. 75; Scottish Central Railway No, 32. Vulcan Foundry, 1847; 5 ft. Crewe goods Hardwicke.

Wagons for overseas service. 36
When WW2 broke out, the French Government, in conjunction with the Directorate of Transportation Equipment of the Ministry of Supply, placed an order with the wagon builders of this country for 10,000 zo-ton French type covered goods wagons which were to cost nearly £7,000,000.
Production began in the early part of 1940, and a sample wagon was delivered in May and sent on to France. Just as deliveries were beginning France capitulated, and in June the order was cancelled. Of the 10,000 ordered only 631 were completed.
This left a tremendous amount of unused material in the hands of the builders which could not be wasted. It so happened that the Ministry of Transport had ordered 3,500 Hopper Wagons for the transport of iron-ore of which considerably larger tonnages than usual are now being mined in this country. These were redesigned to incorporate some of the left-over components.
In addition a special 20-ton high sided open goods wagon was developed for use in the Middle East. Of the 63I completed wagons of the first order 400 are being dismantled for shipment to the Turkish Government, 200 are being sent to Egypt, 20 are being converted into refrigerator wagons for use in Egypt, 10 more may be converted in the same way, and the original one was lost in France. The Turkish Government has ordered a further 250 wagons of the French type.

James McEwan. The locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 37-8. 3 diagrams (side elevations)
Continued from page 14. The next two classes were the last completely designed for the line by Sindair. Although Caledonian in external appearance of the boiler they had a lot af features which distinctly show the practice of Alex. Allan. The entire design of both classes and more particularly that of Nos. 152 to 170, approximates very closely to' that of the Isis class of the L.N.W.R. the first of which was turned out of Crewe in 1853. It is very likely that Sinclair got the details from Allan and considered it a good design altering it only so far as the boiler style and footplate sheeting as used by the C.R. required. The second lot was probably his own improvement an the design. Both classes were the last of the type to have the straight running plate, and when rebuilt the single transverse plate spring was replaced by independent springs under each axle-box. The cylinders were 16 in. diam. in the case of Nos. 152 to 164, and 17 in. diam. in Nos. 165 to 170. The stroke of 20 in. was common to all. The boiler barrel was 9 ft. 43/8 in. long and 3 ft. 6 in. diam. at the front ring inside. There were 158 tubes 9 ft. 7 in. long having a heating surface of 696.4 ft2. The pressure was 120 psi, a further increase. The wheelbase was 6 ft. 1 in. plus 7 ft. 5 in., total 13 ft. 6 in. The coupled wheels were 5 ft. 2 in. diam. and the leading wheels 3 ft. 2 in. diam. The tender ran an four wheels and carried 900 gallons of water and 2½ tons of coal. The weight of the engine was 22½ tons, made up as fallows:- leading axle 6 tons 12 cwt., driving axle 9 tons 14 cwt, and rear coupled axle 6 tans 4 cwts. All were rebuilt later with flush topped boilers similar to those fitted to class No. 171 to be mentioned next. As rebuilt the Salter safety valve was replaced in some cases with a Ramsbottom safety valve. This class when new was often referred to as the "Yellowbellies" an account of the yellow tinge in the colour of their paint. All came from the Greenock works.

No. Date Rebuilt Renumbered Withdrawn
152 9/1854 1864


153 9/1854 1867


154 10/1854 1866


155 10/1854 1875r 167 in 1880; 680 in 1881


156 11/1854 1869 181 in 1880


157 11/1854 1868 184 in 1880


158 11/1854 1875r 255 in 1880


159 12/1854 1875r 320 in 1880


160 12/1854 1865


161 1/1855 1865


162 1/1855 1867 351 in 1880


163 2/1855 1869 360 in 1880; 360A in 1884


164 2/1855 1869 369 in 1880


165 2/1855 1870 370 in 1880; 370A in 1887


166 3/1855 1868 680 in 1880


167 3/1855 1867


168 3/1855 1865P 682 in 1881


169 4/1855 1865 698 in 1881


170 4/1855 1867 172 in 1881


r=-rebuilt and Ramsbottom safety valves fitted. P=r:ebuilt at Perth Works.
In 1855 the second series of these mineral engines were built all of which had a flush topped bailer and firebox. In the first three the cylinders were made 15 in. diam. by 22 in. stroke to test them against the eight engines purchased from G. England which were giving satisfactory service. After running for almost a year .it was found that for the boiler design used the shorter stroke was most uneconomical and in consequence the cylinders were replaced with others 16 in. by 20 in. All the others were fitted with 16 in. diam. cylinders when built. The first three came from the Greenock Works and were the last locomotives to be built there. No. 174 was the first locomotive tobe built at the new St. Rol1ox works. It is said that parts of this engine and also of No. 175 were begun at Greenock and taken to Glasgow with the idea of having something to show to the directors at the ceremony at the opening of the works. The wheels and design were similar to the previous class but the wheelbase was increased to 14 ft. 4 in., divided 6 ft. 1 in. plus 8 ft. 3 in. The boiler had a total heating surface of about 840 ft2. The pressure was 120 psi The engine weighed, in road trim, 23¼ tons. These locomotives were rebuilt at varying dates with boilers having approximately the same dimensions and most had Rarnsbottom safety valves fitted over the firebox. The original boiler had two Salter valves an the dome which was placed in the centre of the boiler barrel. When Nos. 176, 178, 179 and 181 were rebuilt cylinders 17 in. diam. by 20 in. stroke were fitted. Some others might have been similarly altered but this is not recorded. As rebuilt the weight per axle was:-leading 8 tons 16¼ cwt., driving 9 tons 11½ cwt., trailing 9 tons 3¼ cwt., total 27 tans 11 cwt. The tenders were the first on the system to have six wheels. They had a wheelbase of 10 ft. equally divided and the water capacity was 1,700 gallons. These engines were sometimes referred to as the Sowbacks owing to the fact that they had flush topped boilers when built. Nos. 171 to 173 came from the Greenock works in 1855 and Nos. 174 to 181 from the St. Rollox works. Nos. 174 and 175 were built in 1856, 176 to 178 in 1857 and 179 to 181 in 1858. The class was rebuilt, in numerical rotation, in the undernoted years, 1871, 1867, 1867, 1866, 1873, 1867, 1875, 1868, 1868, 1866, and 1868. Nos. 173 and 175 had the suffix "A" added in 1884. In 1882, No. 179 became 724, and No. 180 became No. 698. The dates of withdrawal of the entire class were:—1880—181; 1881—172, 176; 1882— 174; 1884—171, 179 as 724; 1885—173(A), 175(A), 177, 178; 1889—180 as 698.
In the period 1851 to 1857 the C.R. acquired several miscellaneous locomotives from colliery companies, Under the act of incorporation and subsequent acts, the C.R. were bound to provide locomotive haulage from collieries and ironworks in their area to the general marshalling yards an the main line. The Caledonian Railway Co., however, found that they were unable to provide this power owing to the low state of their resources and arranged with the various parties concerned that they should undertake the haulage themselves and at the same time granted the traders running powers over their system in the vicinity of their respective works, etc. Some af the traders got large locomotives, while others were content with smaller ones and they were generally speaking a truly miscellaneous assortment. Illustrations:

Obituary: death of Prof. Lionel Wiener. 38
Aged 61. He contributed a number of articles to our columns. also to contemporary journals. An English edition of his serial article in the "Bulletin" of the International Railway Congress Association on Passenger Tickets was recently published by The Railway Gazette.

Death of Henry George Drury, M.V.O. 38
Aged 102. He was for many years associated with the Great Eastern Railway.

F.C. Hambleton. L.N.W.R. compounds: the "Black Prince" Class. 38-9
The large increase in the L.N.W.R. traffic caused F.W. Webb to abandon, in 1896, his system of compound locomotives with uncoupled driving wheels. Accordingly an August 2, 1897, Black Prince, the first four-coupled compound ran her first trip. Not only was she the first to have 7 ft. 1 in. four-coupled wheels, but she had also two low pressure cylinders 19½ in. by 24 in. in lieu of the familiar 30 in. by 24 in. single cylinder of earlier classes. The two H.P. cylinders, 15 in. by 24 in. were placed outside. To carry the increased weight at the leading end four 3 ft. 9 in. carrying wheels were employed, arranged as a double radial truck. This had no centre pin, but was provided with Webb's radial box and central controlling spring, which allowed one inch side play.
Since 1890 the percentage of cut-off of the L.P. cylinder had not been capable of variation, in accordance with the belief that drivers availed themselves but little of this facility, and thus the loose eccentric had been introduced on the Teutonic class.
But another scheme was devised for Black Prince. This consisted of utilising the Joy valve gear of the L.P. cylinders to work the H.P. piston valves by means of levers connected to the tail rods of the valves, the levers being situated in front of the smokebox.
This arrangement did away with two sets of valve gear, but, however, had the effect of giving all four cylinders a simultaneous alteration of cut-off percentage when notching up. The driving wheels had large circular hubs, which contained on their inner faces balance weights. The L.P. motion was balanced by extensions of the crank webs, the cranks themselves being of the built-up type. In accordance with Webb's theories of large bearing surfaces, the journals were of ample dimensions, being 7 in. diam. by 9 in. for the driving wheels, 7 in. diam. by 13 in. for the trailing, 6¼ in. by 10 in. for the leading wheels, and a central stay supported a bearing 7 in. by 5½ in. placed between the cranks.
The boiler and firebox were similar to those of the Teutonic class, (See Locomotive Mag., 1938, 44, 89) but had a large smokebox, 3 ft. 6¾ in. in length, which was at first divided into upper and lower chambers, This, however, was soon altered to the normal type.
After her tests Black Prince was stationed at Crewe, and began a long series of trials in competition with a similar engine named Iron Duke, a simple with four cylinders 15 in. by 24 in. These two locomotives alternately worked the 5.2 p.m. up diner, 152½ miles non-stop to Willesden, returning an the 11.50 p.m. down Scotsman non-stop from Euston, 158 miles in 165 mins. During this test Black Prince covered upwards of 24,000 miles, burning 35 lb. of coal per mile against 42 lb. of Iron Duke.
Satisfied with such good performances a new compound named Iron Duke was placed in service in March, 1899. She had cylmders. 15 in. and 20½ in .. by 24 in. stroke, and the boiler pressu.re was increased from 175 to 200 lb. Meanwhile the original No. 1501 Iron Duke was converted from a simple to a compound in May, 1898, havmg previously been renamed Jubilee, and started work in June, 1898.
. Ultimately the class totalled 40. engmes, of which No. 1926 La France was exhibited in 1900 at the Paris Exhibition. As she was the 4,000th engine constructed l!t. Crewe works she bore that number whilst on exhibition, and her fine proportions and beautifully finished paint work drew forth many expressions of admiration.

Centenary of Stockton & Hartlepool Railway: 39
The first north country railway to become.a centenarian this year is the Stockton & Hartlepool Railway, which was opened for general traffic on 9 February, 1841, having previously been used for mineral trams only since 12 November of the preceding year.
Begun in May, 1839, the S. & H.R. was really an extension of a local system known as the Clarence Railway connecting Billingham on that line with Hartlepool. It is worth recalling that the resident engineer was Mr., afterwards Sir John, Fowler who at that time was on the threshold of a great career which ulimately. embraced the designing of the Forth Bndge m conjunction with Sir Benjamin Baker.
Although the Stockton & Hartlepool Railway was merely a modest 8 miles in length, it possessed a notable engineering feature in the 700 yards Greatham Viaduct which contained 92 brick arches 30 feet high, resting on timber piles driven into marshy ground to depths varying from 30 to 60 feet. Furthermore the construction of the line led to the completion of the Victoria Dock at Hartlepool, upon which work had been suspended smce 1835. . After an independent existence lasting untIl 1853 the Stockton & Hartlepool amalgamated with the West Hartlepool Harbour & Railway which thirteen years later was absorbed by the North Eastern, a constituent company of the L.N.E.R.

The 0-6-2 tank engine. 39-40
The popularity of this type may be traced back over a period of sixty years. Prior to that time six-wheeled engines appear to have been used for what are now termed "short goods" jobs. Some were of the 0-4-2 or 2-4-0 wheel arrangement, and even when 0-6-0. tanks were available the coal and water capacity was too limited to allow of much mileage. In his survey of the British Steam Locomotive from 1825 to 1925, E.L. Ahrons stated that the main purpose of the 0-6-2 design was to. provide additional coal and water space; and, while this is undoubtedly true, .it ,is interesting to note that the first 0-6-2 tank incorporated neither of these two advantages. In fact the weight available for adhesion was reduced, by the addition of a Webb radial axle to a "short-coupled" saddle tank. The engine under notice was originally a long-boiler goods engine built in 1848 by Sharp Brothers makers' No. 501, and was first numbered 215 in the L.N.W.R. Southern Division list. It was renumbered 815 in 1862, transferred to duplicate stock as No. 1236 in 1866 (having .been altered from a tender engine to a saddle tank in 1865), restored to capital list in 1872 as No. 1149, again, duplicated as No. 1821 in 1878 and sold in 1880 to the Alexandra Docks & Railway Co., .becoming their No. 7 Pontypridd. The radial pair of wheels were added by Webb at Crewe in 1878, presumably as an experiment m connection with the designing of his side tank coal class. In this form the engine was illustrated in (See Locomotive Mag., 1927 33, 153. The next Railway to adopt the 0-6-2T was the Lancashire and Yorkshire. In 1879, Barton Wright rebuilt a.0-6-0 goods engine, No. 333, built in 1865 at Miles Plattinz , as a 0-6-2 side tank with Webb radial axle. Eig.hteen such engines were so converted up to 1883. In (See Locomotive Mag., 1917, 23, 213).it is stated that these were the first 0-6-2 tank engmes built in this country, but it would appear that the honour belongs to Crewe, at any rate as regards rebuilds, If, however, we consider new engines,. the L. & Y. are truly entitled to first place, as in 1879 they obtained ten 0-6-2 side tank engmes from Kitson & Co., makers' Nos. 2312-2321, L. & Y. Nos. 141/2/5/6, 229, 233/7/9, 241. Nos. 145/6 survived to become .L.M.S. Nos. 11600/1, the latter having at one time been fitted with a crane, at Horwich, latterly dismantled. Next came Webb's well-known "side tank coal" class built at Crewe between September, 1881 and July, 1892: 300 were built, and more than 100 were still in service. In spite of their 4 ft. 3 m. coupled wheels, they are commonly used in South Wales and elsewhere on local passenger services with marked success.
The Taff Vale Co. next adopted the type in lieu of tender engines in 1885, and apart from a few passenger engines (three 4-4-0T and six 4-4-2T) built no other type till taken over by the G.W.R. in 1922. The first one, No. 144, was a mineral engine, but some of the later ones were for mixed traffic and passenger service. Owing to the scrapping of the earlier engines, the Great Western introduced their 5600 Class in 1 924, prior to which time there were no 0-6-2T's on the G.W.R. In conclusion, a Iist of the other Railway Companies using the type, is appended (Irish lines not included).
1885 Rhondda & Swansea Bay; 1885, Wrexham Mold & Connahs Quay; 1886, Cardiff; 1887, Liverpool, Southport & Preston Junction; 1886, North Eastern; 1888, Barry: 1889, Manchester, Sheffield & Lincolnshire; 1890, Rhymney; 1891, London, Brighton & South Coast; 1894, Brecon & Merthyr; 1895, Lancashire, Derbyshire & East Coast; 1897, Port Talbot Rly. & Dock Co.; 1898, Furness; 1899, East & West Yorkshire Union; 1899, North Staffordshire; 1900, Hull & Barnsley; 1903, London, Tilbury & Southend; 1903, [eath & Brecon; 1907, Plymouth, Devonport & S.W. Junction; 1907, Great Northern; 1908, Colne Valley & Halstead; 1909, North British; 1911, Shropshire & Montgomeryshire; 1914, Great Eastern; 1915, Glasgow & South Western Railway; 1924, Great Western. Illustration: A.D. & R. Co. 0·6·2 tank, No. 7 Pontypridd.

Intermediate buffer cars Belgian Light Railways Co. 40-1. 2 illustrations, diagram (plan & side & front elevations)  
Several devices have been resorted to for running narrow gauge cars on standard gauges and vice versa. The Belgian Light Railways Co. 's system bemg almost entirely lald to metre gauge is frequently obliged to haul the Belgian National Railways Co.'s standard gauge cars. It would be too costly to unload and re-load on N.G. wagons when the goods they convey travels but a short distance over the N.G. lines. In places where this occurs the Company usually lays down four sets of rails, the outer ones for standard and the inner for metre gauge rollmg stock. The locomotives are metre gauge and of course nothing unusual occurs when they draw metre gauge wagons. As the locomotives have both metre and standard gauge buffers and draft gear, there is no trouble either when they draw standard gauge cars, but for mixed trains, a special wagon called " intermediate" or," buffer" wagon has ' been provided. Its sole function is to enable wagons of one of the gauges to be coupled up at one end to those of the other gauge at the other.

PCD [P.C. Dewhurst]. L.M.S.R. Locomotives. History of the Somerset and Dorset Joint Railway. 42-3. 2 illustrations

Phillipson, E.A. The steam locomotive in traffic. VI. Storekeeping, distribution and consumption of fuels and lubricants. 44-7.

[China gauge change]. 47
To improve communications from east to west in China the gauge of the railway running from Shihchiachwang to Taiynan has been altered by the Japanese from metre to 4 ft. 8½ in. The conversion of other lines is also in contemplation or in hand.

Ministry of Transportation and Public Works of Brazil. 47
Divided an order for 26 locomotives between the Baldwin Locomotive Works and the American Locomotive Company.

[USSR annexation of Estonian, Latvian and Lithuanian railways]. 47
The Estonian, Latvian and Lithuanian railways  had been incorporated in the U.S.S.R. railways. Statistics of the former administrations show that 740 locomotives, 1,800 passenger vehicles and 14,300 wagons are involved in this change over.

Baldwin Locomotive Works. 47
Delivered eleven steam locomotives to the Chilean State Railways.

Buenos Aires & Pacific Railway. 47
Received 12 Ganz rail-cars. Eight of these are intended for working passenger traffic the remainder being allocated to express and mail traffic from Villa Mercedes to various branch lines. The passenger cars seated 60 people and were intended for a normal operating speed of 56 m.p.h.

Electric mining locomotive. 47
Placed in service in America had 8 wheels running in 4 axleless trucks. Drive was by a single motor to two wheels mounted in tandem in each truck. One of the more obvious advantages claimed for this arrangement is reduced curve friction.

Reviews. 47

Railway signalling and communications, installation and maintenance. 1st edition. London: St. Margaret's Technical Press, Ltd.
Intended to meet the needs of linemen, installers and inspectors, and should prove useful in helping them with their work. The contents are based on the lectures delivered to students at one of the L.N.E.R. training schools. The text of the lectures has been slightly modified to suit publication in book form also to give them a wider scope.

Correspondence. 48

Public miniature railways. G.J. Humbert.
Writer was Manager of Trentham Gardens Ltd and had been greatly interested in the correspondence that has followed your article on Locomotives for public mliniature Railways in the October Issue. As Manager of Trentham Gardens, Ltd.: once the seat of the Dukes of Sutherland and now a Public Gardens, where amongst other amusements there is a Mliniature Railway that is the source of a not inconsiderable income, I am doubly interested in the controversy that has arisen as the result of your article. The railway is a mile long and winds through picturesque Oak and Fir Woods and by the side of a Lake; the heaviest gradient is  1 in 32, the gauge being 2 feet. There are three locomotives and twelve open coaches, each with a nominal capacity of 18 adults, expanding to 24 at a "pinch."
The three engines are petrol propelled and the largest, acquired some 2½ years ago, is six coupled and dnven by a petrol engine of 10 H.P. Although It looks like a steam tank railway engme, in that It has a dummy boiler with dome, brass safety valves and side tanks and is painted Midland Red, it does not resemble any existing type of railway locomotive. . Our experience refutes the contention, or perhaps better said, fear, of Maskelyne in his letter in.your Issue of November that any purely passenger carrymg Miniature Railway operated by such engine (i.e., .other than replicas of some given prototype steam locomotive) would be foredoomed to financial disaster.
On Whit Monday, 1939, with two trains of 6 coaches each, running continuously from about 2 p.m. to about 9.30 p.m. at ten minute intervals, crossing each other at a loop half-way, 5,028 passengers were carried. Although this was an exceptional day, no less than 21,000 people visited the Gardens. The Railway has proved an unqualified success and is patronized by both sexes of all ages rangmg from babies in arms to ladies of over 70.
My opinion, as the result of this experience, is that so long as the motive power is in the form of a steam engine neither the lack of resemblance to any existing railway locomotive nor the fact that the motive power is other than steam makes the slightest difIerence to the patronage. In fact, so great was the rush on the day in question that prospective passengers had to be turned away. The percentage of steam engine lovers and youthful experts is so small as not to matter m a business such as ours, that is to say, where there are other amusements to attract the public, I consider that a petrol, or better still diesel, propelled engine is the most suitable for our type of business, for the reason that the cost of operation and maintenance is so very much less than that of a steam propelled locomotive,

Public miniature railways. J.N. Maskelyne
Re letters on this subject which have appeared in your issues for December and January last: may I be allowed to call attention to the fact that the point of my original letter, published in. your issue for November last, was that, so long as the design is properly worked out to meet requirements, and is followed up by good workmanship, scale models are not subject. to the weaknesses and disadvantages implied in the article published in your October issue.
As to whether such locomotives are more attractive and remunerative than what are termed "free-lance" designs, my thirty years' experience strongly supports my contention that the scale-size engine wins every time, no matter whether it is a " prototype" model, or a "free-lance" creation.

L.M.S.R. Gretna Junction Accident.  48
On 5 November, the 10.05 express, Euston to Perth, running at about 45 m.p.h., struck the tender and wagons of the 8.55 a.m. freight train, Shawfield to Carlisle, which was crossing the path of the express at the junction. The passenger engine was derailed and thrown on its side and five leading coaches of the passenger train were derailed and badly damaged; the tender and fifteen wagons of the freight train, which had almost come to a stand, were also derailed and the wagons wrecked, blocking all lines and causing extensive damage to the permanent way. .. The express consisted of ten bogie coaches weighing 308 tons, drawn by Engine No. 1141, 4-4-0 compound, weighing 104 tons in working order. The engme was fitted with the steam brake, controlled bv the vacuum, on coupled and tender wheels, and the vacuum brake was in operation on all coaches, all of which except the leading van, were fitted with special shock absorbing bufIers. The freight train consisted of 45 wagons and brake van, estimated weight 600 tons, and it was drawn by Engine No. 14650, a 4-6-0 weighing 121 tons in working order, fitted with the Westinghouse brake on coupled and tender wheels.
Driver Stewart of the goods train stated that he had passed Annan and Eastriggs at 30-40 m.p.h. and on approaching Gretna Green Station. he saw the outer and inner distants for Gretna Junction inI the caution position, he stated that he checked the train with the hand brake down to about15 m.p.h. expecting to have to stop at the outer home which was, he said, a common procedure. He maintained that the inner distant was pulled off before he reached it and he then released the hand brake. As he came round the curve he saw the outer home ofI but a little further round the curve saw the inner home against him; he immediately made a full application of the Westinghouse brake and almost managed to stop before reaching the junction.
Fireman Goldie confirmed Stewart's evidence in that he saw both outer and inner distants at caution and later saw the inner distant at clear; after that, seeing that Stewart was releasing the hand brake, he commenced firing, assuming that, as the junction was clear, they would probably have a clear run to Carlisle. He went to the signalbox immediately after the collision and after signing in the block register said to Signalman Dickson that his Signals had been clear, to which the latter replied that this was impossible.
Guard Brvson also confirmed that the outer and inner distant were originally at caution and that the train was slowing down; he was on the point of applying his brake when he looked again and saw the inner distant off. He did not see the outer or inner home signals. Signalman Dickson maintained strongly that he had not altered the road and that he had never had any intention of allowing the goods to pass before the express. He had accepted the goods train at 17.50 and had "Train Entering Section" for it from Eastnggs at 17.55, but he was entitled to accept this up to his outer home; he maintained that he had not set the road for the goods immediately (this being a 6 mile section); also that before doing so he had accepted the express from Mossband at  18.00 had offered it forward to Quintinshill at 18.05 on receiving the"Train Approaching" signal from Mossband , and had pulled of the signals for the express on receiving "Train Entenng Section" from Mossband at 18.07.
In the report to the Minister of Transport Col. A.C. Trench concludes by ofIering an opinion based on thr apparent probabilities. He considers it is more likelv that Signalman Dickson, anxious not to delay the express, may have changed the road in the face of the goods train, not realising that it was too close to be able to stop clear of the junction.

