The Locomotive Magazine and Railway Carriage and Wagon Review

Volume 49 (1943)

Number 605 (15 January 1943)

Locomotive coupled wheels. 1-2.
Editorial comment on Bulleid BFB wheels.

American built 2-8-0 locomotives for Europe. 2. illustration

New 4-6-0 mixed traffic engines, London & North Eastern Railway. 3-4. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
B1 type: No. 8301 Springbok illiustrated

Obituary. 4
Death on 2 January of T.H. Sanders, Director of Jonas Woodhead & Sons, Ltd., Leeds. He was born in London in 1883 and was one of the first boys to take the L.C.C. Scholarship presented by the late King Edward VII when Prince of Wales. At the age of 19 he commenced his career as an Inspector for Railway materials under George .Cawley, Consulting Engineer for the Impenal Japancse RaIlways—a position which entailed extensive foreign travel. At the age of 25 he was awarded the prize of !he year as Graduate of the Institution of Mechanical Engmeers. During WW1 he was actively engaged in the production of war material in Sheffield, first at Brown Bayleys Steel Works and then Owen & Dyson Ltd., Railway, Wheel and Axle Makers. In 1920 he was responsible for the layout, equipment and management of a Spring Works for Brown Bayleys' Steel Works at Farnley, Leeds. In 1923 he joined the firm of Jonas Woodhead & Sons Ltd., as Technical Engineer, and since this date had produced numerous valuable Patents in connection with Springs. In 1935 he was appointed Technical Director of Messrs. Jonas Woodhead & Sons Ltd., Leeds, and at a later date was also elected a Director of their Associated Companies, Willford & Co. Ltd., and Ibbotson Bros. & Co. Ltd., both of Sheffield. He was a Member of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers and the Institution of Locomotive Engineers, and was twice awarded medals for papers read before the latter Institution. He was also a Member of the Iron and Steel Institution, and was Past President of the Railway Locomotivernens Craft Guild (Leeds Centre). and in 1931 he was presented with the Freedom of the Sheffield Spring Trade Technical Society. In 1920 he published his first book on the subject of Springs, and this was followed by further volumes on the same subject, the last of which was only completed a few days before his death. As a technical lecturer he was in great demand and was always ready to share his knowledge with any Society or individual who cared to consult him. As a lecturer he was not confined merely to suspension, but was also an authority on Railway practice throughout the world.

C.M. Doncaster. 2-6-2 locomotives. 4-6. 7 illustrations, 2 diagrams (side elevations)
In view of the advent of Bantam Cock, L.N.E.R., the writer thought it might be instructive to look back to the early engines having this wheel arrangement. Angus Sinclair, in his book The Development of the Locomotive Engine, tells us that Waldo H. Marshall, first designed engines of the 2-6-2 type in 1901 for the Lake Shore and Michigan Southern Railway which became highly popular and are an ideal motive power for heavy express trains" (see Fig. 1). These engines had 6ft. 8in. driving wheels and two cylinders 20in. by 28in., and were soon followed by a still larger class having 21 tin. by 28in. cylinders (see Fig. 2). These latter engines had large boilers 5ft. 10in. diameter, with tubes 19ft. 6in. long, and carried 200lb. per sq. in. Our L.N.E.R. Green Arrow type has a boiler the same diameter with tubes 17ft. long and 220lb. pressure.
In the same year, 1901, the Baldwin Locomotive Works brought out a similar class of 2-6-2 engines but of the then popular Vauclain four-cylinder compound type. The History of the Baldwin Works tells us that these were powerful engines having ample heating surface and suitable firebox to handle heavy trains at high speed and they became known as the Prairie type (see Fig. 3). Forty-five such engines were made for the Atchison Topeka and Santa Fe Railroad, and fifty for the Chicago Burlington and Quincy Railroad. The design enabled six coupled wheels to be used in combination with a very wide firebox, extending over the frames behind the driving wheels. To support this overhanging weight a pair of trailing wheels is placed underneath the firebox.
In 1904 the Austrian engineer, Golsdorf, brought out a similar design to do away with piloting over the heavy grades of the Austrian State Railway system. A few years later similar engines were built at Budapest for the Hungarian State Railway's Kaschan-Oderberger section. By 1908 forty-four such engines were in service (see Fig. 4). In June, 1936, thirty-five years after the first of the engines mentioned above were built, Sir Nigel Gresley brought out his now famous mixed traffic engines of the Green Arrow class which were illustrated and described in the LOCOMOTIVE of that month. They are among the most handsome engines in the country as will be seen from the illustration of one of them running at high speed with a passenger train.
These engines have proved themselves capable of handling all classes of traffic and seem to excel equally in hauling heavy freight trains or fast express passenger trains.
In order to compare the designs of the British engineer with that of his American cousins, the writer has taken the liberty of raising the cab and boiler mountings 21½in. namely from 13ft. 1in. to 14ft. 10½in., which latter figure is the permissible chimney height of the American loading gauge (see Fig. 2). The boiler centre line happens to be the same within 1½tin. in each case, viz., 9ft. 4½in. L.N.E.R., 9ft. 6in. L.S. & M.S.R. (see Fig. 5). It would be interesting to know why the Prairie type has gone out of fashion in America. The 2-6-2 wheel arrangement is, of course, quite common in the case of tank engines, in many countries, including Great Britain, and these are often called upon to do fast running with local trains between stations. Illustrations: V2 on express near Retford; V2 on freight crossing swing bridge at Naburn.

L.N.E.R. 5
Three of the Pacifies, Nos. 4494, 4499 and 4500, formerly named after birds, had been renamed Andrew K. McCosh, Sir Murrough Wilson and Sir Ronald Matthews, after three directors of the company.

O.J. Morris. Standardising Southern Railway locomotives. 7-9. 2 illustrations, table
Continued from Volume 48 page 125.

E.C. Poultney. New York Central locomotives, 10-11. 2 illustrations
The author is indebted to Mr. P. W. Kiefer, Chief Engineer Motive Power and Rolling Stock, and to the American Locomotive Co. for the photo- graphs reproduced, and to Mr. Kiefer fOT certain information on which this article is based.

L.N.E.R. 11
In addition to the large number of trailer pumps for fighting fires at large stations and depots, the L.N.E.R. have now introduced some small pumping units specially to deal with fires among wagons in congested marshalling yards. The units are extremely compact, being mounted in a cradle only 23 inches square overall, and can easily be moved by hand from place to place. A 21 h.p. air cooled engine operating a single stage type pump gives an output of 50 gallons per minute, through two very serviceable jets. The units are kept at locomotive sheds or other places where an engine is normally at hand, so that they can be taken on the locomotive quickly to the scene of a fire. The engine tender is used as a static water supply and should normally give sufficient water either to extinguish the fire or to keep it in check until further assistance arrives.

Institution of Locomotive Engineers. 11
The September-October, I942, Journal No. 169 contains a paper presented before the Institution by J. Poole, member on Friday, 7 November 1941, at lVIiguelete, Argentine, entitled Freight Locomotive Rating and the Statistical Control of Fuel Consumption.

L.lVI.S. 11
T.F. Mitchell, District Locomotive Superintendent, Plaistow, had been appointed to succeed D. O'Hara as District Locomotive Superintendent, Wakefield. O'Hara retiried. D.C. Urie retired from the office of Superintendent of Motive Power, Derby. Urie was trained under his father in the locomotive department of the former London & South Western Railway. Later he became works manager at Eastleigh, and in 1915 was appointed Assistant Locomotive Superintendent of the MIidland Great Western Railway, Ireland. He then succeeded Cumming on the Highland Railway, and he became Divisional Mechanical Engineer, Glasgow, in 1923. J.W. Watkins, D.S.O., M.C. appointed Divisional Superintendent of Operation, Derby.

G.W.R.. 11
A retaining wall in a cutting near St. Germans, Cornwall, developed signs of falling and traffic had to be diverted. The Cornish Riviera trains travelled via Wadebridge.

R.A. Whitehead. Miniature railways. 12-14. 2 ilustrations
20-inch gauge line at Northamstead Manor Gardens at Scarborough: 5/8 mile track with passing loops to enable two train to be in service. Diesel driven Pacific-outline locomotives with Vickers-Coates transmission to eliminate jerks. Similar gauge line in Leeds employed 4-6-4T steam-outline locomotives. 21-inch gauge line at Blackpool Pleasure Beach was about 2¾ miles long and employed staem outline diesel locomotives. The Jaywick Miniature Railway employed 18-inch gauge and a steam miniature Stirling 4-2-2  but with a dome and a Sentinel type with an oil-fired water tube boiler and a Stanley steam car engine: this was built by C.E. Parsons and L. May. Dreamland at Margate was also 20-inch gauge and operated two Barnes of Rhyl Atlantics. See also letter from Arthur G. Wells 

The North London Railway. 14-15. 3  diagrams
Continued from Vol. 48 page 187. The North London Company's locomotive, carriage and wagon works at Bow was completed in 1853, when William Adams was appointed Locomotive Superintendent, but for a number of years after this date the Company continued to obtain its engines from private firms. In 1853 three well tank engines of the 2-4-0 wheel arrangement were built by Stothert & Slaughter and placed in traffic on the North London Railway where they were numbered 1 to 3. Fig. 2 shows No. 2 of this class, which had the following leading dimensions:—
Cylinders (two outside) 15 x 22in
Coupled wheels, diameter 5ft 3in
Leading wheels, diameter 3ft. 6in
Wheelbase, total 13ft. 6in
Heating surface, tubes
Heating surface, firebox 71.4 sq. ft.
Heating surface, Total 777.36 sq. ft.
Seven further locomotives of this class were obtained from Stothert & Slaughter in 1854, and these became NLR Nos. 4 to 10. They had a smart appearance with copper top chimneys and brass domes and were painted bright green with black panel bands edged with fine whitet lines. After some time in traffic they  were modified as shown in Fig. 5 the most noticeable alteration being the placing of the sandbox on top of the boiler. Nos. 8 and 10 were, however, rebuilt as side tank engines as shown in Fig. 4. Although the actual dates of the withdrawal of the individual engines of this class are somewhat obscure it is doubtful if any of them remained in service later than 1870. No. 4 is known to have been scrapped in 1864 after a boiler explosion which occurred at Camden Town on 16 August 1864 when the engine was blown off the track and landed on the wheels facing the opposite direction to which it had been travelling, on some waste ground below the embankment, the frreman being killed. No. 10 was sold to the Whitehaven, Cleator & Egremont Railway inI 1870, on which system it is believed to have become No. 12 Marron, and later passed into the hands of the Furness Railway as No. 108 (afterwards No. 108a). It is interesting to note that some of the engines of this class were fitted with shorter chimneys to enable them to operate over the Great Eastern Railway between Victoria Park and Stratford Market. During the sixties these engines were principally employed on working passenger trains to and from Richmond. .
The next locomotive to be acquired by the North London Railway, :No. 11, was a tender engine of the 0-6-0 wheel arrangement which was built in 1854 by Sharp Stewart & Co. (WN. 843) to the design of Matthew Kirtley It had double frames and is understood to have been the first of an order which Sharp Stewart & Co. had in hand at the time for the Midland Railway, the rest of the batch becoming Midland Railway Nos. 360 to 379. It had two inside cylinders measuring 16½in. by 24in. and coupled wheels 5ft. 2in. in diameter. The ultimate fate of this locomotive is not known but It was in all probability withdrawn from service sometime prior to 1866 when a new engine carrying the same running number was placed in traffic.

Southern Railway. 15
Tenth engine of the MIerchant Navy class, No. 21C10, had been named Blue Star. The naming ceremony took place at Waterloo Station, on 18 December and was performed by Lord Vestey accompanied by Holland Martin, Chairman of the Southern Railway, and Leonard Dewey , General Manager of the Blue Star Line. After the ceremony Blue Star took the 12.50 train to the West of England.

Personal. 15
W. A. Stanier, M.I.Mech.E., M.I.Loco.E., Chief MIechanical Engineer, L.MS., received a Knighthood in the New Year Honours. Stanier joined the G.W.R in 1892, rising to the position of principal assistant to the Chief Mechanical Engineer of that company. In 1931 he was appointed Chief Mechanical Engineer of the L.MI.S. and has effected many noticeable developments in the design and construction of their locomotives. Well known engines he designed are the Princess Royal, the Coronation, the L.M.S. Mixed Traffic and the famous 2-8-0 freight locomotive. The Stanier 2-8-0 freight locomotive is one of the outstanding engineering contributions to the war effort. It is now being built by all railways in this country and is the standard design for hauling heavy freight trains. Many of these engines have gone abroad, notably to assist in opening up the routes to Russia. Stanier was a member of the Indian Railway Engineering Committee of 1936 and of the Indian Pacific Locomotive Engineering Committee of 1938. He is a past president of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers and is Chairman of the Mechanical & Electrical Engineers Sub-Committee of the Railway Executive Committee.

Correspondence. 15

The North London Railway. Hilton
The following are extracts from a letter of 2 November 1942. The articles on the N.L.R. are of great interest to me as the engines are the earliest, if not the first, I remember. This was in 1880, when we lived in Hammersmith and I could see them working on the Chiswick branch. Up to the present I have not read in the articles any mention of the following running powers or working arrangements, and as they were very important links in the service perhaps it may be desirable to include them.
L. & N.W.R—Chalk Farm to Gas Factory Jctn. for freight trains to and from Hayden Square depot.
L. & N.W.R—Chalk Farm to Victoria Park for freight trains to Thames Wharf and Canning Town. I think there was a L. & N.W. coal depot on the up side of the line near Plaistow, but as this was only worked in the early morning I do not know which Company's engines worked there."

The North London Railway. H.V. Borley
Re articles on the North London Railway. Some years ago had to go very fully into the history of this line, in the course of which he turned up numerous books, records and time tables. As regards the opening of the line I do not think there could have been much in the way of freight traffic to carry from Bow to Islington in September, 1850, and always understood that the passenger train service from Fenchurch Street to Islington commenced on September 26, 1850, and this view is supported by a ticket in a library in Hackney. This is a second class ticket, Hackney to London, dated by a press or steel stamp, "26 September," the year, 1850, being added in ink, probably by the original owner. I do not think the date or year can be wrong as the number of the ticket is 03. So far as the services over the L. & S.W. Rly. are concerned his investigations revealed—
1 June to 31 October 1854, to Windsor.
From 20 May 1858, to Twickenham. reversing at Kew and Barnes, until opening of curves at these places on 1 February 1862. Extended to Kingston, 1 July 1863.
1 January 1869, new line through Gnnnersbury opened and N.L. trains terminate at Richmond; Kew Bridge being served both by through trains from Broad Street and local trains from Acton (calling at South Acton) . The original N. & S.W. Junction station at Kew was near Old Kew Junction.
I have no knowledge of any N .L. trains terminating at Hounslow, nor at Richmond, prior to 1869, and would welcome any particulars of such services.
I may add that the service between Broad Street and G.N. line discontinued as from 11 September 1939, was reinstated on and from 4 December 1939.

Early British locomotives in the U.S.A.  Thomas Morell. 15-16
Since you have published references from time to time of early British locomotives in America, as well as the interesting essays of C.F. Dendy Marshall on this subject, it may be of interest to note the existence of several other British locomotives in America of which the writer has recently discovered evidence. I will list these together with the source of the information.
Winchester & Potomac RR. (an inland line extending from the Baltimore and Ohio R.R. at Harpers Ferry to Winchester, Va., in the Shenandoah Valley): Tennessee, built 1835, Edw. Bury; Old Dominion, built 1835 or 1836, Edw. Bury; Lilly of the Valley, built 1836, Edw. Bury; Pocahontas, built 1836, Edw . Bury. All were four-wheeled inside connected engines. Sources of information: Annual Reports of the Company, published by the Board of Public Works of Virginia; Baltimore American, a newspaper of 1837; Die Innern Communicationen der Vereinigten Staaten van Nord Amerika F.A.R. von Gerstner: Vienna, 1842.
Tuscumbia Courtland & Decatier R.R.—The Treasurer's reports of this company, which operated an isolated line in the far interior of the South, commencing at Tuscumbia, Alabama, show that they had an English locomotive:
Fulton, 4½ tons, 8 x 16 cyls., 4½ft. driving wheels, received 1 June 1834, built by Edw. Bury. It is stated that it attained a speed of 30 m.p.h., its fuel was pine and ash wood.
Possibly this railroad had another English locomotive, the North Alabaman, a newspaper of Tuscumbria, having stated in January, 1835, that another locomotive had arrived at New Orleans from Liverpool for the road. I have been unable to find further trace of it.
Little Schuylkill Navigation Rail Road and Coal Co.—The American Rail Road Journal, on 14 September 1833, referred to two engines having been furnished by Bury to one of the Schuylkill roads. A paper read by Edwin R Clark before the Lowell Historical Society (of Massachusetts), in 1907, mentions a letter from the agent of the machine shop at Lowell, Mass., written to England regarding wheels to be obtained from Bury, in Liverpool, similar to those he furnished on engines for Petersburg, and the Little Schuylkill railroads. The latter line was located in the Pennsylvania coal fields. It had two Bury locomotives: Comet, placed in service 1833, built by Ed. Bury; Catawissa, placed in service 1833, built by Ed. Bury. The latter engine was illustrated, without completed identification, however, in C. F. Dendy-Marshalls Two Essays in Early Locomotive History.
Some data relative to the arrival of the Comet and Catawissa appeared in Bulletin 46 of the Railway and Locomotive Historical Society of Boston.
In my opinion, other English locomotives than those which have heretofore come to light, will be discovered as having worked on some of the short forgotten railways in the far southern part of the United States. Much of the information already published would bear re-exploration, for instance, it has been stated (by C. F. Dendy-Marshall and others, based on a U .S. Congressional Document of 1838) that Bury supplied engines to the Greensville and Roanoke R.R., and the Raleigh and Gaston R.R., also that Benj. Hick, Tayleur & Co., and Rothwell & Co. similarly sent engines to these two roads. Actually, the railroads did not exist at the times the engines were imported, nor did these companies own any locomotives. They were operated by the Petersburg R.R., which imported all of the engines in question, and the arrival of which may clearly be traced m the reports of that company.
Although Whishaw accredits three Petersburg R.R. engines to Mather, Dixon & Co., and an article in the Scientific American Supplement, on 9 June 1900 showed a sketch of one of them, which sketch had been exhibited at the Paris Exposition, nothing at all appears in the reports of the Petersburg R.R. to show that it ever received any locomotives from Mather, Dixon & Co., although all of the locomotives which the company reported in its possession, from year to year, are accounted for. The Scientific American Supplement article alluded to states that the sketch of the engine New York, had been obtained from a descendant of one of the builders, but nothing else was known except that they supplied it in 1834 to the Petersburg R.R.

