The Locomotive Magazine and Railway Carriage and Wagon Review
Volume  50 (1944)
Key file

Number 617 (15 January 1944)

The locomotive and research. 1.
Editorial inspired by Sir Harold Hartley's brochure Are you research-minded? Queries extent to which research can be extended to steam locomotive, altough mentions Bridge Stress Committee, the superheater and Chapelon's work.

2-4-2+2-4-2 "Beyer-Garratt" for the Leopoldina Railway (metre gauge). 2-3. illustration
Four locomotives supplied by Beyer Peacock for service on the Cantagallo branch which rose 1500 feet to a summit at Coreiro from Portella on the Parahyba River on 1 in 30 gradients with severe curvature. They had 11 x 20in cylinders; 3ft 4in coupled wheels; thermic syphons; 1103ft2 total heating surface; 30.3ft2 grate area and Belpaire fireboxes. They had large ash pans as the engines were intended to burn inferior coal.

The late Mr John George Robinson. 3

Special railway wagons for aircraft. 3
To handle imports of American aircraft received through ports. Aircraft delivered in 40ft crates which required special well wagons.

L.N.E.R. 3
George Dow, former Information Agent became Press Relations Officer. Notes diagrams produced by him for use in carriages on both LNER and LMS railways and his work on a history ofv the Great Central Railway and that he had been railway correspondent for Design for To-day.

James McEwan. Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 4-6. 2 illustrations
SNER 0-4-2 1859-1866 (table): supplied by Neilson (WN 478-82/1859); Peto, Brassey & Betts WN 48-50/1861-2; Vulcan Foundry (WN 490-3/1862); Neilson (WN 1161-6/1865 and 1202-7/1866). They had outside cylinders 17 x 20in; 5ft 1½ coupled wheels; 1073ft2 total heating surface; 14ft2 grate area and 120 psi boiler pressure. Illustration No. 65 0-4-2WT on p. 36