L.N.E.R. 48
Buffet cars, exclusively reserved for serviet lizht refreshments to H.M. Forces, were running on the 22.00. Kings Cross-Edinburgh and the 13.05 Edinburgh-Kings Cross trains. Regular restaurant car; were also on these trains.

Number 582 (15 March 1941)

Transport and the Spring Crisis. 49
Editorial on the demands placed upon the railways, especially to the ports, imposed by the War.

New 2-6-2 engine (class V4), London & North Eastern Railway. 50-2. 5 illustrations, 2 diagrams. (including side & front elevations.)
Photograph of No. 3401 Bantam Cock and diagram of boiler with Nicholson thermic syphon.

J.C.M. Rolland. Early Australian locomotives. 53-4. 3 illustrations
Melbourne & Hobson's Bay Railway 2-4-0WT with outside cylinders supplied by Stephenson WN 954-6 and 4-4-0T also supplied by Stephenson and later by Robison Bros. from the Phoenix Foundry at Ballarat.

Rogers 2-6-0 tank locomotives. 54. illustration
Highly decorated aas shown in 1876 catalog

Southern Railway. 54
First Bulleid Pacific Channel Packet; other locomotives to be named after Merchant Navy fleets.

W.A. Stanier. 54
Elected Pressident Institution of Mechanical Engineers

Charles H. Luke. 54
Elected Director of the Superheater Co. Ltd.

O.S. Nock. British locomotive working 1934-9. Express goods trains working. 55-8. 4 diagrams
Such trains were limited to 60 mile/h and tended to be heavier  than passenger trains. The performance of K3 No. 2450 hauling 600 tons is compared with that of A1 Pacific No. 4476 Royal Lancer hauling a 515 ton passenger train between Peterborough and York. The performance of Class 5 4-6-0 No. 5266 hauling 390 tons between Hellifield and Blea Moor is examined; as is that of S15 4-6-0 hauling 500 tons on the 19.36 Exeter to Nine Elms express freight on the up and down stretch between Templecombe and Tisbury and V2 No. 4771 Green Arrow hauling 610 tons  was timed between Sandy and Peterborough.

New York Central System. 58
New streamlined air-conditioned trains with rubber cushioned draw gear and tight couplers were being cionstructed for the Empire State Express.

James McEwan. The locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 61-4.

Phillipson, E.A. The steam locomotive in traffic. VII. Shed conciliation grades: their work and establishment. 64-6
Shed labourers, ash fillers, lampmen, callers up, sandmen, tube cleaners, messroom attendants, barmen, telephone attendants, toolmen, stores issuers, coalmen, boilwashers.

L.N.E.R. electric locomotive, Manchester—Sheffield—Wath electrification.  67-8. illustration, diagram (side & front elevations).
No. 6701 in green livery is illustrated. Built at Doncaster Works with Metropolitan Vickers Electrical Co. equipment

O.J.  M[orris]. Early cab doors, GWR 2-4-0 tank engine "Prince". 71.
No. 2137: broadc gauge 2-4-0ST at Brixham in 1891. Built by Ince Forge for South Daven Railway in 1871.

L.N.E.R. 71.
Heavy snow storms blocked East Coast main line between Darlington and Newcastle. Deputy General Manager, C.M. Jenkin Jones ordereed that all services from the south should terminate at Darlington. Traffic was halted for two days. Electric trains in the Newcastle area were replaced by steam trains.

Akron seat-in-sleeve valve. 71. diagram.
Made from stainless steel

Correspondence. 72

Standardizing S.R. locomotives (Central Section). William E. Briggs.
Re O.J. Morris on the Brighton Railway radial tank engines, and particularly in the writer's remarks that West Brighton No. 158, may have been an indication that its famous designer, Wm. Stroudley, was becoming "flexible wheelbase minded" at last!
Although, as Morris points out, West Brighton seemed to cut across Stroudley's own tenets, it must ever be remembered that this celebrated' engineer once stated that his main consideration was the provision of engines best suited to the conditions and requirements peculiar to the L.B. & S.C.R., and with this in mind I firmly believe that had Stroudley survived, he certainly would have kept abreast of the times by modifying his standards to suit traffic and other developments, and would not be fettered by a system of standardization that worked well under the conditions obtaining in the 'seventies [1870s] and 'eighties [1880s], but which was obviously becoming outclassed in the 'nineties  [1890s] or nineteen hundreds [1900s]. Thus when the need had arisen for a design of locomotive in which a flexible wheelbase was necessary or desirable, Stroudley would have adopted this feature with the same thoroughness that characterized all his work.
It is an intriguing speculation as to the wheel arrangement that would have been adopted by Stroudley for express work, had he lived to see the day of the six-coupled express passenger locomotive on Brighton rails. It will be recalled that the famous "Gladstone" class of express engines were a development of the 1873 design of 0-4-2 tank engines of class D, but it does not seem probable that the 0-6-2 type West Brighton tank design would have developed into a tender engine of the 0-6-2 arrangement for express work, even after making due allowance for Stroudleys bold originality in locomotive design! In the contemplated 2-4-2 type of tank engine mentioned , by Mr. Morris, we have, however, a prototype that by development, first of all as an express tender engine of the above wheel arrangement, and then as a 2-6-2 tender errgine. might have been the culmination of Stroudley's express engine designs.
Thus the 2-2-2 Grosvenor of 1874 might have become by 1904. (or earlier) a Stroudley version of the modern Green Arrow class of the L.N.E.R. It is relevant to bear in mind that about the period 1903/1904 Robert Billinton had recognized the desirability of six-coupled wheels for express traffic on the Brighton line, and had in contemplation an express engine of the 4-6-0 arrangement, at the time of his death in November, 1904.
Regarding the 2-4-2 type for express work, the nearest approach seen in this country was F.W. Webb's Greater Britain class of "double-single" compounds, the wheel arrangement being 2-2-2-2, but it will be recalled 'that in the Locomotive Magazine for February and March, 1899, a design appeared for a 2-4-2 type of express locomotive suited to British requirements [KPJ: references not traced].
Reverting to West Brighton, an interesting feature of the design was the adoption of Stroudley's cylinders with valves beneath as used on the Gladstones, Jumbos and the special 0-6-0 tank Barcelona. This feature was not revived by Robert Billinton on the Radials of his design until the E6 class were built in 1904-1905. These were the last 0-6-2 tank engines built at Brighton, and a tragic simile of these engines and West Brighton was that the designer did not live to see the design materialize.
Morris states that West Brighton was Brighton's first eight-wheeled engine, but this is true only in so far as a six-coupled engine is concerned, for it will be recalled that J.C. Craven built three eight-wheeled tank engines at Brighton Works, two of which were of the 4-4-0 type with outside cylinders, and one of the 0-4-4 type having inside cylinders and outside frames.
Incidentally the first of the former wheel arrangements dated back to 1859 and seemed to be the forerunner of a type that afterwards, and for many years became standardized on the North London and lVIetropolitan Railways. One or two examples of the last named Company's 4-4-0 engines still survive.
In connection with the proposed Stroudley design of 2-4-2 tank engines, it is of interest to recall that Stroudley was responsible for one engine of that wheel arrangemement that for a few years ran in departmental service, the diminutive engine and saloon named Inspector. The engine was originally a Sharp Stewart 2-4-0 side tank purchased in 1869, and was converted by Stroudley to the 2-4-2 arrangement when the saloon was added at theI rear. The wheelbase was non-flexible, as this would have been unnecessary on such a short overall wheelbase. Here again, however, Stroudley did not live to see the completion of Inspector with the saloon attached.
In conclusion, it will be of interest if Morris will tell us exactly what were the bad practices or unorthodox methods to which he refers in connection with the fitting together of Stroudley 's "balanced tanks."

Reviews. 72

Mastering momentum, Lewis K. Sillcox, 274 pp. 130 illustrations. Simmons-Boardman, New York City. 72
The brief title of this book is fully illuminated by the sub-title description "A Discussion of Modern Transpn Trends and Their Influence upon the Equipment of American Railways." The six chapter headings, following apparently the six papers which had been presented by the Author at the Massachusetts College of Technology betwet 1936 and 1940, are a perfect resume of the very valuable contents of the work, as indicated below:-
(1) The Mechanics of Train Operation and Train Braking.
(2) Railway Car Wheels.
(3) Railway Car Axles.
(4) Locomotive and Car truck Design:—Rail Reactics and Riding Qualities.
(5) Draft Gear.
(6) Conclusion.
An appendix is then given, provided with six air brake equipment diagrams. The various illustraties and the format are in excellent style, and this volume s the best American technical work we have had the pleasure of reviewing for some time. The photoelastic studies of car axles are of peculiar interest, and the book can be most highly recommended to all those associated with the technical design of the running and braking equipments of railway rolling stock -.

Number 583 (15 April 1941)

Locomotive efficiency. 73
Brief summary of C.A. Cardew ILocoE  Paper  417 based on New South Wales Government Railways experience.

L.N.E.R. Cruden Bay Hotel Tramway. 73

Obituary. 73
Daeth of Sir Nigel Gresley at Watton House.

Southern Railway streamline Pacific locomotive, Channel Packet. 74-5. 3 illustrations, diagram (side & front elevations)
The BFB cast steel wheel centres, the Bulleid radial valve gear enclosed within an oil bath, the electric lighting and streamlined casing which was welded and carried on the main frame were noted.
Includes an explanation of the number for the engine: 21C1. Care had been taken to ensure convenience in the arrangement of the cab fittings. The two live steam injectors are on the fireman's side, the steam and water controls being arranged in one group on the cab side. The reversing gear is power operated, the steam and hydraulic cylinders being controlled by a single lever. The tender above the frame is all welded, the profile of the sides being the same as that on the latest Southern carriages. Clasp brakes are fitted to the tender wheels, operated by four 21-in. cylinders through automatic slack adjusters. The tender is filled through covers in the tender cab end at each side, as well as in the normal position at the back, thereby making it unnecessary for the nreman to climb to the top of rt:he tender. The firebox was of steel fitted with two thermic syphons. The inner and outer fireboxes were welded. Automatic steam operated fire hole doors are fitted. The boiler is lagged with spun glass mattresses.
The Minister of Transport, Lt.-CoI. LT.C. Moore-Brabazon, named the first engine at a ceremony held on 10 March at the Company's works. R. Holland-Martin, Chairman of the Southern Railway, O.V. Bulleid, Chief Mechanical Engineer, E.J. Missenden, General Manager, E.A. W. Turbett, Mechancal Engineer, Eastleigh, R.P. Biddle, Docks and Marine Manager, and C. Grasemann, Public Relations Officer, were among those present. A guard of honour, formed by men of the Home Guard and Fire Brigade, was inspected by the Minister of Transport, and after naming the engine he mounted the footplate and drove it on a trial trip. The other engines of the class will be named Union Castle, Royal Mail, Cunard White Star, Canadian Pacific, P. and O., Aberdeen and Commonwealth, Orient, Shaw Savill and Blue Star. Each will bear a replica of the house flag of the shipping line concerned, on a vitreous enamel plate.

Modified tank locomotives, L.M.S.R.: the standard 2-6-2 design reboilered. 76-7. illustration, diagram (side & front elevations)
Class 3P modified with larger boilers (increase from1045.9 ft2 to 1107.6 ft2 total evaporative heating surface and larger superheaters: 80ft2 to 145ft2. Nos. 163 and 169 had been modified: former illustrated..

James McEwan. The locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 77-9.
Pollok & Govan Railway and Wishaw & Coltness Railway.

O.S. Nock. British locomotive working 1934-9. performance on heavy gradients. 80-5. 2 illustrations,5 diagrams

F.C. Hambleton. L.N.W.R. compounds. the "King Alfred" class. 85-6  illustration (line drawing: side elevation)

P.C. D[ewhurst]. L.M.S.R. locomotives: a history of the Somerset and Dorset Joint Railway. 89-91. 4 illustrations
Maritime activities at Burnham. See also letter from R.B. Fellows on p.140

C.R.H. Simpson. A pole road locomotive. 94. illustration

2,000 B.H.P. diesel locomotive, Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific R.R. 94. illustration
American Locomotive Co.

Number 585 (15 May 1941)

Combustion turbine locomotives. 97
Report by American Railway Fuel Association that a 500 hp locomotive was being constructed and that a 6000 hp was in prospect which would incorporate four 1500 hp gas turbines. Improvements in metallurgy made this possible.

Sir Nigel Gresley, C.B.E., D.Sc. 97-9. illustration

Lord Stamp of Shortlands. 99
Short obituary which mentions "tragic death by enemy action"

Guy Bakewell. 4-8-4 locomotive Victorian Railways. 99-100. 2 illustrations
Pocono type. No. 220, built at the Newport Works was exhibted at Spencer Street station in Melbourne with 0-6-0 No. 94 which had been built in 1884.

Locomotive fuels. 100

O.S. Nock. British locomotive working 1934-9. Locomotive work on heavy gradients. 101-5. illustration, 5 diagrams
Highland Railway Castle class piloting Class 5 oon climb from Carr Bridge to Slochd Summit hauling 430 tons; Class 5 No. 5361 hauling 415 tons between Perth and Pitlochry; work of Clan class on Oban trains and on 295 ton train between Newtonmore and Druimuachdar with No. 14762 Clan Campbell. Nock noted that the Pickersgill 4-6-0s built for the Oban line rode well because of their short coupled wheelbase and long bogies. Performance on the West Highland line  considered two D34 Glen class 4-4-0s climbing from Tulloch to Corrour and from Briudge of Orchy to the Summit with 315 tons and K4 2-6-0 No. 3441 Loch Long with 305 tons from Ardlui to Tydrum and from Bridge of Orchy to Gortan

Diesel-line electric locomotive for London Transport maintenace work. 105
Using parts from two old Central Line motor cars an electro-diesel was created capable of using the 600 volt traction current or electricity generated by a diesel engine

Screw adjustable coupling. Western Australian Government Railways. 106. 2 illustrations
Adjustable coupling was being fitted to some passenger carriages of the W.A.G.R. helping to do away with the jerking and jolting so frequently the cause of complaint from passengers when a train starts fitted with chopper couplers. Slack cannot be eliminated with the ordinary chopper coupler, and if it is reduced too much engagement may be impossible. Wear of the parts adds to trouble and, what is worse, the rate of wear increases as the amount of slack increases giving rise to jerking when starting and causing a continuous rattle and clank of the loose parts when the train is running. The adjustable coupling could be used the same as a non-adjustable couplmg. F. MIlls, Chief Mechanical Engineer of the W.A.G.R.,supplied information

Eight-coupled locomotives for N.Y.C.R.R. 106
Fifty engines with the 4-8-2 wheel arrangement had been placed in service by the New York Central Railroad and employed on both heavy passenger and freight service. Although equipped with driving wheels of moderate diameter the results obtained in fast passenger service had been satisfactory, largely due, to extensive use of light-weight alloys in the design of motion, driving axles, etc. Hollow axles of vanadium steel run in roller bearings.

Southern Railway. 106
As a war-time measure all engines, were to be painted black. unlined. except the express. passenger types.

James McEwan. The locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 107-9:
Wishaw and Coltness Railway (continued).
In 1844 and 1845, R. &  W. Hawthorn, delivered six similar locomotives of the 0-4-2 wheel rrangement. The cylinders were 14 in. diam. by 20 in. stroke and the diameters of the wheels 'ere 4 ft. 6 in. and 2 ft. 11 in. Unfortunately the original drawings of this class of engine cannot be found by the makers and from various odd records and sketches kindly loaned a reconstruction of the design has been attempted. The design appears to have followed the makers usual practice having double frames and outside cranks. Pressure was 60 lb. per sq. in. at first, but was ter raised to 70 lb. The names, etc., of the class were as undernoted

Name Date WN CR No. Withdrawn
Jupiter 1844 388 89 1861
Hercules 1844 389 95 1858 (a)
Vulcan 1845 421 91 1861
Venus 1845 422 87 (b) 1863
Vesta 1845 454 88 (c) 1859
Lucifer 1845 455 86 1861

Note (a). No. 95.is said to have been hired to /rn. Dixon & Co. for the haulage of their own coke traffic, in exercise of their running powers between Calder and Blantyre and the Govan Ironworks, from 1855 or earlier to 1858 in which year the engine was sold out of service. Although nothing definite can be traced it is suggested that Messrs. Dixon were the purchasers and that this locomotive was the first "Calder No. 5." The late John Smith—the last main line driver at Dixon's—always declared that the first "No. 5" was of similar wheel type to the second No. 5, 0-4-2, and that when he came to Calder some wheels and axles lying there were pointed out as belonging to the earlier engine which was "of the Coltness type" and got for working the main line trips and retained after the larger engine had been sold to the Caledonian Railway. This sale will be referred to shortly when dealing with the history of the Traders' locomotives.
Notes (b) and (c). os. 87 and 88 were renumbered 84 and 85 respectively either in 1853 or early in 1854.
Some years ago the reminiscences of John Mann were given in a Lanarkshire Club and one concerned the Wishaw and Coltness Railway. It was claimed that the line had only one mishap prior to its amalgamation with the C.R., happily without serious consequences. . On the occasion referred to, two of the locomotives, Hercules and Venus had been sent to Morningside on the previous evening to work an extra train early next morning. The leading engine was Hercules and the train engine Venus. The usual early trip from the Holytown Works, and depot, to Morningside was being hauled by Lucifer, Both trains were coming along their own set of rails near Cambusnethan (Wishaw) and had almost met when Lucifer suddenly left the rails, slewed over towards the other set and pitched in to Hercules, Luckily the driver and fireman were thrown dear of the Hercules before it fell over.
At the inquiry into the accident it was suggested by the company's superintendent that the only solution which could be advanced was that Lucifer had the idea that Venus was being led away by his rival. Referring to John Mann, it is interesting to note that he came to the Monkland and Kirkintilloch Railway with Mr. Dodds. He had been a driver with the Stockton and Darlington Railway previously. Later he left the M. & K.R. to become a " foreman driver" with the Wishaw and Coltness Railway and later joined the Caledonian. When the stock was taken over by the C.R. it was seemingly numbered in the rotation the engines arrived at the Holytown Shops for repainting.
Trader's locomotives
When the C.R. was formed it was understood that all the haulage required at collieries, etc., was to be performed by the Company, and this meant the removal of loaded wagons from the pithead to the nearest mineral yard on the main line for marshalling, including the setting in of empties. The C.R., however, had spent so much money in other directions that when the line was opened some of the stations were only half completed, while owing to debt all the locomotive stock necessary could not be provided; some of the singles worked on goods trains. In consequence it was arranged with the colliery people and others interested that until the time when the Company could undertake the shunting themselves the owners would acquire suitable locomotives and undertake the haulage. In consequence of this the C.R. were to give the colliery and ironworks locomotives running powers over the section of the main line adjacent to their works. Some of the running powers granted were of a limited nature while in two ,cases they were extensive. Those of Co1in Dunlop & Co. permitted that company to operate from Crossbasket, near Blantyre to Gushetfaulds (Glasgow) and over the former Drumpellier Railway. Later when the line was extended to Strathaven and the Quarter Collieries were brought into use, Dunlop ceased to use the running powers and sent the engines still retained to this district. The most extensive were those granted to Wm. Dixon & Co. who were permitted to run their own trains over the line from Calder to Glasgow (Port Dundas) traversing the route of the Glasgow, Garnkirk and Coatbridge Railway, and also from Calder to Govan Ironworks, via. Motherwell. Later the powers were exercised mainly between Calder and the ironworks, via. Langloan and an occasional trip from High Blantyre. These powers have not been used since 1937 as the trips were becoming sporadic and there was little traffic for a large locomotive of limited power.
One part of the arrangement with the various owners was that the Company would purchase the stock acquired, as soon as was practicable, but the owners would have the option of retaining the facilities for a short period after the notice to purchase had been intimated. Some of the owners parted with their facilities in whole, others in .part as soon as the C.R. indicated that they purposed taking the engines over. Some retained the locomotives for internal traffic.
A few of the owners got the C.R. to operate the engines for them when obtained and it is said that frequently locomotives were seen bearing a C.R. road number and also the inscription that the owner was a private individual (e.g., Arch. Russell). This may have given rise to the story that at one period the C.R. was so poorly off that creditors put their names on the engines to indicate ownership.

Trader's locomotives

C.R. No. Type Cyls. D.W.
80 2-4-0T 14 by 21 5 ft. 0 in.
81 2-4-0T 14 by 21 5 ft. 0 in.
83 (a) 0-4-0 15 by 18 4 ft. 6 in.
87 (b) 0-4-2 16 by 20 (o) 5 ft. 0 in.
88 (c) 0-4-2 16 by 20 (o) 5 ft. 0 in.
95 (d) 0-4-2 17 by 20 (o) 5 ft. 0 in.
182 2-4-0 15 by 22 (o) 5 ft. 0 in.
183 2-4-0 15 by 22 (o) 5 ft. 0 in.
184 0-4-2 14 by 21 (i) 4 ft. 6 in.
185 0-4-2 14 by 21 (i) 4 ft. 6 in.
186 0-4-2 16 by 22 (o) 5 ft. 0 in.
187 0-4-2 16 by 22 (o) 5 ft. 0 in.

For details of makers, etc., see separate list
Notes-(a) Renumbered 240 in 1862 and 1I8 in 1864.
(b) Renumbered 241 in 1862 and 255 in 1864.
(c) Renumbered 242 in 1864.
(d) Renumbered 111 in 1866, 120 in 1867, 123 in 1872, 451 in 1876 and 680 in 1877.
So far as is known some twelve locomotives came over to the C.R. The details of the numbers are somewhat confused and contradictory and the basic details are taken mainly from the notes made by the late Inspector John McInnes who joined the service of the Garnkirk and Glasgow Railway in 1844 and retired from the Company's service in 1902.
R. &  W. Hawthorn are credited with the construction of at least four engines, but these makers, despite great search, are not able to trace the manufacture of any of them, therefore the makers appear to. be Hawthorns of Leith, as No. 95 has builder's number 47 of 1851 and' Hawthorns had then not long started general engineering. No. 83 is said to have been Neilson's No. 50 of 1851, but as this was the Summerlee Iron Co's. engine the maker would be Hawthorns and their No. 50. This engine bore the name Neilson, hence the possible mistake in the makers name. Nos. 80 and 81 were sold to owners in Co. Durham. The former rejoiced in the nickname The Cuddy (Horse) and 81 in The Bird. The source of the latter is said to have come from the knowledge that its first owners had named it Hawk. Both are stated to have been very efficient and powerful and were employed until their disposal in shunting the old yard at Glasgow (South Side). These two locomotives were said to have been the first two made by Hawthorns, all four previous jobs being marine.
Nos. 182 and 183 were short coupled locomotives and had the same boiler details, cylinder and wheel dimensions as those numbered 144 to 151 previously described. The wheelbase, however, was 5 ft. 11 in. plus 5 ft. 6 in., and 11 ft. 5 in. total. The piston rod had a trunk guide. These appear to have been engines from the cancelled order for Russia.
Nos. 184 and 185 seem to have been Hawthorns copy of the earlier R. & W. Hawthorn design which had been assembled at Leith, but of slightly increased dimensions.
Nos. 186 and 187 were of Neilson & Co's. standard design and had in consequence quite a number of parts which were standard with C.R. designs. They were rebuilt at Perth in 1867 and 1865 respectively. No change appears to have been made in the boiler design. No. 187 was the first " foreign" engine to be overhauled at the former Scottish Central Railway shops. The names were removed by the C.R. when the locomotives were taken over.
Sinclair was succeeded by Ben. Connor, but no alteration was made to the locomotives ordered prior to Sinclair's departure and still to be built. Sinclair did little experimental work and apart from the attempt to improve combustion by the additon of argands to the firebox, his main alterations were the fitting of chimneys of correct diameter and blast pipes of correct diameter and height as found by trial and error methods under actual conditions. He discontinued the use of stay rods in the boiler barrels, and adopted longitudinal stays between the smokebox tube plate and the firebox tube plate.