Locomotive utilisation . A.J. Walter.  16
Re article issue of October mentions that the state of the boiler is the limiting factor in hard water districts, which is very true. When however, the word "may" accompanies the statement that water treatment affects the length of time between washouts we beg leave to mention that the word "does" is more appropriate. We have data from fourteen railways using Permutit Base-Exchange water softeners showing reduction of washouts from twice weekly to once monthly and without the continuous blow down system mentioned. One railway reports a total mileage achieved with 118 engines greater than that previously obtained with 168 engines on the same locomotive section, and states that this was due to the installation of Permutit Base-Exchange Plants on that section, which substituted the Lime-Soda Softening Plants previously used.
In these times of shortage of engines and boilers the importance of increased engine utilisation and conservation of existing boilers and tubes is recognised by the Government departments concerned, as witness the fact that the Government of India after world wide investigations into results obtained by various methods of water softening have entrusted us with the largest Railway Water Softening scheme yet carried out in India, embracing as it does 300 engines and approximately 1,000 miles of main line. Writer Directo of Perthwtit Company Limited.

Reviews. 16

The steam locomotive: its theory, operation axd economics. including comparisons with diesel-electric locomotives. Ralph P. Johnson, M.E., Chief Engineer, Baldwin Locomotive Works. New York: Simmons-Boardman Publishing Corporation.
An authoritative treatise on the theory, operation and economics of the modern steam locomotive based upon recent research and current practice. The author's experience in testing locomotives in the U.S.A. and other countries has been drawn upon for interesting material on the road testing of locomotives. The subject matter has been cut down to fundamentals, enough background being included to indicate paths of development. Tables have been checked against latest available data.
Mechanical engineers, Locomotive designers, works managers and students concerned with motive power will find much of value in this
book. The following is a summary of contents: Locomotive Classification, Locomotive Fuels, Combustion, Front Ends, Water for Boiler Use, Evaporation, Superheat, Tractive Force, Horsepower, Resistance, Tonnage, Valve Gears and Valve Setting, Counterbalancing, Acceleration, Torque Diagrams, Dynamometer Cars, High Speed Trains, Streamlined and Light Weight Trains, Motive Power for High Speed Services, Motive Power for Switching Services, The Relation of Locomotive Operating Expense to Net Operating Income, Locomotive Repair Costs, Economic Life, Locomotive Testing Apparatus, Typical Locomotive Dimensions.

The theory and practice of heat engines, includixg steam generators, reciprocating steam engines, steam turbines and internal combustion engines. R.H. Grundy. London: Longmans, Green & Co. Ltd.
An outline of the practice of heat engines, and its accompanying theory. The standard is that of the Ordinary and Higher National Certificate examinations, while the material is sufficient to cover a three years course in University or Technical College. A simple method has been adopted to distinguish between the elementary and more advanced sections of the work. The book is also suitable for the examinations in Heat Engines of the Professional Engineer- ing Institutions and for all Engineers of the l\Iercantile Marine.
In some respects the method of presentation is unique, as the author has felt the necessity of filling a gap left by the usual text-books, which either deal fully with the theory, and neglect practice, or vice versa. An up-to-date treatment of the theory is given from first principles in Part 1., and its dependence upon Physics and Chemistry has been emphasised by introducing certain elementary work, which however, adds to the value of the book for reference purposes. The continuity of the subject is preserved throughout, even to the extent of placing the illustrative examples at the end of the chapters, while a large number of the illustrations have been specially prepared in accordance with this policy, and to assist a comparison to be made between similar features. The practical side of heat engines, including steam engines and turbines, and internal combustion engines, has been dealt with in Part II, and while descriptions of the latest plant are included with sectional views and photographs, the historical side of the subject has not been neglected. It is intended that the descriptive portion of the book should be read after the theory has been studied .

The A.B.C. of Southern locomotives. I Allan.
A handy pocket size 20-page booklet giving a complete list of the numbers and classes of all engines now working on the Southern Railway. A list of all named engines and a table of dimensions at the end of the book completes a useful and compact reference book for all those interested in Southern engines.

Number 606 (15 February 1943)

Locomotive boiler evaporation. 17
The evaporative capacity of a locomotive boiler is governed and influenced by such a wide variety of factors that sometimes it seems well-nigh impassible that any predeterminatian could be made which would have any semblanoe of accuracy. Nevertheless, for any given type of coal, or for oil fuel, there are certain characteristics which have a paramount effect, and the intelligent—thaugh largely empiric—use of these enables a reasonable estimate of the maximum evaporation to be made.
Far bituminous and semi-bituminous coals the firebox volume is at least as important, if not more so, as the grate area in the normal box with bnick arch. The volume and shape of the firebox, along with the grate area, form the first of the principal determining factors. The second is the free gas area through the tubes and flues. The third—little realised at the moment—is the water level and steam space of the boiler.
The fireboxes and combustion chambers of large modern boilers account for a greater proportion of the total evaporation than was the case in engines built fifteen or twenty years ago, and it appears, further, that this results not merely from a greater relative size of the box but also because the rate of evaporation at. high firing rates may be higher than that, for example, assumed by Cole as 5.5lb. per sq. ft . of heating surface per hour, and which was given as corresponding to a firing rate of 120llb. per sq. ft. of grate area per hour. For maximum specific evaporation per unit of firebox surface or volume, the deep, narrow box may be by no means the best, far the greatest firebox evaporation comes from the intense radiation of the incandescent fuel bed, and the brick arch alone keeps this away from much of the wall surface. What is really needed is a design' or proportions which will enable the maximum possible amount of surface to receive direct radiant heat from the firebed without having excessive unburnt fuel loss at medium and high firing rates,
Though the absorption efficiency of the. tubes and flues is governed by,their bore, length, and hydraulic depth, their usefulness in effect is determined at a prior stage by the temperature of the gases when these first enter the tubes and flues. If a large proportion of the heat released from the coal fired has already been taken up in the firebox and combustion chamber, the evaporation from the tubes and flues may be comparatively small unless the boiler is of large diameter and provided with adequate free gas area. This is the reason why many large boilers do not show such-a 'high final superheated steam temperature as rather smaller classes, in which the firebox has not such a high heat-absorbing capacity, and thus the gases pass the firebox tubeplate at a higher temperature'. Even with large boxes it is possible that the gas temperature at the entrance to the tubes and flues might be increased at heavy firing rates if secondary air was introduced above the brick arch.
C.D. Young, of the Pennsylvania Railroad, seerns. to have been the first engineer to draw attention to the relation existing between the maximum possible evaporation and the free gas area through the tubes and flues, and as a result of the tests he conducted on such engines as the E6s Atlantics and K4s Pacifies he stated that with boilers of generally normal proportions the maximum capacity was limited to approximately 7,000Ib. actual or 9,000/9,100 lb. equivalent evaporation per hr. per sq. ft. of free gas area.. This may still be regarded as a reasonably reliable estimate for English and most Continental locomotives when being forced, but for the modern types of American and other large locomotives.· particularly where the E-type superheater is incorporated, the actual evaporation may be 8,000/8,500 lb. and the equivalent evaporation from and at 212°F, over 10,0001b. per hr. per sq. ft. of free gas area. Indeed, the now well-known Pennsylvania 4-8-2 locomotives of the MIA class have recorded an test an equivalent evaporation of 12,750 lb. per hr. per sq. ft . of free gas area, but that was at a firing rate altogether exceptional and which would hardly be reproduced in service warking. It is this same type of locomotive which also has formed one of the most striking examples of the extreme importance of adequate water-level surface arid steam space for engines which work a goad deal of their time at medium to high power outputs. Originally the steam space was equivalent to 150 cu. ft., but so much water was carried over into the steam pipe and superheater that the locomotive almost had to be regarded as a working failure, practically no superheat. being obtained. By lowering the crown of the inner firebox and slightly increasing' the barrel diameter to give a little greater height by the dome, the steam space was increased to 200 cu. ft., and this entirely cured the trouble. And despite a reduction of 4 per cent. in the heating surface the evaporative capacity was mare than maintained, and a final steam temperature of well over 700°F, obtained,

Stirling Everard. Cowlairs commentary. 20-2
Extracted from North British Rly Study Gp J., 2020 (139) 44.
In 1867 the financial position of the North British was far from satisfactory, and the problems of Thomas Wheatley, who in that year took over the responsibility for the locomotive stock, were not lessened by this consideration. He could expect little sympathy from the board of directors if he recommended that large sums be spent on the renewal of the older engines, unless such a course was unavoidable, and yet many of the locomotives were hardly in a fit state to be allowed out alone. In consequence great powers of improvisation were required of him lest the train service suffer from repeated delays due to breakdowns, and the financial position become even worse from this cause.
He had under his control two Locomotive shops, Cowlairs and St. Margarets, but neither of these had ever turned out more than six new locomotives in a single year. It was clear, however, that large numbers of additional engines would shortly be required, not only as replacements, but also so that the North British should be in a position to make a bid for additional traffic.
Planning for the future he decided to close down St. Margarets except as a maintenance depot, and to concentrate all new work and rebuilding at Cowlairs. This required considerable reorganisation and enlargement of the Glasgow plant, after which it was estimated that great economies would result, since the company would no longer have to rely on contractors for supplying new locomotives. Rome was not built in a day, and the same applied to Wheatley‘s Cowlairs. It was consequently necessary for him to introduce an interim policy to tide over the time until the North British became self-supporting. Between 1867 and 1869, therefore, he ordered all but two of his new engines from outside builders, undertaking at the company‘s shops some remarkable feats of legerdemain by which old locomotives emerged in new and scarcely recognisable forms to fill the gap until his new standard machines were available in quantity. St. Margarets works did not feature in the future scheme of things, and, since the independent spirit flourished there, they were permitted to build a number of new non-standard double-framed 0-6-0 goods engines with 16¼in. x 24in. cylinders, which appeared between 1867 and 1869. Of these Nos. 56, 58, 59, 131, 134, 135, 154, and 155 had 4ft. 6in. or in some cases 5ft. 0in. wheels, but Nos. 17 and 50 included, it would appear, bits of older machines, and their wheels were respectively 4ft. 0in. and 4ft. 3in. in diameter.
Wheatley’s first type was his standard inside-framed 0-6-0, having 17in. x 24in. inside cylinders and 5ft. 0in. wheels. In the early engines he used the domeless boiler, which was, of course, at that time standard Cowlairs practice, but he deserted the ornamental finish, doing away with polished brass-work and adopting the stovepipe chimney of St. Rollox, which had been so highly praised, but never used, by D. K. Clark. Messrs. Neilson received the first order for the standard 0-6-0s, supplying twelve engines, Nos. 347, 348, 396-399 and 376-381 in 1867/8. The next order went to the firm of Dubs, who delivered fourteen, Nos. 7, 57, 335-340, 359-363 and 400 in 1868/9. With these the construction of Wheatley engines by outside contractors ceased. During this period the only Cowlairsbuilt engines were two inside-framed 0-4-0 tender mineral engines with 15in. x 24in. inside cylinders and 5ft. 0in. wheels. They were the last 0-4-0 tender engines ever built for the North British, Wheatley being responsible for the design. They had domeless boilers. No. 358 was completed in 1867, No. 357 in 1868. Old wooden-framed tenders running on four wheels were allotted to these machines. It is of interest to note that No. 358 was renumbered 811 and later, in 1900, became No. 1011 and remained in service until 1925 having been allocated the number 10011 by the L.N.E.R. It was thus the last four-wheeled tender engine to run in the British Isles.
The thirty-eight new engines of the 1867 and 1868 programmes were very welcome additions to the locomotive stock, but in themselves they were by no means enough. A tremendous amount of leeway had to be made up in renovating the older units, while many, very many, were already long past the point when they could economically be rebuilt. There were several reasons for this state of affairs, such as the inevitable disorganisation which followed the major amalgamations between 1862 and 1865, and the impossibility of planning far ahead until the various departments of the enlarged company had settled down under the new conditions. The locomotive department had one particular trouble to face. A large proportion of the locomotive stock consisted of double-framed machines built between 1846 and 1850; that is· to say engine with the obsolete type of framing in which the boiler gave essential rigidity. The majority of these boilers were now worn out. To rebuild such engines for furTher useful service required new frame members as well as new boilers, and if the cylinders and motion were also in bad condition, there remained precious little of any use except the wheels and axles. No previous locomotive superintendent had had to face the necessity for planning a comprehensive rebuilding or replacement programme. Only a small proportion of the engines bought by the constituent companies had so far been withdrawn, and such rebuilds as had been effected had been limited to an occasional reconstruction, often due to a mishap or to an inherent weakness of a particular design.
Wheatley set to work to weed out the uneconomic units, replacing, during his term of office, a large number of engines which no longer earned their keep. Among these were the 7ft. 0in. single Queen and many other Hawthorn machines, the Cowlairs singles Orion and Sirius, the Allan type 2-2-2 from the Glasgow, Dumbarton and Helensburgh Railway together with the 14in. Neilson single tanks, the remaining ‘Bury goods’ and several of the 0-4-2 ‘Neilsons’, while the majority of the locomotives taken over from the smaller constituent companies of the North British went to the scrap heap. In all during his eight years of office he broke up nearly one-third of the engines which were running on the North British when he took over. He rebuilt altogether about seventy locomotives. In the first two or three years any machine which could be given a new lease of life had to be reconstructed, even if it were the only one of its class, but as the motive power situation improved a more selective policy became possible. Nevertheless when Wheatley resigned the rebuilds amounted to some forty classes. It is not possible to describe the whole tale of these, and it must suffice to say that very many of them carried the domeless boiler of the early period. For goods and mineral traffic he provided a stock of reconstructed six-coupled locomotives varying in design but all of approximately the same power. These engines had for the most part, though not invariably, 16in. or 16¼in. x 24in. cylinders and 5ft. 0in. wheels. Most were double-framed Hawthorns which had originally been of the 0-6-0, 0-4-2 or 2-4 0 types, the property of one or other of the three main constituent companies of the North British. Several included the remains of some early 18in. Hawthorn 0-6-0 goods engines which had lived to have their cylinders lined up first to 17in. and then to 16in., at which dimension they were finally stabilised, the capacity of the boiler having at last caught up with the ability of the cylinders to use the steam.
An interesting conversion was that of four Neilson outside-cylindered 0-4-2 mineral engines to the 0-6-0 type, cast iron wheels 4ft. 0in. in diameter being fitted. These rebuilds were some of the very few 0-6-0 outside-cylindered machines ever used in Britain. Three of these locomotives had originally been the property of the Edinburgh and Glasgow and one had come from the Monkland Railway.
The early passenger rebuilds included three of the North British 16in. x 18in. Hawthorn singles, which were so altered that there was little but the number to recall the original to mind. No. 36 emerged as a single once again, but with deep outside framing slotted out between the wheels, and not in the least reminiscent of the arch-framed Hawthorn engine. No. 37 reappeared as a 2-4-0 with 16in. by 21in. cylinders and No. 38 as a 2-4-0 with 16in. by 24in. cylinders. Two of the ex Edinburgh and Glasgow ‘Sharpies’ were also rebuilt, these being the 1854 machines Nos. 231 and 232. Moreover the ex-Crampton No. 55 was again rebuilt, receiving a domeless boiler at St. Margarets in 1867. The two ‘Sharpies’ after rebuilding were of the 2-4-0 type, and evidence recently received suggests that they, unlike the earlier series, were coupled engines as originally delivered to the Edinburgh & Glasgow company. An inspection engine being needed, Wheatley turned his attention to the remaining Neilson ‘Light express tank’, No. 312, sometime the property of the Caledonian and Dumbartonshire Junction line. This engine had a wheelbase 10ft. 8in. + 5ft. 0in., the firebox being behind the driving axle. Wheatley decided that, if a short boiler were provided, with the firebox ahead of the driving axle, it would be possible to incorporate a small saloon coach body on the existing engine frame, this taking up the space originally used for the footplate and coal bunker. The conversion was accordingly effected, but the finished engine had none of the severity of line favoured by Wheatley in all his other work. A chimney with a polished cap, reminiscent of the Beyer, Peacock model, was provided, and a polished brass dome casing, the whole effect being, to borrow from Para Handy, “chust sublime”. New springs were fitted, those for the leading axle being placed above the running plate. The original plan of outside steam pipes from the dome to the steam chests was continued, but whether the boiler was new, or whether it was recovered from an older engine, is in doubt. As first rebuilt spring balance safety valves were used, but in the course of time these were replaced by Holmes’ columns on the dome. This engine, as rebuilt, was commonly known as ‘The Cab’ Illustrations: NBR No. 358: Wheatley’s 0-4-0 tender engine, 1867; NBR No. 36 Wheatley’s rebuild of Hawthorn 2-2-2, 1867; NBR No. 312 Wheatley‘s rebuild of ex-C&DJR tank as an inspection saloon

Crampton's patents. 25-6.  
Patent 11,349.

David L. Smith. The Wigtownshire Railway and its locomotives. 27-9.
See Volume 50 also page 142

Auto-Railer. 32
A new type of road or rail train known as the Auto-Railer, had been completed by Evans Products Co., Detroit. It operated with equal facility on rails or on roads. Some were already in service in America's great ordnance plants, for the movement of shells, bombs, and explosives. The Auto-Railer consists of a locomotive and two double-end cars having a gross capacity of 90,000 Ibs, Each unit operated on 42 rubber tyres and' 'an change from rail to road, or vice versa, in a few minutes.
Steel flariged wheels are employed to hold the vehicles on the rails, and are retracted for operation off the rails. These Ranged wheels act. merely in the nature of guide or pilot wheels, with the rubber tyred wheels taking approximately 80 per cent. of the load in rail operation and 100 per cent. when operated on 'the highway. Raising and lowering or the guide wheels is accomplished by compressed air. The train is equipped with standard air brakes.
Each 'car is built with all-wheel steering. This permits utmost flexibility, as each of the tyres of the cars rolls in the same path as the tyres on the locomotive, their movement being synchronized with the movement of the locomotive wheels. A number of Auto-Railer units of various types, such as ammunition trucks, ambulances, fire fighters, and inspection cars are helping the National Defence Service of the U.S.A. The constructieon and design of the Auto-Railer follows that of automobile practice. Only light-weight type materials are used, steel and the heavier materials which are necessary in the construction of standard locomotives and freight cars are eliminated.