Traders' locomotives acquired by the Caledonian Railway.



Acq'r'd Maker WN Name Owner W'drawn



1855 Hawthorns ?5 Coltness Iron Co. 1860



1854 Hawthorns ?6 ?Hawk A. Russell & Co. 1861



1854 Hawthorns 50 Neilson Sumrnerlee Iron Co 1873



1854 Hawthorns Newton Kidson 1874



1854 A. Neilson & Co 46 Arch. Russell A. Russell & Co. 1872



1858 Hawthorns 47 Glencairn . J. Watson & Co 1878



1857 G. England & Co. Cuilhill C. Dunlop & Co 1870


1857 G. England & Co. Monkland C. Dunlop & Co 1872


1857 Hawthorns 83 ?Tewsgill Coltness Iron Co. 1872


1857 Hawthorns 84 ?Garrion . Coltness Iron Co. 1874
186 ?1855 1857 A. Neilson & Co Calder W. Dixon & Co. 1881
187 ?1855 1857 A. Neilson & Co Cambusnethan Thos. Barr & Co. 1882

J.L. Koffmann. Railcar radiators. 109-12.6 diagrs., table
Rapid development of railcars faced both designers and operators with several problems, among which the dimensioning of radiators presents some complexities. The action of a radiator m service appears to be very simple. for the hot water circulated through it merely gives up heat to air passing over its hot external surface, but as soon as the sequence of events is examined in detail, and if an effort be made to forecast the performance of every type under every vanety of operatmg conditions, the complexity of the different variables affecting the performance of the rad iator concerned soon appears. It is the great number of variables, made more complicated

Argentine Ministry of Agriculture. 112
Authorized sale of government-purchased corn for use as fuel on the railways. Experiments were made which showed that unshelled corn could be used for locomotive fuel as cheaply as coal, wood or fuel oil.

Modern locomotive running shed practice. 112
Title of paper by G.M. Pargiter, presented to the Institution of Locomotive Engineers explained in a very concise and interesting manner the relationship of running shed to locomotive by sketching in detail the ordinary working day in the life of a locomotive. Each move is dealt with in chronological order cleaning—shed examination—boiler-washing—inspection and general routine. Paper 419

C.R.H. Simpson. A twin locomotive. 113. illustration.
Swiss Locomotive & Machine Works, Winterthur. Built in about 1878 during the managemnt of Charles Brown for theVilla Real & Villa Regoa Tramway in Portugal which had 1 in 12½ gradients and severe curvature.

"Southern Belle": Kansas City Southern-Louisiana and Arkensas Lines. 113-16. 2 illustrations, plan.
Streamlined diesel electric train which operated between Kansas City and New Orleans. The exterior was painted predominantly green on the exterior of the passenger cars with red on the locomotive, There was limited accommodation for "coloured" passengers and more generous areas for colourless ones (only the latter are illustrated in black & white). 

O.J. M[orris]. Four-rail mixed gauge, G.W.R. 117. illustration
W.M. Spriggs, then resident in Canada, and a very well-known authority on Canadian locomotive history, sent photograph of a "renewed" Gooch 8 ft. single, G.W.R., which he took at Newton Abbot Station in 1891, the year previous to the abolition of Brunels 7 ft. Broad Gauge. Interest centres mainly on the disposition of the narrow gauge rails, which are shewn interlaced, thus providing an example of mixed gauge on a four-rail system. It is well known that the mixed gauge was normally laid with only three rails, one rail being common to both the 7 ft. and the standard gauge tracks, and it seems that a four-rail system existed, as in this instance, to bring narrow-gauge engines centrally over the turntable (which is shewn immediately behind the engine), possibly also to bring them centrally over the inspection pits

Pennsylvania R.R. 117
Passengers from Chicago to Miami, Fla., travelled on the South Wind luxury train of the Pennsylvania Railroad. The trip took 29½ hours each way which was the fastest timing for this run. The latest design and smartest appointments have been put into the South Wind. There is an 85-foot observation-lounge buffet car, a solarium forms the semi- circular observation end. Seats number 258 and are of the individual reclining coach type; they are also adjustable to suit the comfort of the passenger. Large dressing rooms for men and women are in each coach; floor lights have been placed beneath seats for illumination at night when overhead lights are turned off. Luxury, comfort and speed are offered by this newest addition to the Pennsylvania system.

C.R.H. Simpson. Wooden rails.117
Having recently referred to a pole road locomotive (vide page 94 of the current volume) it may be of general interest to describe briefly the types of wooden rails in use in America during the closing years of the last century. There were briefly three varieties, the pole road in which timber of circular section was employed, the flat timber rail and that in which the depth either .equalled or exceeded the face width. The pole road demanded wheels with concave treads whereas in those roads utilising flat timber the treads of the wheels were flangeless and the engine was retained on the track by means of guiding wheels acting nearly horizontally in the manner outlined in Prosser's patent. It may here be recalled that the patentee mentioned envisaged the use of wooden rails although engines were constructed on this system to operate on ordinary metal rails, an example is illustrated and described in Locomotive, 1903, 8, 57. In the case of the square or edge rail wheels with tyres of orthodox contour were used and light locomotives designed for use on steel rails could be employed without alteration.
The chief advantage or wooden rails was obviously cheapness of first cost and that is about the only point which could be claimed in their favour; their most pronounced disadvantages were high rolling resistance, the difficulty of obtaining adequate adhesion in wet and freezing weather, the need for frequent attention and the necessity of very slow speeds. Pole roads were in the opinion of some unsuitable for steam traction. The best wooden rails were constructed from maple, laid heart uppermost, hard pine also found considerable favour. Lengths usually varied from 16 to 20 ft. the cross-section varying according to the wood used and the weight of the locomotives; 5 in. by 5 in. was a commonly employed size although 5 in. by 7 in. and 4 in. by 6 in. were also encountered. Sleepers were laid at 4 ft. centres with the larger section rails and at 2 or 3 ft. centres with the lighter sections, the usual section of sleepers was 6 in. by 6in. The rails were recessed some 3 in. into the sleepers and were affixed in the recesses by wooden keys. In some cases such rails were laid to serve until such time as the road earned sufficient to pay for steel rails whereas in other instances they were used by firms such as logging companies who had timber readily available and frequently required the road moving to another site.

L.M.S.R.  117
The train canteens for troops recently introduced as an experiment by the L.M.S.R. for service between London and Glasgow in co-operation with the War Office, Y.M.C.A. and Salvation Army were to become a permanent feature on certain express trains. between these two points. Third Class dining cars for members of the Forces only had been provided on the weekday 10.00 Euston to Glasgow and the 10.00 Glasgow to Euston.

L.N.E.R.  117
E. Thompson, O.B.E., appointed Chief Mechanical Engineer in succession to the late Sir Nigel Gresley, C.B.E., D.Sc. Thompson was a pupil with Beyer, Peacock & Co., Ltd., and served some time with the Midland Railway. He joined the N.E.R. in 1906 and became assistant to the Divisional Locomotive Superintendent at Gateshead in 1909. In 1912 he became Carriage and Wagon Superintendent at Doncaster (G.N.R.) and in 1923 was appointed Carriage and Wagon Works Manager at York (L.N.E.R.). In 1930 Thompson was appointed Mechanical Engineer at Stratford having served as assistant there since 1927. In 1934 he went to the North-Eastern Area and in 1938 became Mechanical Engineer of the Southern Area, Western section
H.W.H. Richards appointed Chief Electrical Engineer and be completely responsible for the Company's electrical engineering work.

Number 586 (15 June 1941)

Aluminium alloys. 119.
Main use in valve gear components to reduce weight and hammer blow. Side rods based on material use on Alton & Southern RR.

G.W.R. Mr. C.B. Collett, O.B.E, M.Inst.C.E., M.I.Mech.E.. 119
Retirement and succeeded by F.W. Hawksworth

New 2-8-0 locomotives Victorian Railways. 120-1.

James McEwan. The locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 122-5. 7 illustrations (including portrait)
Benjamin Connor was in charge from 1857 to 1876. At the beginning of this time double-sided bullhead steel rail was being introduced and experiments were being made to replace coke with coal as locomotive fuel. In 1858 an order was placed with A. Neilson for a coal burning 0-6-0 with outside cylinders to work on the General Terminus Railway. This had 16 x 22in cylinders, 5ft 2in coupled wheels, 895 ft2 total heating surface and operated at 95 psi. It had WN 460 and the initial running number was 180. In 1873 the locomotive was rebuilt as a 2-4-0. In 1858 Connor's own design was introducesd: a Crewe type 2-4-0 freight locomotive with outside frames and outside cylinders. Four were built at St Rollox and four at Neilson's. The latter were supplied with steam tenders, but  these were switched to a larger St. Rollox design in the following year. They were numbered 189 to 196: the WN of the Neilson enginesb were 492-5. The class was withdrawn between 1894 and 1902.
The eight foot singles were alleged to have been designed at Crewe by Alexamder Allan according to Ahrons and certainly had a high input from Neilson. The first twelve had a raised firrebox with the dome and Salter safety valves located on it. Neilson built one for the London Exhibition of 1862, but it, plus a further two, were acquired by the Viceroy of Egypt. Otherwise it would have become CR No. 83. They were very heavy locomotives and were capable of hauling substantial trains up to Beattock. Photographs: Benjamin Connor (portrait), No. 188 (outside-cylinder 0-6-0; 2-4-0 (189-96 series as built); 2-4-0 No. 192 as rebuilt; 2-2-2 Exhibition engine; 2-2-2 No. 115; 2-2-2 No. 83a as rebuilt by Drummond.

C.Hamilton Ellis. Famous locomotive engineers. No. XIX. James Manson. 126-31. 4 illustrations (including portrait)

The 0-8-2 tank engine. 131.
Restricted to railways in Britain: designs described Sharp Stuart WN 4182-8 for the Barry Railway; Cooke Locomotive Works products for Port Talbot Railway; the Ivatt, Doncaster design intended for suburban traffic; L&YR 1501 class and LNWR 1185 class..

Rail car for His Highness the Maharaja Saheb of Morvi. 132-3. illustration, diagram (side, front and rear elevations & plan)
Built under the supervision of C.O.B. Morgan, Locomotive and Carriage Superintendent of the Morvi State Railway: streamlined luxury vehicle with six-cylinder Dodge engine

Dublin and Kingstown Railway: centenary of Irish locomotive building. 133-4.
2-2-2T Princess built at Grand Canal Street Works in 1841 and entered service on 4 April

E.A. Phillipson. The steam locomotive in traffic. VIII. Periodical examinations. Organisation of repair and maintenance work. 134-9. 6 diagrams (facsimile forms)

Two large wagons.. 139
Two exceptionally large wagons had been produced, one on each side of the Atlantic, for the use of the steel industry.
That in the Western hemisphere was built by The Greenville Steel Car Copmany of Greenville, Pa., to the order of The Carnegie-Illinois Steel Corporation of Pittsburg, and was intended for the carriage of large ingot moulds. The tare weight is 140 tons with a full load capacity of 250 tons and an overall length of 90 ft.
The English wagon has been built by Head, Wrightson & Co., Ltd., of Thornaby-on-Tees for the English Steel Corporation of Sheffield and was capable of conveying loads of 300 tons, although when travelling over main line railways it was necessary to restrict the load to 200 tons. The overall length was 57 ft. 6 in. over buffers, the overall width being 8 ft. 6 in. diameter. This vehicle wa capable of traversing a curve of 80 ft. radius. An interesting feature is that the whole frame is fabricated by welding no rivets being used in this.

Madeira-Mamore Railway. 139
The last link of 500 miles between Velho (Brazil) and Guayara-Martin (Bolivia) had been completed. Work on the railway began 38 years earlier.

Southwold Railway. 139
At a meeting of tbe Southwold Town Council it was unanimously agreed to support a petition for reopening the Southwold Railway. The opinion was that the reopening of the railway would be of the utmost benefit to Southwold and the neighbouring .parishes.

British Railways train services. 139.
Referring to the paragraph which appeared on-page 116 of  the May issue the L.N.E.R. passenger service between Sheffield (Victoria) and Barnsley (Court House) via Chapeltown, has been reinstated.
The reference to Gallions Lane in this paragraph should have read Gallions.
A further interesting feature of the May time tables is the announcement that the electric services over the M.S.J.A.R. is now operating between Warwick Road and Altrincham only, [KPJ Manchester Christmas Blitz had presumably damaged viaduct and/or electric overhead system] a connecting service of steam trains being run on weekdays between Manchester {Central), Old Trafford and Warwick Road. On Sundays the electric service is replaced entirely by a through service of steam trains between Manchester (Central) and Altrincham running at half hourly intervals. The effect of these arrangements is that Oxford Road and Knott Mill and Deansgate stations are now closed for passenger traffic. The C.L.C. services between Manchester (Central) and places beyond Altrincham continue to run over the M.S.J.A. line as hitherto.

L.M.S.R. 139
R.C. Bond, A.M.Inst.C.E., M.I.Mech.E.,  M.I.Loco.E., appointed works superintendent (locomotives}, Crewe. He served his apprenticeship on the Midland Railway at Derby and afterwards had charge of new locomotives under construction for the L.M.S.R. by outside firms. In 1928 he was appointed assistant works manager to the Vulcan Foundry. In 1931 Mr. Bond returned to the L.M.S.R., as assistant works superintendent at Horwich. In 1933 he held ,a similar post at Crewe, and from 1937 to 1939 he was superintendent engineer at the joint L.M.S. and L.N.E. locomotive testing station. From 1939 until his present appointment he was acting mechanical and electrical engineer (L.M.S. Scottish area).

Trans-Saharan Railway. 139.
Construction of the Trans- Saharan Railway had begun. Oil-engined locomotives would be used for working the line.

Correspondence. 140

Burnham-Cardiff passenger boats. Reginal B. Fellows.
In 1858 the Somerset Central Railway became involved in steamer sailings to Cardiff working in association with the SS Taliesen owned by the Cardiff Steam Navigation Company. In 1860 this service was repalced by the SCR owned SS The Ruby. In 1860 the Burnham Tidal Harbour & Railway Company extended the quay and the Act legalised the steamer sailing which took about 1½ hours for the crossing. Bradshaw for 1884 list the Sherboro performing the sailings

British locomotive working, 1934-9. John W. Smith
In 1919 he had observed No. 592 with 7ft coupled wheels attempting to start its train away from Craigendoran and the fireman was applying ballast to the slipping 7ft driving wheels to assist adhesion. Holmes West Highland No. 9695 was used to assist a B12 4-6-0 on the annual through train to Oban for the Iona cruise.

Facts about British Railways in Wartime. 140.
Issued by British Railways Press Office.

L.M.S.R. 140
Coronation Pacific to be named King George VI for which Royal approval had been obtained

U.S. gift in memory of Lord Stamp. 140
Baltimore & Ohio Railroad sent cheque to LMS to fund an RAF flying ambulance. Presentation made in New York to representative of British Railways by President of the British American Ambulance Corps.

L.N.E.R. 140
A.H. Peppercorn to become Assistant Chief Mechanical Engineer and Mechanical Engineer Doncaster; F.W. Carr to be Mechanical Engineer at Stratford; T.E. Heywood designated Mechanical Engineer (Scotland), K.S. Robertson as Assistant Mechanical Engineer in Scotland; R.A. Smeddle Mechanical Engineer Darlington. with L. Reeves as Manager of the Locomotive Works at Darlington; J.F. Harrison as Mechanical Engineer at Gorton with H.J. Williams as Works Manager (formerly Chief Materials Inspector at Doncaster.

Number 587 (15 July 1941)

Locomotive fire engines. 141-2

F.C. Hambleton. John Ramsbottom. 143-7.

L.N.E.R. 151
Stramlined B17 No. 2780 City of London: a record of continuous performance between Liverpool St. and Norwich, in which 100,103 miles were run in 452 days.

James McEwan. The locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 154-6.
The singles were originally confined to the Glasgow Buchanan Stret to Carlisle section for 7 years, but were then moved elsewhere. Some were involved in serious collisions. On 14 May 1883 Nos. 78 and 84 ran into wreckage of a previous accident due to signalman error at Kirtlebridge. In July 1886 Nos. 80 and 85 made contact with another train fouling the line at Fullwood Junction. 4-wheel tenders were fitted to some locomotives to enable them to use 35-ft turntables. Thw Westinghouse brake was fitted to all the singles. In 1859 four of the 189 series of 2-4-0 were fitted with steam tenders, but this was unsuccesssful, but the process was repeated on the larger-boilered 197 series on Nos. 197-200 and was successwful for a few minutes: the tenders also improved braking performance. They were very unpopular with the footplate crews, eespecially the task of oiling the inside motion od the steam tenders/

L.N.E.R. Medal. 156
Silver medal inscribed FOR COURAGE AND RESOURCE.

O.J. Morris. Standardising Southern Railway locomotives, Central Section. 157-60. 4 illustrations, diagram
Includes fitting E4 0-6-2T No. 517 Limpsfield with Ashton pop safety valves

C.R.H. Simpson. Handyside's steep gradient locomotive. 161. illustration
Fox, Walker & Co. locomotive. Refers to Locomotive Mag. article in Volume 39 page 207 and to Engineering, 1876, 13 October

Chicago North Shore "Electroliners". 161. illustration
100 mile/h inter-urban cars

Number 588 (15 August 1941)

Railway accidents, 1940. 163.
Restricted lighting due to WW2 was estmated to account for approximately 10% of accidents. Particular attention is paid to the collapse of the firebox crown on a Stanier streamlined Pacific between Clegham [Cleghorn?] and Carstairs

G.W.R. 163
F.C. Hall appointed as assistant to CME: Hall had been apprenticec at Swindon from 1900; in 1919 became assistant divisional locomotive superintendent at Old Oak Common, district locomotive superintendent at Bristol in 1931 and locomotive running superintendent at Swindon in 1931. Promotion of W.N. Pellow to Hall's former post.

Australia's largest locomotive. 164-5. illustration
Victorian Railways three-cylinder 4-8-4 H class

Ethiopian Rly. 165.
Partially reopened after it had been destroyed by Italy: had connected Adis Ababa with Jibuti.

The assessment of locomotive performance. 166-70. 6 tables

The Whitland and Cardigan Ry. 170. 3 illustrations
Line incorporated 12 July 1869 as Whitland and Taf Vale Railway with a line to Crymmmych Arms with an extension to a quarry. Opened to passengers on 12 July 1875. In 1877 powers were obtained for an extension to Cardigan, but this did not open until 1 September 1886, by which time had become part of the GWR. Three Fox, Walker & Co. 0-6-0ST locomotives formed the stock: WN 170/1872 No 1 John Owen (GWR No. 1385), WN 271/1875 No. 2  (GWR No. 1386); and WN 340/1877 No. 3 (GWR No. 1387). The first two had outside cylinders, but the last had inside.

James McEwan. The locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 171-4. 7 illustrations, diagram (side elevation)
2-4-0 and 0-4-2 mineral engines.. The latter introduced in 1861 had been intended to be fitted with steam tendders, but this part of the order was cancelled.

Southern Railway. 174
Passenger service from Brockwood to Bisley Camp on Saturday afternoons

R.B. Fellows. The centenary of a business train. 175-6. table
The City Limited Brighton to London Bridge express began on 18 September 1841: outward at 08.30 arriving 10.15 and return at 16.45 and back in Brighton at 18.30. It was limited to first class passengers, but calls for stops at Croydon and elsewhere slowed the service, but in 1883 times of approaching one hour were attained and in 1912 the down train took exactly one hour.

Wagon for exceptional loads (Victorian Government Railways). 177.
Electric power station at Newport required wagon to convey 150 ton loads.

F.C. Hambleton. John Ramsbottom. 178-82. 9 diagrams

A broad-gauge shunting "pug". South Devon Railway. 183.  3 illustrations
7 ft.-gauge well-tank engine, Owl, built 1872 by the Avonside Engine Works, Bristol, and put to work in January, 1873, at Plymout.h Docks and thereabouts. The engine had cylinders 11in. by 16 in., coupled wheels 3 ft. diameter, and tank vents reminiscent of those used on engines of the Metropolitan and Metro-District Railways. Sanding by local-control was a noteworthy feature well shown in the illustrations.
Absorbing the S.D.R. in 1876, the G.W.R. took over Owl and its companions, Weasel and Goat, numbering them respectively 2172, 2173 and 2174. According to MacDermot, Owl and Goat were converted to standard gauge after 1892, while Weasel was withdrawn in 1882, but Ahrons, writing from personal memory in The Railway Magazine for January, 1916, p. 32, recorded that Goat lost all her "works" on turning up at Swindon in 1884 for heavy repairs, and was thereafter used as a buffer-truck. In the early 'nineties, Owl was working at Ivybridge, where W. M. Spriggs took photographs.
See also letter from A.C.W. Lowe on page 204

L.M.S.R.  183
Three fully equipped ambulances presented by employees of the Central Railroad of New Jersey and the Reading Company, U.S.A., were formally handed over on 24 July by Sir Thomas Royden to Mrs. Somerville-Smith of the British American Ambulance Corps. The ambulances are dedicated to the L.M.S.R. in recognition of their gesture of friendship by sending the Coronation Scot to America also as a tribute to British railwaymen generally for maintaining essential train services during heavy raids by the enemy.

L.N.E.R. Fenchurch Street Station, London. 183
In use for a century being opened on August. 1841.

The Brentwood accident. L.N.E.R. 183
The Ministry of \Var Transport report on the collision which took place near Brentwood on 10 February had been issued. The 10 00. passenger train from Liverpool Street to Norwich came to a stop on Brentwood Bank owing to lack of steam. Eight minutes later it was run into from the rear by the  10.04 train from Liverpool Street to Southend.
The Norwich train consisted of thirteen bogie coaches weighing 414½ tons and hauled by three-cylinder 4-6-0 locomotive No. 2828, class B.I7. The Southend train, hauled by two-cylinder 4-6-0 locomotive No. 8556, class B.I2, was made up of ten older non-corridor vehicles. As a result of the collision the last coach of the Norwich train was completely destroyed, as was the first vehicle of the Southend train. The Southend engine was much damaged at the front end.
The driver of the Norwich train, Hudson, gave evidence that his locomotive No. 2828 showed nothing amiss before starting. The fire was good. The load was heavy, though quite normal for this particular train. Steaming, however, was sluggish from the start, though the climb to Bethnal Green was made without incident. After passing Gidea Park, shortly before the Brentwood Bank, pressure had dropped from the full 200 lb. to 160 lb. per sq. in. Driver Hudson, leaving Fireman Greenley on the footplate, telephoned the Brentwood signalman, Fenton, asking for an assisting engine. As only a small engine was available, Fenton and he decided that time would be saved if he stayed where he was and recovered steam, Hudson undertaking to telephone again before starting. Signalman Fenton informed the Control and the Gidea Park signalman of the decision, but it was then too late to divert the Southend train to the local line, as it had already passed him at 10.39  
Driver Burkett, of the Southend train, fully and frankly admitted responsibility for the accident. He could remember nothing between passing signal DT 15 B, showing a green light, and seeing the Norwich train "a yard or two ahead." He and his fireman, Porter, had been on duty for 5½ hours. He had not been on duty the previous day. He put forward no excuses, and said he was well rested and fit in every way. He had no personal worries. Fireman Porter stated that he was firing almost continuously for some time before the collision and was unable to watch the road. The first he knew was a sudden application of the Westinghouse brake. Major Wilson had no alternative but to conclude that having set the engine controls for the ascent after leaving Harold Wood, Burkett; must have relaxed his attention to such an extent that he became drowsy, and may even have fallen asleep in his seat. Although he applied the Westinghouse brake on the engine at the very last minute, it appears that he made no attempt to close the regulator, or to apply the vacuum brake on the train.

Canadian National Railways. 183
R.C. Vaughan succeeded S.J. Hungerford as President of the C.N.R. Vaughan began his career as a messenger with the Canadian Pacific Railway at the age of 15. He later served with the Grand Trunk Railway and Joined the Canadian Northern Railway in 1903. He held various positions with the Company and in 1920 was appointed Vice-President of the Canadian ational Railways. Upon the amalgamation of the Canadian National lines with those of the Grand Trunk Railway he became Vice-President of the newly co-ordinated Canadian National System.

Number 589 (15 September 1941)

Oil-fired Pacific locomotives. Iraqi State Railways. 186. illustration
Robert Stephenson & Hawthorms streamlines locomotives designed by A.P. Challoner, CME; inspection Crown Agents for the Colonies. Intended for Tel Kotchek to Baghdad service.

Obituary. 186
A.W. Rendell, General Manager Westinghouse Brake Co. from 1900 until retirement in 1920. Served apprenticeship under Craven at Brighton Works and became Chief Draughtsman under Stroudley Locomotive Superintendent East Indian Railway. Photograph at Lahore Locomotive Superintendent's Conference in Lahore in 1892: Locomotive Mag., 1925, 31, 133 (plate).  

Steam v. diesel electric locos. 187-8.

Light-weight wheels and axles. 188-91. 5 diagrams

F.H. Gilford. Industrial locomotives. 191-3. 6 illustrations
Conrluded from page 151. Bristol had two establishments which made a speciality of industrial engines. Of these the Avonside Engine Co., successors to the old firm of Slaughter, Gruning' & Co., and Stothert, Slaughter & Co., built an outside-cylindered saddle tank with round tank and a brass dome formerly carrying a pair of spring-balances, which gave way to the Rambottom type some thirty years ago. The four-wheeled class had the tank extended over the smokebox. The Mersey Docks and Harbour Board had a considerable number of these, also the Port of Bristol Authority and the Stanton Iron Co. The illustration of the latter's No. 15 shows the 0-6-0, maker's No. 1456 of 1902, having 16 in. by 22 in. cylinders, 3 ft. 6½ in. wheels, 5 ft. 6 in. + 6 ft. 6 in. wheelbase, 140 lb. boiler pressure, 900 gallons tank capacity and a working weight of 38½ tons. The latest design is also illustrated by Stanton No. 23, a fine, powerful engine having an all-over square tank, designed for heavy duty. It bears the maker's No. 1882, huilt 1921 and had 16 in. by 24 in. cylinders, 3 ft. 10in. wheels, 803 + 80 sq. ft. of heating surface, 12.5 sq. ft. grate area, 170 lb. pressure, 1,200 gallons tank capacity, a wheelbase of 11 ft. equally divided and weighs 42 tons in working order. The Avonside Co. was now incorporated with the Hunslet Engine Co.
The other Bristol firm was Peckett & Sons, Ltd., who succeeded the old firm of Fox, Walker & Co. in the 1880s, retaining the saddle-tank type which the latter had standardised but extending the round tank over the srnokebox. The brass dome casing and neat all-over cab survive to this day, but spring balances have given way to Ross' pop safety-valves and the brass cap to the chimney has gone since 1914. The six-coupled type were built both with outside and inside cylinders to suit customers' requirements, the four wheelers usually have them outside, although a design with inside cylinders is available. Peckett's locomotives were to be found in large numbers, most users .ippearing to have one or more examples. A few are:-
Fox, Walker & Co. 271, 1875, 0-6-0ST., o/c, Whitland & Cardigan Railway. 13½ in. by 20 in. cylinders, 3 ft. 6 in. wheels. G.W.R. 1386 and E. Kent Railway No. 1.
Fox, Walker & Co. 338, 1877, 0-6-0ST., o/c, Yarmouth & N. Norfolk Railway. 13 in. by 20 in. cylinders, 3 ft. 6½ in. wheels. M. & G.N. 16A. Scrapped 1937. Peckett 488, 1890, 0-6-0ST., o/c,, Shutt End Railway, Dudley. 14 in. by 20 in. cylinders, 3 ft. 2! in. wheels.
Peckett 564, 1897, 0-6-0ST., o/c, Shanks & McEwan, Glasgow, Liverpool. Scrapped 1940.
Peckett 874, 1900, 0-6-0ST., o/c,, Babbington Collieries, Nottingham, Admiral.
Peckett 1248, 1911, 0·4-0ST., o/c,. Ruston & Hornsby , Grantham. No. 3.
Peckett 1253, 1911, 0-6-0ST., o/c,: Gedling Colliery, Notts. Audrey
Peckett 977,1904, 0-4-0ST., o/c,; G. & S.W.R. 735 and L.Ml.S. 16043. Gleneagles Hotel, 1929.
Peckett r Syo, 1934, 0-4-0ST., o/c,, Nottingham Corporation Gas Works. 14 in. by 21 in. cylinders, 3 ft. wheels.
Peckett 1608, 1923, 0-4-0ST., o/c,, Nottingham Corporation Electricity Dept.
Peckett 1906, 1936, 0-4-0ST., o/c,, Nottingham Corporation Electricity Dept.
Peckett 1732, 1927, 0-6-0ST., i/c, Shipley Colliery Co. Coppice.
The three mile line from Kingston-on-Soar gypsum mines to the L.M.S. at Kegworth station also had a 14 in. cylinder 0-4-0 outside cylinder Peckett, No. 1690, 1926, named Lady Angela, and when she is laid up for repairs the line is worked by a little 8 in. by 12 in. cylinder saddle tank named Lady Margaret by the Falcon Engine Co., of Loughborough, No. 81 of 1885, weighing 12 tons in working trim and one of the few survivors of this once well-known make. The above will give some idea of what to expect when visiting standard gauge industrial lines, but the larger locomotive building firms also cater for these users, such as Messrs. Robt. Stephenson & Hawrthorns, Ltd., Vulcan Foundry, Ltd., the Yorkshire Engine Co., Beyer, Peacock & Co., Ltd., and the North British Loco. Co., Ltd., etc. Messrs. W. G. Bagnall, Ltd., of Stafford, have also built a large number of industrial locomotives of various sizes and gauges.
Fayle's 3 ft. 9 in. gauge railway near Corfe Castle possesses the last surviving example of the locomotive built by S. Lewin at the old Mount Street Foundry, Poole, a four wheeled, outside cylinder side tank with 6½ in. by 9 in. cylinders and 1 ft. 9 in. wheels, having outside link motion. Such interesting survivals of the work of almost forgotten firms add considerably to the interest of visiting any industrial lines one may chance to be in the vicinity of. This Lewin engine is now seventy-one years old and the well- known George England survivor on the Wantage Tramway, 0-4-0 well tank No. 5 is eighty-four! Another class of industrial locomotive of great interest are those purchased from main line railways either directly or through dealers who specialise in their purchase and reconditioning for resale. These are usually tank engines, but there are a few cases of goods tender engines to be found in the N.E. colliery district and in either case they are a heavier and mote powerful proposition than the average industrial type in most cases. Among the most interesting of these, historically, are the following:
South Hetton Coal Co., Durham.
No. 2. Haverhill, 0-6-0T., o/c. Sharp, Stewart & Co. 2358, 1873, for the Cornwall Minerals Railway, sold to Colne Valley and Halstead Railway in 1880 and came to South Hetton in 1889. Of the eighteen engines originally built nine went to the G.W.R. in 1877, and eight to the E. & M. Railway, later M. & G.N.
No. 6. Beyer, Peacock & Co. 425, 1864, as Metropolitan Railway 14 standard 4-4-0T, o/c. Bought by colliery company 1906 and rebuilt 1908 as 0-6-0T., o/c.
No. 8. R. Stephenson & Co., 1848, as 0-6-0 tender engine for L.N.W.R (S.D.), No. 220. Converted to saddle-tank 1866 and renumbered 1807 in 1872. Sold to Alexandra Docks & Railway 1875 and to South Hetton 1898, and altered to side tank 1923. On the A.D. & Railway it was No. 2, Lord Tredegar.
No. 9. Sir George, RS. & Co. 1848 as L.N.W.R. (S.D.) 216 0-6-0 tender. Converted saddle-tank 1865. Became 1805 in 1872 and A.D. & R. No. 1, Sir George Elliot, in 1875. Sold to South Hetton 1898, and rebuilt 1911 but remained a saddle-tank.
No. 10 Whitfield, Sharp, Stewart & Co. 1677, 1866, as West Somerset Mineral Railway, Atlas. 0-6-0 long-boiler, inside cylinder, saddle-tank. Rebuilt at Ebbw Vale) 1904, and acquired by present owners 1907.
Wemyss Coal Co., Fife.
No. 6. Doncaster Works, 1875, ex G.N.R. 601, domeless 0-6-0 saddle-tank.
Hartley Main Collieries, Northumberland
No. 3. R Stephenson & Co., 1866, ex N.E.R 658, Fletcher double-framed, long-boiler 0-6-0 tender engine. Rebuilt by T.W. Worsdell and sold to its present owners in 1903, this was the last surviving long-boiler tender engine in service in Great Britain
No. 30. ex L.B. & S.C.R. 92, Brighton Works, 1883. Stroudley E class 0-6-0 tank.
Other ex L.B.S.C. Class E tanks in industrial service were N. 110 sold to the Rugeley Colliery Co. in 1927 and since rebuilt almost out of recognition, and No. 163 sold to the Ashington Coal Co., Northumberland, in 1932. The Grassmoor Colliery, near Chesterfield, had until recently a Stroudley Terrier ex L.B.S.C. 67, sold in 1920. Also there was the ex Mersey Railway double-framed 0-6-4T, Cecil Raikes, built by Beyer , Peacock & Co. in 1885 in service at the Shipley Collieries near Ilkeston, a hefty engine, indeed, weighing 67 tons 17 cwt. in working order and able to tackle forty wagons of coal with ease . . It may be mentioned that the main line railway companies sometimes hire out small locomotives, such as the M.R. 0-4-0 Johnson saddle tanks or the L. & Y. Aspinall engines of the same type, to colliery companies and others when their own engines are laid up for repairs, etc. In conclusion it is hoped that these notes may stimulate interest in a, to a certain extent, 'unexplored by-way of the locomotive world.

E.A. Phillipson. The steam locomotive in traffic. VIII. Periodical examinations. Organisation of repair and maintenance work. 194-6. diagram (facsimile form)

Modern locomotive practice, Somerset & Dorset Joint Railway. 196-9. 2 illustrations
Bridge strengthening between Bath and Mangotsfield enabled Stanier Class 5 4-6-0s to be used to wokl the heavy Pines Express and another heavy passenger train with its twelve wheel dining car more efficiently. Load limits are given, both northbound and southbound for Bath to Masbury, Masbury to Corfe Mulklen and Corfe Mullen to Bournemouth. The limits for the 7F 2-8-0, Class 2 4-4-0, 4F 0-6-0 and 3F 0-6-0 are also given.

James McEwan. The locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 200-2.

Peat as locomotive fuel in Eire. 202
The Great Southern Railway has been conducting experiments with peat as a fuel Ifor locomotives during the past few months. A mixture of coal and peat has been tried on engines working between Dublin and Cork, with so far, not very encouraging results. On a journey using about three tons of coal, eight tons of turf and a half ton of coal were needed.

Centenary of the Seghill Railway.  202
A reminder of the days when many of the railways in the North of England were small colliery lines is afforded by the centenary on 28 August 1941, of the opening for passenger traffic of the Seghill Railway in Northumberland which, with a total length of 5¼ miles, ran from Seghill to Percy Main.
Originally laid down and constructed by the owners of the Seghill Colliery Company, this line, which was opened for mineral traffic in 1840, was later absorbed into the Blyth &Tyne Railway which in its turn was taken over by the North Eastern Railway and so remained until 1923 when the N.E.R. became part of the L.N.E.R. It was a purely mineral line designed to give easy access from the colliery at Seghill to the staithes at Percy Main. Proceeding in a general southerly direction, past the site of the present Seghill Station, it crossed the old line of the Cramlington Coal Company and further on, near the Newcastle and South Shields road, it crossed the Brunton & South Shields Railway, then down to Hay Hole—now Northumberland Dock.
There were gradients of as much as I in 25 and the line was principally worked by stationary engines, one at Prospect Hill which hauled the loaded wagons from Holywell and the empty wagons from the Newcastle and North Shields road, and the other at Percy Main for hauling the empty wagons from the staithes. From Prospect Hill to Percy Main and from Percy Main to the staithes the loaded wagons ran by gravity, unwinding from the drum of each engine a rope which was to bring back the empty ones. The remainder of the line from Seghill to Holywell was worked by locomotives, the first two in use being Samson and John, both built by Timothy Hackworth. In June, 1844, the Newcastle & North Shields Railwav took over the working of the passenger and goods traffic and had in view the extension of this line to Blyth, but this scheme was dropped as the Newcastle & North Shields Railway was itself merged into the Newcastle & Berwick Railway.

Smoke deflectors for locomotives.  202
H. Holcroft presented his paper (Paper 430) before the Institution of Locomotive Engineers at the General Meeting held in London on 3 September. It dealt with the problem of lifting smoke and exhaust steam discharged from the chimney of a locomotive clear of the cab windows, so removing any obstruction to the driver's view of the road ahead, and traces how the difficulty has been accentuated in the modern locomotive. The Paper then goes on to describe and illustrate various appliances which have been tried with the object of lifting smoke clear of the cab windows, and gives details of the satisfactory solution of the problem by means of deflectors in the form of vertical plates on each side of the smokebox. Following on this is an account of wind tunnel tests with models carried out in 1931 at the National Physical Laboratory. These were undertaken to confirm the bene- ficial results of the deflector plates, to determine their most effective outline and to explore the ground for alternative devices for smoke lifting. The question of side winds was also considered. The Paper concludes with a brief survey of the problem as it affects streamlined locomotives.

Wissington Light Railway. 202
To afford transport in connection with the reclamation of large tracts of fenland in West Norfolk about 35 years ago a short standard gauge line was constructed. It left the Stoke Ferry branch of the Great Eastern Railway near Abbey station. By degrees the line was extended to about 18 miles in length and included a number of sidings and loops. A beet sugar factory built alongside the line about 2 miles from the junction with the Stoke Ferry Line, used it for the transport of beet to the factory.
The Minister of Agriculture requisitioned the line and it will continue to serve the area with the willing co-operation of the L.N.E.R. in reconditioning and supervision.

London-Brighton Centenary  21 September 1941. 203-4
The last few years witnessed a succession of railway centenaries, but on 21 September there occured one of more than usual interest, to Londoners in particular, as that date was the centennial anniversary of the opening of the railway between London and Brighton.
The first proposal for a railway to Brighton was made in 1823 and consisted of an extension of the existing Surrey Iron Railroad, a horse-worked line, from Merstham southwards reaching Brighton by way of Shoreham. It envisaged the employment of chain-driven locomotives as used by several north country collieries at that time.
Nothing came of the first scheme but in 1825 John Rennie was employed by a company called The Surrey, Sussex, Hants, Wilts and Somerset Railway, to survey a possible route to Brighton. The prospectus stated that "the necessity of using locomotive engines is not contemplated, every calculation being made on the use of horses only, although scientific improvements when fully confirmed will be availed of." From its title, the projects of this company appear somewhat comprehensive, and it seems to have fallen into oblivion, but Rennie survived under different employers to build the railway according to his original plans, with a few variations.
Amongst a plethora of railway projects all over the country, the London-Brighton route offered great attractions and five or six railway promoters consequently put forth schemes. The Parliamentary battles were long and bitter, and a periodical of 1837 said that £300,000 had already been spent in two sessions on the various bills.
As the rivals oould not compose their differences and no decision could be arrived at, the Government, on 2 June 1837, appointed Captain Anderson to report on the various proposals. It is interesting to remember that the original schemes all proposed to use other companies' terminals in London.
Stephenson's idea utilised the Nine Elms terminus of the London and Southampton Railway, leaving that line at Wimbledon and running through Dorking, Horsham and Shoreham into Brighton.
Rennie's line started from the Greenwich Railway's terminus at London Bridge, followed the Croydon Railway as far as the place of that name and then ran in as direct course as possible to Brighton. .
Captain Anderson in a well-reasoned report said that whilst Stephensons plan was the easiest from an engineering point of view he favoured Rennie's more direct route. The other schemes were turned down for various reasons as, although there were formidable cuttings and a tunnel at Merstham and other tunnels at Balcombe and Clayton, yet the heavy cost of these works was more than balanced by the shorter mileage.
On 15 July 1837, the Royal Assent was given. The line ran from a junction with the London and Croydon Railway at The Jolly Sailor (later Norwood Junction), about a mile north of the Croydon terminus, to Brighton with two branches from the latter place, eastwards to Newhaven and westwards to Shoreham. Power was given to purchase the Croydon, Merstham & Godstone Railway as the route on this earlier railway was roughly followed between Croydon and Merstham. In the previous year (1836), the South Eastern Railway had been incorporated and their line was to run over the London and Croydon Railway to the above-mentioned Jolly Sailor and thence via Croydon, Godstone Road (now Purley), Oxted and Tunbridge (now Tonbridge) to Dover. As the Brighton line would have paralleled this line between the Jolly Sailor and a point a mile east of Reigate, Parliament inserted a clause in the Brighton Act empowering the South Eastern Railway within two years to purchase the section of the Brighton line between these two points at cost price. In 1839 the act was amended and the two companies built the line jointly and, when finished, the Brighton took the northern half and the South Eastern Railway the southern half, the point of the division being just north of Coulsdon Station.
There were five tunnels, Merstham (1,831 yards), Balcombe (1,140 yards), Haywards Heaoh (249 yards), Clayton (2,259 yards) and Patcham (492 yards), the last mentioned being unnecessary, but the owner of Patcham Place compelled the company to make it as he would not allow an open cutting through his land. The ruling gradient was 1 in 264, although there was the Forest Hill bank of 1 in 100 on the Croydon Railway to be tackled.
Perhaps the most striking feature of the line is Rastrick's graceful viaduct over the Ouse Valley. This consists of 37 semi-circular arches each of 30 feet span; the overall length is 1,475 feet and the extreme height 96 feet. Rastrick built this viaduct to take engines weighing 20 to 30 tons hauling trains of perhaps 100 tons. It has since been used fer locomotives of 100 tons with 350-ton trains and nowadays stands up to the passage of 70 m.p.h. heavy electric trains without a quiver. A testimonial to Rastrick indeed.
The Brighton-Shoreham section was opened first, as mentioned in our issue of June, 1940. The line from Croydon to Haywards Heath was brought into use on July 12, 1841, and thence to Brighton in the Following September. The branch to Newhaven was built by another company a few years later.
The pioneer service between London and Brighton comprised seven down and eight up passenger trains, the express trains reaching their destination, after calling at four intermediate stations, in two hours. Just prior to. the war, there were about a hundred services in each direction, with the' Brighton Belle and other expresses making the journey in less than 60 minutes. The actual cost of the line was £37,568 per mile, or nearly 60 per cent. more than was estimated. The utmost speed claimed for the line was 30 m.p.h. Indeed, expert evidence was given in the House of Commons that it would be impossible to exceed 25 to 28 m.p.h. It was claimed also that the line would convey twice as many passengers as were then conveyed by coach, which numbered about 100,000 per annum. These numbers are insignifi- 'cent compared w:ith the enormous crowds carried over the line at holiday times in recent years.
As an instance of how railways alter the landscape, Cuckfield (which the railway avoided) remains to this day the same small country town, whilst Haywards Heath nearby, where the railway built a 'station and which was then only a "heath" is now.a town of nearly 6,000 souls. Some of the first engines of the line were 4~wheeled with 4-wheeled tenders but; following a derailment near Haywards Heath after the line had- been 'opened only a few weeks, the directors publicly stated that the trains would not run so fast and that only 6-wheeled engines would be used,
Excursion traffic has always been very important on this line and Deridy Marshall, in his History of the Southern Railway, says that the first excursion was run on Easter Monday, 1844, and consisted of six engines attached to 57 coaches, which took 4½ hours on the journey. The London and Brighton and Croydon Railways were amalgamated in 1846 under the title of The London, Brighton and South Coast Railway; and the locomotives used then and since were fully described in the early issues of THE LOCOMOTIVE.

Welsh Highland Railway. 204
After dismantling it has been suggested that the track should be giv~n to the .nation .as a: walking route for ramblers. The scenic attractions of the district are considerable and the route traversed would 'appeal 'to numbers of pedestrians.

Reviews. 204

Handbook of workshop calculations: H,M. Stationery Office, 40 pp.,
This useful little handbook contains graduated exercises and answers, diagrams and worked examples. As a beginner's guide to workshop calculations it should prove invaluable to those, who as the result of the war, are making their first" contact with the Engineering Industry.

Producer gas for road transport. Brian Reed. Railway Gazette, 72 pp.
A reprint of two series of articles, on the design and operation of producer gas vehicles, which were published in the Road Transport section of The Railway Gazette. The various systems in use are illustrated and described, space also being devoted to the regulations and taxation applying to vehicles thus propelled. The author has dealt with the subject comprehensively and the book may be confidently recommended to all considering the conversion of vehicles to this fuel. As is pointed out in the foreword, subject to encouragement by the' Government Departments concerned and by the coal industry on the question of price, it is anticipated that the operation of road transport vehicles by producer gas will prove to be practicable, not only as' a substitute when liquid fuel is scarce, but as a permanent feature when normal times return.

Correspondence. 204

S.D: locomotive Owl. A.C.W. Lowe
I think I have cleared this up definitely as 'in addition to the information obtained 'from Swindon by MacDermot I have copies of the half yearly stock alterations which were at that period got out for the Directors. The, confusion is no doubt due to the fact 'that the engines were not numbered by the G.W. in ,the same order as received by the S.D. Owl was delivered by the Avonside Eng. Co., to to the S.D.R. in January, 1873, Goat in February 1873, and Weasel in March, 1873, but when the G.W. took over the S.D. in 1876 they numbered them 2172 Owl, 2173 Weasel, 2174 Goat. 2173 (Weasel not Goat) was withdrawn half-year ending December, 1882, and the boiler used as a portable. ,2174 was withdrawn half-year ending December 1885, and 2172 half- year ending June, 1889, but appear to have been retained for hiring out to contractors and others. They were taken back into stock half-year ending June, 1893, converted to normal gauge and renumbered 1327 and 1328. 1328 was scrapped in 19I10 and 1327 in 1913. When Ahrons saw the framing of what he supposed to be Goat it was no doubt numbered 2173 and as the boiler. had been taken for use as a portable and there was' no name on the engine anywhere else. he must have assumed that it was the Goat whereas in fact it was the Weasel.

General Electric Co., Ltd. 204. illustration
Iintroduction of new fittings to comply with the BSI ARP 16 specification relating to methods of providing Iow values of iIIumination for outdoor use during the blackout. There is a standard pattern mounting hole, and a type which is, weatherproof.

Diesel electric passenger trains. 204
Two diesel electric passenger trains had been built for the Denver & Rio Grand Western by the Edward G. Budd Manufacturing Co. New features include electrically operated disc brakes, and a device for preventing the wheels from skidding, Each train consists of two cars equipped with reclining seats, sleeping bunks and private rooms, also a dining lounge.

Southern Railway. 204
Prior to the outbreak of war, construction had been started at Brighton of an electric locomotive to work the Newhaven boat train. In addition to the usual current pick-up gear, the design provided for a pantograph to take current from an overhead wire which was to be erected between Newhaven Harbour Station and the landing stage.
This locomotive had been completed and for the present is to be used experimentally on main line goods work. It is numbered CC1, the "CC" under the new numbering scheme denoting two sets of 6 wheels. all axles power-driven.

Number 590 (15 October 1941)

The balance of loco. design. 205.
How the proportions for efficient design were reached in Britain. See also letter from L.A. Fullagar on p. 266.