Institution of Locomotive Engineers. 32
At a luncheon held by the Institution, at the Savoy Hotel, London, on 22 January, there were 242 members and friends present. The President, O.V.S. Bulleid, was in the chair.

Institution of Mechanical Engineers. 32
A portrait of George Stephenson, painted by H. P. Briggs, R.A. (1791-1844), has been presented to the Institution of Mechanical Engineers by the President and Council of the Institution of Civil Engineers.

L.M.S. (G. & S.W, Section)  32
The passenger train service between Ayr and Mauchline had been withdrawn.

Russian austerity locomotlves. 32
A large number of 2-10-2 type locomotives were under construction in Russia. The design is based largely on the American engines imported a few years ago, but modified to suit present conditions.

Belgian Railways. 32
Estimated that over 1,000 and about 16,000 wagons had been commandeered by Germany.

Reviews. 32

International Railway Associations. London: The Railway Gazette.
An interesting series of articles reprinted from the Railway Gazette, giving an account of the work and scope of the various associations concerned with international traffice, principally on the European continent.. The headings include—International Transport Committee—-International Wagon Union—European Timetable Conference—International Union for the Issue of Through Tickets—Railway Congress—League of Nations, Communications Section—International Railway Union—Eastern European Change of Gauge Associations.

Locomotives of the Cambrian, Barry and Rhymney Railways, M.C.V. Allchin. (Published by the Author).
A list of the numbers, types and dates of building of all the engines .on the three railways at the time of their absorption bv the Great Western Railway, together with the numbers allotted to them on the latter system. It makes a useful reference book to those interested in engine numbers.

Number 607 (15 March 1943)

Austerity tank locomotive: Ministry of Supply. 34-5. illustration.

James McEwan. Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 39-41.:
Dundee & Arbroath and Arbroath & Forfar Railways.

Number 608 (15 April 1943)

Locomotive and train resistance. 47

David L. Smith. The Wigtownshire Railway and its locomotives. 53-4. 3 diagrams (side elevations)

Crampton's patents. 55-7. 9 diagrams

E.C. Poultney. New high speed locomotives for the Pennsylvania. 58-9. diagram (sectionalised side elevation)
Pennsylvania RR Duplex 4-4-4-4

Stirling Everard. Cowlairs commentary. 60-2
Extracted from North British Rly Study Gp J., 2020 (141) 35. Cowlairs came into production in 1869 as the sole locomotive works for the Company. From that year until the end of Wheatley's time additional standard 17in. goods engines were turned out annually. The later machines had domed boilers. In all sixty-two were built by the company in addition to the twenty-six contract-built engines already mentioned. The final batch was completed after Wheatley had resigned. The numbers of the Cowlairsbuilt engines were 12, 16, 23, 26, 31, 47, 48, 53, 54, 61, 64, 65, 69, 70, 71, 102, 114-122, 124, 126, 127, 129, 133, 142, 219, 243-246, 257, 266, 267, 275, 276, 283, 285, 291, 298, 307, 309, 407-417 and 450-453.
For mineral traffic he introduced a smaller variant of the design having 4ft. 0in. wheels and 16in. x 24in. cylinders, of which thirty-seven were built at Cowlairs. These were Nos. 1-6, 15, 25, 41, 43, 86, 152, 251-254, 265 and 430-449. Many engines of both types had cast-iron wheels with T-section spokes which he particularly favoured for goods service. Such engines were never permitted to work on passenger trains.
In 1870 two 0-6-0 saddle tank designs were introduced, the one with 5ft. 0in. wheels for branch and suburban passenger duties, the other, with 4ft. 3in. wheels for shunting and local goods. The standard cylinder dimensions of these engines were 16in. x 24in., though in three of the passenger type the stroke was 22in. In these tank designs Wheatley gave up domeless boilers in favour of boilers with small domes over the firebox. These domes were topped by the safety valves, and on the tank engines had bell-mouthed casings. Eighteen passenger engines were built between 1870 and 1873 and ten of the goods type. The numbers were 39, 51, 62, 113, 136, 149, 221, 222, 226, 228, 229, 230, 255, 256, 261, 263, 405 and 406 for the passenger machines and 8, 13, 44, 66, 130, 132, 220, 223, 258 and 260 for the goods. Cowlairs turned out two ‘pug’ shunters in 1872, having 3ft. 0in. wheels and 11in. x 18in. cylinders. These engines, Nos. 18 and 311, were the only Wheatley machines to have outside cylinders. He completed his complement of shunting engines by building at Cowlairs six inside cylindered 0-6-0 saddle tanks in 1874. These had 3ft. 6in. wheels and 13in. x 18in. cylinders. They were numbered 32, 42, 144, 146, 308 and 310.
Main line passenger traffic was, until 1869, left to the existing machines. As the train service had never been outstanding for its speed or convenience, except possibly on the Edinburgh and Glasgow section where there were some notably good engines already, this was no further imposition on the travelling public; and when, in 1869, Wheatley put in hand his first express design, it was considered that two examples of the new type were quite sufficient. These locomotives, Nos. 141 and 164, were inside-framed throughout, and of the 2-4-0 type. 6ft. 6in. coupled wheels were used, together with domeless boilers and 16in. x 24in. cylinders, but shortly after they were put into service the cylinder diameter was increased to 17in.
In 1871 two further express engines were required, and here Wheatley decided to break new ground. The winding nature of certain sections of the North British main line suggested a more flexible wheelbase than that of the 2-4-0s, though from the power point of view these machines were, at the time, most suitable. He accordingly designed a 4-4-0 of somewhat similar dimensions. Inside frames were used throughout, with 17in. x 24in. cylinders and 6ft. 6in. coupled wheels. The bogie wheels were only 2ft. 9in. in diameter, and were of solid construction without spokes. In these engines, boilers with small domes over the firebox were used. They were the first examples in Britain of the 4-4-0 with inside bearings throughout and with inside cylinders, although there had been several examples of the 4-4-0 otherwise arranged. Wheatley's engines were numbered 224 and 264. No. 224 later achieved prominence by being involved in the Tay Bridge disaster of December, 1879 when it went into the river. It was, however, afterwards recovered and placed in service again and continued in traffic as No. 1192 until 1919.
In 1873 four more 4-4-0 express engines were built, but in these the earlier design was modified and improved. The diameter of the bogie wheels was increased to 3ft. 4in., though the solid type was still used. These wheels were of German manufacture, and this may have applied also to those of the earlier engines. The most important change, however, was in the provision of Wheatley’s final and improved type of boiler, which had a 1arge dome midway along the barrel. This type of boiler was used on all the later new and rebuilt machines. This series of 4-4-0 engines was numbered 420-423.
For secondary passenger services Wheatley designed a 2-4-0 type with 16in. x 24in. cylinders and 6ft. 0in. coupled wheels. These engines were also built in 1873, there being eight in all, numbered 418, 419 and 124-429. They were very satisfactory in every way, and all except Nos. 419 and 427 lasted until L.N.E.R. days, the amalgamated Company’s numbers being 10239, 10245-9 respectively. This completes the description of new engines of Wheatley’s design. He built, also, eight engines from recovered material. Six of these were 0-6-0 goods engines with 17in. x 24in. cylinders and 5ft. 0in. wheels, which owed their origin to and took their numbers from a series of inside-framed Hawthorn 0-6-0s built in 1861-2. The Wheatley engines, numbered 80-85, varied from his standard goods type in having an unequally divided wheelbase with a slightly greater distance between the leading and driving wheels than between the driving and trailing. They had the latest type of boiler, and were given new six-wheeled tenders, but the latter they did not long retain, as they were soon displaced from main line service and became shunters and station pilots.
The two other engines built from old material were 2-4-0 secondary duty passenger machines with inside frames and 16in. x 22in. cylinders. No. 40 had 5ft. 0in. coupled wheels, No. 63 4ft. l0in. coupled wheels. Both probably had a strong Hawthorn background. They seem to have been rather inconspicuous locomotives, and pottered about in the South of Scotland until the late eighties NBR outside cylindered 2-4-0 locomotive No. 1035 (ex-F&CJR) at Cowlairs. Photo: I Watson collection or early nineties. In 1871 the North British agreed to work the Forth and Clyde Junction Railway and took over from that concern four Allan-type 2-4-0 engines with 5ft. 0in. coupled wheels and 16in. x 22in. cylinders. They had been built in 1859 at the Canada Works, Birkenhead. The Canada Works had been started by the firm of Peto, Brassey & Betts in 1853, after Brassey had obtained the contract for the building of the Grand Trunk Railway of Canada. After building locomotives, rolling stock and plant for the Grand Trunk, a few Allan-type machines were built for British railways to the makers' specification, among them those in question. They had raised fireboxes with domes above, one spring-balance safety valve on the dome, and one on a column on the boiler. The Forth and Clyde engines were numbered 401-404 by the North British.
It remains to mention Wheatley’s final rebuilds, put in hand during his last two or three years of office. In all of these he used the domed boiler, and it was obviously his intention to rebuild certain complete classes rather than to perpetuate individual engines now that the necessity for improvisation had passed. The·‘90’ class of mixed-framed passenger 2-4-0, built in 1860 by Messrs. Neilson for** One of the 2-4-0 locomotives after rebuilding, including the provision of a side-window cab, as LNER No. 10249 (LNER Class E7) at Burntisland shed. Photograph: WH Whitworth, from the Hennigan collection NBR 2-4-0 locomotive No. 418 (LNER Class E7) at Haymarket shed. Included in the photograph are driver Jock Walker and blacksmith Jock Lawrie, one of the founders of St Cuthbert's Co-operative Society. Photo: Hennigan collection** the North British, were all rebuilt with Wheatley boilers, as were several of the numerous North British 15½ in. 0-6-0 goods engines, though Wheatley retired before the majority of the latter had been taken in hand. One of the Canada Works 2-4-0s was reboilered, but he had no time to deal with the remainder of the class, which were broken up by his successor in their original state, leaving No. 404 as the sole representative of the Allan conception on the North British for many years.
Of the Edinburgh and Glasgow Beyer, Peacock engines the singles 213 and 216 were reboilered by Wheatley, losing much of their beauty of line in the process. No. 216 had the driving wheels reduced to 6ft. 0in. at the same time. The 0-4-2 engines Nos. 317, 318 and 346 were also rebuilt about this time. Experimentally Wheatley reduced the coupled wheels of two of the ‘382’ class of domeless 2-4-0s from 6ft. 0in. to 5ft. 0in. and the wheels of one of the later 0-6-0s from 5ft. 0in. to 4ft. 0in. The engines concerned were Nos. 384, 388 and 201. The results obtained apparently did not justify any further conversions.
During his time cabs were introduced to the North British. Previously a weatherboard had been considered sufficient protection for the engine crew, in the later designs with a backward extension to provide a rudimentary roof. Wheatley’s cabs were, in effect, weatherboards with narrow side sheets added, the roof sloping slightly upwards towards the rear, and they did not greatly add to the comfort of the men.
In assessing Wheatley’s importance in North British locomotive history due allowance must be made. for the extremely difficult circumstances under which his term of office began. When he left the company at the end of 1874 the output. of new locomotives from Cowlairs had increased from six to forty a year, while the works also carried out the heavy repairs and all the necessary rebuilding for a stock of over four hundred and fifty engines. The reliability of the company’s locomotives had greatly NBR 2-2-2 locomotimproved, and standardisation had been carried as far as circumstances would permit. Moreover the financial position of the railway, necessarily dependent upon his success in handling the locomotive stock, had materially improved. (To be continued)
Editor’s note: the line drawings included in this article formed part of the article as published in 1943, but the photographs and captions have been added, from the Group’s Photo Archive

Correspondence. 64

The North London Railway. Mechanicien
Perhaps the following notes in regard to some of the old North London Railway locomotives may be of interest to your readers.
Engines Nos. 14; 17 and 21 were bought by William Horsley & Co. in 1871 or 1872, and who, doubtless after extracting a most satisfactory commission, turned the engines over to W. Woods & Co., the proprietors of the Brunton and Shields Railway, a line used by the collieries in the Killingworth district of Northumberland, to send the coals down to the river Tyne for shipment. No. 14, when owned by Woods had the footplating supported by outside angle irons, the same as No. 13 illustrated in· your last issue. The makers' number on the motion was No. 857, this raises a query, was the saddle tank changed prior to the engine being sent North and the original number plate left on? It may have been that the tank of No. 13 was in better condition than that of No. 14 and in view of the fact that the engine was being disposed of, the Railway Company decided that fair exchange is no robbery, and decided upon swapping tanks! This engine worked upon the Brunton and Shields Railway for many years and the writer well remembers her running with a huge rectangular saddle tank with about double the water capacity of the original, a cab was also fitted, the engine being withdrawn and scrapped about 1920. No. 17 did not have such a long career, and I think that when the original boiler required renewal the engine was scrapped, but this was not the finish, as one of the driving splashers with its polished brass beading was appropriated and used as a fender for the fireplace in the bar parlour of the local Black Hull public house for years.
No. 21 ran until about the year 1898, when it was scrapped; this engine in the middle eighteen-nineties had the coal bunker extended and an extra pair of small wheels added at the trailing end by Black Hawthorn & Co., of Gateshead, making her into a 4-4-2 Tank.
There is some doubt about the Stephenson locomotives supplied to the Northumberland and Durham Coal Co., but it is definite that Stephenson's Nos. 772 and 773 were despatched from Newcastle for delivery at Blackwall on 29 January 1851. I think that John Bowes and Partners of the Marley Hill Collieries had an interest in N. & D. Coal Co.
R. Stephenson's No. 733 was a rebuild for the York, Newcastle & Berwick Railway and delivered to the Railway Company in February, 1849, and therefore could not have been one of the Northumberland and Durham Coal Company's engines.
The dimensions of Nos. 772 and 773 were as follows: Cylinders 15in. by 22in., centres 2ft. 5½in., steam ports 1¼in. by 11in., exhaust ports, 2½in. by 11in., valve travel 4½in.; wheels 4ft. 7½in. diameter; Losh's patent, wrought iron spokes, also forming rim of wheel, cast iron bosses, wheelbase, Leading to driving 6ft. 6in., Driving to trailing 7ft. 1in., inside bearings to wheels; Boiler barrel 3ft. 8ins. diameter by 10ft. 0in. long 3/8in. plates; Firebox casing 4ft. 4¼in. long by 3ft. 7¾in. wide; 115 tubes at 2in. outside diameter; Heating surface: Tubes 621.79 sq. ft., Firebox 72.2 sq. ft., Total 693.99 sq. ft.; Grate area 11.43 sq. ft.; Steam pressure 1201b. Tender with a water capacity of 1,000 gallons upon four wheels, cast iron, with a diameter of 3ft. 49/16in., on a wheelbase of 8ft. 6in. No. 773 appears to have broken a crank axle as an order for 2, new one was sent to Stephenson by J.H. Adams in April, 1856.
Engine No. 1093 was supplied to the North London Railway Co. in April, 1857, and was a heavier and more powerful engine than the preceding two. The dimensions were: Cylinders 16in. by 24in., Centres 2ft. 3¾in.; Wheels, Losh's patent, 4ft. 6in. diameter, with cast iron bosses and inside bearings; Wheelbase, Leading to driving 7ft. 3in., Driving to trailing 4ft. ·3ins.; Boiler barrel 3ft. roins., diameter by 13ft. 6in. long, 7/16in. plates; Firebox casing 4ft. 5±in. long by 3ft. 77/8in. wide; Tubes 121 at 21/8in. outside diameter, 2¾in. centres; Heating surface: tubes 930.5 sq. ft., Firebox 74.5 sq. ft., Total 1005.0 sq. ft.; Grate area 11.8 sq. ft.; Steam pressure 1201b.
The tender was similar to those fitted to Nos. 772 and 773 but had a larger tank with a capacity of 1,200 gallons of water.
It is of interest to note that a similar engine to Nos. 772 and 773 was supplied to Frances Anne, the Marchioness of Londonderry, for use on her private railway between Seaham and Sunderland.


Mechanical World Year Book, 1943. Manchester: Emmott & Co., Ltd.
This volume has, as usual, been thoroughly revised and the tables brought up to date. The light metals and alloys, including the important wrought light alloys, are presented in an entirely new section. The section dealing with press- work has been revised and enlarged. Another important feature is the section on the selection and substitution of processes with information on die casting and on plastics.

L.M.S.R. diesel-electric shunting locomotives. The Railway Gazette,
This reprint of articles which have appeared in the Railway Gazette, deals principally with the working conditions imposed on the 350 b.h.p. diesel locomotives in fiat and hump yards, and not with the design of the locomotive itself. The contents include notes on the servicing and re-fuelling (but not the maintenance or repair), the principles of allocation to various yards, and some of the general advantages of diesel shunters in L.M.S. yards. This 24- page reprint is copiously illustrated.

We regret to learn from the Superheater Co. Ltd., of the death of Henry Edward Geer, who was for many years their Chief Engineer. Geer was in his 57th year and had been associated with the design and application of superheaters to all forms of steam generators; his experience in locomotive superheating dated back to 1911.

Number 609 (15 May 1943) locomotives. 66-7.illustration., diagram. (side elevation)
Jubilee class rebuilt with larger boilers

James McEwan. Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 68-70
.Scottish Midland Junction Railway and Aberdeen Railway.

E.A. Phillipson. The steam locomotive in traffic. XII. Rostering of enginemen, depot correspondence, conditions of service for staff in Great Britain. 71-2.

Number 610 (15 June 1943)

Lubrication of rolling stock. 79
Includes grease

L.M.S.R. 79
Moble canteens presented by Argentina to LMS railwaymen

Southern Railway. 79
Centenary of opening Thames Tunnel to pedestrian traffic. In 1866 the East London Railway converted it as a railway tunnel

C. Hamilton Ellis. Famous locomotive engineers. XXI. W. Bridges Adams. 80-2. illustration.
Steam railcar Fairfield illustrated

0-6-0 tank locomotive, Rhodesia Railways. 82. illustration
Works shunter at Untala; supplied by Hudswell Clarke & Co. in 1929: named Churchill.