Manchester-Sheffield-Wath electrification: mixed traffic electric locomotive No. 6701 tested on the Manchester-Altringham line. 206

Government control of railways. 206

L.M.S.R. 206

Steam v. diesel electric locos. 207-8
Concluded from page 188. The development of the freight Diesel locomotive had reintroduced a method of braking, or rather of controlling speeds of freight trains on long descending gradients. Dynamic braking is essentially utilisation of the power in the locomotive to hold the train by reversing the direction of the field current, by means of which motors are converted into generators and the current generated is dissipated, through resistance grids mounted in the roof, in the form of heat, which is absorbed by an air cooling system. This is similar to the regenerative braking on electric locomotives, in which the current generated is fed back to the power source. The dynamic brakes are designed to hold at a definite speed on a descending gradient the same train weight that the locomotive could haul up the same gradient at the :same speed. In actual operation, on descending gradients, train weight is usually heavier and speeds maintained are higher than on the same gradient ascending, so that for controlling such trains some assistance for the dynamic brake is required from the train air brakes.
The possibility for reduced maintenance owing to less wheel and brake shoe wear is of sufficient importance to encourage further development of this brake for locomotives in mountain service.
In any discussion of disadvantages of the Diesel locomotive, the question of cost of initial investment is an important consideration in comparing Diesel against steam locomotives. Recent improvements in production methods and increasing numbers in production have gradually lowered the cost per horsepower of Diesel locomotives to approximately 87.50 dollars, while for steam locomotives of comparable horsepower costs are approximately 35 dollars per horsepower. The higher initial cost is partly offset by the greater utilisation of the Diesel locomotive, which helps to keep down the overhead cost per mile of operation.
The life expectancy of the Diesel engine has been estimated at a relatively lower figure than for steam locomotives. Depreciation rates are based on an assumed expectation of fifteen years of service for road Diesel locomotives and twenty years for switch Diesel locomotives, against an accepted figure of approximately twenty-eight years for steam locomotives. Experience gained from continued use of Diesel locomotives in all kinds of service may justify an upward revision of the life expectancy at some future time. Meanwhile the low assumed figure is a definite handicap, because of the resulting increased fixed charge.
The close tolerances on numerous parts, together with the complications owing to interlocking of electrical and mechanical equipment, call for a higher degree of maintenance of the Diesel locomotive. On the other hand, refinements in steam locomotives, such as roller bearings, improved counterbalancing for higher speeds, and additional auxiliary equipment that requires close maintenance for efficient operation, add to the amount of necessary maintenance on this type of motive power. The use of maintainers on Diesel locomotives has helped to keep maintenance costs to a minimum, in that prompt attention when necessary has forestalled costly breakdowns on the road and has provided an intimate knowledge of work requiring immediate attention at terminals. The actual comparative maintenance costs of the two types of motive power are nearly equal, considering that no cost records are available for general shopping of Diesel locomotives, and there is a question or necessity of general shoppings for Diesel locomotives.
As already noted, the thermal efficiency of the Diesel locomotive is approximately three to four times that of the modern steam locomotive. The lower fuel consumption is somewhat offset by a higher unit cost of fuel, but in spite of the higher unit cost, the net cost of fuel consumed per unit of power developed is approximately one-half to two-thirds that of unit fuel cost of comparable steam locomotives. In localities where unlimited quantities of good quality steam locomotive coal are available at law cost and with little transportation requirements, the foregoing comparison might not hold good. Similarly, those railways that are close to oilfields and refineries that can offer large quantities of residuum fuel oil at low cost cannot always justify use of the higher-priced Diesel fuel oil. Conversely, in some localities where there is a scarcity of fuel, the saving in transportation charges because of the much smaller quantity required will justify the use of the Diesel locomotive because of fuel saving.
The operation of Diesel locomotives requires that fuel oil specifications be held within a close range, which accounts in part for the higher unit cost of fuel. In the adoption of Diesel motive power exclusively, it must be remembered that other fuels are eliminated from competition. This is not the case with the steam locomotive, since with this prime mover the competitive condition existing between coal and fuel oil tends to keep unit costs at a reasonably low level. Any abrupt change in the price of either fuel immediately justifies a change by adapting the steam locomotive to burn the lower-priced fuel.
The overall cost of lubrication is definitely in favour of the steam locomotive. The quantity of lubricating oil required, as well as higher price, makes the net cost approximately double for the Diesel locomotive as compared with the steam locomotive. With either type of power, the lubricating cost is a relatively small percentage of the total cost of operation.
A resume of what has been accomplished by Diesel locomotive operation in main line service is as follows :-
(1) The schedule time for passenger service between important terminals has been reduced. There has been a steadily increasing number of higher-speed passenger trains placed in service by various railways, all of .which have proved to be popular with the travellmg public. Incidentally, some railways, which inaugurated higher-speed service utilising steam motive power initially have smce changed to DIesel power for this fast service. .
(2) .In freight service, it has been possible to mcrease both the tonnage hauled and the average speed between terminals. The power performance, particularly m the lower speed range, has made it possible to operate trains over most ruling gradients without need for double heading.
(3) In bad weather with adverse rail conditions the Diesel locomotive because of uniform torque on dnvmg wheels and distribution of available tractive effort over a greater number of driving wheels has demonstrated its ability to maintain schedules without reduction in weight of train handled. .
(4) The Diesel locomotive has shown the possibility of long locomotive runs, with very little service required for locomotive at intermediate division points. It has directed attention to the fact that the only economical operation is obtained from motive power that is moving. Indirectly, attention has been focused on terminal delays to freight trams and also to the need for improvement in getting trains through divisional terminals.
(5) It has stimulated the energies of the steam locomotive designers to develop steam motive power that has performance characteristics to compete with those of the Diesel locomotive. At the present time there is a need for an all-purpose DIesel locomotive that can be utilised in either freight or passenger service, and which will fit with steam locomotive helpers where such helper service is required
A table lists the main dimensions of a 4000 hp and 5400 hp diesel locomotives and 4-6-, 4-8-4 and 2-10-4 steam locomotives.

M.S.J. & A.R.  208
Commencing on 21 September the train service over this line had been resumed between Manchester (London Road) and Altrincham, and Oxford Road and Knotthill and Deansgate stations have been re-opened. The temporary service of C.L.C. trains which had been running between Manchester (Central) and Warwick Road in connection with M.S.J.A. trains between that station and Altrincham was withdrawn on the same date.

James McEwan. The locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 208-10. 3 illustrations (drawings: side elevations)
Continued from page 202. The Portpatrick (originally Port Patrick) Railway was opened in 1861 between Stranraer and Castle Douglas, In the following year the line was contmued through to Portpatrick. The Caledonian Railway took the line over in 1864 under an agreement whereby it would be worked by them. EIght locomotives were taken over and became Nos. 262 to 269 in the stock of the C.R. Six of the engines, P.R. Nos. 1 to 4 and 6 and 7 were designed by J. E. McConnell of the L. & N.'W.R. at Wolverton. No. 8 was designed by George Walker the locomotive supermtendent of the line. All the P.R. locomotives were painted light green .
Nos. 1 to 4 were of the 0-4-2 type with six-wheeled tenders. Four engines were ordered, three to be delivered for the opening of the line and the fourth a year later. The cylinders were inside and were 16 in. diam. by 24 in .. stroke. The driving wheels were 5 ft. 1 in. diameter and the trailing wheels 3 ft. 6 in. diam. The wheelbase was spaced 7 ft. plus 7 ft. 9 in., total 14 ft. 9 in. Boiler barrel:-centre line 6 ft. 6 in., mean outside diam. 4 ft. 1¼ in., length 10ft. 9in., 167 tubes 2 in. diam. The heating surface of the tubes was 961.72 sq. ft. and of the firebox 89.31 sq. ft., total 1,051.03 sq. ft. Pressure 130 lb. per sq. in. There is no record of the grate area. The weight of the engine in workmg order was 25 tons 18½ cwts. made up as follows :-leading axle 10 tons 5 cwt. 3 qrs., dnvmg axle 10 tons 15 cwt. 2 qrs., and trailing axle 4 tons 17 cwt. 1 qr. The tender wheels were 3 ft. 9 in. diam. The water capacity was 1,500 gallons and the coal capacity 3 tons. Subsequently a four-wheeled tender was fitted to each engine with a water and coal capacity of 800 gallons and 2 tons respectively. These engines took C.R. Nos. 262 to 265 in rotation. The makers were Sharp, Stewart & Co. their Nos. 1219 to 1221 of 1861 and 1322 of 1862. No. 264 (P.R. No. 3) was wrecked at Dalbeattie in 1874 when there was a serious collision with a train drawn by a G. & S.W.R. engine. The C.R. engine was working the goods which left Dumfries at 11.30 a.m. and Dalbeattie at about noon. The train was made up of several coal wagons, a general merchandise wagon and a brake van.
The line was operated by "staff" but when the "staff" was required for a following train a "ticket" was issued to the driver who had to satisfy himself that the "staff" was retained by the station sending him forward. The driver, Robb and his fireman Adams both of Stranraer depot, were given the "ticket" and allowed to proceed. The section between Dalbeattie and Castle Douglas was at the time occupied by a ballast train of the G. & S.W.R., an engine and four wagons which had been permitted to occupy the section on a time limit arrangement. The ballast train consisted of an 0-4-2 type engine and four wagons and had gone down the section to lift ballast. Having loaded up it was returning when the C.R. train met it in the cutting at Barsoles Woods about a mile from Dalbeattie station. Both engines were badly wrecked, the C.R. locomotive being thrown to one side of the line and the tender to the other, while the wagons and the van were badly smashed up. The fireman was killed outright while the driver died three days later from his injuries. The permanent way inspector who was travelling on the G. & S.W.R. engine shouted to the surfacemen to jump when he saw what was about to happen. Four of the men received minor injuries while jumping off. The inspector and the fireman of the ballast engine escaped unhurt while the driver Gunzeon of Dumfries, was also seriously injured, and he too died three days later. The G. & S.W.R. engine was partly on its side resting against the embankrnent, while its rear wheels were dragged away by the C.R. engine. The cause of the accident was apparently due to the clerk and porter at Dalbeattie giving the "ticket" while the operational "staff" was out, and the "staff" which they saw in the office was a spare one. From a study of the withdrawal list of the G. & S.W.R. locomotives it would appear that the locomotive involved was No. 30 an 0-4-2 built by Neilson & Co., in December, 1857, and replaced by one of James Stirling's 4-4-0 type passenger engines in December, 1874. In 1890 No. 263 (P.R. No. 2) went to Perth to drive the sawmill at the Perth ·wagon shops, P.R. No. 4 took the number previously carried by an 0-6-0 engine which was returned to the L. & N.W.R.
Nos. 262, 263 and 265 were put on to the "A" list in 1885 and were withdrawn in 1888, 1890 and 1888 respectively.
In May, 1861, the P.R. obtained from the L. & N.W.R. an engine of the DX class, a six-wheeled coupled tender type. This engine appears to have been about one of the last of the class to be built without cabs and open splashers of the vent type. Tihe L. & N.W.R. had built the engine at Crewe in March, 1861, as their No. 550, and Crewe Works No. 475. It was :numbered 4 in the P.R. list and was returned to the L. & N.W.R. on 30 November 1861, but its subsequent history is not known to the author.
To replace this engine another was purchased from the L. & N.W.R. on 3 November 1862, for which £2,500 was paid. This engine was also of the DX class and had a short cab, closed splashers and a plain cast iron capped L. & N. W. R. type chimney. The Crewe No. was 575 and L. & N.W.R. No. 638. This engine became No. 5 on the P.R. list. The dimensions were:-cylinders (inside) 16 in. diam. by 24 in. stroke. Driving wheels 5 ft. 2 in. diam. Wheel centres 7 ft. 3 in. plus 8 ft. 3 in., total 15 ft. 6 in. There were 192 tubes 10 ft. 9 in. long and 17/8in. diam. The total heating surface was 1,068 sq. ft. Grate area 15 sq. ft. Working pressure 140 lb. per sq. in. but later raised to 150 lb. Weight:-Ieading axle 9 tons 14 cwt. , driving axle 10 tons, and rear axle 7 tons 6 cwt., total 27 tons.
The tender carried 1,900 gallons of water and 2¾ tons of coal. The weight in working trim was 21 tons 8 cwt. The engine was withdrawn in 1885 when it was sold to a cement maker at Dumfries, and later was sold by him to the Shap Granite Quarry Co. In both cases it acted as a portable boiler and driving unit and was not used as a locomotive.
Shortly after the order for the 0-4-2 engines had been placed a further one was given for two 2-2-2 type tender engines. These were similar in several details to the Small Bloomers of the L. & N.W.R. The cylinders were inside and were 15 in. diam. by 22 in. stroke. The driving wheels were 6 ft. diam., and the leading and trailing wheels 3 ft. 9 in. diam. The wheelbase was 7 ft. plus 7 ft. 9 in., total14 ft. 9 in. The boiler barrel was 3 ft. 103/8 in. mean outside diameter by 10 ft. 9 in. long, with 143 tubes 2 in. diam. The heating surface of the tubes was 826.0 sq. ft. and that of the firebox 81.7 sq. ft., giving a totaI heating surface of 907.7 sq. ft. The working pressure was 140 lib. The tender ran on six wheels 3 ft. 9 in. diam., and carried 1,200 gallons of water and 3 tons of coal. The .C.R. subsequently fi.tted a four-wheeled tender which reduced the water capacity to 750 gallons and the coal capacity to 2 tons when slightly piled up. The weight of the engine was :-leading axle 10 tons 6 cwt. 3 qrs., driving axle 12 tons 16 cwt., and trailing axle 11 tons, making a. total of 34 tons 2 cwt. 3 qrs.
The engines were numbered 6 and 7 in the P.R. list and 267 and 268 in the C.R. The makers were Sharp, Stewart & Co. who built them in 1861 (their Nos. 1282 and 1283). Both were put on to the "A" list in 1885 and withdrawn in 1888. No. 7 lay at Stranraer sheds from the time of the formation of the Portpatrick and Wigtownshire Joint Committee in 1885 until 1890 although it had been officially withdrawn in 1888. A story is related about one of this class which stalled on the Portpatrick branch at Dunskey. The location is on a curve and the rails are likely to be affected by spray in best of times. On this occasion the elements brought the train to a standstill and the driver was in a fix for he could not halve his train and proceed as he had only one carriage attached. In the years when the harbour at Portpatrick was used by the mail packet the "DX" class engine was most frequently used on this small section.
The last engine got by the P.R. before the C.R. took over the section was of the 2-4-0 tender type and was designed by Geo. Walker. Again inside cylinders were adopted and these were 16 in.. diam. by 22 in. stroke. The leading wheels were 3ft. 9in. diam. and the coupled wheels 6 ft. diam. The wheelbase was 7 ft. plus 7 ft. 6 in., total 14 ft. 6 in. The boiler barrel was 3 ft. 10¼ in. mean outside diam. and 10 ft. 6 in. long with 143 tubes 2 in. diam. The working pressure was 140 lb. but when the C.R. took the engine into its stock the pressure was reduced to 130 lb. as the engines which the C.R. had sent down to assist the P.R. lot were being over-shadowed by the solitary 2-4-0 of the leased line. On the occasion of a special trip from Donaghadee on July 12, 1865, the P.R. engine, unaided, took a load of 11 well filled coaches from the Town station at Portpatrick to Newton Stewart with a stop at Stranraer to set down day trippers, despite the bad climb from "the Port" to Colfin. The train should have been assisted by one of the small goods engines of the 2-4-0 type which the C.R. had sent down but owing to some misunderstanding the goods was sent away on its regular duty, and as the outcome of the brilliant piece of work the pressure of the P .R. engine was reduced. The particulars of the heating surface of the boiler are:—tubes 786.0 sq. ft., firebox 79.5 sq. ft., total 865.5 sq. ft. The engine was like the others made by Sharp, Stewart & Co., being their 1397 of 1863. The P.R. No. was 8 and C.R. No. 269. In 1885 it was put on to the duplicate list as 269A and taken from stock in 1888. The weight of the engine was:— leading axle 8 tons 17 cwt. 3 qrs., driving axle 9 tons 14 cwt. 3 qrs., rear coupled axle 8 tons 5 cwt. 3 qrs ., total 26 tons 18 cwt. 1 qr. The original tender was six-wheeled carrying 1,200 gallons of water and 3t tons of coal. The tender fitted later was four-wheeled and carried 800 gallons of water and 2 tons of coal.
After the C.R. had taken over the operation of the line four of their 2-4-0 goods engines were sent down and later some of the No. 1 class passenger 2-4-0 tender engines were put on the section. In 1885 the Portpatrick and Wigtownshire Joint Committee took over the line and the workings were shared with the Glasgow & South Western Railway. For shunting the yard at Stranraer the C.R. sent an 0-4-0ST of Neilson's make, this was No. 144 formerly 239. The engine came about 1865 and was replaced by another engine of the same type in 1874. This tank was the first engine to go on to Stranraer Pier where a weight restriction was in operation for a number of years. P.R. No. 5 was nicknamed Auld Jean. (To be continued).
Illustrations (side elevation drawings): P.R. 0-4-2. Nos. 1 to 4 (C.R. 262 to 265). (Possibly the splashers were open); PR 2-2-2 Nos. 6 and 7 (CR Nos. 567 and 568);  
P.R. 2-4-0, No. 8(C.R. No. 269).

County Donegal Railways. 210
Another Diesel bogie railcar No. 18 had been put into service. Locomotive No. 1 Alice had been fitted with a new firebox.

Railcar radiators. 211-14. 6 illustrations, 3 diagrams

H. Fayle. Belfast & County Down Rly., and its locomotives. 215-17
The Belfast & County Down Railway, though comprising 80 miles of line, is a purely local system without any through traffic, the main source of revenue being the suburban traffic on the east side of the City of Belfast, and to a lesser extent the holiday traffic to the Moume Mountains area, of which Newcastle (Co. Down) is the principal resort. Up to 1906 the only connection with the other Irish railways was at Belfast by means of a line used wholly for goods traffic, though in recent years through excursion traffic with the other parts of Ireland has been worked. The original company was incorporated in 1846 to construct 45 miles of railway, all single line on the standard Irish gauge of 5 feet 3 inches. It comprised a main line from Belfast to Downpatrick, 26¾ miles in length, with three branches from Belfast to Holywood, Comber to Donaghadee, and Conlig (on the Donaghadee branch) to Bangor. The first portion to be opened for traffic was from Belfast to Holywood,. 4½ miles, on 2 August 1848, while a further section from Belfast to Comber and Newtownwards (on the Donaghadee branoh), 12¼ miles, followed on 6 May 1850. The original Newtownwards terminus was known as Scrabo, and was ¾ mile short of the present station; the route from Belfast to New- townards is rather circuitous as the railway has to pass to the south of Scrabo Hill, while the main road follows a more direct route to the north; in recent years when buses appeared, this was to prove a serious handicap to the company.
The Holywood branch diverged from the main line at a point known as Ballymacarrett, ¾ mile from the Belfast terminus; for many years there was no junction, but there were two single lines worked independently; it was not till after 1884 that a junction was put in, and this part worked as double line.
In 1855 powers were obtained for a branch to Ballynahinch, 3¼ miles in length, which diverged from the main line at a point 17¾ miles from Belfast known as Ballynahinch Junction, and a further section of line from Comber to Ballynahinch was opened for traffic on September 10, 1858; the completion of the main line to Downpatrick followed on March 23, 1859.
It had been proposed in 1856 to establish a steamship service between Donaghadee and Portpatrick (in Scotland), the crossing of 21 miles being the shortest between Ireland and Great Britain. However owing to the unsatisfactory harbour facilities at both sides the idea was abandoned in favour of the longer Larne to Stranraer crossing, and so the Belfast and County Down Railway lost what might have been important through traffic. The completion of the branch line from N ewtownards (Scrabo) to Donaghadee took place on June 2, 1861, and it may be remarked that the Donaghadee terminus is somewhat of a curiosity, as the exterior forms one of a row of houses on the quayside, and the fact that it is a railway station is not apparent at first glance. The unsuitability of the harbour for cross-channel steamers is only too readily notice- able, as it is now partly silted up, and only usable by small boats.
The branch to Bangor, an important holiday resort on Belfast Lough, was to have diverged from the Donaghadee branch at a place called Conlig, but the route from Belfast would have been very circuitous; eventually in 1860 another company,. the Belfast Holywood & Bangor Railway was mcorporated to extend the existing line from Holywood along the coast to Bangor, so providing a much more direct communication from Belfast, and at the same time the Belfast & County Down Railway obtained leave to abandon their proposed branch from. Conlig to Bangor. Further, by Act of 1865, the Belfast & County Down Railway Company agreed to lease their existing line between Belfast and Holywood to the Belfast, Holywood & Bangor Railway Company, the latter completing the extension to Bangor, which was opened for traffic on May 18, 1865.
The Belfast to Bangor line was worked indepen- dently by the B.H. & B. Co. up to 1884, the two lines running alongside between Ballymacarrett and Belfast, where there were separate, but adjoining termini at Queens Quay. Eventually ; by Act of 1884 the Belfast, Holywood & Bangor Railway was transferred to the Belfast & County Down Railway, the latter company obtaining possession of the line on September 1 of that year. In the meantime a separate company, the Downpatrick, Dundrum & Newcastle Railway had been incorporated in 1866 to extend the main line to the watering place of Newcastle; this line, 11½ miles in length, was worked by the B. & C.D. Railway and the opening took place on 25 March 1869; it was finally purchased by the B. & C.D. Railway under Act of 1881.
In order to aid the fishing industry the Downpatrick, Killough & Ardglass Light Railway, 7½ miles in length, was sanctioned in 1890, the Treasury granting £30,000 towards the cost free of interest, while £17,000 of the capital was "baronially guaranteed." The following year, 1891, the B. & C.D. Railway obtained powers to construct a short loop line at Downpatrick enabling trains to run through to and from Newcastle without entering the station, which was a terminus; this line, 30 chains in length, saved nearly a mile on the through journey, and a platform was provided at Downpatrick South Junction, so that connections to and from Downpatrick by certain trains have since been provided by a shuttle service worked by the Ardglass branch train; both these new lines were brought into service in 1892. The method of working is as follows: the train horn Belfast calls at the loop line platform and transfers passengers for Downpatrick and Ardglass to the branch train waiting at the other side of the island platform; this latter reverses into Downpatrick station, and then starts forward again passing the loop line platform without stopping and proceeding down the Ardglass branch, the junction for which is just beyond. On the return journey the sequence of operations is reversed, the branch train running through to Downpatrick terminus, and then reversing to the loop line platform. Certain trains to and from ewcastle still run into the terminal station and reverse there as before. As already mentioned the only connection with the other Irish railways was at Belfast; a separate company, the Belfast Central Railway, obtained powers in 1864 and 1865 to construct 4 miles of line, including a bridge over the river Lagan, connecting the three railway systems serving Belfast, and the scheme also included a central passenger station near the present Albert road-bridge, which never materialised. The junction with the B. & C.D.R. was at Ballymacarrett, about half a mile from the Queens Quay terminus. The Belfast Central line was opened in 1868, but was used for goods traffic only until August 5, 1878, when a passenger service was put on between Ulster Junction and Queens Bridge. However this was soon discontinued, and finally the line was taken over by the Great Northern Railway (I) on 5 September 1885; it has been used for goods trafhc only ever since, with the recent exception of occasional through excursion trains between Bangor and other parts of Ireland
The last extension of the B. & C.D.R. was a branch from NewcastLe to Castlewellan, 3i miles in length, where an end on junction is formed with the G.N.R. (I). The latter company had a line to Ballyroney, opened in 1880, and desired to extend it to Newcastle, but II:h1s was opposed by the B. & C.D.R., who wished to retain the monopoly of the Belfast to Newcastle traffic. Eventually matters were settled by granting powers to ,the G.N.R. to extend their line to Castlewellan, with running powers over the remaining portion to Newcastle, which was built by the B. & C.D.R. The line from Ballyroney to Newcastle was opened for traffic on March 24, 1906, and besides providing an additional route from Belfast to Newcastle, also affords a much more direct communication between Newcastle and Dublin, through carriages being run via Ballyroney and Scarva.
For some time after the opening there was considerable competition between the two companies for the Belfast to Newcastle traffic, but as the G.N.R. route was over 9 miles longer, wiser counsels finally prevailed; from this period dates some really smart running on the B. & C.D.R., the 37 miles from Belfast (29 miles single line), being run non-stop by one Saturday train in 55 and finally 50 minutes; the best Great Northern train at the height of the competition occupied 1 hr. 10 min. for 46½ miles, nearly all single line. The 50 minute timing continued up to about three years back, but is now withdrawn; in practice it was of.ten bettered, though the load was usually light; the best train at the present day occupies 1 hour on the journey. For many years now the B. & C.D.R. have only run two trains in each direction between Newcastle and Castlewellan, the G.N.R. providing the bulk of the service.
In the early years of the present century a steamship service was started between Belfast (Queens Bridge) and Bangor, in opposition to the railway service. The railway company were finally compelled to take over the service, and continued to operate it for some years; the return fare, for about 25 miles travelling, was sometimes as low as 6d. This service was discontinued about 1910. The largest station on the line .is the Belfast terminus which is situated at Queens Quay on the east bank of the river Lagan; it has been enlarged' more than once, and now ranks as one of the largest and busiest stations in Ireland; there are five platforms and seven roads, with all over roof ; there is a spacious circulating area with adequate refreshment and waiting accommodation, and electric trams in oonnection with the trains run right into the station premises. The station and yard was completely resignalled in 1917, the main signal cabin being the largest in Ireland. Adjoining the terminus are the principal locomotive running sheds and the repair works. The Bangor terminus has three platforms, spanned by an all-over roof, and deals with a large suburban traffic; during busy hours non-stop trains between Belfast and Bangor perform the journey of 12¼ miles in 20 minutes over a difficult road; the Bangor line, originally single, has been doubled throughout and provided with light signalling. The town of Bangor has grown enormously of recent years, and is the largest and most popular watering place in Ireland. Newoastle station was rebuilt in 1906; it has two long platforms with ample circulating area and refreshment facilities, the exterior being of pleasing design in red brick with an ornamental clock tower; almost adjoining the station is the Slieve Donard hotel owned by the railway company, one of the largest in Ireland.
The double portions of the line comprise the sections between Belfast and Bangor, and Belfast and Camber, three quarters of the total mileage of 80 being single line worked on the electric staff system. Gradients on the main line after leaving Belfast are mostly upward to Ballynahinch J unction, and include nearly 2 miles of 1 in 90 after Comber, as well as shorter lengths of 1 in 100; the line then falls to Downpatrick with nearly four miles of 100/110, and is fairly level to Newcastle. The Donaghadee branch has also frequent grades of 1 in 100, and one mile of 1 in 90 up after leav- ing Newtownards. The steepest gradients are found on the Bangor branch; beyond the first level portion to Holywood .there is a steep climb for 2½ miles at 1 in 81/76/94 for 2½ miles to Cultra, and thence mostly falling at easier grades. Up to quite recent times the B. '& C.D.R. was one of the most prosperous in Ireland; the dividend paid on the ordinary stock reached 6! per cent. in 1891 and continued at that figure down to 1920; the company then began to feel the effects of road motor competition on its earnings, and since 1925 no dividend has been paid on the ordinary stock, and, in fact, the dividends on the preference stocks are also in arrear. This unfortunate state of affairs was largely the. result of allowing numbers of small proprietors, and some large ones too, to start motor services in direct oompetition with the already adequate railway services; indeed far more facilities were provided than were warranted by the traffic. Eventually out of the chaos the Northern Ireland Road Transport Board took over all the road services, but, so far, has not been able to make them pay.
Meanwhile the restriction of motor traffic caused by War conditions has brought back some of the lost traffic to the railway, which is now making a slightly better showing, though still unable to meet the ordinary dividend. If the recommendations of the recent Northern Ireland Transport Com- mission are adopted, the Belfast & County Down Railway will lose its separate existence. Illustrations: map; Belfast Station in 1906 (before alteration); Helens Bay station; Downpatrick Station. Slieve Donard Hotel, Newcastle.

C. Hamilton Ellis. Famous locomotive engineers. XIX. Joseph H. Beattie. 218-22. 4 illustrations (including portrait)
Chapter 2 in Twenty locomotive men. See also letter from W.B. Thompson and reply from Ellis on page 244

Model G.W.R. "King" class locomotive. 223. illustration
After twelve years spare time work Bert Hunt. and four friends Messrs. G. White, H. Rosenthal, H. Liebenguth, and Len Knaupp had completed a magnificent  1½ in. scale model of the G.W.R. 4-6-0 express engme King George V. The model is complete to the smallest detail from drawings supplied by the Great Western Railway, and was built in Mr. Hunt's private workshops at his home near Johannesburg. . The locomotive, operated by compressed air, is shown alongside a perfect model of a G.W.R. carriage in the showrooms of Messrs. Williams, Hunt &  Co., in Eloff Street, Johannesburg ,

L.M.S.R.  223
War-time activities of the L.M.S.R. Road Motor Engineer's Department covered a wide field representing in the aggregate an important contribution to the war effort in that they are directed to increase the efficiency of the large fleet of L.M.S. motor vehicles and at the same time to conserve to the utmost the materials necessary for their maintenance. Where supplies of any particular material are short, or could be placed to better use in directions more closely associated with national armaments, alternative materials have been sought and new methods of restoring worn out parts and materials had been devised.
The maintenance of the collection and delivery services, particularly in areas which have been subjected to air attack, was a vital part of the rail transport organisation of the country. The provision of a mobile repair column ensures that the maximum number of damaged vehicles were put back on the road in the shortest possible time. The mobile workshop, constructed at Wolverton, had been specially designed and equipped for the repair and maintenance of road motor vehicles in the event of damage to existing workshops. The equipment included an electric generating set to provide current independent of local supplies, a portable oxy-acetylene welding plant, tanks for cleaning parts, a fitter's bench with tools also accommodation for spare parts, tyres, and timber for repairs. The portable welder was a self-contained unit capable of being employed at any of the Road Motor Shops overcoming the difficulties of varying electric supply services. The equipment was obtained on the advice of the Chief Mechanical Engineer's Welding School at Derby and manufactured by Petbow Limited, Watford.
The four mobile canteens could be used either on a rail carriage truck or on a 4-wheeled road trailer. They were equipped with storage batteries for lighting, a coal burning stove, facilities for washing up, storage accommodation for food, crockery and cutlery, and the necessary urns and serving counter. The difficulties of obtaining supplies of spare parts under war-time conditions and the urgent necessity for conserving materials of all kinds has led to a special campaign being launched with some striking results. The position in regard to spares was foreseen and long before the outbreak of war, large quantities of worn material were set aside for reclamation. Worn journals had been built up by metal spraying or electro-deposition. Worn cams and worn or broken teeth had been built up by welding. For the use of gas as a propellant various types of gas producers had been thoroughly tested. Two vehicles equipped with gas producers hadbetween them run a total of 41,558 miles. Men have received training in their operation, so that should circumstances demand it, a changeover to a large number of gas driven vehicles could be made.
Vehicles  were also under test with gas bags, some mounted on the roofs of the vehicles and some on trailers. A new type of crane which has a lifting capacity of 4½ tons and a jib radius of 10 feet  was used in dock areas and in goods depots. Six of these American built cranes were in service and a further 25 will shortly bit availabe

Great Western Railway. 224.
An interesting feature of the Winter Timetable was the reopening of the Yealmpton branch for passenger traffic commencing 3 November. The passenger service over this branch was discontinued some years ago on account of road competition. The service to be provided would consist of eight trains each way on weekdays, all of which will run to and from Plymouth (Friary), instead of Plymouth (Millbay) which was the previous terminus of this service. The branch train will however be provided and worked by the G.W.R. Certain unadvertised passenger trains have been run over this line since its closing, but the restoration of the full public service is noteworthy inasmuch as apart from certain seasonal train services in other parts of the country it affords the first example of a complete restoration of facilities which it was found necessary to withdraw on account of acute road competition.

Correspondence. 224

The centenary of a business train. Reginald B. Fellows..
Since the publication of my article on the Brighton-London Bridge business train I have come across George Augustus Salas London up to. date, written in 1894 when he was living at Brighton. In a chapter headed "Eight forty-five a.m. Breakfast on board a Pullman," written in his amusing style, he asked "Could we have broiled soles, boiled eggs and buttered toast? Why [certainly. And broiled ham and eggs, or kidneys or bloaters or haddock? Assuredly. There was a bill of fare; and there was no reason why we should not breakfast in ease and comfort. The which we presently proceeded to do; and we were not charged any more for a meal than we should have had to pay had we breakfasted in the coffee-room of a well-conducted hotel. But what a simpleton the conductor may have thought me for asking him whether we could breakfast on board the Pullman . . . " From this it is clear that although a Pullman Breakfast Car was only put on some fifteen years ago substantial breakfasts were served in the ordinary Pullman close on half a century ago.
My attention has been called to the fact that for many years prior to the abolition of steam traction a special rail-car was run from Preston Park to Brighton for the convenience of passengers who lived near that station and wished to travel by the" City Limited." The rail-car left Preston Park at 8.36 a.m., due Brighton 8.40. No special arrangement was made for the down journey as an express which called at Preston Park left London Bridge a few minutes after the 5 p.m. "City Limited."

Prevention of rust and corrosion. 224
An effective method of preventing the rusting and corrosion of iron and steel by the atmosphere, as well as. acids and other deleterious influences, of particular value in connection with exposed equipment, such as signals, bridges, overhead electric transmission lines and lighting standards, conveyors, engine sheds and station buildings in general, is the use of Detel. For iron and steel and other metal plant and equipment, whether directly exposed to the atmosphere or otherwise, a variety known as " D.M.U." is available, which contains chlorinated rubber dissolved in the solvent, along with about 92 per cent. finely divided zinc. A true anodic resistance to the electrolytic action characteristic of metallic corrosion is given in addition, the zinc being attacked in preference to the steel. The action is different from galvanizing, which forms an easily decomposable alloy of iron and zinc, existing as an intermediate layer. Zinc has a remarkable and anti-corrosive action in relation to iron. For example, if zinc dust is shaken into water and the zinc removed by filtration, iron immersed in the filtrate remains free from rust for a much longer period than a similar piece of iron in ordinary untreated water. On the same lines zinc will protect polished iron when both are immersed in water without the existence of any contact (electrical or otherwise) between the two metals, and an old remedy for corrosion in marine boilers is a zinc plate. It is for this reason also that thin steel sheets protected with a coat of the chlorinated rubber product show hardly any sign of rusting and corrosion, even when deep scratches are made exposing the metal, whilst in addition there is no creep of rust under the film. One of the serious dis- advantages of most paints is that when the surface is scratched or otherwise damaged rust creeps under the adjoining paint film although the surface may show no sign of this insidious action. In applying as an undercoat to iron and steel for ordinary conditions a thin coating of say 1 gallon to 100-140 sq. yds. is given, but for more severe exposure a brushed coat is used, using say 1 gallon for 70 sq. yds. Any type of oil paint, cellulose paint or other product can then be applied on top, including mixtures of Detel with finely divided aluminium or various pigments.

Reviews. 224

The Engineer Corporal. C. Hamilton Ellis. Oxford University Press.
The appearance of the locomotive m fiction often has funny results. Mr. Ellis's book, however, whilst designed primarily for juvenile reading, deserves notice as a responsibly written railway story. His hero, as respectable and granite-headed a young Englishman as was ever pitch- forked into the crudities of war, has greatness thrust upon him by being kidnapped for service in the United States Arrnv in 1861. The story opens on the Great Western and South Western Railways in the days of Gooch and Beattie. It takes him through hair-raising adventures as a driver on the United States Military Railroads. He helps to purloin a locomotive, and at various times is sentenced to death, falls in love with a lady on the enemy side, and goes through other nerve-wracking experiences. The author has clearly taken a good deal of trouble to recapture the American railway scene of the sixties, and Terence Cuneo has contributed some excellent illustrations showing old American locomotives being used and abused according to the fortunes of war.

Locomotives of the L.N.E.R., 1923-37. K. Risdon Prentice and Peter Proud.
The introductory chapter deals with the general system of numbering adopted since the amalgamation, and a statistical summary gives the yearly totals of each wheel arrangement. Each of these wheel types is then dealt with under the 280 class headings, i.e., AI, A2, etc., and so on through the alphabet to Z5. In each case a list of the engines existing at the time of grouping is given, followed by informative notes on the engines and the particular type of traffic with which they were associated. Special attention has been given to individual engines rebuilt, subjected to experimental alterations, or allocated to special duties. A list of named locomotives revised to the date of publication is also included. Details are given of changes in naming, when an engine carried a previous name for a considerable period. The usefulness of the book is considerably enhanced by a numerical list of everyone of the 9,300 locomotives owned by the L.N.E.R. since 1923, with their appropriate classes. This enables the class of any particular locomotive to be seen at a glance, and also indicates where more than one engine has carried a given number, or been re-classified. It is fitting that the authors should have chosen for the frontispiece a photograph depicting 4498 Sir Nigel Gresley, Apart from this there are 72 illustrations.

Number 591 (15 November 1941)

Steam for fast freight. 225

The "Prospectors". Denver and Rio Grande Western R.R. 226-8. 3 illustrations
The heating system was automatic and a pump circulated air through floor and overhead radiators. On the cooling cycle the circulating pump is shut down and thermostatic connections are made with the freon compressor. In the range between 65° and 72° ambient neither heating nor cooling  was supplied but a manual switch made either available if desired. The air brake system had electro-pneumatic control and decelostat wheel slip control. Air is supplied for the train by two Westinghouse compressors located in the haggage room. The Budd disc brake comprises a disc and two pairs of shoes operating thereon. A disc is mounted on the inside hub of each wheel so that two discs are employed per axle. The outer and inner disc faces,. which the shoes bear upon, are separated by radial vanes. These vanes serve to connect the two bearing surfaces of the disc, thus acting as impellers to propel air between the two outer faces of the disc, thereby dissipating the heat generated in braking. One shoe lies on each side of the disc and covers approximately one-fourth of its circumference. The shoes are operated by a pair of tongs fulcrumed on a support lying just outside of the disc radius. The outer extremity of the tongs is coupled to an air cylinder which actuates them, the regular air.-brake system of the train being utilized. The bearing pressure between the two shoes operating on the disc is equalized, the shoes, in turn, being hinged to their respective tongs in such a way that they remain in alignment. The new Budd disc brake harmonizes with conventionally braked equipment, irrespective of whether the preponderance of cars in the train are disc-braked or braked conventionally, and irrespective of the position of the cars in the train.

R.B. Fellows. The centenary of Bradshaw's Guide. 228. illustration
In December, 1841, the first issue appeared of Bradshaw's Railway Guide in the monthly series, which is still published as regularly as ever. In the number of its pages the Guide has grown almost beyond recognition, but in their superficial measurement very little change has been made. As far as is known only one copy of the first issue has survived, hut it is fortunately preserved in the Bodleian Library at Oxford, and by the courtesy of the Library Authorities, the title page has been reproduced. For some six years the Guide had a bright yellow glazed cover, but by the end of 1848 the brown cover had been adopted and, in different shades of brown, the time table appeared for many years. The Guide bears a serial number and since it had .been pub- lished every month from December, 1841, when "No. 1200" came out in July, 1933, it was thought that a centenary might be celebrated. The serial number was wrong, and made the Guide some eight years older established than it really was. As far back as April, 1845, the serial number had been arbitrarily advanced by 100, and no subsequent correction has been made. The centenary occurs this year.
The monthly Railway Guide, though the most famous, was by no means the earliest of George Bradshaw's Time Tables. The first was an issue in 1838 "in form and size suitable for the waistcoat pocket" of the Liverpool and Manchester Company's Time Table accompanied by a small folding map of the railways in England and Wales. No copy can now be found, but it was described by Robert D. Kay its compiler, who was subsequently Editor of Bradshaw's Guide. Towards the end of October, 1839, George Bradshaw's first general time tables were published, three diminutive books, size about 4½ in. by 3 in., with cloth covers. Two of them dealt with northern and southern railways separately and cost sixpence each, but soon ceased to be published. The other lasted longer, it combined the information in the other two but cost one shilling and was called Bradshaw's Railway Companion, and came out at frequent intervals till 1849. But when the monthly Guide appeared in December, 1841, the Companion began to fall out of favour with the public in spite of its maps, plans and cloth bindings—besides the Guide was half the price. The Guide killed the Companion and still flourishes, though nowadays it costs three shillmgs to get a Bradshaw.

O.J. Morris, Standardising Southern Railway locomotives, Central Section. 229-31. 2 illustrations
Continued from page 160.  Part 17. 0-6-2 Radial Tanks, Class E5. The E5 engines which were the apotheosis of Robert Billinton's passenger tank designs have been consistently good in all the varied duties that have fallen to their near-forty years' existence. These duties have covered practically every class of train on the ex-L.B.S.C. system, from the Sunny South express—at one time, their frequent charge east of Brighton—down to. the morning milk, from station pilot to pilot on the Southern Belle.* Unlike their prototypes, the E5s display a turn of speed which is fully to be expected, because, thanks to their larger coupled wheels, there is less compression per foot .traversed. As a natural consequence, however paradoxical at first glance, the E5s also display a higher overall rate of. acceleration, Where an E3 or an E4 decelerates rapidly, once past the 30 m.p.h. mark-as trials held in 1920 between Eastbourne and Polegate amply demonstrated—an E5 is still accelerating, redeemed as it is to some extent from the evils inseparable from a constricted steam chest placed between the cylinders .
Certainly, .the E5s, like most of Robert Billinton's engines, tend to "choke" if worked hard, but with moderate loads, they can "move." No. 568, for instance, rose to the occasion on Sunday, 30 August 1914, when required to bring the then Outdoor Locomotive Superintendent from Brighton to Victoria, Invasion. was
imminent, and Mr. J.J. Richardson, urgently summoned to a conference, called for speed. 568 with one brake van reeled off the 50½ miles in 57 minutes, an average of 53.6 m.p.h. which must, in places, have needed something like 70 miles an hour.
More recently, the E5s were clocking-up some spirited performances on the Managing Directors' Train (withdrawn as from 11 July 1932)—the 08.58 ex-Tunbridge Wells West, which was scheduled at an overall average of 40.8 m.p.h. between Three Bridges (dep. 10.04) and London Bridge (arr. 10.47, whence the slightly cynical nickname of the train), a one-minute stop at East Croydon included. The distance from Three Bridges to London Bridge, via the Quarry deviation line, is 29 miles 25 chains, some 7 miles of which are at an average gradient of 1/240 against the engine.
In the Railway Magazine for September, 1932 (Vol. 71 ,p. 226), a correspondent cited some remarkable running behind E5 class engines hauling various formations of the above train, the tare of which fluctuated between a minimum of 90 tons and a maximum of 110 tons exclusive of engine. Of 7 runs tabulated, the highest speed touched on the 1/264 fall north of Three Bridges was, 65.5 m.p.h., and the lowest on the 1/163/200/230 rise through . Redhill Tunnel,and beyond to Quarry Box, 47.9 m.p.h. Engme 2585 with a load of 110 tons made East Croydon, 19.m. 3 ch., in 22 min. 10 sec., an average of 51.5 m.p.h., and engine B399 with a load of 100 tons, put up the quite exceptional time of 15 min. 55 sec. for the 14 m. 43 ch. between Three Bridges and Coulsdon North, an average of 54.8. m.p.h. Billinton's engines were generally said to shy at hills, and the above figures are therefore a striking commentary on the value of wholesale criticism.
Much has been said and written about the Large Radials, to give the E5s their current pseudonym, and one or two inaccuracies stand to be corrected. In the first place, it is generally supposed that some of them exchanged boilers with the E4s, the basis of the theory being the sporadic appearance of dome-salters on the E5 class. The E5s, however, belong to the boiler-interchange group comprising only themselves, the Small Vulcans and the E6 0-6-2 freight tanks. Transfer between E5 and E4 is either way impossible because the E5 firebox is 6 ft. 2¼ in. long against 5 ft. 8¼ in., and it slopes 1 ft. 4¼ in. against 1 ft. 0¼in. The obvious source of inter- change for the boilers in question is the Small Vulcans, and from that class they in fact came. Query has also revolved about the two E5 engines, 572 Farncombe, and 573 Nutbourne, which had the dome on the middle boiler-ring, thus clearly indicating a 3-ring barrel, while all the others had the dome on the rear ring of a 2-ring barrel. The explanation is that there happened to be in stock at Brighton Works a couple of spare 3-ring barrels, intended for some other class, and these, combined with E5 fire- boxes, went into 572 and 573 and remained on the engines for a considerable period—on 572 until 1924 at least. Where these two boilers are now to be found there is no certain telling, but it is significant that in September, 1940, 2588 had a boiler answering the description.
The 2-ring boiler on the L.B.S.C.R. is to the credit of Robert Billinton who introduced it with the 1901 lot of his B4s, and thereafter to the end of the "Brighton" regime, it ranked as the standard type for every new class of engine. But where the distinctive safety-valve columns lay fore-and-aft on the B4s,—on the E5s they lay transverse. The result was a trimness about the boiler of an E5 which both motivated and justified the alteration. In those opulent days, appearance was a yard-stick of breeding, whether personal, professional or technical. Noteworthy topics concerning the "Large Radials " may here be brought together. Early on, 403 Fordcombe, 405 Fernhurst and 406 Colworth had ejectors for working vacuum-fitted: stock—probably they were built with them. To this list, the Service Time Table for 1907 adds 404 Hardham.
The first two E5s, 567 Freshwater and 566 Carrisbrooke had the yellow livery carried along, beneath the cab opening, thus linking together tb two side panels. The class was so long-lived iln Stroudley's brilliant colour-scheme that, by 1917 591 Tillington had become a faded beauty flaunting modern trinkets. Still gay and handsome in yellow, thanks to the devoted attention: of New Cross depot, Tillington bore evidence of the changing times—a new smokebox door, fo instance, and brake hose-connections above the buffer-beams.
This Tillington was the engine, somewhen ir '12 or '13, working an excursion out of Peckham Rye when the driver, coasting easily down the fall into Brighton terminus with a load of 20 crammed four-wheelers, suddenly found that the brakes had died on him and he would likely come to a bad end. Luckily he had an engine with 40-plm tons of braked load and he was able to draw up safe though much shaken.
The inner story throws vivid light upon the economics of the cheap trip as then understood. With an ever-welling eye on the ratio, Dead Weight/Pay Load, the Brighton had pressed into service a slightly decrepit convoy of 20 Stroudley 4-wheel coaches normally used for an Up morning Workman from West Croydon, which, taring some 135 tons, with recognised accommodation for 1 ,000 and seats for 940, offered the miraculous figure of less than 3 cwt. per passenger. On the eventful Brighton run, there was an overload of paying patrons and this had caused the antique stock to sit down so heavily on its springs that the brake blocks were shot clear of the wheel-tyres. Had it happened when the G-dass singles worked this train, the consequences' might have been serious.
Reverting to the technical, it is recorded that, towards the end of 1905 and the beginning of 1906, D.E. Marsh converted many of the E5s to the 2-4-2 wheel arrangement. Exactly how many is not known, but certainly the following for which W.J. Mahony of Shortlands has supplied photographic evidence: 399, 402, 404, 569, 571, 583, 585, 586, 587, 589, 590, 593. The motive underlying the experiment has already been ventilated in the E4 chapter; the results were no more encouraging.
The E5 boilers were originally pressed at 160 lb., but during Robert Billinton's last year of office, the pressure was raised to 175 lb., probably to identify it with that of the 1904 replacement boilers then on order. Of late years the datum line has been settled at 170 lb. throughout the class. The fact that the Large Radials interchange boilers with the C2 Small Vulcans suggests a variety of boiler-mountings under the present standardisation scheme, and so it is. On whichever of the two classes the E5 boilers, original or 1904 replacement, are to be found, there too will be found pop safety-valves, fitted in accordance with the ruling previously laid down %% There are also a few C2 boilers of the early Billinton 160 lb. type which have received new fireboxes and Ramsbottom safety-valves of D.E. Marsh's design (Fig. 46).
Because safetv-valves of this kind were not seen on an E5 until recent years, their presence strikes an unaccustomed note without disturbing the essentially "Billinton" character which these engines have retained throughout their modernisation. Their individuality comes from the unaltered front end, and for this the 1923 groupmg has largely been responsible. At the time, it was in prospect to fit them with new flat smokeboxes and saddled chimneys, precedents already established on the D3s and C2s, but the spate of reorganisation postponed the work, and it seems unlikely now to be carried out. . In fact, the Large Radials suffered hardly. any change throughout the first decade of the Southern Railway, and when B403, the last L.B.S.C. engine reconditioned to pre-grouping standards, appeared from overhaul at Brighton in 1931, it had all the long-familiar "gadgets," from Billinton's direct-loaded safety-valves to Gresham and Craven's 8mm. combination injectors on the back plate of the firebox. The standardisation programme was, however, under way and 402, 406 and 567 had already passed through Ashford Works. The rehabilitation of the class has long since been completed, and to those who have grown old with these engines, a modernised E5 with some high-sitting type of safety-valve—Kirtley's for instance—can be as distinctive as it is striking (Fig. 47).
The Large Radials are now to be regarded as obsolescent, one having already gone—2569, withdrawn May, 1936. The other 25, some of them no doubt reprieved through the fortuitous cIrcumstance of war, were being painted in the blue-green livery when the fiat was issued that an engines other than express passenger were in future to be black. Black or blue-green, SR. tank engines these hard days are sparsely adorned; of edgmg and lining they have none, but aestheticism is mollified by the use of gold leaf for the device, SOUTHERN, on the side tanks, and for the numerals which now appear on the bunker. An improvement lately adopted on the E5s is to provide the open railings around the coal space with solid backboards.
On 4 January 1927 E5 BS7S was requisitioned to pilot 4-6-4T B330 on this train between East Croydon and Victoria; owing, to a failure of the brake-pump on the train engine.
Maskelyne (Locos. of the L.B.S.C.R. 1903-23," p. 92) says "most," but the date he quotes is an obvious misprint.
Locomotive Mag., 1939, 45,. 346.
IIllustrations: class E5 0-6-2T; No. 2585 (Figure 46) and 2571 (Figure 47)