Obituary. 82
C.H.M. Elwell: had been apprenticed under James Holden at Stratford Works; following which he became a locomtive running inspector. During WW1 he was involved in munitions manufacture at Stratford. He became Locomotive Running Superintendent of the LNER Southernv Area and in 1938 Locomotive Running Superintendent of the Eastern Section,

Notes on the modern rail L.N.E.R. 82-3
For ordinary rail a medium manganese content was specified. For points and crossings a high manganese steel was specified with Sandberg sorbitic process.

The counter pressure brake method of testing locomotives. 83-4.
Account of T. Robson ILocoE paper

David L. Smith. The Wigtownshire Railway and its locomotives. 85-7. illustration, 2 diagrams (side elevations)

Crampton's patents. 89-91.  
Patent 11,760.

Stirling Everard. Cowlairs commentary. 92-4. 2 drawings (side elevations)
At the beginning of 1875 Dugald Drummond arrived at Cowlairs from Brighton to take the place that Wheatley had vacated. The boy who had spent his early years beside the Caledonian and Dumbartonshire line, the youth who had served Stroudley at Cowlairs, had returned to Cowlairs to take charge. He returned as a very forceful young man who knew exactly how he intended to run the locomotive department; which can be summarised by saying that, in his opinion, if a man followed Stroudley’s example he could make few mistakes. He took one look at Cowlairs and decided that things were not precisely as he wished them. He surveyed the locomotive stock and found much which did not please him. Traffic was growing fast, and would continue to grow, and, despite Wheatley's past programme of replacements, there were still not enough modern engines to handle it.
Viewed dispassionately it would seem that in some ways Drummond reaped where Wheatley had sown, for when Drummond took over the most difficult years were past, and there was more money to spend than there had been eight years before. In consequence he was able to obtain sanction for the construction of so many new locomotives that, once again, outside contractors had to be called in to supplement the output of Cowlairs. Once again, however Cowlairs was reorganised, so that in the latter part of Drummond’s time there was no need for the company to look elsewhere for new construction.
Drummond’s work at Cowlairs can be said to have been extremely sound without being outstandingly original. He was determined that the company should have the benefit of the most modern and reliable locomotives that could be built, but equally determined that no untried idea should be introduced that might increase maintenance costs. The North British could not afford expensive failures. On the relatively poor Scottish railways there was no room for brilliant ideas that did not quite come off. Nevertheless, despite the cautious approach, he managed to revolutionise the locomotive practice of half Scotland before once again he travelled South, and he started a tradition that was only extinguished by the Railways Act of 1920. The secret of the success of his engines was the combination of simplicity of design with plenty of reserve power. When Drummond arrived at Cowlairs the North British, despite the amount of branch and suburban traffic which it was called upon to handle, owned remarkably few passenger tank engines. The fourteen 0-4-2 well tanks built by Hurst were lamentably small and underpowered. Wheatley’s contribution of eighteen six-coupled saddle tanks was more useful, but quite inadequate to handle more than a small proportion of the duties. Besides these there seem to have been few, if any, other tank engines at all suitable for passenger work.
It would seem that Drummond asked himself what, under the circumstances, Stroudley would do, and he did not have to look far for the answer. Stroudley, faced by similar conditions on the Brighton, had designed his ‘Terrier’ tanks. The Brighton ‘Terriers’ were small 0-6-0 machines with inside frames, 13in. x 20in. inside cylinders and 4ft. 0in. wheels. The domes were on the rear ring of the boiler, the spring balance safety valves on the dome. Stroudley’s own particular design of cab was fitted giving a degree of protection by no means always provided at that date. The tool box was placed behind the bunker, and the sandboxes were combined with the leading splashers. Drummond’s ‘Terrier’ design was slightly larger – in all cases where he borrowed a Brighton design he increased the size to greater or less degree – having 4ft. 6in. wheels and 15in. x 22in. cylinders, but the general layout of the engine was strictly according to Brighton. Drummond allowed himself variations in detail; for example Ramsbottom safety valves on the dome, and a modification of the Stroudley cab roof which made it cheaper to construct. It was moreover, not in Drummond's character to allow time to be wasted on such unprofitable pursuits as polishing copper chimney caps. The Drummond chimney was a neat design with a painted cap. There were twenty-five Drummond ‘Terriers’, each of which, in common with all Drummond passenger engines, was named after a place on its normal route: This on occasion led to some confusion. All were built between 1875 and 1878 at Cowlairs·. Their numbers were 20, 22, 29, 49, 96, 97, 106-108, 123, 151, 158, 161, 162, 165, 166, 240, 241, 259, 274, 284, 295, 297, 313 and 485.
The year 1876 saw the production of Drummond’s first main line locomotives. For goods and mineral traffic he introduced a class of 18in. 0-6-0 machines with 5ft. 0in. wheels of which twenty, Nos. 454-473, were built on contract by Messrs. Neilson. Twelve of the same type were built at Cowlairs. These were Nos. 100, 139, 153, 242, 270, 278, 281, 287, 292, 304, 305 and 315. Deliveries from each source began in 1876 and were completed in 1877. These engines were derived from Stroudley’s 0-6-0·engines for the Brighton company, but were slightly larger. In Stroudley’s machines the cylinders were 17½in. x 26in. and in Drummond’s 18in. x 26in. The North British variety included all the usual Drummond modifications such as the Ramsbottom safety valves and Drummond’s cab and chimney. The tenders were of the Brighton outside-framed type with underslung springs, which subsequently proved to be a decided nuisance, since no engine equipped with one of them was able to cross the Forth Bridge. Such tenders were used by Drummond throughout his career with the North British, though never subsequently.
The Edinburgh and Glasgow expresses were still mainly handled by Paton’s Beyer, Peacock singles, a design twenty years old, and a more modern machine w:as required. Now just before Drummond had left Brighton Stroudley had prepared plans for a new express inside-framed 2-2-2 with 17in x 24in. inside cylinders and 6ft. 9in. driving wheels: his Grosvenor. Such a machine, Drummond considered, would be ideal for the Edinburgh-Glasgow services. This, of course, was not a very surprising conclusion, since Grosvenor in any case owed something to the Paton singles if the question of parentage were looked into. Drummond placed an order with Messrs. Neilson for two machines very similar to Grosvenor, but having 7ft. 0in. driving wheels. The usual Drummond modifications were adopted. The numbers of these engines were 474 and 475 and they were named Glasgow and Berwick respectively.
A further problem presented itself, for the North British had a few years before, and after some early and fruitless attempts, reached Carlisle from Edinburgh. Now the Midland Railway was on the point of completing its line to Carlisle from the south. This would convert the sometime Hawick branch and the Border Union extension into a very important and very exacting main line. Furthermore the North British would before long reach Aberdeen by way of the Tay Bridge, requiring powerful locomotives to handle the main line traffic between Burntisland ferry and Aberdeen.
Neither of these roads was comparable in any way to the Brighton main line, and it was, therefore, impossible to adapt any of the existing Stroudley designs for the new services. Wheatley, however, had met the problems of the more difficult of the North British routes by introducing the leading bogie to Cowlairs practice. Drummond followed Wheatley’s lead, although to Stroudley’s way of thinking the bogie was an invention of the devil. Drummond’s 4-4-0s were magnificent machines with 6ft. 6in. coupled wheels and 18in. by 24in. cylinders. They completely eclipsed Wheatley’s engines and were the inspiration of the whole Drummond tradition. The first four were built by Messrs. Neilson in 1876, and were numbered 476-479. Four further Neilson-built examples came out in 1878, Nos. 486-489, while Nos. 490-493 were built at Cowlairs in the same year. All carried names in Drummond’s day.
With one unfortunate exception Drummond did not borrow any further from Stroudley. The exception was in the case of the Helensburgh route, on which the coastal express traffic was developing quickly. In order to cope with this Drummond in 1877 built at Cowlairs six 0-4-2 tank engines which were directly inspired by Stroudley’s ‘D’ class on the Brighton line, but as usual the Cowlairs engines were considerably larger than their Brighton prototypes. Although the latter had 5ft. 6in. coupled wheels and 17in. by 24in. cylinders as compared with 5ft. 9in. coupled wheels and cylinders of the Brighton dimensions for Drummond’s machines, the Cowlairs engines were considerably heavier, and the North British permanent way was not first class. The result was that within three years it had been found necessary to rebuild the Drummond tanks with trailing bogies on account of excessive axle load. These engines, which were numbered 88, 89, 157, 167, 314, and 480, were transferred to the East Coast for main line passenger duties between Dundee and Burntisland when the first Tay Bridge was opened. At the same time two of the new 4-4-0s, Nos. 486 and 487, went to Dundee for the Aberdeen workings. Illustrations (line drawings): Drummond 0-6-0T No. 108 St. Andrews and Drummond 4-4-0 express No. 487 Montrose. see also letter from M.N. Niven on page 128

Number 611 (15 July 1943)

Passenger rolling stock capacity. 97.
Considers London Transport versus LNER main line coaches

L.N.E.R. 97
Second B1 class No. 8302 Eland undergoing trials.

Beyer-Garratt heavy freight (war standard) locomotive, Ministry of Supply. 98. illustration
Intended for South Africa (3ft 6in gauge): 2-8-2+2-8-2.

C.M. Doncaster. Naburn swing bridge, 100-1. 2 illustrations
Photographs of down Flying Scotsman crossing Bridge behind No. 4472 with corridor tender and up Silver Jubilee north of Doncaster travelling at 90 mile/h in 1936. See also letter from Norman Duncan on page 128

James McEwan. Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 106-8.
Aberdeen Railway: locomotives from Dundee: Kimond & Steel, Gourlay, Mudie and Blackie

Number 612 (15 August 1943)

Locomotive centre of gravity. 113.

Edward H. Livesey. Across Canada in the cab. 114-17. illustration, map

The Phillimore Collection sale. 117-18.
See also letter from Reginald B. Fellows on page 142

L.N.E.R. 118. illustration.
Locomotive of 20.45 Liverpool Street to Harwich passenger train fell into a bomb crater on embankment near Ingatestone.

David L. Smith. The Wigtownshire Railway and its locomotives. 119-21. illustration, diagram (side elevation)

P. Ransome-Wallis. Impressions of some overseas railways in War-time. 121-5. 5 illustrations

Stirling Everard. Cowlairs commentary. Drawing (side elevation).  125-6
Via J. North British Railway Society J., 2021, (143), 46-6. The next class to be produced by Drummond was his 17in. goods, a general service 0-6-0 based upon his 18in. class, but for use upon lighter duties. These machines were in due course to be found all over the system, and were in their time used on passenger work as well as main and branch line goods services and for shunting. One hundred and five were built to Drummond’s orders, that is to say between 1879 and 1883. Five of these were built by Dübs, the remainder coming from Cowlairs. The Dubs engines were numbered 497-501, and the Cowlairs machines 18, 27, 28, 30, 34, 35, 46, 84, 87, 112, 125, 128, 138, 143, 150, 163, 171, 175, 178, 184, 271-273, 277, 279, 286, 288-290, 300-303, 306, 311, 401-403, 481, 482, 484, 506-545 and 548-565. Drummond by the way, always allotted previously unused numbers in series to contract-built engines, the numbers vacated by locomotives which were replaced being taken exclusively by Cowlairs machines. As the locomotive stock increased it was, of course, necessary for many Cowlairs engines to take series numbers, but no blanks were ever left vacant for long, and the last used number at any time indicated the total locomotive stock of the company as far as concerned the capital list.
The defection of the 0-4-2 tanks soon made it necessary to provide an alternative class for the Helensburgh expresses. In consequence three new engines were built by Neilson, in 1879, which were Drummond throughout. Satisfied by the exemplary performance of the 4-4-0 tender engines, he had decided upon the 4-4-0 layout for the tank engines, which were given 6ft. 0in. coupled wheels and 17in. x 24in. cylinders. They were some of the most notable tanks in service in Britain at the time they were built. Their numbers were 494-496, and they were named Craigendoran, Roseneath and Helensburgh.
The success of the large 4-4-0 tanks encouraged Drummond in 1880 to build a lighter type of 4-4-0 tank for branch lines, these having 5ft. 0in. coupled wheels and 16in. x 22in. cylinders. The bogie wheels, which were 3ft. 0in. in diameter, were solid, as in the Wheatley bogie engines. With the introduction of this class the construction of the Terrier tanks ceased. Drummond built twenty-four of the small bogie tanks before he left the North British, these being Nos. 19, 33, 52, 60, 67, 72-75, 98, 99, 101, 103-105, 109-111, 147, 174, 225, 268, 294 and 299. All came from Cowlairs and all were named.
During his term of office amalgamations brought several additional locomotives into the fold. From the Leven and East of Fife Railway came in 1877, five small outside-cylindered four-wheeled machines, three built by Hawthorns of Leith in 1857, and two by Black, Hawthorn in 1874. The latter were shunting ‘pugs’. These engines took numbers 481, 483, 485, 482 and 484 in the North British lists. In 1879 four two-year old 0-6-0 tank engines with 18in. x 24in. inside cylinders and 4ft. 6in. wheels were received from the Glasgow, Bothwell, Hamilton and Coatbridge Railway. These powerful modern machines had been designed by the builders, Dübs,, and were numbered 502-505 by the North British. They remained in service until after the last war [WW1], one, in fact, being allocated a LNER number.
Two Neilson ‘pug’ shunters were received in 1882. These had 3ft. 8in. wheels and 14in. by 20in. cylinders. Ever since the purchase by the Edinburgh and Glasgow company of its f irst example of this class of machine the Neilson ‘pug’ had been very popular with the authorities at Cowlairs, and, modernised, Cowlairs-built machines based on the Neilson type remain standard to this day for dock-shunting and the like in the sometime North British territory.
In 1879 the Westinghouse brake was adopted by the North British for passenger locomotives and carriages, and was fitted to all as they passed through the shops.
At the end of that year the Tay Bridge disaster took place, and the locomotive involved, Wheatley’s 4-4-0 No. 224, remained in the river until the spring of 1880. Then it was dragged out and towed to Cowlairs for renovation. It is, perhaps, worth remarking that the protection afforded to the enginemen by the Wheatley cab was extremely scant, and it is a matter of wonder in present times that an engine crew should have been expected to brave a gale of such force blowing at right angles to the train with such inadequate cover. This applies even to No. 224, which had a cab slightly more generous than those of the majority of Wheatley machines. See also letter from John W. Smith on page 142

E.A. Phillipson. The steam locomotive in traffic. XII. Rostering of enginemen, depot correspondence, conditions of service for staff in Great Britain. 128-9
Enginemen's route knowledge, enginemen's  journals; depot correspondence

Norman Duncan. Memories of Havre and Rouen. 127-8
He always admired the way those old engines handled their undoubtedly very heavy' loads' The hospital trains, fresh from. the battlefield of th:e Somrne; came. down, 'sometimes as many as seven  or eight m a day, to the Quai d'Escales and were usually hauled ,by Etat 4-6-0s (latest type) or 2-8-0s (many built by the North British Locomotive Co.), both well .proportioned, imposing designs. While proceeding through the Docks area a French railwayman .stood on the front of the engine, blowing a horn. The engines of the hospital trains carried a board on the side of the boiler signifying their home shed. This was nearly always Sotteville but sometimes an engine came through labelled "Batignolles.' On occasion a Nord hospital train with a heavy Nord 4-6-0-with high pitched boiler worked into Havre.

Correspondence. 128

"Silver Jubilee", "Coronation" and Non-stop (London-Edinburgh) high speed records. Norman Duncan.  
As a former Assistant Controller, and later, Controller on the Train Control. Board of the new defunct Main Line Control of the London and North Eastern Railway. at York I was interested in C.M. Doncaster's article in the July Issue dealing with Naburn Swing Bridge and his reference to the timing. of the Silver Jubilee between Selby and York. In practice the time allowed over this section was rarely improved upon owing to the necessity of carefully approaching York from Chaloners Whin Junction but much more spectacular running with the Silver. Jubilee and Coronation trains was achieved .between Shaftholme Junction and Selby, a distance of just over 14 miles, particularly in view of the speed: restriction over Selby Swing Bridge. The crack East Coast expresses were allowed  15 minutes for this run but the Silver Jubilee and Coronation trains were scheduled to traverse this section in 10 minutes and often ran it in 8½ or 9 minutes, so that the speed must at times have reached. nearly 100 miles an hour, though 75 m.p.h. .was supposed to be the maximum permissible.
The tightest problem we controllers were called upon to settle in those days was running the Aberdeen Meat train (up) due to depart York station at 19.15 in front of the Up Coronation due to pass through York at 19.30. If the meat train was ready at time it had to go .but in view, of the fact that these high speed trains had to have :practically the whole of the line clear between York and Selby and Selby and Shaftholme Juriction. in order to afford .a clear run the margin was fine The most anxious factor was that the Meat train had to clear Bentley box, South of Shaftholme, before the signalman at Henwick Hall, about 1½ miles South of Selby, could pull all his signals off for the high speed train, This meant a clearance of approximately 15 miles, If the Meat train failed to clear Bentley in time the high speed train received a check at Henwick Hall and another; later on, at Heck. Fortunately the meat train was a good galloper as a rule and with an A3 or V2 engine put up some remarkable records. It is interesting now to recollect that the famous Non Stop trains from .Kings X to Edinburgh and vice versa had sirnply not got to be stopped. No matter how dense the traffic they had got to be kept moving and at the height of the summer season when York station was choc-a-bloc it was the custom to give the Non Stops a check further back in order to reduce the risk of bringing them to a stand in the vicinity of York Station: Often enough, however, in midsummer their progress through York Station was at the rate of about two miles per hour but so long as they were kept moving everyone was happy

Rayne and Burn. C.F. Dendy Marshall.
I have always felt doubtful as to the above firm having built the Albion for Nova Scotia, on the ground that they were not known otherwise as locomotive builders. But I have now examined a list of the M.S. and L.R. engines in 1856 in my collection (in view of the proposed history of the G.C.R.). and find that Rayne and Burn supplied No. 60 Nemesis on 30 June 1848 to that Iine. It was a 2-4-0 tender engine with 5 ft. driving wheels, cylinders  16½ by 22 in, and cost £2,300.