James McEwan. The locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 231-4..
Continued from page 210). In 1865 the Caledonian Railway entered upon a new era for in this year the Scottish Central was taken over by amalgamation and in the following year the Scottish North Eastern was similarly taken over. Of these two lines more will be said in due course and meantime details of classes which had already been designed and ordered will be referred to. At this period the locomotive department was beginning to alter the boiler designs and all with a few exceptions as already noted were of the typical raised firebox design. In this year Conner designed several classes with flush topped boilers with the dome in the centre of the barrel, or as will be seen later on the first ring of the barrel. The new design of boiler was not to appear for a brief spell as it was in 1867 that the first appeared on a new engine.
Three classes were built prior to this and all had the usual raised firebox casing, excepting the second lot of class 417. The first of the three classes was the 92 class 2-4-0 type passenger tender series of which eleven engines were built. All of these came from the company's St. Rollox Works, No. 92 in 1865, Nos. 93 to 97 in 1866 and Nos. 103 to 107 in 1867. These were of the usual standard double framed design with outside cylinders, outside bearings on the leading axle and inside bearings on the coupled wheel axles. Salter type safety valves were used. The cylinders were 17 in. diam. by 24 in. stroke. Leading wheels 3 ft. 7½ in. diameter. Coupled wheels 6 ft. 8 in. diameter. Wheelbase 6 ft. l0in. plus 8 ft. 7 in., total 15 ft. 5 in. Working pressure 130 psi The total heating surface was about 900 ft2. The engines were subsequently rebuilt with flush topped boilers with Ramsbottom safety valves over the firebox. As rebuilt there was no alteration in the particulars of the cylinders, wheels or working pressure. The new boilers were 3 in. greater in diameter and although there was this slight increase the heating surface was unaltered as there is no record of any change in the number of tubes. The weight per axle on rebuilding became:—leading axle 9 tons 9 cwt. 2 qrs., driving axle 11 tons 15 cwt., rear coupled axle 11 tons 8 cwt., total 32 tons 12 cwt. 2 qrs. The tender which was never altered during the life of the locomotives, ran on four wheels 3 ft. 8 in. diam. spaced at 9 ft. axle centres. The water capacity was 1,428 gallons and coal capacity 3 :tons. The weight on each axle was:—leading 10 tons 2 cwt. 2 qrs., rear 9 tons 2 cwt. 3 qrs., total 19 tons 5 'cwt. 1 qr. The total length of engine and tender over the buffers was 44 ft. It in.
The dates of rebuilding were:—1878 Nos. 94, 96 and 106, 1879 Nos. 93, 103 and 105, 1880 Nos. 92 and 104, 1881 Nos. 95 and 97, 1883 No. 107. The boiler fitted to No. 107 was of Brittain's design although put on in Drummond's .time. When new these engines were shedded at St. Rollox and Carstairs but very soon afterwards a few were also sent to Carlisle. These engines 'were utilised mainly on the semi-fast main line dirties until transferred about 1870 to the S.N.E. section, where 'they were allocated between Perth, Dundee, Forfar and Aberdeen.
One of the St. Rollox drivers was .Harry Ogilvie and he is credited with having used coal . for the- first time on a passenger engine. Time had been lost on the trip to Carlisle with the result . that only a bare minimum of coke could be got at that depot when turning the engine and only sufficient to take him to Carstairs, At· Carstairs it was impossible to get near to the. coke chute so nothing daunted, Ogilvie and his fireman shovelled coal on to the tender and departed without ascertaining to whom the coal belonged. The matter was as good as overlooked by the superintendent as a very important personage was travelling at the time and the irregular action saved the situation so far as the company's relations with the nobility were concerned. The story never revealed whether it was an engine of this class or an earlier one which was involved.
In three instances, presumably for accountancy purposes, the engines were allotted "A" numbers different from those which should have been carried and it would a:ppear that the boilers were reasonably good and were passed on to other engines, and in their stead condemned boilers were put against the engines. These odd boilers were put against Nos. 96, 105 and 107 arid they became Nos. 23A (1896), 7A (1895) and 54 (1898). No. 107 as 54 ran for some fifteen months before it was taken in to the shops and scrapped. Nos. 92, 93, 94, 97 and 103 were put  on to the "A" list in 1897, No. 97A becoming 1219 in 1899 and 1097 in 1900. No. 95 was put on to the "A" list in 1895. No. 104 became S. No. 1220 in 1899. Of the three engines already referred to in the boiler exchanges No. 54 became S. No. 1221 in 1899.' The olass was withdrawn in numerical rotation, Nos. 92 to 97 and 103 to 107, in the following years 1899 1899, 1899, 1896, 1896, 1909, 1898, 1899, 1895, 1896 and 1899.
A small order was placed with Dubs & Co. early in 1865 for ten engines for use on the S.C. section when this should be taken over later in the same year. These were for goods traffic and as usual had the standard framing ,etc. Salter safety valves were fitted on the dome mounted on the raised firebox casing. . When rebuilt all the engines were given boilers of Brittain's design although several were rebuilt in Drummond's time. These boilers were flush topped, some with Salter safety valves on the dome which was placed on the middle ring of the boiler barrel, and others had Ramsbottom type sarety valves over thee firebox. or naa rcamsoottom type sarety valves over me firebox. Conner admitted later that he never had been satisfied with this small class so far as their steaming qualities were concerned and with his next engines built very soon after, the number of tubes was reduced while the barrel was slightly increased in diameter, and at the same time he altered the wheel spacing. The dimensions of the class as built were:-cylinders 18 in diameter by 24 in, stroke, leading wheels 3 ft. 7 in. diameter, coupled wheels 6 ft. 2 in. diameter, wheelbase 6 ft. 9 in. plus 8 ft. 9 in., total 15 ft. 6 in. The heating surface was:—tubes 1,020 ft2., firebox 89 ft2., total 1,109 ft2,. Working pressure 130 psi. The grate area was 13.7 ft2.. Weight per axle:-leading 10 tons 5 cwt. 2 qrs., driving 12 tons 8 cwt., rear coupled 10 tons, total 32 tons 13 cwt. 2 qrs. As rebuilt the heating surface became:—tubes 925.7 ft2 firebox 85.5 ft2., total 1,011.2 ft2. Grate area 15.3 ft2.. Pressure 140 psi. The higher pressure unfortunately caused a number of the frames to break and in some cases patch plates were put on some in others new trames were needed. The pressure was, however, in all cases reduced to 120 psi. The weight per axle as rebuilt became:—leading 11 tons 4 cwt. 2 qrs., driving 13 tons 7 cwt. 1 qr., rear coupled 12 tons 10 cwt. 1 qr., total 37 tons 2 cwt. The tenders were four wheeled and carried 1,710 gallons of water. Nos. 155 (ex 288), 380 and 383 were fited with the Westinghouse air brake by Drummond shortly before he left the Caledonian and were then shown equal with the rebuilds of class 419, to be described next, although actually the old Brittain boiler was retained for a short period after the date of fitting the brake for local passenger duties. The boiler fitted to No. 288 in 1886 was an 1885 one fettled up. as was the spare 1886 boiler fitted to 383. The rebuilt boilers carried by these two engines were kept as spares for other engines. The running numbers of the ten engines were 288 to 293 and 380 to 383, preceding and immediately succeeding the stock of the S,C.R. The makers were Dubs & Co., being their Nos. 19 to 24 of 1865 and 25 to 28 of 1866. the dates of rebuilding were, in numerical rotation, 1880 and again 1886, 1880, 1881, 1884, 1882, 1880, 1886, 1881, 1884 and 1884. No. 293 was given, for accountancy purposes, the condemned boiler of No. 13 and was accordingly made 13A in 1898 when the boiler was placed against it. Nos. 381 and 382 were also given old boilers and in the case of the former the boiler could not have been so poor for the engine managed to survive for ten years after being fitted. These two engines became 542A in 1897 and 555A in 1896 respec- tively. No. 542A became 1273 in 1898 and 1381 in 1900 .. No. 383 became 241 in 1898, 1249 in 1899 and 383 in 1900. Of the others No. 288 became 155 in 1899, No. 289 became 1216 in 1899 and 1289 in 1900, No. 290 became 1217 in 1899 and 1290 in 1901, and No. 292 became 1266 in 1899. The dates of withdrawal for the class, again in numerical order were:—1910, 1900, 1908, 1895, 1899, 1898, 1911, 1907, 1896 and 1909 respectively.
A much improved engine followed the 288 class as already mentioned. This again was of the 2-4-0 type and of the usual standard design with raised firebox casing and Salter safety valves on the first twenty engines, and flush topped on the remainder. Compensated beam spring suspension was adopted.
The cylinders were again 18 in. diam. by 24 in. stroke, leading wheels 3 ft. 7½ in. diameter, and coupled wheels 6 ft. 2 in. diameter. The wheelbase was altered in the second order which began with No. 474. Nos. 417 to 436 had the axles spaced at 7 ft. plus 8 ft. 6 in. centres, making a total w:heelbase of 15 ft. 6 in. Nos. 474/up had the same total wheelbase but the spacing was 6 ft. 9 in. plus 8 ft. 9 in. The heating surface was —tubes 935 ft2, firebox 85.5 ft2., total 1,020.5 ft2 Grate area 15.25 ft2t. Working pressure 120 psi.
The weight carried per axle in working order was:—Ieading 11 tons 1 cwt., driving 12 tons 15 cwt., rear coupled 12 tons 1 cwt., total 35 tons 17 cwt. The tenders for the class were made at St. Rollox and varied having four water capacities, viz. 1,580, 1,600, 1,700 and 1,770 gallons capacity. All, however, carried 4 tons of coal. As modified later by Drummond all the tenders were made to carry 1,800 gallons of water minimum, when the weight in road trim was:—leading axle 10 tons 10 cwt., middle axle 8 tons 13 cwt., rear axle 9 tons 1 cwt. 3 qrs., total 28 tons 4 cwt. 3 qrs.

London Transport car No. 14233. 234
In the autumn of 1940, District Trailer Car No. 013167 was badly damaged by enemy action. Three-quarters of the length of the car were almost completely destroyed; one end was not seriously damaged. A week or so later, Metropolitan Motor Car No. 14233 had one end wrecked and the remainder of the body deformed by blast blowing the roof upwards. It was decided to construct one motor car from these two damaged cars. Car 14233 had the damaged end cut off, all members including the solebars and main longitudinals being cut through on a vertical plane running just insi e the first pair of double doors. Car 013167 was cut through on an identical plane. Thus when the two portions were butted together all members could be joined by welding without make-up pieces. Prior to bringing the two portions together, the roof members of Car 14233 were removed and re-set and 'sides of the car were pressed out to the correct shape. The two portions having been lined up, the solebars of the composite car and the main longitudinals were welded by arc welding. Cover straps were also welded over she solebar joints to give additional strength. The original roof sheets were then replaced, only one new sheet-that at the joint-being required. The interior woodwork was largely salved from the two cars, as were the majority of the fittings and seats. Car No. 14233 has thus been put into service using very little new material other than glass, ceiling board and two sheets of steel panel.

E.A. Phillipson. The steam locomotive in traffic. VIII. Periodical examinations. Organisation of repair and maintenance work. 235-8. diagram, table
Continued from page 196. All repairs required by engines must be reported in writing, and this may be done by means of repairs books, sheets or cards. The disadvantages of repairs books are:—
(1) A considerable amount of time is occupied subsequently by the workshops staff in making out their work sheets from the entries in the books. It is axiomatic that the amount of clerical work performed by wages staff in general should be minimised.
(2) At peak periods enginemen may have to wait their turn to make entries in the repair books. .
(3) The entries quickly become illegible owing to handling under dirty conditions and the use of pencils which are unsuitable for the purpose.
(4) The enginemen can refer back to previous bookings. This may influence them to repeat bookings without cause.
(5) There is the danger that the ruling off of the books at special times during the 24 hours may be omitted or deferred.
(6) It is possible to alter previous entries, or make additions to them before a blank space can be ruled off.
(7) The tracing of previous booking to individual engines is both lengthy and inaccurate.
Includes a facsimile form

Southern Railway. 238
Two further engines of the Merchant Navy class:21C3 and 2IC4. The former was officially named Royal Mail on 24 October. A test run was made with one of this class on 9 November. The load of 16 coaches with a tare of 527 tons was one of the heaviest trains that has ever worked out of Waterloo. A stop was made at Woking and leaving there, the engine steadily accelerated on the almost continuous upgrade to 72 mile/h. beyond Fleet. Another stop was 'made at Basingstoke. The real test was west of Salisbury where No. 21C2 gave a fine example of her effortless pulling power. Sherborne was passed at 70 mile/h. and up the bank of 1 in 80 beyond Crewkerne the minimum speed was 25½t m.p.h. A stop was made at Axminster. Leaving here, there is about 1¼ miles of down grade where the engine accelerated to 51 mile/h. and then followed the long pull of 1 in 80 to Honiton tunnel. Here the speed fell again to a minimum of 25½ mile/h. with a slight acceleration to 27 mile/h. at the summit. On the following down grade the speed touched 79 mile/h. before stopping at Sidmouth Junction. The 12.2 miles from there to Exeter Central were covered in 15 minutes 8 seconds. A little brake trouble in the early part of the run together with a strong side wind helped to handicap the engine but the noiseless running and the splendid acceleration after both leaving Woking and Salisbury amply proved the capabilities of Bulleid's new type.

The largest locomotive. 238
The record as the heaviest locomotive in the world appears to have passed from the 2-8-8-4 Yellowstone class of Mallets on the Northern Pacific Railroad, which have held this position for some 10 years, to 20 new 4-8-8-4 Mallets just built for the Union Pacific by the American Locomotive Company. The working order weight of the new batch is given variously as 530 English tons and 533¾ English tons), compared with the 499 English tons of the Northern Pacific engines. But although the U.P. engines are intended primarily for hauling maximum tonnage without banking assistance over the 1 in 88 grades between Ogden, Utah, and Green River, Wyoming, it is claimed that they have been designed to operate at maximum speeds up to 80 mile/h., and to produce maximum power continuously at speeds of the order of 70 mile/h. The Northern Pacific engines, on the other hand, are essentially a freight type and no high speed claims have ever been made for them. Double chimneys, each with a four-jet exhaust below, are a feature of the U.P. engines, and free running at speed is further helped by a carefully designed Walschaerts gear giving a maximum valve travel of 7 in. The engine weight is 762,000 lb., of which 540,000 lb. is adhesive, and the tender with 25,000 U.S. gal. of water and 28 U.S. tons of soft coal fuel, scales 435,800 lb. Simple expansion propulsion is used, with four 23¾ in. by 32 in. cylinders driving 68 in. diameter wheels. The boiler working pressure is 300 psi, the evaporating heating surface 5,889 ft2., the superheater surface 2,466 ft2., and the grate area 150 ft2

Aid for Russia. 238
Locomotives and rolling stock from the British Railways are being sent overseas to help to speed up, supplies of arms and equipment to the Russian armies. As soon as it was known that the transport of war supplies for Russia could pass through Iran, members of the British Railways' staffs travelled by air to investigate the requirements of the Iran Railways, to enable greatly increased tonnages to be handled. Their reports were quickly approved and recommendations carried out so that cargoes of necessary equipment, as well as medium and heavy engines and various types of rolling stock, were allocated and despatched. Further railway equipment and materials will be sent as they are required, and the railway technical staffs remaining overseas to supervise the tasks will be augmented as necessary. Fifty L.M.S. and ninety-two L.N.E.R. powerful freight locomotives of the 2-8-0 type have been equipped for service overseas, and together with tenders and spare parts, either have been or are being despatched. Some are already in service. The 50 2-8-0 locomotives being provided by the L.M.S. are of the standard type, and before being sent overseas are being equipped with oil burning apparatus for using oil fuel. All of the L.N.E.R. engines are of former Great Central Railway design which proved to be especially suitable for overseas use in the last war. Sixty-one of these engines have already been sent abroad. The Southern Railway is building 1,000 steel framed open 12 ton wagons. 'The L.N.E.R. is helping by cutting wagon timbers from logs and supplying certain ironwork details for these wagons, whilst the L.M.S. are assisting by providing stampings of standard wagon parts and..by supplying considerable quantities of timber. The supply of these locomotives affords an excellent example of the way in which the British Railways work together, for the loss in engine power on the L.M.S. and L.N.E.R. will be shared by the Southern and Great Western Railways.

N.W.R., India. 238.
Thirty standard goods locomotives built by the North British Locomotive Company, Ltd., originally for the G.I.P.R., but transferred to the N.W.R. when the main lines near Bombay were electrified, are to be converted from oil to coal burning. These engines have large fireboxes, and will be fitted with mechanical stokers.