Cowlairs commentary. M.M. Niven.
Re the Cowlairs Section on Drummond's engines, North British Railway. The author states in connection with the underslung tender springs that afterwards he did not adopt them after leaving the North British. The 0-6-0 engines which Drummond designed for the Caledonian Railway, which he built a St.. Rollox, had underslung tender springs .similar to the N.B. 0-6-0 mentioned. They were black engines with steam brakes, and many a time he had seen them on the C. & P. Joint Line. 319 was at Greenock in her latter years.
The names of Drummond's 4-4-0 express engines were: No. 476 Carlisle, Neilson & Co., 1876; No. 477 Edinburgh, Neilson & Co. 1876; No. 478 Melrose, Neilson & Co. 1876; No. 479 Abbotsford, Neilson & Co., 1876;, No. 486 Aberdeen*, Neilson & Co. 1878; No. 487 Montrose*, Neilson & Co. 1878; No. 488 Galashiels, Neilson & Co., 1878; No. 489 Hawick, Neilson & Co., 1878; No. 490, St. Bothwells. Cowlairs, 1878; No. 491 Dalhousie, Cowlairs, 1878; No, 492 Newcastleton, Cowlairs, 1878; No. 493 Netherby, Cowlairs, 1878. (*Aberdeen became later Eskbank; Montrose became later Waverley.)

New oil~cooled arc welding set. 128
A well-designed three-operator oil-cooled welding set, made to B.S.S. 1071 was addition to Philips' range of arc welding equipment. It comprises a Philips transformer Type E.1397. together- with three reactors Type E.1398. , The transformer is of the indoor type, oil-immersed. naturally cooled, The primary windings are delta connected and are suitable for 380, 400. 420 and 440 volt three-phase 50 cycle supply. The secondary winding 'is 'inter-star-connected and designed to give an open. circuit voltage of 100 volts, between each phase and neutral. . The ,reactors for use with the transformer are of the drum type, oil-cooled pattern, complete with first filling of standard Pool Oil, and fitted with four wheels. These reactors are designed to handle a welding .current of 40/100 amps. rnax , intermittent rating,

Review. 128

Locomotives of the smaller Welsh railways and of the M. and S.W.J.R.  M.C.V. Allchin. 12 pp.
A register of the locomotives running on the railways concerned at the date of the grouping, together with builders' dates and the G,W,R. numbers allocated to each engine. A useful reference book for identifying the origin of the odd types of engines working on the G.W,R. system, .

Number 613 (15 September 1943)

A remarkable locomotive. 129.
4-4-4-4 Pennsylvania Railroad with Franklin poppet valves: draws parallels with Webb designs 

Narrow-gauge 2-8-2 locomotive, Vicicongo Railway. 130-1. illustration

Mobile electrical substations, London & North Eastern Railway. 131. illustration

No. 6245 "City of London", London Midland & Scottish Railway. 131. illustration
Photograph of black streamlined locomotive with double chimney

Crampton's patents. 132-3. 3 diagrams
Dummy crank shaft locomotives.

L.N.E.R. appointments. 133
J. Blair Assistant to Chief Mechanical Engineer Doncaster had become Mechanical Engineer (Outdoor) in succession to C.H.M. Elwell (deceased). S. King, District Docks Mechanical Engineer to succeed Blair. B. Adkinson, District Locomotive Superintendent Norwich moved to Gorton to succeed C.B. Kirk who had retired.

The North London Railway. 133-5. Illustration, 3 diagrams (side elevations)
In 1861 eight tank engines, Nos. 30 to 37 (Fig. 16) were obtained from the firm of Slaughter Grunning & Co. (WN. 438 to 445). These locomotives, as built, had the following dimensions:
Cylinders (two inside): 15½-in. by 22-in.
Coupled wheels, diameter 5ft. 3in.
Bogie wheels, diameter ... 3ft. 2in.
Total wheelbase 19ft. 8½in.
Heating surface, tubes 888 sq. ft.
firebox 81 sq. ft.
Total 969 sq. ft.
Grate area... 14 sq. ft.
Boiler pressure 1201b. per sq. in.
Weight in working order 34 ton 10 cwt.
Coal capacity 14 cwt.
Water capacity 800 gallons
They were similar in external appearance to the previous engines of the same type built for the North London Railway by Robert Stephenson & Co. in 1855 (Fig. 16a), the p[rincipal distinction being the circular sandbox mounted on top of the boiler. The dome was bell-shaped and of polished brass and was mounted immediately behind the sandbox. This class was renumbered 101 to 108 respectively in 1874 and the individual engines were ultimately disposed of as indicated in the following paragraph.
Nos. 101, 102, 103 and 105 were sold in 1876 to Thomas Wheatley, a one-time locomotive superintendent of the North British Railway, who after leaving the service of that company, acted as a contractor for the supply of locomotives to certain small Scottish railways. It was Mr. Wheatley's intention to use these engines on the Girvan and Portpatrick Junction Railway when that line was opened, but this project did not materialise at the time. In consequence of this he sold No. 101 in 1877 to the Ebbw Vale Steel and Iron Co. The remaining three engines did, however, ultimately fmd their way to the Girvan and Portpatrick Junction Railway in 1886, as the 'result of a dispute between that undertaking and the G. and S.W. Railway, who had hitherto worked the line, and became G. and P.J.R. Nos. 1, 3 and 2 respectively. They were eventually broken up in 1892 when the G. and S.W. Railway . took over the Girvan and Portpatrick Junction Railway, without being renumbered in the acquiring company's list. It is of interest to note that all four of the engines sold to WheatIey were fitted with cabs and were painted black with red lining, but it is not oertain whether this work was carried out at Bow or elsewhere. Nos. 104 and 107 were sold in 1881, and. No. 108, in 1882, to the Marquis of Bute for use on his Dock undertaking at Cardiff, which afterwards became the Bute DocksCo. and later the Cardiff Railway. They became Nos. 3, 6 and 13 (Fig. 17) in the new owner's list and were all eventually scrapped in the 'nineties [1890s]. No. 106 was sold in 1880 to the Joint Committee of the Cowes @ Newport and Newport @ Ryde Railways, afterwards becoming Isle of Wight Central Railway No. 7. During its sojourn in the Isle of Wight this engine was fitted with a cab. It was eventually scrapped in the year 1906. The year 1863 witnessed the emergence of the first locomotives to be built at Bow Works. These engines, which were designed by William Adams, comprised a class of eight tank locomotives of the 4-4-0 wheel arrangement having the following dimensions:-
Cylinders (two inside) 16-in by 24-in
Coupled wheels, diameter 5ft 3in
Bogie wheels, diameter 3ft 2in
Total wheelbase 19ft 4½in
Length over buffers 30tt 2in
Heating surface, tubes  815.5 ft2
firebox 80.0 ft2
Total 895.9 ft2
Grate area 13.37 ft2
Boiler pressure 160lb. per sq. in.
Weight in working order 44 tons 5 cwt.
Water capacity  850 gallons .
These engines had copper topped chimneys and polished brass domes mounted on the second ring of the boiler barrel. The sand box was mounted on top of the boiler in front of the dome. The bogie truck was of the outside framed pattern.
Another noteworthy feature of this class was the high boiler pressure adopted compared with other locomotives of this era, which was 40 lbs. per sq. in. more than in the case of the immediately preceding engines of the same type. They are illustrated by Fig. 18. Nos. 43 to 45 were completed in 1863, Nos. 46 to 48 in 1864, and Nos. 49 and 50 in 1865.
Nos. 43 and 44 were renumbered 43a and 44a, and afterwards 101 and 102, respectively, in 1877 whilst Nos. 45 to 48 became Nos. 103 to 106 in 1883, and Nos. 49 and 50 became Nos. 107 and 108 in 1884.
No. 49 was rebuilt at Bow Works in the year 1883, the principal alteration being an increase in the cylinder diameter to 16½ in. No. 108 (old No. 50) was similarly treated in 1887, whilst Nos. 105 and 106 (old Nos. 47 and 48) were likewise dealt with two years later.
The dates of withdrawal from service of this class are as follow:-No. 101 was scrapped in 1888, Nos. 102 to 104 in 1889, Nos. 105 and 106 in 1915, No. 107 in 1904, and No. 108 in 1908. In their later days they were relegated to working the shuttle passenger services between South Acton and Hammersmith and between Bow and Plaistow. This class were interesting inasmuch as they were the first North London engines to be painted black, all of them being so treated shortly after their renumbering as duplicate stock.
Fig. 16. Slaughter Grunning & Co. 4-4-0T (WN. 438 to 445): line drawing (side elevation)
Fig. 16a: Robert Stephenson & Co. 1855 4-4-0T diagram (side elevation)
Fig. 17; 4-4-0T in Bute Docks ownershio: diagram (side elevation)
FIG. 18. W. Adams NLR 4-4-0T: photograph

P. Ransome-Wallis. Impressions of some overseas railways in War-time. 135-8. 4 illustrations
Miracles been wrought on 3 ft. 6 in. gauge. To make a study of the South African Railways, though only for a few weeks, does nothing to belittle this idea. Throughout the system, from Wayside station in the Karoo to the great locomotive depots at Paarden Eiland , Braarnfontein or Germiston, one gets an impression of efficiency and progress, mixed with a feeling of keenness and pride of their achievement, in the railwaymen themselves. In the course of over 3,000 miles of rail travel in the Union, much of it on locomotive footplates, some in sleeping: cars, the rest as an ordinary passenger, the wnter found as high a standard of comfort and courtesy as anywhere else in the world, and locomotive work of as high an order. In addition to the surburban areas of Capetown, Johannesburg and Durban,. considerable sections of main line are now electnfied. For example, Durban to Volksrust—321 miles, in which the line climbs from sea-level to 5,429 feet. From Volksrust to Johannesburg, 494. miles from Durban, steam is used. The best train of the day takes 17 hours 20 minutes for the journey: Eleven stops totalling 86 minutes are made, giving an average speed of about 31 m.p.h. .. On the Pretoria to Capetown main line, the best train-the famous Union Express averages about 38 m.p.h. southbound arid 35 m.p.h. northbound, excluding 15 stops totalling 62 mins. The distance is 999 miles (via De Aar and Fourteen Streams) and the line rises from sea-level at Capetown to 5,735 feet at Johannesburg. There is no electric traction on this line, but there is a notable- electrified section between Harrismith and Lady- smith, 60 miles in which the line rises to 5,520· feet, over Van Reenen's Pass. Some of the finest views in the Union are obtained as the train winds. its way over the pass, with the mountains of Basutoland, 60 miles away, appearing like a great barrier on the horizon.
Track is of the flat-bottom type and steel sleepers are extensively used, except on the coastal lines where excessive erosion makes the use of wood sleepers essential. Though the majority of the route mileage is single track, there is a large mileage of double track on the main lines, and left hand running is in force. On the single line- sections the electric train staff is used with a system of "permission notes."

O.J. Morris. Portrait of a Mid-Victorian signalman. 138-40. illustration
For perhaps the first time, we here meet by name a mid-Victorian signalman. He is Jack Fielding, posing in the spring of 1882 beside his lofty timber cabin at Lovers' Walk, Brighton, for a photograph which, quite lately, F. G. S. Bramwell unearthed stained and tattered. Restored to view and submitted to encyclopaedic Bill Ewens, who joined Stroudley at Brighton Works more than 60 years-ago, the picture struck a responsive note in one of his narrowing circle of veterans. From this, our posthumous introduction to the old signalman, who is seen present at the great transition of 1881-2, when Saxby and Farmer restocked the entire Brighton yard with signalling equipment good for years to come. Soon after the taking of this picture, Jack Fielding's cabin of the early 'sixties was pulled down.
Since then, greater transitions have come about to mark the space we have traversed from Fielding's youth, when men of his calling were men on whose clear heads alone vast consequences in life and limb depended. When that clear head was momentarily. lost, no mechanical brain stood calmly by, nor was the burden upon these early men a light one. Recall a moment the classic instance of the signalman who stood in all the London weathers of the 1840' s beside a couple of hand-levers at Corbett's Lane, Bermondsey, where the Croydon, Brighton and South Eastern jostled one, another for precedence at the junction with the Greenwich, over whose rails they had access to and from London. He flagged 50, and often 200 trains a day through this junction, which from its isolation was at first regarded with the gravest anxiety. Though years passed before he was granted so much as a fixed signal, .no accident ever spoiled that man's long record.
Instances could be multiplied, but to this race of unlettered supermen (for early railways were chary of "education") Fielding does not belong. His day is at the very beginning of the era when expanding traffic and mounting toll in life and revenue were driving hard facts into quidnuncs of much power but little perception, who prattled labout a signalman's "personal responsibility," as Findlay of the L.N.W.R. put it, versus mechanical assurance expressed in locking frames- "these things," as Allport of the Midland contemptuously called. them. The era of interlocking really dates from 1860, when Saxby evolved a practicable lock, in which a compact arrangement of sliding bars superseded the cumbersome ben 'cranks and rocking shafts that had already earned him some notoriety.' . .
To this date Fielding belongs because Saxbys 1860 frame was the one he grew old with at Lover's Walk. When that frame was new, the signalmen who could handle it might be counted in tens; when it was replaced in 1882, nothing short of a census could count them. In progress towards that summit the "Brighton" easily led the way, largely because so many leaders in the march were either "Brighton" men or men of companies absorbed who had traced out the path — Charles Hutton Gregory, who first adapted the naval semaphore to railway use, New Cross, 1841, and who first interlocked signals, Norwood Junction [That is, at the junction between the Brighton and the Croydon companies, then loosely called "The Brighton Junction," about ½-mile South of the site of the present Norwood Junction Station], 1844; John Saxby, who first interlocked a complete junction, Bricklayers' Arms, 1856, six pairs of points and eight semaphores; John Stinson Farmer, who afterwards joined Saxby in the celebrated and brilliant collaboration.
To extend the list would carry us too far beyond the important date, 1860, when the "Brighton" made a bold demarche by adopting Saxby's new and more or less untried frame at a critical junction. At the then new Victoria station, an extensive fan of terminal roads was serviced by multiple Junction WIth only two roads, one in and one out over which trains of three companies had to pass: The L.B.S.C. already had a heavy suburban traffic; the L.C.D. occupied "Brighton" territory from as far south as Bromley Junction, Norwood : the G.W.R. occupied it from a point near Stewart's Lane and required a 7 ft. gauge. In addition, the Marquis of Westminster, objecting to a railway through his Pimlico precincts, insisted that it should be roofed over. In such a vortex, where lamp after lamp of flickering gas fought a losing battle with stagnant fog and smoke, it was futile to discuss the pros and cons of interlocking.
From Hole-in-the- Wall frame, Victoria—a name found ready-made in the utter lack of terra firrna—to Lover's Walk, Brighton, is but one step in the sequence. Encouraged, no doubt, by reports from the London end, and spurred by the panic which supervened upon a failure of the human element at Clayton Tunnel, the "Brighton" next called on Saxby to interlock the yard at Brighton. How many new cabins this involved we do not know, but certainly more than one; tentative expedient had grown into settled policy. The date of this first chain is 1861-2, and the cabin at Lovers' Walk, an outpost, may have been added after; if so, not long after.
A few of these ancient cabins remain—Crystal Palace, Hardham, Groombridge, elsewhere; mere shells now, they still reflect a little of their early days and the daily round of the men who worked them. The picture is vague, but in the light of tradition, fragmentary record and photographs of the period, such as Westinghouse have loaned us, it emerges in some sort of shape from the oblivion into which the signalman of Fielding's day has fallen.
He spent his ten working hours, sometimes more, in a draughty box high up, built around signal posts that towered twice as high; in a storm it creaked and groaned like a masted ship; if he feared a light had been blown out, he had to go aloft through a hatch in the roof; to mount to the topmost trembling platform between the semaphores required a steeplejack's sangfroid. No lighthouse keeper was more particular about 'his lamps than he; with their coloured glasses totally enclosed, they were not easily kept dean, and they had to burn bright; high as they were, they might be missed by drivers and firemen crouching dose within the meagre shelter of the weatherboard. Most likely, when he went aloft, he carried in his pocket a box of fusees, matches with large heads that would burn in the wind. .
Gas lit his lamps and his cabin too. One fishtail burner on a swinging bracket was enough for him; by touch as well as sight he knew his levers and they were variously coloured; in his past, they had not been and the light then wasn't any better. He found it a little poor now when he had to swing it over to read the single-needle speaking telegraph, and adjoining comrades often liked to "talk" to him in the quiet of the night shift. This they did in Morse, the short and long signals being given by flexion of the needle to one or other side of neutral; most signalmen were expert in Morse. For the trains he had the bells and the speaking telegraph had become just a useful lifeline ; but a few years since, boxes had nothing else, and signalmen had to be sharp of eye and ear to catch the momentary quiver and click of the needle by which alone they knew a train was coming. Time was, and not so very long before, when they had no telegraph at all, and had to trust entirely to time-interval. He knew Bartholomew's speaking telegraph best because the "Brighton" so largely used it; he felt safer with it because the needle was returned by its own weight, and lightning could not falsify a message, as it sometimes did with other systems by reversing the polarity of the magnet. Telephones he did not know, though he had heard tell of the invention and wondered how people's voices could be made to travel along a wire; the new century was still far ahead when the "Phonophore" telephones were superimposed upon the existing "Brighton" telegraph circuits.
For Saxby and Farmer, and the locking frame in his charge, he had the greatest admiration. True, the levers were always slack from wear and tear of the locking gear, because the locking bars traversed in phase with the traverse of the lever and were driven home with the hammer-blow of the leverage. If the fitter's frequent round was much delayed, a lever might be moved far enough to half-open a facing point before the lock engaged. But so long as he kept his wits about him the frame was perfectly safe, and, having grown into the knack of it, he felt complete confidence.
Except for the lever frame, with its levers ranged in groups of long or short traverse, long for the points, short for the signals, his box was curiously bare and empty, and he took great pains to keep it swept and garnished. He kept the coke stove and its scuttle lustrous with blacklead, polished all his brasswork golden bright, and burnished the lever tops until they shone like silver. Through the windows, which glittered with elbow grease and "shammy," he watched the trains as in duty bound, seeing many a curious cavalcade that would now grace a museum. .
When a young signalman, he wore his hair long, as the fashion of the 'sixties was, and flowing from beneath a high "tinshape" uniform cap. 'With a black bow tie to set off the neat dark serge of his calling, he won approving glances from girls in crinoline. In a plaited straw bag with a fold-over top he carried his meals, his gear and his ambitions.  Was Lovers' Walk the limit of his youthful dreams? Probably not, but when signalmen pass middle-age, they are sometmies shy of the biggest money where the biggest strain is. At Lovers' Walk, both were enough; at the end of the working day he knew he had worked, at the end of his working week he was paid in gold and silver to the value of thirty shillings, and the times were cheap in living.