H. Fayle. Belfast & County Down Rly., and its locomotives. 239-41.
Continued from page 217. Until recently particulars of the early locomotives of the line were quite uncertain and almost unknown; thanks, however, to the kindness of W.F. Minnis, the general manager of the B. & C.D.R., certain details have been taken from their old records, which enable the gaps to be filled in, though the author regrets that the presentaccount is still very incomplete as regards dimensions.
The company purchased six locomotives in 1848 for the opening of the line, though the only portion open till 1850 was the branch to Holywood. Of these six engines one had been in use on the line from 1846 as a ballast engine, and the contractor paid for its use direct to the vendors. It may be well to recall here that the first portion of the Ulster Railway, from Belfast to Portadown, opened in 1839 and 1842, had been constructed on the 6 ft. 2 in. gauge; the company was subsequently compelled to alter the gauge to the standard Irish gauge of 5 ft. 3 in., which was carried out in 1848/9; in the meantime three of the original locomotives of the 2-2-2 type built by Sharp Bros. in 1839, were disposed of to a firm of contractors named Coates and Young, of the Vulcan Foundry, Belfast. They not only altered the gauge, but fitted the engines with well tanks, and two of these went to the Belfast and County Down Railway as Nos. 1 and 6, while the third became Belfast and Ballymena Railway No. 1; eventually this engine found its way to the Belfast, Holywood and Bangor Railway and will be referred to in due course.
The two B. & C.D.R. engines had been supplied by Sharp Bros. to the Ulster Railway in 1839, makers' Nos. 48 and 49; Ulster Railway engines carried no numbers only names, and these two bore names Express and Fury; the cylinders were 13 in. by 18 in., driving wheels 6 ft., leading and trailing wheels 4 ft., wheelbase 12 ft. 6 in., boiler barrel 8 ft. long by 3 ft. 6 in. diameter, 100 tubes of 15/8 in. diameter, heating surface 529.65 (tubes) + 49.52 (firebox) = 579.17 ft2., working pressure 55 psi, weight of engine in working order 14½ tons; the four-wheeled tender carried 800 gals. of water and 1 ton of coal; the cost of engine (new) was £1500 and of the tender £260; value when sold out of the Ulster Railway service, £575. These engines were purchased by Coates and Young in 1846 and 1848 respectively.
No. 6 was allotted the duty of working the Holywood branch, and apparently had a nasty habit of breaking down, for according to a Belfast newspaper record, the entire staff of the line, from the manager to the porter, had to get behind the coach and push it to Holywood and back while the engine was repaired. The other locomotives. were too heavy for the branch except No. 1; this. latter was in use first on the Comber section as a ballast locomotive, and relieved at times on the Holywood branch.
No. 1 was scrapped in 1867; No. 6, renumbered 3 in 1853, was sold in July, 1865, to the Belfast, Holywood & Bangor Railway, becoming No. 3 in their list; it was scrapped in November the same year after an accident when it was derailed and damaged; this engine had been obtained as a spare only, so that the loss was not great. The next locomotive, No. 2, was a 0-4-2, built in 1848 by Bury, Curtis and Kennedy; the dimensions were: cylinders 15 in. by 20 in., coupled wheels 4 ft. 6 in., trailing wheels 3 ft. 10 in. ; the boiler had 152 tubes, 11 ft. 11 in. long by 2½ in. diameter; heating surface, tubes 1,000 ft2., firebox 60 ft2., total 1,060 ft2., grate area 12.75 ft2., pressure 80 psi. This engine was intended for goods traffic, but until 1850 it was employed on ballasting work, and again from 1857 to 1859, probably on the extension of the main line to Downpatrick. It was also employed at varying periods between 1865 and 1868 on the construction of the Belfast Central Railway, and was replaced in 1880.
Nos. 3 to 5 were 2-2-2 engines built by Bury, Curtis and Kennedy in 1848; the cylinders were 15 in. by 20 in., driving wheels 5 ft. 6 in., leading wheels 4 ft. 2 in., trailing wheels 3 ft. 8 in. ; wheelbase 6 ft. 11 in. + 6 ft. 2½ iri., total 13 ft. 1½ in.; boiler barrel 10 ft. 5½ in. long by 3 ft. 8 in. diameter, with 119 tubes 21/8 in. diameter by 10 ft. 8½ in. long; grate area 11.59 ft2.; pressure 80 psi., weight given as 19½ tons. The company never had these engines in use, and sold them to Wm. Dargan, the well-known Irish railway contractor, in 1852, who in turn sold them to the Waterford & Limerick Railway, on which line they became Nos. 8 to 10, and lasted into the 1880s. With the disposal of these engines it was necessary to renumber the stock carrying numbers 6 to 9 in order to follow on or after No. 2; this took pLace in February 1853. No. 7, later on No. 4, was a standard Sharp Bros. 2-2-2, one of a cancelled order for the Great Southern & Western Railway of Ireland; the Ulster Railway had arranged to purchase this engine, but instead obtained another Sharp single that was ordered for the Belfast & Ballymena Railway (No. 7); this latter engine bore the name Hawk, but the Ulster Railway changed it to Spitfire, the name Hawk being transferred to the ex-Ulster engine already referred to, that went to the Belfast & Ballymena Railway as No. 1. The B. & C.D.R. engine was Sharp's No. 394 of 1847, and was sold to the railway in February, 1849; the dimensions were : cylinders 15 in. by 20 in., driving wheels 5 ft. 6 in., leading and trailing wheels 3 ft. 6 in., wheelbase 5 ft. 9 in. + 6 ft. 11 in. = 12 ft. 8in. ; boiler barrel 10 ft. long by 3 ft. 7!in. diameter, firebox casing 3 ft. 8 in. long by 4 ft. 8 in. wide, length of outer firebox 6 ft. 6 in., workmg pressure 80 lb. per sq. in.; outside frames dome with spri.ng balance safety valve on top on first boiler 'rmg, raised firebox, six-wheeled tender. No. 4 was used on the Holywood branch and was withdrawn in 1877.
Engine No. 8, altered to 5 in 1853 and 1 in 1867, was a standard Fairbairn 2-2-2 well tank delivered in August, 1850; it had cylinders 13 in. by 20 in., and 5 ft. 1 m. driving wheels, and was obtained specially for working the Holywood branch in place of No. 1, which was not too successful on this section. After the Holywood line was leased to the B.H. & B.R. in 1865, this engine was transferred to the Donaghadee branch, being withdrawn m 1882.
The next addition No. 9 (later No. 6), was another altered Ulster Railway engine; it was of the 0-4-0 type built by Tayleur & Co. in 1845, their number 203; it carried the name Ulster while working on the Ulster Railway. The cylinders were 15 in. by 20 in., and the wheels 5 ft.; this type of engine was very uncommon in Ireland, in fact only one other example, on the Midland Great Western Railway, is known. It was sold to Coates & Young in 1848, who a1tered the gauge to 5 ft. 3 in., and in August, 1851, sold it to the B. & C.D.R. It was used on the Comber and Newtownards section, and is said to have been most suitable for the work, and could haul more coaches out of .Newtownards than any other locomotive on the line, presumably owing to having the wheels coupled. In 1859 it was sold to a contractor, as a tank engine had been ordered from Manchester for this section, and capable of working through to Belfast. Nos. 7 and 8, built by Beyer, Peacock & Co. in 1857, makers' Nos. 53 and 55, and delivered the following year, were 2-4-0 side tank engines, the first on the line to have outside cylinders; the boiler was fitted with Beattie's patent feed water heating apparatus, and the firebox was raised; about 1870 both engines were fitted with new flush topped boilers; the cylinders were 15 in. by 22 in. and the coupled wheels 5 ft. 6 in. No. 8 was renumbered 6 in 1859 and withdrawn from service in 1894; No. 7 was withdrawn in 1896.
In May, 1859, the same makers delivered a smaller 2-4-0 side tank engine, their number 104, which became B. & C.D.R. No. 8. This was a makers' design and had inside cylinders 12 in. by 22 in. and 5 ft. coupled wheels; presumably it is the engine already referred to as ordered for the Newtownards branch. The boiler was of flush topped design when delivered, with dome over the firebox and some time later the dome was transferred to the centre of the barrel; it was withdrawn from service in 1883.
Two 0-4-2 locomotives were ordered from Fairbairn and delivered in November, 1859, carrying numbers 9 and 10; they had cylinders 15 in. by 22 in. and 5 ft. coupled wheels, and are described as "heavy coal burning goods engines," but further particulars are lacking.; No. 9 was withdrawn in 1887 and No; 10 in 1886.
For working suburban traffic some 2-4-0 saddle tanks were obtained from the Vulcan Foundry, evidently a makers' design; three of these were built for the B. & C.D.R., and four obhers of exactly similar design for the Belfast, Holywood & Bangor Railway, while another found its way to the West Cork Railway (No. 3). 'The cylinders were 15 in. by 20 in., coupled wheels 5 ft., leading wheels 3 ft. 5 in., boiler barrel 9 ft. long by 3 ft. 9 in. diameter, total heating surface 765.83 ft2., pressure 150 psi., tanks 800 gals., fuel 35¼ ft3., weight empty 22½ tons. The first was No. 11, makers' No. 508 of 1863; No. 3 (561) followed in 1866, and No. 5 (590) in 1867; No. 5 was replaced in 1896, No. 3 in 1901 (but ran for a few years after as 3A), and No. 11 in 1904. These engines had polished brass domes with Salter valves on top; the back of the cab was open, but was later fitted with rear weatherboard. At this point it may be of interest to note that the first locomotive superintendent of the B. & C.D.R. was John Hume in 1848, and he was succeeded by Thomas Firth in 1855; he apparently left the line to become engineer of the Belfast, Holywood & Bangor Railway in 1861 being succeeded by C. K. Domvile, who held the post till 1880.
It will now be convenient to refer to the engines forming the stock of the Belfast, Holywood & Bangor Railway. Nos. 1 and 2, Vukan Foundry Nos. 537/8 of 1865, were 2-4-0 saddle tanks of the type just mentioned; they had been built for the B. & C.D.R., but were transferred to the B.H. & B.R. When the stock of the latter line was taken over by the B. &: C. D. R. in 1884, they became Nos. 15 and 16 in the books of that company, and were scrapped in 1901 and 1890 respectively.
No. 3 was old No. 3 of the B. & C.D.R., a 2-2-2 well tank already referred to, that had come from the Ulster Railway; this engine was scrapped after an accident in November 1865, the same year as the B.H. & B.R. acquired it. To take its place another second-hand. tank engine was obtained that had also come from the Ulster Railway, on which line it bore the name of Spitfire; as already mentioned it was rebuilt as a 2-2-2 well tank by Coates & Young, and became Belfast & Ballymena Railway No. 1, with the name Hawk in 1849; in October, 1854, it was rebuilt as a 2-4-0 tank engine with 5 ft. 6 in. wheels at the Belfast works of the "Belfast. & Ballyrnena Railway, the cylinder dimensions remaining unaltered at 11 in. by 18 in. ; the rebuild seems to have been a fairly heavy one, as besides the alteration to the wheels a new boiler was fitted.
It was withdrawn :in October, 1863, from the service of the Belfast & Northern Counties Railway, as the Belfast & Ballymena Railway had become in 1860; the following year (1864) it was sold to Thomas Firth, the engineer of the Belfast, Holywood & Bangor Railway, being probably employed as a ballast engine on the Bangor extension, and was taken into stock as No. 3 after the accident to the previous engine bearing this number; it appears to have lasted down .to 1876, when. it was replaced by a new engine. .In 1870 the Yorkshire Engine Co. supplied two 2-4-0 side tank engines (see Vol. 26, page 255) that are interesting as the only locomotives built by these makers for an Irish railway; the builders' numbers were 151/2. and those of the railway company 4 and 5. The cylinders were 12 in. by 22 in., coupled wheels 5 ft., leading wheels 3 ft. 6 in., wheelbase 6 ft. 8 in. + 5 ft. l0in. = 12 ft. 6 in., boiler 3 ft. 5¾ in. diameter by 9 ft. 3 in. long, 116 tubes of 2 in. diameter, heating surface 578 (tubes) + 58 (firebox) = 636 ft2., grate area 8.76 ft2, tanks 809 gallons, weight empty 18¾ tons, in working order 24¾ tons; these engines became B. & C.D.R. Nos. 18 and 19 in 1885, and were replaced in 1891.
B. & C.D.R. No. 1'7 (formerly B. H. & B.R. No. 3) Built by the Vulcan Foundry, 1876. Two further engines were added to the stock in 1876; they were V:ulcan 2-4-0 saddle tanks. (makers' Nos. 793/7) similar to Nos. 1 and 2 except that the bunker capacity was 51 ft3. The B.H. & B.R. os. were 3 and 6, and those of the B. & C. D . R. 17 and :20, being scrapped in 1909. It will be seen that six engmes were taken over by the B. & C.D.R. from. this company in 1884.
Illustrations: Sharp single type No. 7, B. & C.D.R. No. 7, 2-4-0T. built Bever, Peacock & Co., 1857; B. & C.D.R. No. 17 formerly B.H.&B.R, No. 3 built Vulcan Foundry in 1876.

Wagon control. 241
Railway wagon. control is an essential feature of efficient goods train working as it ensures that wagons of the types required to meet the sender's needs are supplied promptly, whether they are required at goods stations, private sidings, collieries or the docks. . The pooling of railway wagons in order to avoid the ruuning of many empty trains has been successfully worked for many years. After the commencement of the War. this pooling arrangement was extended to cover the special vehicles used for carrying meat and other penshable traffics, and also of all wagon sheets and ropes. The 600,000 privately owned wagons which were requisitioned by the Government were added to the pool and thereby came under' the Central Control. At stipulated times every day the position is reviewed and estimates compiled of the number of each. type, of wagon anticipated to be needed to meet the next day's requirements, including the special types of wagons of which the railways have over 50,060.
Improvements to help the railways to carry still. more traffic are being carried out. These include the laying of additional' lines and sidings; enlargmg shunting yards; the building of new bridges;. the strengthening of. some of the existing structures, and Installing additional signalling and telephone equipment.

Great Southern Riilway—Eire.  241
Owing to the acute scarcity of coal many train services have had to be drastically cut. On some engines cmpressed peat (briquettes) mixed with a proportion of coal was being used ..

High capacity well car. 242. diagram (side & end elevations and plan)
Wagaon built by Greenville Steel Car Co. for Carnegie Illinois Steel Co. to convey ingot moulds.

O.J. Morris. A pioneer bogie coach. 242-3. illustration
Former Midland Railway vehicle, probably supplied by Ashbury, sold to Isle of Wight Central Railway for £125 where Charles L. Conacher, manager, envisaged using it on push & pull services powered by 0-4-2ST

Southern Railway. 243
Hillsea Halt opened between Portcreek Junction and Fratton

L.M.S. 40-ton electric magnet crane. 243
Goliath crane with 38-inch diameter magnet capably of lifting 7 tons.

Tank trains in mock battle. 244

Stephenson Locomotive Society. 244.

Obituary. 244.
E.C.B. Ashford: an authority on the Somerset & Dorset Railway; died aged 40; member of Bath City Council.

Tank trains in mock battle. 244
Valuable experience in movmg armoured fighting units rapidly from one part of the- country to another, literally at a moment's notice, has been gained by the .railways and the Army Authorities in the large scale manoeuvres which had taken place in vanous parts of the country. For one large scale exercise the transport plan consisted .of .two stages. The first required the movement of the "enemy" and "defending" forces to their pre-determined battle stations, before the commencement of hostilities. This stage, which involved the rurining of many special trains, was carried out successfully. The second. stage was more complex. It concerned the return of units to their "Home Stations" after the battle was over. The points at which the units would finish could not be foreseen as it was entirely dependent on the tide of the "battle," and transport arrangements could not be initiated until the Military Authorities were able to advise the railways, of the points where transport· was required. Accordingly .a complete local railway control office was established at a point adjacent to the combat area, in co-operation with the Military Movement Control, at which special telephone facilities were installed. While it was impossible to ascertain in advance from exactly what stations or depots transport would be required, a pool of vehicles was assembled at several dispersed points in the locality of the operations so that complete trains of wagons suitable for the conveyance of tanks could be assembled without delay. The dispersal movement, which involved the running of nearly as many special trains, most of them from small wayside stations, was carried out without a hitch.

Stephenson Locomotive Society. 244
The North Eastern Branch recently paid visits to two well-known collieries in the district. On one of the occasions tea was subsequently taken in Geo. Stephenson's cottage at Killingworth. At Newcastle-on-Tyne A.W. Croughton gave a comprehensive paper on "The History of the Great North of Scotland Railway." The current issue of the Society's Journal is' the 200th number and contains a foreword by the President. .

Reviews. 244

The railways of Persia. Reprinted froni the Railway Gazette. London: Rathvay Gazette.
The railways of Persia.had been much in the news:and this account of them, though brief, was very welcome. It. is perhaps hardly realised that except .for a slight incursion of a Russian railway over the frontier of that country, no railway construction was undertaken in Persia until.192'7 and it was only in 1938 that the main line joining the Caspian Sea with the Persian Gulf was completed. The country, traversed is difficult and necessitated the construction of many bndges and tunnels, including some spirals, whilst the northern section involved a ruling gradient of 1 in 36 and the southern one of 1 in 67.'The summit tunnel, which has a length of 3,170 yards, is at an altitude .of 6;929 ft. .The illustrations are excellent ~ and give .a good idea of the railway works. The line was fortunately. constructed on the 4 ft. 8½ in. gauge.

Correspondence. 244

Joseph Beattie. W.B. Thompson,
It would be very interesting to have, particulars of the trial of L. &  S.W. locomotives on the Dover boat trains, to which you refer in your article on Joseph  Beattie. I have never myself seen an official account of the trial, but surely there must be something wrong with the figures which -you give? Seventy-two years ago a British express which weighed 196 tons would be considered a very heavy train, and it seems impossible that the little Beattie engines should have hauled such trains from Charing Cross (or should it. be Cannon .Street) to; Dover .at a speed of 47 miles per hour. The engines would have to face the climb to Knockholt, with a maximum gradient at 1 in 112; and the approach to' Dover, on a. 'long, falling. gradient of  1-in .264 must have' been taken cautiously as the only stopping power was the hand brake on the tender and vans. Though the old route via Redhill was easier it was much longer, and the trains could not nave. made the run by that route in 96 minutes as stated. .
When F.W. Webb began building his three-cylinder compounds twelve years later he apparently thought that if his company's expresses were going to exceed 140 tons in weight his engines of the Precedent class would not be able to deal with them without pilot assistance; and it is significant that the North Western road was easier than the line to Dover, the speeds were not high, and the Precedents were more powerful than the Beattie engines. It seems probable therefore that the figures which you give are too optimistic, and it would be very satisfactory to know what really happened. The so-called Beattie tank engine of which you give a picture on p. 222 has of course been rebuilt long ago, and to-day has not. the faintest resemblance to the beautiful original of Beattie and. Beyer, Peacock.

Joseph Beattie. C. Hamilton Ellis..
Re article on J.R.Beattie: it reminds me of a somewhat broad limetick ending with the line: "And everyone thought it was me!' Some of the mistakes, occurring through publication having taken place a month earlier than I was advised, and consequently without author's corrections, are obvious literals, and) may be left· as such. Then, as. one also familiar with .the .busiriess 'end of .the editorial blue pencil, I:an;l not unsympathetic aboutjhe cuts which have had to be made. ' But you make me refer to a, table which is not there; you make me spel rny hero's name with a small b; indeed, there are. all sorts of things in the article liable to bring you): readers' tomahawks down on my neck amid loud war-whoops. The missing addition of the word "and," for instance; between "six-wheel" and "bogie" on page 220, column '2, would have niade a mighty difference, and for the better. One other thing, which, although I was the original perpetrator in this case', I duly corrected in proof, is the suggestion that Beattie's drawing office has vanished from Nine Elms. It is, of course, still there, 'minus the clock tower. Therefore I beg of you to insert this short self-vindication of . .

Oil economy. 244
Three hundred thousand miles of trouble-free .running .have been returned by Timken axleboxes fitted to the leading bogies and trailing trucks of one Class of South African locomotive: oil consumption is one-pint a year for each axlebox.  All the coaches making, up the two .special "Blue" .frains. running between Johannesburg . and, Cape Town are fitted, with these axleboxes.

Number 592 (15 December 1941)

The locomotive in engineering. 245-8. 3 tables
Precis of Stanier's IMechE Presidential Address.  When commencing his training in January 1892, locomotive practice on the Great Western, under the guidance of William Dean, was very much the same as that of other railways of the time. The locomotives were comparatively small, with steam pressures up to 140 psi., but very quickly another phase began; steam pressures were raised to 160 psi and a bogie became necessary in front to provide a lengthened wheelbase on which to carry the larger boilers. About the year 1902, Churchward brought out the first big departure from current practice, when he built six-wheel-coupled express passenger engines with cylinders having 30 in. stroke and fitted with valve gear having an unusually long travel and a greater lap. These characteristics made it possible to work the engine so that greater advantage was obtained from the expansion of the stcam. Churchward continued to adopt these features throughout the whole of his career as chief mechanical engineer of the Great Western. This practice has been adopted and developed gradually on all the other English railways and it is the development that has taken place on the LMS over the last ten years to which he principally refered.
Table 1 lists the approximate thermal efficiencies of various steam locomotives: representative locomotive of c1880; c1912, Coronation, Chapelon superheated 4-8-0 compound locomotive and advanced steam power station practice electric drive (the last based on particulars given in Sir Leonard Pearce’s Thomas Hawksley Lecture, Proc.I Mech.E., 1939, vol. 142, p. 305), Table 1 attempts to set out the relative thermal efficiencies for different stages in the development of steam motive power, showing first of all the basic theoretical efficiency of the cycle, then the actual engine and boiler effciencies, and finally an overall thermal efficiency for the plant as a whole on a basis of indicated horse-power. The first column represents a saturated steam engine as designed in the last century (of which many are still running); col. 2 represents a superheated design of the period 1908-12, still retaining old-fashioned cylinder and valve gear design ; col. 3 the position of representative best present-day design in this country, while col. 4 is illustrative of the work done by Chapelon in France, and represents very nearly the best which can be expected from further refinement in.the normal reciprocating locomotive. The last column gives comparative figures for an “ideal” application of the most advanced power station practice to the locomotive, leaving on one side for the moment the question of how far the various features of power station practice could in fact be applied. The record of the locomotive is not, as is sometimes thought, entirely bad, and Table 1 shows clearly where it has advanced and where it still falls short. Table. 2: particulars of representative locomotive boilers (L .M. & S. Railway and Table 3 Dynamometer car test results with various L .M. & S. Railway locomotives: No. 5917 Claughton class Euston to Carlisle and return; No. 6158 Royal Scot class Euston to Carlisle and return (low mileage and high mileage); Princess Royal No. 6210, Turbomotive No. 6202 and Coronation class No. 6225 with light load Euston to Glasgow; Euston to Glasgow and back No. 6220 with Coronation Scot load and timing and No. 6234 with maximum load Crewe to Glasgow and return; and Class 5 St Pancras to Leeds and return with No. 5067 with 14 element superheater and No. 5079 with 21 element superheater.
A review of the efficiency of the steam locomotive, based on LMS testing plus a forecast of future development: makes reference to Goss and thr Altoona test plant

Twin-coupled railcars, Great Western Railway. 248-9. illustration.
Designed to incorporate an intermediate trailer using an ordinary corridor coach.

James McEwan. The locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 250-2.
The General Terminus Railway was taken over together with 3 locomotives. Two were 0-4-0 tender locomotives built by J.M. Rowan in February 1851: they became CR Nos. 116 and 117 and were scrapped in 1867..

O.S. Nock. Locomotive performance on the G.W.R. 257-60. illustration, 6 diagrams
Letter from H. Holcroft objected to comments on 43XX class

Correspondence. 266

Locomotive design. L.A. Fullagar.
The opening article in issue of 15 October criticises the Great Northern 251 class Atlantics as designed on the ground that the cylinders were too small for the boiler. The subsequent performance of the Atlantics, however, suggests a profitable enquiry why they did so distinguishingly well, and whether the proportions were not consistent with the highest locomotive development at that time.
At this distance from their date of origin in 1902 it is easy to overlook .that there was then no superheat, no modern valve or cylinder design and a heavy preponderance of D slide valves. With such engines when, as was the fashion in the 1890s, the cylinders were far too large for the boiler, the choice was soon reached between (a) running with a sufficiently short cut-off for the boiler to maintain steam when the back-pressure was excessive and ceiling speed low, or (b) obtaining freer running by working in fuller gear and saving the boiler by throttling at the regulator.
In the 251 class Atlantic Ivatt applied Richardson balanced valves which with outside cylinders introduced only· one slow 90° bend between cylinder port and blast pipe. The 180° reversal + 90° sharp bend common with .D valves were eliminated but the S shaped passages from cylinder ports to valve chest remained. Back pressure was greatly. reduced but would still be serious at short cut-offs 'with the valve travel then in force.
Ivatt appears to have recognised this and designed the engines for what we should now regard as very late cut-off and full regulator. Had they been given larger cylinders they would have been driven with the same cut-off, but partly closed regulator, an admittedly less efficient method. With saturated steam also the reduction of losses obtained through small cylinders was desirable. Ivatt in fact produced an engine which with short travel valve gear of his day could be driven with full regulator and the low back pressure at high speed now obtainable with modern cylinder and valve design, while steam losses were limited by small cylinders. There was also valuable limitations of the mechanical stresses.
The introduction of piston valves when, as the article referred to points out, it was at last realised they could be of large diameter, allowed the freedom of exhaust at short cut-offs which Ivatt alone had obtained in 1902 by 'balanced valves, small cylinders and longer cut-offs. Such piston valves are usually associated with long travel about which there still exists confused thinking. Actually the valve movement of a long travel engine at 15 per cent. cut-off may be less than an old short travel design at 30 per cent. cut-off, but the former gives reduced throttling at exhaust.
In most modern designs long travel valves are combined with cylinder ports passing directly through the cylinder casting and leading with no pronounced change of direction to the blastpipe. This was the feature which distinguished the G.W.R. two-cylinder engines from 1900 onwards and it is one of the mysteries of locomotive development that its value was not recognised when the 4-cylinder G.W.R. engines were designed. These, by placing all cylinders out of line with the smoke box introduced two right-angle bends for both steam and exhaust. The L.M.S.R. in their first two Pacifies repeated this defect but have partially remedied it in the subsequent engines by moving forward the outside cylinders. Considering in 1941 a 1902 design it may be found not to possess proportions desirable now, but only when combined with developments unknown when the type originated. Comparison with other Atlantics must be made with caution as there were various points of difference, but it should surely not be overlooked that all the five British Atlantic designs which' followed Ivatt had larger cylinders, and it will hardly be contended that anyone of them has done as well.

McConnell's single engines. C.F. Dendy Marshall.
CFDM interested in McConnell's single engines on the L. & N.W.R., namely, large Bloomers, small ditto, No. 373 Maberly, No. 300 and Mac's Mangle. Can anyone tell me where good drawings are to be found? I have searched Tredgold, Clark and Colburn in vain. The only thing I have found is a fine drawing of the firebox of No. 300 in The Permanent Way etc. of Colburn and Hollery (New York, 1858). I particularly want to know the distance between the centres of cylinders of No. 300. Ahrons (p. 95). says 1 ft. 10½ in., and then goes on to say that the inside beanngs could therefore be only 41 in. long. This must be a mistake. The drawing referred to above shows that the eccentrics were in the usual position; between the cranks. Ahrons also says the inside frames only extended from the motion-plate to the firebox, whereas his illustration (Fig. 106) shows that they passed forward behind the leading wheels Response from Henry Dearberg.

Reviews. 266

A book of trains. W.J. Bassett-Lowke and F.E. Courtney. Penguin Books Limited, London.
How does one review a Penguin, or in this case a Puffin —one of the seemingly thousand-odd red-and-white backed sixpenny's which bedeck every railway bookstall in England? This one, at least, differs from most of the others in its size, for it must have been beyond the wit even of Bassett-Lowke and his artist to illustrate and describe express trains and big stations within the usual Penguin-Puffin compass. As fitting a circulation among the mass, the text is simple in the extreme, but simplicity here does not mean crudeness as, unfortunately, it does in the illustrations. The book seeks to cover all phases of train working. and within what must have been the strict limitations imposed upon him, the author has dealt with history. locomotives, trains, bridges, stations, signals, underground lines and even miniature railways.

Some notes on zinc oxide in lubrication. 266
Interesting booklet by Alexander Duckham, The author does not deal with what may be regarded nowadays as the more or less well understood field of lubrication by oils and greases, but confines his comments to the securing of. more perfect lubrication by the incor- poration of zinc oxide. It. has been found that the. presence of zinc oxide in lubricants neutralises acidity and forms inert zinc com- pounds which in no way interfere with the stability or functioning of the lubricants. Electrolytic decomposition of the zinc compounds. results in the deposition of zinc on the bearings thus giving increased protection of the ferrous surface.

Trade note. 266

Portable axlebox press.
For the mounting and withdrawal of axle boxes, a new portable hydraulic concentric press has been developed by British Timken Limited. It is particularly useful in emergency and in inconvenient situations.  Timken axlebox bearings always have their inner races press fitted on to the axle; this is standard practice, as in wheel fitting, but it has been open to the objection that the use of a wheel press is involved. The objection is now removed by the advent of the new press. The purpose of the design was to -evolve a tool capable of a pressure of 75 tons, and at the same time portable. Two men can lift the press. There are two models, one hand operated and the other power operated. Using either of these, an axlebox can be mounted or removed in 10 minutes, including time for setting up. In case of. power failure, the power unit may be used for hand operation; a handle is provided for this emergency. A safety device prevents the handle being attached while the Power is available.