James McEwan. Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 140-1:
Continued from page 108.
The last addition to the locomotive stock of the Aberdeen Railway prior to the formation of the pool were Nos. 26 and 27, two Crampton type 2-2-2-0 (or 4-2-0) engines with 16-inch diameter by 20 inch stroke cylinders, 7 feet driving wheels, 3 ft. 9 m. carrying wheels, heating surface at tubes 861 sq. ft., and of firebox 59 sq. ft., total, 920 sq. ft. Grate area, 14.5 sq. ft. Pressure, 50 Ibs. Weight, 25 tons 18 cwts. These engines came from E.B. Wilson & Co. in 1850, but the actual date of construction is unknown, and is suspected to have been at least the year previous, and were part of an order given to Crampton by a Continental line and subsequently cancelled. In the pool they took Nos. 73 and 74. In February, 1854, they are reported from Stirling depot as "being in an unsatisfactory state, with both tieed-pipes broken and these are new from the makers, valve gear out of order, spring balances reading doubttul and safety valves corroded," and a request for the centre of gravity to be taken out, and the engines to be taken to pieces and re-made more carefully. Allan replied that "the centre of gravity is 19¼ inches in front of the driving axle. These are patent engines and would never be satisfactory in service, and to put into good working order would cost £1,050 each. I am not prepared to take these into the shops here . at present for re-making, as all the Aberdeen engines are requiring attention. The safety valves will be repaired and returned by the 4.55 p.m. train to-morrow."
Later in the year there is an indication of smaller eccentric pulleys and new straps coming from E.B. Wilson & Co., and when these were fitted the lap was made ¾ inch. After the termination of the pool they returned to the S.N .E. with Pool Nos. 73 and 74, and in 1859 were re-numbered 2 and 3. Yarrow rook them into the Arbroath works in 1860, and they appeared in 1861 as 2-2-2 type tender engines with 16 in. diameter by 20 in. stroke cylinders, 7 ft. driving, and 3 ft. 9 in. carrying wheels, Gooch fixed link motion and Yarrow's patent firebox division. At the best it was an unsatisfactory conversion, for most parts of the reconstructed engine came from the Crampton. The heating surface was reduced to 720 sq. ft., while the boiler was pressed to 70 lbs. The safety valves were modified, In 1866 the Caledonian- Railway numbered them 455 and 454 respectively, and they were supposed to have been withdrawn in 1868, but between June and August of that year new leading tyres were supplied to both, while the tenders were heavily overhauled. Old notes of D. Littlejohn, of Dundee, refer to two old 2-2-2 tender engines running in that area as Nos. 562 and 563, and they had fluted domes. They were supposed to have been two oddments made after the amalgamation at Arbroath, and there seems here to be some essence of fact, but the C.R. amalgamation has been accepted as the tirne instead of the amalgamation of the Aberdeen and S.M.J. lines, to form the S.N.E. In an old repair book the following was entered: "Engine formerly 454 came in 25 July 1870. This tender went to Dundee with water, the supply being short at Dundee. Mr. West has had this tender on another engine while there and· had to get her wheels turned up when she came back. This tender was in good condition when she was sent down. Engine for this tender is at Arbroath." It would therefore appear likely that Nos. 455 and 454 became 563 and 562 in 1868 and ran until about 1871, for these numbers were taken by new engines that year.
At the termination of the pool and working arrangement the S.N.E. had got back all of its earlier stock (or its equivalent, as No. 48 in the pool had been replaced by No. 3 of the S.C.R.) plus four engines supplied to the pool as Nos. 77 to 80. At the same time they ordered some £urther engines from Johri Jones & Sons, E. B. Wilson & Co., and Hawthorns of Leith. Nos. 77 and 78 were similar to Nos. 75 and 76 of the pool period which were retained by the S.C.R. These came frow Hawthorns of Leith in November, 1853, and were 0-6-0 type tender engines with outside cylinders 17 in. diameter by 20 in. stroke, 5 ft. coupled wheels, and having the bearing springs of india rubber. In June, 1854, cast iron balance weights were fitted to the leading and driving wheels of No. 77, and in the following month, also at Perth, an 11 cwt. cast iron ballast block was attached under the footplate to shift the centre of gravity nearer the middle of the engine. Between December, 1854 and February, 1855, No. 78 was similarly dealt with. In December, 1855, both came from Aberdeen to Perth for overhaul. The blast pipes were enlarged, axle brasses broadened, slides restayed, smokeboxes reversed, Allan valve gear fitted, cylinder cocks made larger and generally heavily overhauled. When the engines returned to service they were little improved and were continually leaving the road. Yarrow and Allan met at Arbroath and decided on the course of action needed. The directors of the S.N.E. found their own engineer supported by a capable man and, despite all the makers' claims, facts were facts, and it was agreed that Perth should get the job of altenng them to 0-4-2 type tender engines. The. engmes were rebuilt in April, 1856, No. 77 gettmg 4 ft. 6 m. wheels, and No. 78 getting 5 ft. driving wheels. The trailing wheels of both were 3 ft. 6 in. The wheels, axles and tyres were new from Sharp, Stewart & Co. The cylinders were either new or the old ones lined to 16 in. bore. In 1864 the S.N.E. re-numbered 77 to 1. .

L.N.E.R. 141
The total traffic movement throughout the L.N.E.R. system during the seven days up to and including August Bank Holiday was represented by no less than 70,941 trains of all kinds—or more than 10,000 a day.

L.M.S.R. 141
More than fifteen hundred women were helping to build and repair L.M.S. locomotives. Nearly all of them had been trained in the Company's works, and their jobs include fitting and erecting, boiler mounting, boiler stay drilling and tapping, machining, oxy-acetylene and electric welding, steam and drop hammer driving, as well as overhead crane driving.

Correspondence. 142

Cowlairs commentary. John W. Smith
Re N.B. 4-4-0 tanks recall an attractive type, though the inconvenient access to the cab, due to the coupled wheels, also repeated in the smaller engines of the same notation, must have proved an objectionable circumstance. The last, or possibly the last was running about 1921-2. I saw one at Balloch pier, evidently off the now shut down Forth & Clyde Railway. The neighbouring C.R. had a 4-4-0 tank also, due to Lambie; it was larger than the N.B., and had condensing gear, the last, No. 12, was carriage pilot in the Central Station, Glasgow, about 1924. There is, or was till the war, a beautiful model of one of the 476 class of 4-4-0 in the Royal Scottish Museum; in section about 1½ in. to a foot. There can be no doubt that this engine laid the foundation for a very successful line of locomotives on  the N.B., Caledonian, Highland, G. & S.W. and L. & S.W. Railways. In fact, the principles were continued by successive locomotive chiefs, with marked success. The little 4-4-0 tanks sometimes worked' the Whiteinch Bridgeton Cross locals, and a stiff rise to Jordanhill heavily taxed their powers from Whiteinch. One outstanding event I can recall. In 1910, when a party of workers from Yarrow's decided to go South for Christmas, two E.C.J.S. vehicles were detailed to Whiteinch, and were hauled on their first section, probably to Cowlairs, for attachment to the main line train by one of the small 4-4-0 tanks. It is likely, however, that few, if any, of the travellers knew or cared about this interesting stage of their journey.

The Phillimore Collection sale. Reginald B. Fellows.
Among the items mentioned in article on the Phillirriore Collection, is the first edition of Bradshaw, which was sold for £27. This little book was the first issue of "Bradshaw's Railway Time Tables and Assistant to Railway Travelling." The price .at which it changed hands was a record one. In 1901 a copy was sold by. auction for £25, and a note was printed in Book Prices Current-"This is a record price," and so it remained until last June. The usual price for this 'particular issue ranges around £10. Until the late Mr. Falconer Madan, Bodleys Librarian, commenced, in 1887, a classification of the different issues of Bradshaw's Time Tables, little attention had been given to the publications. The copy recently sold for' £27 was the first issue of the first edition of the Time Tables published on 19 October 1839, giving the Northern railways only. During the winter months two other issues came out with identical title pages including the original date, the only distinguishing marks being one or two alterations and additions to the time tables. By what was probably an oversight, both the Jubilee facsimile reprint in 1889 and the later reprint in 1901, issued as curios by Henry Blacklock & Co., were of the third issue of the first edition.
If at any time the first number of Bradshaw's Railway Guide for December, 1841 should come into the sale room, the bidding would be keen, for of this celebrated Guide only one copy of the first number is known to exist, viz., that in the Bodleian Library and described in the Locomotive Mag. of November, 1941.

Welding locomotive cylinders. 142
In a paper submitted by Carl Ray Averitt to the Lincoln Arc Welding Foundation the following procedure is related: Two welders for each of three working shifts were specially selected to fabricate the cylinders, the various parts of which were set up ready for welding. Some parts required fabrication before the complete cylinder block could be set up. Welding had to be completed on the inner surfaces before the final pieces could be applied. Contraction due to welding had to be allowed for in set- ting up all parts. A quarter-inch was allowed in the length and an eighth in the width. The parts were held in place by suitable bracing bars to insure proper alignment. After welding the completed cylinder block was placed in an oil-heated furnace and raised to a temperature of 1,500 degrees Fahr. to relieve stresses and produce uniform grain structure in the steel. After sand-blasting the block was machined for bushing, for finishing the steam chest and smokebox saddle, and drilled and tapped for cylinder head studs.

Reviews. 142

G.E.R. locomotives, 1900-1922—a brief outline of types existing at the close of 1922, post grouping additions and L.N.E.R. rebuilds, together with a short description of the famous "Decapod." .C. Langley Aldrich.
This 40-page illustrated booklet is intended to serve as a souvenir to those interested in the locomotives of the the late Great Eastern Railway at the time of the grouping in 1923. It is descriptive, but not technical.

British locomotive types. Fifth Edition. London: The Railway Gazette.
Containing 127 dimensioned diagrams of British locomotives, including the Q1 and "Merchant Navy" classes, Southern Railway; also the Ministry of Supply 2-8-0 tender engines and 0-6-0 tanks.

Railway equipment is war equipment: guns, shells and bombs are not the only munitions of war. 142
Poster designed by Fred Taylor for the R.E.C. Publicity Committee,

Number 614 (15 October 1943)

David L. Smith. The Wigtownshire Railway and its locomotives. 149-51. 3 illustrations
Illustrations: Garlieston station p. 150; 2-4-0T No. 1 at Garlieston p. 151

Re-built "Royal Scot" engines: L.M.S. 155. illustration, diagram (side & front elevations)
No. 6103 Royal Scots Fusilier illustrated: to be known as "Converted Royal Scot" class

Stirling Everard. Cowlairs commentary. 156-7. illustration (drawing: side elevation)
Illustration: 2-4-0 No. 233 Stirling

Post-war railway supplies. 157.

Correspondence. 158

Mr Benjamin Piercy. E.K. Gregory
Died 24 March 1889 aged 61. In 1862 he was appointed engineer of the Sardinian Railways.

Locomotive centre of gravity. C.R.H. Simpson.

Number 615 (15 November 1943)

The valve gear. 159.
In a remarkable paper recently read before the Institution of Locomotive Engineers, T.H. Shields reviewed 101 different valve-operating motions of different kinds, or modifications made to known gears that have been applied at one time or another to the steam loco- motive throughout its many years of development. As the Author rightly points out, the almost universal application of the century-old Stephenson's Link Motion and Walschaerts valve gear gives little indication of the amount of ingenuity spent on the numerous mechanisms invented or proposed for operating the slide valves of locomotives. Only a glance through this paper is enough to realise the truth of this statement, and at the same time to demonstrate with great clarity the value of the Stephenson and Walschaerts motions, which alone of the earlier gears have stood the test of time and life on the open road. Indeed, it is an astonishing fact that of all the various mechanisms that have been brought' forward there are at present only three gears in what can be called general use, these being the two already mentioned and the more recent Baker gear, which, though nothing like so widely employed as the Walschaerts, is even so being applied freely in the United States, where it can now be quite safely said to be a competitor of the Walschaerts motion. In certain respects Stephenson's link motion gives even now the most perfect steam distribution, and we have heard it stated with authority more than once that locomotives so fitted can develop a greater power than is the case when the Walschaerts gear is used. The reason for this is the constantly increasing lead opening obtained as the valve travel is shortened and the cut-off made earlier. Thus a fuller card is produced during the admission period with a resulting increase in the mean effective· pressure. This characteristic is of value when compared with the newer radial gears giving a constant "lead," for the reason that .at short cut-offs with any of these gears lead opening constitutes practically the total opening to steam, and the Stephenson motion provides this in full measure when it is most required. So far as the Walschaerts gear is concerned, ·it is quite possible to modify the lap and lead lever in such a manner as to obtain a variable lead, and such an arrangement has 'been in use for some years, notably on the Denver and Rio Grande Western. It adds, however, a certain amount of complication, and has on that account gained little favour. The Stephenson gear, unfortunately, is ill adapted to meet modern conditions, not from the point of view of steam distribution, but rather mechanically, outside cylinders with superimposed valves demand an outside valve gear, hence the employment of the Walschaerts or Baker gears, both of which are without question doing tine work. These motions are well adapted to long travel working, and can and do operate the large-sized piston valves so necessary for high power engines. Unfortunately, none of our existing forms of valve motions or valves are really satis- factory, judged from the point of view of power output. Any attempt at short cut-off working results in cutting down in a most drastic manner port opening to steam, which greatly curtails the power d.eveloped, and as short cut-off working is always quite rightly associated with high speeds, this throttling effect is accentuated. This, together with the early release, restricts the power output from given ·cylinders, and compels the use of large cylinder volume for the power required. The limit has been reached as to what can be done with the one-piece valve as such. In fact, the excellent work done by modern locomotives is due in no small part to the use of higher steam pressures and improved superheat. High pressure steam forces its way through the contracted passages offered by piston valves, and it is very possible that most of the advantages claimed for what has been called free running valve gear are due to .high pressure superheated steam-and the smaller cylinders made possible by its use. We are fully appreciative of the fine performance put up by modern locomotives, but there is room for improvement. In this connection, L.B. ]ones, Engineer of Tests, Pennsylvania System, in a paper contributed in 1940 to the Railroad Division, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, points out that one feature desired for high power operation in express service is "Proper steam distribution. This specification eliminates the one-piece reciprocating valve and requires separate admission and exhaust valves so arranged that cut-off may be shortened without advancing the other valve events. See also letter from Montague Smith

L.M.S.R. 159
No. 5616 Malta, 5XP 4-6-0 was on 4 November 1943 renamed Malta G.C. as a tribute to the people of that heroic island. Lt.-General Sir William Dobbie, G.C.M.G., K.C.B., D.S.O., accompanied by Lady Dobbie, was present at Euston to rename the engine. Sir Thomas Royden, Chairman of the L.M.S. Company, welcomed Sir William and Lady Dobbie, and on the footplate of the engine were Driver John N. Gregory, a Military Medallist of the last war, and Fireman Charles Russell, who was in the Dunkirk evacuation.

Locomotive valve gears. 160-4. illustration, 2 diagrams

The North London Railway. 164-6.
Contintted from, page. 125.
Adverting to the reference on page 72 of the May, 15, 1943 issue to the four-wheeled tank locomotive acquired from the N. & S.W.J. Railway, which subsequently ran on the N.L.R. as No. ·37, and later No. 29, an illustration is now given of this engine prior to its rebuilding. See Fig. 19.
On page 134 of the September 15, 1943, issue reference is made to N.L.R. No. 106 (originally No. 35) becoming Isle of Wight Central Railway No. 7. The illustration (Fig. 20) shews.this engine as runmng on the latter company's system.
Dunng the year 1863 a trial was made on the North London Railway with the first 2-4-2 radial tank engine to appear in this country. This locomotive, which was named While Raven was one built for the St. Helens Railway by Cross & Co. of St. Helens. The reason for this trial was undoubtedly the fact that the engine was fitted with Adams's radial axle boxes and also his patented spring tyres, which the designer wished to experiment with on his own line. It is of interest to note that no engines of this wheel arrangement were ever built for the North London in spite of then later populanty on the neighbouring Great Eastern system.
The next class of locomotive put into traffic consisted of 24 tank engines of the 4-4-0 type, all of which were built at Bow Works to the design of William Adams. They had the following dimensions :-
Cylinders (two inside) : 17 x 24in
Coupled wheels, diameter: 5ft 9in
Bogie wheels, diameter: 3ft
Total wheelbase: 22ft 2in
Length over buffers: 34ft
Heating surface, tubes: 846ft2
firebox: 112ft2
Total 958ft2 .
Grate area: 16.72 ft2 .
Boiler pressure: 160psi
Weight in working order 42 tons
Coal capacity 1 ton 15 cwt.
Water capacity 1,200 gallons
The bogies of these engines were the first to be provided with lateral traverse for the pivot. The bogie frames were outside and connected transversely at the middle by two channel irons faced with steel on their upper sides. The pivot, which was of 6 in. diameter, passed through a bush arranged to slide laterally on the steel faces with a traverse of 4½in. each side. In the first engines there was no controlling force, but afterwards India rubber check springs were added. The wheelbase of the bogie was 6 ft. 0 in., and a single inverted spring took the load on each side. All axles and tyres were of steel. The coupling rods were of Besserner steel and, in the case of the engines built from 1866 onwards, were made with Ramsbottom's bushed ends, for which cast iron bushes lined with white metal were used. Compensating levers were placed between the springs of the coupled wheels, the spring borne weight being carried on three points. An illustration of one of these engines was given on page 134 of the September 15, 1943, issue (Fig. 18) from which it will be observed that, as built, cabs were not provided.
The running numbers and dates of construction of this class were as follows;- Nos. ,51 and 52, 1865; Nos. 53 to 56, and 11, 1866; Nos. '12 to 14 and 57 to 63, 1867; Nos. 64 to 66, 1868; Nos. 15 to 18, 1869 ~ in the order gIven. Some of these engines were rebuilt at Bow Works with 17lin. diameter cylinders,5ft. 11in. diameter coupled wheels, 3ft. 1 in . diameter bogies, whilst the heating surface of the tubes was increased to 1050.74 ft2 ., the firebox being reduced to 91ft2 ., thus giving an increase in the total heating surface to 1141.74ft2 . The grate area was reduced to 16.62ft2 whilst the weight in working order was' increased to 49 tons 13 cwt. The dates of rebuilding of the individual engines of this class were as follows:
No. 51 in 1886; No. 52 in 1888; No. 53 in 1883; No. 54 in 1888; No. 56 in 1885; No. 11 in 1883; No. 14 in 1886; No. 15 in 1890; Nos. 13 and 58 in -1886; No. 60 in 1883; Nos. 64 and 16 in 1890;No 17 in 1885, and No. 18 in 1883. . No. 51 was again rebuilt at the L.N.W. Rly's Crewe Works in 1909, whilst Nos. 56, 13 and 17 underwent a second rebuilding at Bow Works, the first m 1902 and the others in 1907. In consequence of the delivery of further new enpnes beanng the same running numbers most of this class were renumbered.
No. 51 became No. 109 in 1885 and remained in service until the absorption of the North London undertaking by the L.M.S. Railway. In 1923 it was numbered in with the L.N.W. section stock as No.2874. It was also allocated the No. 6435 in the L.M.S. list but never ran in this guise and was finally withdrawn and scrapped in 1925. It is of interest to note that this engine was involved in an accident at Wood Green on 28 February 1895, due to it becoming derailed on account of one of the bogie axles breaking. Nos. 52 to 55 became Nos. 112, 111, 110 and 113 respectively in the year 1885 and were withdrawn from traffic and broken up in 1911, 1894, 1910, and 1889 respectively. No. 56 became No. 114 in 1885 and was disposed of to the L.N.W. Railway in August, 1909, on which system It was numbered 2648. This engine was allocated the number 6436 in the L.M.S. list but never ran as such and was withdrawn from traffic and scrapped in 1925 . Nos. 11 and 12 be- came Nos. 115 and 116 in 1886 and were both scrapped in 1891. No. 13 became No. 117 in 1887 and was disposed of to the L.N.W. Railway in August" 1909! becoming that Company's No. 2649. This engine remained in service until 1925 when it was withdrawn and scrapped. It was allocated the No. 6437 in the L.M.S. list but never carried it. No. 14 became No. 118 in 1887 and· was scrapped in 1911. Nos. 57 and 58 became. Nos. 119 and 120 in 1887 and were withdrawn and broken up in the years 1892 and 1909 respectively. Nos. 59 and 60 became Nos. 121 and 122 in 1888 and were broken up in 1892 and 1895 respectively. Nos. 61, 62 and 63 were all scrapped in 1887. One of these three engines is understood to have run as No. 123tfor a short time. No. 64 became No. 101 in 188~ and remained in service until 1913 when it was broken up. Nos. 65 and 66 were not renumbered and were scrapped in 1888 and 1889 respectively. Nos. 15 and 16 were renumbered 102 and 113 in the year 1889 and were scrapped in 1913 and 1910 respectively. No. 17 became No. 103 in 1889 and was disposed of to the L.N.W. Railway in August, 1909, where it became No. 2647. This engine was eventually withdrawn from traffic and broken up in 1924. .It had been allocated the No. 6438 in the L.M.S. list but never carried it. No. 18 became No. 104 in 1889 and was withdrawn from traffic and broken up in 1894.
This class was built ostensibly for working passenger traffic, and at one time worked excursion trains to and from Southend-on-Sea but towards the end of their careers they were relegated to working the lighter trains. The three locomotives disposed of to the L.N.W. Railway spent most of their time in the service of that company working local parcels trains in the London area and on shunting duties

The Institution of Locomotive Engineers. 166
At a meeting held in the Hall of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, London, on 27 October E.C. Poultney read .a paper, "Locomotive Power," suggesting a method for estimating the drawbar pull and drawbar horsepower of steam locomotives of the normal simple expansion type at usual operating speeds, '
Computations are based on the rate of firing coal per lb.per square foot of grate area per hour, and on the evaporation produced. The indicated tractive effort is based on the hourly stearn .supply to the cylinders, and the actual drawbar pull is determined after deducting the resistance of the locomotive.

P. Ransome Wallis. Impressions of some overseas railways in War-time. 167-9

Conversion of L.N.E.R. class P2 2-8-2 locomotive. 169-70. illustration
Defrocked No. 2005 illustrated and was "doing good work in the Scottish Area" — presumably working as a mobile rail grinder

James McEwan.n Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 170-2:
Scottish North Eastern Railway: Nos. 79 and 80, and 45, an engine ordered additionally, were supplied by John Jones & Sons. This firm was originally Jones, Turner & Evans, later Jones &. Pouts of the Viaduct Foundry, Newton-le-Willows, who became known as John Jones & Sons about 1854 when they removed to the St. George's Works, Liverpool. These appear to have been generally similar to the earlier engines of this 0-6-0 type built for the Caledonian Railway. The cylinders were 17 in. diameter by 20 in. stroke, and driving wheels 4 ft. 6 in. diameter in Nos. 79 and 80, and 5 ft. diameter in No. 45. No. 79 was not many days delivered when both feed pumps broke, and on examination it was found that the bore of the pump barrel was bored taper. Brake gearing was added to the tender of No. 79 in March, 1855, and to No. 80 in January, 1855. No. 45 had brake gearing when received, but had to get this altered before going into service. In 1857 all three of the Jones' engines were altered to 0-4-2 type with 17 in. diameter cylinders and 5 ft. driving wheels. Again the S.C.R. got the job of altering them for the S.N.E. Details of renumbering, etc., are shown on the appended tabulated list.

SNE No. CR No. Maker Date renumbered Date Withdrawn
77(a) 488 Hawthorns 11/1853 660 1873 1876
78 497 Hawthorns 11/1853 664 1875 1877
79 498 J. Jones 12/3/1854 670 1876 1877
80 499 J. Jones 15/3/1854 671 1876 1877
45 500 J. Jones 11/1855 665 1875 1877

(a)-Renumbered  1 in 1864

It seems customary for all railway histories to have a [unacceptable phrase], and the S.N.E. is no exception. Myth, error and fact have with the passing of time been blended into a set story, and an immense amount of research has been necessary to get fact and fiction.separated. Sufficient evidence has been forthcoming to enable certain features to be ascertained which were then easily confirmed. According to one official note, the S.N.E. orderer! 16 passenger tender single engines between 1855 and' 1859, and this statement appears to have upset most early lists. Extensive search of old repair records has thrown light on the misstatement to enable other notes to be added to make a correct' record of the types of the engines. John Jones & Sons supplied six 2-2-2 type passenger tender singles  generally slightly larger than the lot supplied in 1848. The cylinders were 16 in. diameter by 20 in. stroke, and driving wheels 6 ft. diameter. The boilers had a heating surface of 737.2 sq. ft., were fitted with Yarrow's patent firebox, and a working pressure of 95 lb. The S.N.E. built two somewhat similar locornotives at Arbroath and got the cylinders cast locally.
These cylinders proved to be very porous and always giving trouble. The C.R. ultimately assimilated Nos. 451 and 452 to make one decent engine. Although intended for main line work, Yarrow had to consider replacing them nine years later, and at the amalgamation the C.R. put them on to local work, exchanging their tenders for old S.C. ones. In a repair note to Yarrow in 1861 the Montrose foreman remarks that "if the engines were as good as the tenders they would be grand".

SNE No Maker WN Date CR No. Withdrawn
4 J. Jones 411 11/1855 451 1870
5 J. Jones 412 11/1855 450 1868
6 J. Jones 413 12/1855 449 1876
7 J. Jones 414 1/1856 448 1873
8 J. Jones 415 2/1856 447 1873
9 J. Jones 416 2/1856 446 1870
10 S.N.E. 1857 453 1878
11 S.N.E. 1859 452 a)

(a)-Rebuilt with parts of 451 in 1870 and renumbered 451, in 1872 renumbered 486.)
The four engines from Hawthorns of Leith were ordered 0-6-0 type, but after unsatisfactory behaviour, Nos. 77 and 78 were altered before building to 0-4-2 type. The cylinders were 17 in. diameter by 20 in. stroke, with driving wheels of 5 ft. and trailing wheels 3 ft. 6 in. diameter respectively. The boilers were of the makers' usual flush-topped variety, with dome and safety valve on the firebox casing. The heating surface of the tubes was 594.1 sq. ft., and of the firebox 67.7 sq. ft., making a total of 661.8 sq. ft.; pressure 100 lb. Subsequently an alteration was made to the safety valves by Yarrow, but whether this was done to the one on the dome or that a second one was placed on the boiler barrel is now not ascertainable. In June- July, 1855, Hawthorns had to supply ballast plates for attachment under the footplate to shift the centre of gravity of the engines and load the rear axle, the wheels of which were lifting from the rails when running tender first out of sidings. All spent their life on the S.N.E. section.
The type of the four engines from E. B. Wilson & Co. has been definitely established as 0-6-0 with outside cranks and double framing. At first it. was suspected that they had been 0-4-2 originally, but A.C.W. Lowe felt certain that this was a rarity in engines made by Wilson. Then, later, C E.S. Littlejohn, in a letter, had referred to the photograph of Drumlithie Station taken circa 1860, which showed an outside crank, double framed 0-6-0 No. 49, which confirms the earlier suggestions of 0-6-0. Some time between 1861 and 1866 the engines were altered at Arbroath to 0-4-2 type tender engines by altering the rear hornplates and replacing the rear driving wheels with trailing wheels of 3 ft. 7¼ in. diameter. The general dimensions of the engines when delivered from the makers were: Cylinders 16 in. diameter by 24 in. stroke, coupled wheels 5 ft. 0 in. diameter, wheelbase 15 ft. 5 in. equally divided, boiler barrel 4 ft. 1 in. diameter" with 1892 in. tubes, giving a total heating surface of 1,136 sq. ft., of which the firebox supplied 96.5 sq. ft, The weight in working order, 32 tons. 8 cwts., made up per axle as follows: Leading, 12 tons. 7½cwts.; driving, 12 tons 2½cwts., 7 tons 18 cwts. Grate area, 14.4 sq. ft.; pressure 90 lb.
The tender ran on six wheels 3 ft. 6 in. diameter equally spaced on a 10 ft. wheelbase, carried 1,220 gallons of water and two tons of coal, and in , working order weighed about 17 tons. These tenders were later exchanged for four-wheeled ones, but where they finally finished up is un- known. The class was evidently of those standard ones kept in prod uction by various makers for buyers needing engines in a hurry. Neither of these two goods classes were rebuilt, although a heavy overhaul was given in the latter part of the 1860s at Perth. Subsequently, one of each lot was dismantled to make spares for the remainder.

S.N.E. No. Maker Date C.R. No. Renumbered
49 E.B. Wilson & Co. 12/1855 489
50 E.B. Wilson & Co. 12/1855 490 661 (1874) 459 (1877)
51 E.B. Wilson & Co. 12/1855 491 662 (1874) 460 (1877)
52 E.B. Wilson & Co. 1/1856 492 663 (1875) 461 (1877)
81 Hawthorns, Leith 2/1855 493 666 (1875) 462 (1877)
82 Hawthorns, Leith 2/1855 494 667 (1875) 463 (1877)
83 Hawthorns, Leith 3/1855 495 668 (1875) 464 (1877)
84 Hawthorns, Leith 3/1855 496 669 (1875)

(The engines were withdrawn as follows: No. 49, 1872; No. 50, 1880; No. 51, 1880; No. 52, 1881 No. 81, 1880; No, 82, 1880; No. 83, 1881; No. 84, 1877.)
Note.-Makers' numbers of 49 to 52 were 504 to 507.
It will be noted that this was one of the few exceptions when renumbering acquired engines that the group was not renumbered in reverse order.
Yarrow also got three fast goods engines of the 2-4-0 type Crewe pattern for the part of the line between Perth and Forfar which is comparatively level. Two only were ordered at first, but the need for a spare when the others were shopping made the purchase of a further one necessary. To S.N E. standards these engines were very satisfactory, but at the amalgamation the Caledonian relegated them to odd work and replaced them with new 2-4-0 engines built in anticipation of a general replacement of the S.N.E. stock when it was acquired. The boiler of these three engines was of the usual raised firebox casing type with dome and Salter type safety valve over the firebox and pillar type safety. valve on the boiler barrel. The cylinders were outside and were 17 in.diameter by 20 in. stroke, but were lined up to 16½ in. at Arbroath about 1860. The leading wheels were 3 ft. 7¼ in. diameter and the coupled wheels 5 ft. 2 in. diameter. The total heating surface was 842 sq. ft., and grate area 13.2 sq. ft. Pressure, 120 lb. per sq. in. The weight in working order was 30 tons 15 cwts. Wheelbase, 15 ft. 0 in. spaced 7 ft. plus 8 ft. These three engines were built by Peto, Brassey and Betts, Canada Works, Birkenhead (their Nos. 37, 38 and 42) and were the only engines of this wheel formation to run on the S.N.E. The road numbers were 46, 47, both built in 1855, and 48, built in 1857, and on becoming C.R. stock they became Nos. 501 to 503 in the same order. No. 501 was rebuilt at Perth in April, 1868, and 502 in September, 1868. No. 503 blew up at Bridge of Dun in 1869. It had assisted a southbound goods up to Glasterlaw and had returned when the accident occurred. It was found on examination of the wreckage after the happening that the boiler plating over the firebox was very badly worn. The safety valves when found were tested and found to be in good order. Part of the boiler plating was hurled about 600 yards to the side. The driver and fireman were badly hurt and were off work for a considerable time. The driver recovered fully and returned to lighter duties on the footplate, but the fireman was crippled permanently and was found a suitable job. No. 503 was reboilered with a spare boiler and given an overhaul, and put back to traffic. The old frames were patched twice and in 1875 the engine was withdrawn. Nos.,501 and 502 were renumbered 672 and 673 in 1876. In 1877 No. 502 was withdrawn, and in the following year No. 672 was renumbered 706, being withdrawn in 1879.
Illustrations: S.N.E. 0-6-0 Nos. 49·52 (E.B. Wilson 1855·6) drawing side elevation,; boiler explosion: photograph. of No. 48 at Bridge of Dunn in 1869. 

Reviews. 172

A.B.C. of Southern electrics, Ian Allan. Foolscap 8vo., 24 pp. and cover
Description of electric stock in service on the Southern Railway, with the serial numbers of the various units. It is fully illustrated and admirably designed to foster interest in electric vehicles, which perhaps is at present not very widely held. A list of all the head codes in use on the S.R. at the end is a very useful feature of a well-produced booklet.

The British Austerity locomotive. London: The Railway Gazette.
An eight-page illustrated reprint with folder (sectional elevation and plan) explaining the manufacturing economies achieved in the design of the British-built 2-8-0 type tender locomotive. This publication provides a useful record of a very interesting type.

The Liverpool and Stoke-on-Trent tailway hour section, and also Birmingham and Nottingham Hour sections to speed up Railways in the Midlands. J. F. Pownall-Birmingham; Cotterell & Co.
12-page booklet setting /forth the author's project for expediting railway travel.

L.N.E.R. 172
Successful tests had been carried out with radio telephone apparatus designed by engineers of Rediffusion, Ltd., and the L.N,E.R., on a goods train of 52 wagons between Hornsey and Hitchin, to enable the engine crews and guards to converse during the journey.

L.M.S.R. 172
Two further engines of the 4-6-2  Coronation Class were in service: No. 6246 City of Manchester, and No. 6247 City of Liverpool. R. White had been appointed district locomotive superintendent, Motherwell, to succeed H.C. Prentice, who retired. S.T., Clayton, formerly at Rugby, succeeds Mr. D, Dobbie at Polmadie. R. T. Spencer succeeded R. White at Saltley. T. E. Mercer, formerly at Toton, becomes district locomotive superintendent at Rugby. G, F. Home, formerly at Bank Hall, succeeded Mercer at Toton, and . J. Davenport succeeded Home at Bank Hall. C.H. Burgess, shed foreman at Patricroft, to become district locomotive superintendent, Crewe. W. Killan , Staveley, succeeded H. A. Peet at Devons Road, Peet succeeded Davenport at Willesden [KPJ not stated, but probable that phrase assistant DLS missing from references following Mercer].

Number 616 (15 December 1943)

Weight saving in locomotives. 173
Advocated use of light alloys for non-stress bearing components such as cabs, running plates and boiler cladding and the adoption of welded items including boilers

L.N.E.R. [appointments]. 173
R.P.Critchley had been appointed District Locomotive Superintendent, Glasgow, in succession to G.W. Phillips, who had retired, B.P. Blackburn, District Locomotive Superintendent, Burntisland, had been appointed to succeed Critchley at Edinburgh. H.J. Williams, Locomotive Works Manager, Gorton, had been appointed Carriage and Wagon Works Manager, Gorton. G. Caster had been appointed Locomotive Works Manager, Gorton. J.H.P. Lloyd had been appointed Works Manager, Stratford.

Edward H. Livesey. Across Canada in the cab. 174-7. 2 illustrations
Canadian Pacific Railway from Montreal to Toronto via Peterboro. Memories of Pacific No. 1102 which was a two-cylinder compound which had Corliss type valves working on the Young-Mann-Averill system. A 4-4-4 was employed on the Montreal to Toronto service. No. 2925 was a derivative of a 6ft 8in streamlined design fot powering high speed trains, but had smaller diameter (6ft 3in) coupled wheels. It had 900 ft2 of superheat and a total heating surface of 3191ft2. The service was liable to stop many times (there were many potential flag stops) and crews were changed at divisional boundaries. An overall average speed of 34 mile/h was maintained which implied a high rate of acceleratiion. The train included a buffet car. One illustration shows cab interior.

Narrow-gauge locomotives oof the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroads. 278-80. 9 illustrations
3-ft gauge

P.C. Dewrance. Midland Railway lcomotives: Birmingham and Derby Junction Rly. 180-3. illustration
The genesis of the Midland Railway, and consequently of its initial locomotive stock, is known to all interested in railwavs to have been the North Midland, the Midland Counties and the Birmingham and Derby Junction railways, generally taken in that order of their relative importance. But in establishing the history of their locornotives it is preferable to deal with them in exactly the reverse order, the Royal Assent to the respective Bills forming each constituent line chronologically beginning with the Birmingham and Derby Company and with the North Midland last; this sequence influencing to some extent the ordering—and hence the dating'of design—of the locomotives; in fact, as will be seen, the earliest engines for the Birmingham and Derby Railway were actually ordered not long after·the first for the Sheffield and Rotherham Rly., the latter of which were described recently, thus following the Leicester and Swannington locomotives dealt with in The Locomotive Mag., July and August, 1932. Further the. locomotives being of the respective makers standard designs of the period also makes it con- venient to commence with this line. From when the three companies were amalgamated on 10 May 1844 to. form the Midland Railway the locomotives which they each contrbuted became known as the "amalgamated· stock" and the unfortunate fact that no contemporary list either of the amalgamated stock of 1844 or of that of the separate lines at that time, nor a. complete list of any of the constituent companies—with the exception of the. Midland Counties to be referred to when describing that company's engines-exists, causes considerable difficulty; it being obligatory to adopt the method of working from earlier and later data in combination to bridge the gap. It should, perhaps, be here mentioned that during the 1890-1905 penod a good deal of "information" (?) appeared about the supposed earliest composition of the Midland Rly. locomotive stock, but this was in great part derived from attempts to utilize the bare list of -locomotive types and quantities appearing in the Gauge Commission Report of 1846 on the assumption that the stock of M. Rly. locomotives at that "time was practically identical with what it had been in May, 1844; an assumption which, as will be seen, was considerably at fault and gave rise to .a cloud of erroneous deductions, many still currently accepted.
Due to the difficulties mentioned, reference should here be made to the sources of contemporary information available; this is important in the case of the early M. Rly. lines because, although there have fortunately survived two contemporary lists of the Midland Counties locomotives and those -of the Birmingham and Derby can be fairly dearly arrived at, in- the case of the most important constituent, the North Midland, no detailed ." railway" list of -its locomotives is known: These sources are: the partial lists in Whishaw, 1840, the Board of Trade Returns of 1841, and the Gauge Report Returns of 1846, the particulars 'extant in the archives of such of those locomotive builders still existing who supplied engines at that time, such records' of the constituent lines as -existed (kindly made available some years ago at the instance of the late Sir Henry Fowler) and finally, the locomotives of the three constituent Companies subsequently traceable in the Midland Railway stock.
Notwithstanding that these various sources do not combine to form a completely .docurnented account, yet the unprovable points—which will be -duly indicated—can be solved so dose to probability as to form what is no doubt a reasonably exact account of all the locomotives; it being necessary in some cases of these constituent lines, .arid even in a few cases of locomotives which came to the Midland Railway later, to have recourse to what may be called the archaeological method of 'stating the alternative hypotheses and the reasons for adopting the most probable solution. Further in such cases where the general form and adequate leading dimensions are available a diagram will be given embodying all that 'is known, rather than 1eaving a design entirely undelineated.
"Popular" —end of the century—accounts of the numbers and names of the engines of the three -companies are in error concerning two of them; the actual facts being that no names whatever, but only numbers are anywhere recorded of orth Midland engines, that no numbers but only names :are mentioned anywhere in the Birmingham and Derby documents whilst the Midland Counties engines are recorded both by name and number from fairly early in the documents of that company, although there being no other contemporary reference to the numbers of· the latter it is probable that only names appeared upon the actual engines.
In dealing with the after-history of the locomotives, it is intended in those cases—the majority from these three principal constituent lines— where classes or designs were not perpetuated or did not have major influence upon later practice, to forthwith recount their subsequent careers upon the Midland Railway until their ultimate withdrawal from service. In this research, especially for the decades of the 1850s and 1860s, the co-operation of the late F.H. Clarke, of Derby—whose knowledge of the "medieval" period of Midland Rly. locomotives has been freely accorded the author in collaboration—has been of primary importance.
The Birmingham and Derby Junction Rly. was projected late in 1835 to run from Derby to a junction with the London and Birmingham Rly . near Birmingham; it was partly a local project but having considerable backing from North Midland interests, including that of George Stephenson himself. After the Act of Incorporation was passed on May 19th, 1836, what was called the Stonebridge branch-but more strictly speaking the Hampton branch-was pushed on, construction of the original section from the neighbourhood of Whitacre to Birmingham being shelved for the time. G. Stephenson was the directing engineer with a resident engineer on the actual construction.
The line from Derby to Hampton (Hampton-in-Arden) 38½ miles was formally opened on 5 August, and for public traffic on 12 August 1839; at Hampton Junction connection being made with the main line of the London and Birmingham Rly. The line joining the London and Birmingham in the direction of London was of course laid out for the convenience of North traffic to and from the metropolis; the trains to Birmingham having to reverse at Hampton. These latter trains were worked into Curzon Street station by the B. and D. and it is recorded that the B. and D. locomotives had to run tender first one way in consequence of the turntables in the Birmingham station not being sufficiently large to turn six-wheeled engines.
The direct line to Birmingham had originally been intended to join the London and Birmingham Rly. at Stechford, but this was altered to having a direct line from Whitacre to a new station of their own built by the B. and D. at Lawley Street. This line was 10 miles in length from what is now called Whitacre Junction, via Saltley, and was opened on 10 February 1842. Lawley Street station was at a lower level than the London and Birmingham and Grand Junction railways near Curzon Street station and vehicles were transferred by means of a lift, and when later on arrangements were made between the Midland and the London and North Western railways for the use of New Street Station by the former, Lawley Street became the Midland Goods station.
The accompanying illustration, from an early wood-cut, of Hampton Station shows the original Hampton engine-house of the railway as it appears at the present time, although it is now in use for other than railway purposes.
Matthew Kirtley so well-known for his long reign as locomotive superintendent of the Midland Railway, was early connected with the B. and D. and a brief account of his career until he joined the line is called for.  He was born in February 1813 at Tanfield near Newcastle-on-Tyne. Aged thirteen or fourteen he started work on the Stockton & Darlington Railway; going then for a short time to the Liverpool & Manchester Railway. He then — according to one account — went to the Warrington & Newton  Railway as fireman and later to the Hull & Selby Railway where he became a driver. He is next "found" on the London & Birmingham Railway and is stated to have driven the first locomotive upon that railway which entered London in 1837.
On the Birmingham and Derby he first appears to have been appointed —  it is believed at the instance of one of the Stephensons under whose favourable notice he seems to have come — foreman of the running-shed at Hampton in 1839 and it is not certain exactly when he was appointed "Superintendent of Locomotives" with full control; matters regarding inspection of locomotives under construction, the certifying acceptance of en.gines and preparation of "returns" being all dealt with by J.C. Birkinshaw from before the opening of the Iine until at least the end of 1841 as in the Company's documents the latter is referred to as then still exercising such functions as head of the Locomotive Dept. In any case the locomotives were built entirely to "makers-designs" and so the influence of Kirtley thereon does not arise.
Birkinshaw, it should be mentioned, was the Chief Engineer of the Birmingham and Derby line at Tamworth and when he left the railway— at some time after 1841— Kirtley was certainly placed in full charge of the locomotive department and also appears to have had control of the Way and Works Dept. It may be noted that in an account which appeared in the 1920s it is stated that Kirtley was employed at Tayleur's Works at Newton-le-Willows in the early 1830s; but it seems probable that it was his brother, Thomas Kirtley, who was referred to; it is believed also that another member of the family was a member of the locomotive building firm of Kirtley & Co., of Warrington. In any case Matthew Kirtley was brought up in a railway-family atmosphere and at the time he was appointed to the B. and D. he would have been 26 years of age and with an extremely varied twelve years of practical experience; varied even for those days when the valuable custom of obtaining wide experience by almost itinerant changing from firm to firm produced leaders in railway engineering who gave impetus to the quick development of the art which marked that period, and no doubt stood Kirtley in good stead when he had to make the best out of the heterogenous co]lection of locomotives which fell to his lot as head of the Midland Railway locomotive department five years later.
The total stock of passenger engines upon the Birmingham and Derby line was 12, and all these were of the respective builders standard designs of the period, and line-drawings to represent each of the four classes and their respective constructional features are given separately further on, also, as it may be of interest in the case of these "makers designs" of this period, reference to their sisters—twins in some cases—on other lines is made. It is dear that as a whole they were "wise purchases", being of good straightforward designs and, with the exception of the three Mather Dixons—whose fate seems to have paralleled that of the similar M.D. "singles" on the North Midland—lasted until the 1850s, their final recorded appearance upon the M. Rlv. being as Nos. 232-240. Their numbering upon the first, or "Amalgamated-stock" list of the Midland Rly. is not definitely known, the nine (excluding the Mather Dixons) may have been Nos. 32-40 but by 1849 they were 232-4 Tayleur, 235-7 Sharp and 238-40 Hawthorn.
By a curious chance there has survived a letter from the .then Secretary of the Birmingham and Derby Rly. dated 17 June 1840, in which, for the purpose of proving that certain B. and D. engines had not travelled over the London and Birmingham line, he cites their receival-points on the railway, as follows: The. Tame, Blythe and Anker by water carriage at Burton, the Derby at the Grand Trunk Canal Station at Oakley Farm near Alrewas, whilst the remaining eight came over the London and Birmingham Railway, evidently via Hampton. The transport bv water of the three engines of Hawthorn's from Newcastle must have been somewhat of a "tour de force" as they must have come by sea from the Tyne to the Humber and thence by the River Trent via Gainsborough and connecting canals passing near Nottingham and by Wilden Ferry onwards up to Burton, whilst the transport of the:Derby from Newton was probably even more difficult as it would have come via the Trent and Mersey—sometimes called Grand Trunk—Canal upon which it would have passed through the famous, or infamous, Harecastle Tunnel nearly 1¾ miles long and upon which canal the lock widths were only 7 ft. compared with 14 ft. upon the canal from the Trent up to Burton by which the "Hawthorn" engines came; it is significant that only the Derby out of the three Tayleur engines came by canal.
Regarding the dates of supply and possible B. and D. numbering of these engines; there is no reason to believe—contrary to suppositions hitherto current—that the locomotives had numbers as well as names, in fact such documents as survive show the engines always referred to by names and never by numbers. The whole twelve passenger engines were evidently ordered practically at the same time, if not actually on the same date- Mather Dixon's drawing is dated April, 1838 and Hawthorn's records give 2 April 1838 as date of order—and their order of delivery is uncertain. Some idea of their probable sequence of ordering may be extracted from the group naming, by considerations of "logical naming order" which is evidently likely to have been:
(1) Named after principal towns on the line—Tayleur's engines.
(2) Named after secondary towns on the line— Mather Dixon's engines.
(3) Named after principal rivers—Sharp's engines.
(4) Named after secondary rivers—Hawthorns engines.
It is true that their order as sent in by the railway for the 1841 Returns is 3,4,2,1 whilst in Whisharw it is 4,2,1,3 but the sequence suggested is, by chance or otherwise, found-after elimin- ating the Mather Dixon engines—to correspond to that of their numbering upon the M. Rly. list in 1849-50. Hence they will be considered in the order mentioned. The exact manner in which names were allocated to the engines vis-a-vis their makers numbers, is uncertain and will be given as they appear in the official list which the railway supplied for the 1841 returns. Contued next Volume p, 7..

Argentine diesel railcars. 183-4
Service covering a period of· five years by four double-bogie metre-gauge diesel-electric railcars on the Buenos Aires Provincial Railway given by Jose Vittone, of that railway, in a paper read before the South American Centre of the Institution of Locomotive Engineers in September 1941, but published in the Journal in 1943. In the five years the cars covered an aggregate of 1,979,220 km. in local service, the track speed not being allowed to exceed 80 krn.p.h. The cars were supplied by Sulzer Bros. of Winterthur at the end of 1935 and powered by that firm's six-cylinder 270 b.h.p. diesel engines

Mecanicien. E.B. Wilson's 0-6-0 goods engine. Maryport & Carlisle Railway. 184. illustration: drawing (side elevation)
Number 13: a standard Railway Foundry product supplied in 1855 with double frames, inside cylinders. The last were suppliied to the Abergavenny & Hereford Railway were Works Numbers 628-633 and the running numbers were 14 to 19. It is estimated that 160 locomotives of this standard type were manufactured plus a further four by Manning Wardle (WN 24-27) for the North Eastern Railway (running numbers: 433-6). The locomotives were produced over 12 pits and the output was one per week. They had 16 by 24-in cylinders, 5-ft coupled wheels

Another L.N.E.R. conversion. 185. illustration
B3/3 Lord Farringdon type rebuilt with two cylinders

L.N.E.R 186
Ninety-four large-boilered Ivatt "Atlantics" came from the Great Northern to the L.N.E.R. at the time of grouping, when they were classified C1 and renumbered 3251/72-3301, 4300 and 4440-61. Built between 1902 and 1910, all but a few of them being .two-cylinder engines, it was not until 1924 that the first was withdrawn from service. This was ,No. 4300, built in 1905 to the designs of the Vulcan Foundry, Ltd. Originally a four-cylinder compound, she was constructed in 1917 as a two-cylinder engine. Next to go was No. 3292, also built in 1905 as a four-cylinder compound and withdrawn as such in 1927. Now the first of the standard two-cylinder "Atlantics" is to be cut up. She is No. 4459, one of a series of ten built in 1910 with Schmidt superheater, piston valves instead of slide valves, cylinders with a diameter of 20 in. instead of 18¾ in. and, for a while, a boiler pressure of 150 lb., subsequently altered to 170 lb. per sq. inch. No. 4459 had always been stationed at King's Cross. Early after grouping she hauled the invitation and inaugural public trips of the Harrogate Pullman non-stop between London and Leeds in charge of Driver Redding, and between 1925 and 1937 was frequently on the Pullman working. During the present war she was fitted with A.T.C. apparatus for use in connection with an experimental length of London suburban line so equipped, and regularly worked between King's Cross and Cambridge.
The Ivatt "Atlantics" are amongst the most failure-free locomotives possessed by the L.N.E.R. to-day, and some of their speed and haulage feats have become almost legendary. During the last war, for instance, many of them hauled trains of 450 tons, day in, day out. But now, owing to their age, the demise of more of these famous looomotives cannot be much longer delayed.

L, M.S. 186
Seven employees who were prisoners-of-war were among the successful candidates in' the Institute of Transport Examination results recently published.

Crampton's patents. 186-8.  2 diagrams
Patent 14,021 of 17 November 1885. Whatever be the merits or defects of this conception, it at least demonstrates that advancing age had in no way diminished Crampton ingenuity or origin- ality, since in many ways this engine is without precedent, and departs completely from the con- structional principles embodied in his earlier designs. So far as the writer is .aware, no complete drawings exist of this machine, or at any rate have never been published in· any accessible source, and the accompanying drawings are therefore given under reserve. They have been compiled from some fairly full drawings that appeared in The Railway Engineer for November, 1886, and from certain sketches formerly in the possession of; and probably made by, E.L. Ahrons and Douglas Leach. These conform. generally to the meagre diagrams of the Patent Specification, and fully indicate the aims and purposes of .Crampton's final incursion into locomotive engmeenng.

Correspondence. 188

No. 12, Victorian Railways. James. C.M. Rolland.
While the Geelong and South Suburban. companies had already acquired locomotives which were later to become V.R. motive power, the first actually procured by the Government (through the Trustees of the lately taken over Mount Alexander Railway Co. to Bendigo) were from the works of George England, of London. These comprised. four 0-6-0 and one 2-2-2, all tender engines, the building date being 1857, though it was 1858 before they had arrived and the Williamstown Shops erected them. No. 12 was the single-wheeler (11, 13, 15 and 17 being the goods quartette) and her claim to fame is that she was the first V.R.-owned passenger locomotive and the "ancestor" of all the big express engines of to-day—and to-morrow. It. is this historical claim that has prompted the attempt to portray her as she was when on her trials across the stony rises of Yarraville on the line then just approaching completion (the opening day was in January, 1859). The prompting, it should rightly be mentioned, has come from Leo. J. Harrigan, the most assiduous and fully-informed historian, probably, of all Victorian Railway enthusiasts. It seems there is in existence no picture of her' as she was then, and the accompanying reproduction is, from a drawing. Fully correct details cannot, of course, be guaranteed, but a close study has been made of all the evidence—from later pictures of 12 after alteration; from definite pictures of the rather peculiar tender; from drawings of other "England" engines of the period, and from many illustrations of other British locomotives of about the same date.
The "Ancestor's" career was by no means a routine one. Quite early it became apparent that 6 ft. 6 in. single driver were not suited to Victorian grades, and she was converted to a 2-4-0 with 5 ft. coupled wheels (as were the Beyer, Peacock singles, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10). After the extensive-conversion she seemed to be very much of a rouseabout, and in her later days (in 1880) she was sold to the Yarrawonga Shire to run their Dookie to Katamatite Tramway. When this outfit was taken over by the Government, 12 came back to the fold again, but to find that her "seat" had been meanwhile taken by 12E, one of the new 2-4-2 tanks built by the Phoenix Foundry. So she was thereafter' listed as 528.
Other humble jobs fell to her lot. For a time she worked . for the Box Hill brick works, a mile or so's run from the pits to the station yard; then she was on loan to the Altona Bay (Colliery) Co.: in 1901 she was seen standing by at the head of a casualty train in Jolimont during the Royal: visit, every other engine being busy, Finally, in 1904, she was sold to Messrs. Rawdon & Baxter, contractors, and ended her chequered career helping to build the Outer Harbour at Port Adelaide, South Australia. Is there not in this halting attempt at life history some parallel to the tales of the famous old veterans of the high, seas? The writer often feels there is,

Review. 188

A.B.C. of G.W.R. locomotives. Ian Allan. 40 pp, and cover,
A list of the numbers and names of all G.W,R, locomotives, at present in service: together,with the leading dirnensions, of each class. The origin of engines taken over from railways. incorporated in the Great Western system is indicated; this is a useful feature, as, owing to many of them having been now fitted with standard G,W. boilers, etc., they are- not now readily identified even by those familiar with them in the past. The leading dimensions of each class and a list of the running sheds completes a well illustrated and excellently arranged booklet. .