P.C. Dewhurst. Midland Railway locomotives: Birmingham and Derby Junction Rly. 7-8. diagram (side elevation)
Continued from page 183, Vol. XLIX) There is good reason for supposing the Mather Dixon engines to have been first delivered—by July, 1839—a minute of that month authorising a payment for " their three engines delivered"; as, further, no mention is made of any other payment for locomotives received from February to July, 1839 and Mather Dixon's drawing being dated April, 1838, also the progress of the line making (this about the earliest likely date for ordering locomotives, it is very improbable that the other firms would have delivered before February, 1839. At the other extreme it is known from the letter above-mentioned from the B. and D. Secretary dated June, 1840 that the Company had, up to the date of an aocount then recently terminated, 12 engines.
The delivery of Mather Dixons engines can therefore be assumed as May-June, 1839 whilst from the makers numbers of Sharp's engines, which numbers at the period in question were allo- cated in order of delivery and not, as is usual, when booking an order, it appears that they must have been delivered during Sept. and Oct., 1839. The Tayleur engines also must have been delivered about the same time because there is record of their being in use in December, 1839, but no clue survives of the delivery of the Hawthorns. although it is evident they arrived about the end of 1839.
Whishaw, in referring to the B. and D. locomotives, makes the ambiguous statement—immediately after his introductory reference to its locomotives—that "There is a peculiarity in Stephenson's engines—the· driving wheels are· without flanges"; there being no Stephenson engines on the B. and D. this pointed piece of information is left" floating ·in the air." However, in the 1841 Returns there is mention—referring to all the engines, and apparently including the 0-4-2 goods engines-that "the driving wheels were all originally without flanges but those subsequently re-tired have flanges." It may be added that an authentic contemporary makers drawing of the engines from Mather Dixon's shows flangeless tyres to the driving wheels—not as in the case of the same firm's similar engines to the Grand Junction Rly. and other lines, which had flange—hence it seems that Robert Stephenson had some intervention in their ordering. .
Whishaw also gives the results of some practical experiments which may be consulted by those interested; the principal points being that he found the average steam pressure during the tests was 55 lb. upon the Tayleur and Sharp engines (the Mather Dixon's and Hawthorn's are not mentioned) from which it appears. that, as the nominal boiler pressure was 50 lb. in those engines of which record exists, they must have had the safety valves set at about 60 lb. in order to furnish an average of 55 lb. The fuel burnt upon the engines, it seems needless to say, was coke and there is record that the tenders carried about 1½ ton of that fuel; further, although no details of the tenders supplied with the B. and D. engines are available, it is known that they had outside bearings. The B. and D. were interested in certain experiments with coal-burning carried out by the Midland Counties-to be mentioned later-but took no active part therein. It will be noted that although the line was, "de facto," a supporter of the six-wheeled locomotive in the " four versus six wheels" controversy, it had no Stephenson engines and hence was not definitely pro-Stephenson; in this respect following the Grand Junction Rly.; this point has its interest because, as will later be seen, its two sub- sequent partners—the Midland Counties and the North Midland—were most definitely pro-Bury and pro-Stephenson respectively.
Dealing now with the three Tayleur engines; these were Tayleur's Nos. 75-77 delivered during the autumn of 1839, the first being named Derby and the other two Burton and Birmingham and they are shown in Fig. 1. The three engines were identical with the exception of Birmingham having 94 2 in. tubes giving 20ft2. less. heating. surface than the others; they all bemg sister engmes, except for a variation in the cylinder diameter and number of tubes apparently unaccompanied by other differences, to ten engines for the Grand Junction in 1838, eleven for the London and Southampton in 1838 and 1839, four to the Berlin-Saxony Rly. in 1839, three to the North Midland and four to the Glasgow, Paisley and Kilmarnock early in 1840 as also one similar, but with 6 ft. 0 in. driving wheels, for the K.F.N.B. Austria ; 36 in all.
Considerable difficulty exists in adequately illustrating these engmes. Drawings have appeared accompanying descriptions of similar- sized Tayleur singles of the period upon other lines, but these are all similar to one published by W. A. Robertson, London, July 1st,. 1839, entitled "Locomotive Engines Constructed in 1839 by Messrs. Tayleur & Co.", and this drawing shows an engine much smaller than the standard Tayleur single of the 1837-40 period, having a firebox smaller than any of the Tayleur singles listed in Whishaw and with driving and carrying wheels 5 ft. 10 in. and 3 ft. 10 in. re- spectively. However, there exist three good guides to Tayleur's practice in structural features, the first in the diagrams (deriving from the firm) of eaxly Vulcan Foundry locomotives, exhibited at the Science Museum, London, the second in the contemporary illustrations coinciding with the London publication above referred to and, for- tunately, an authentic illustration of a Tayleur 0-4-2 of 1837 which appeared in "The Locomotive" of August, 1909, pp. 155. These all agree exactly as to constructional features and details hence it is reasonable to suppose that Tayleur's practice-where not interfered with from outside as they were not likely to have been by the B. and D.-was well set; hence as sufficient details appear in Whishaw to determine the major dimensions it has enabled a drawing to represent the B. and Derby engines to be developed with necessary corrections to correspond with the known dimensions. It should be noted that all illustrations known to the author - including plates published so late at 1839-show the engines with the two loose-eccentric valve-gear, becoming quite out-of-date by 1839-40 and, as will also be observed, the cylinders are somewhat low down, an undesirable feature; whilst the connecting-rods and gear, also the round "decorated" spokes, all bespeak a design somewhat out-dated; hence absolute confidence cannot be placed in all the details of Fig. 1 which represents the nearest approximation attainable unless at some time a contemporary drawing of the actual engines should be discovered.
The most interesting constructional features of the engines, apart from those already mentioned are:
The outside main frames were of sandwich pattern with bolted-on horn-plates or axle-guards to all wheels, very closely following the Stephenson practice of the time, the frame top being straight and whilst the leading and driving springs were above the frame, the trailing were as usual between the underside of the "sandwich" and the axlebox. The inside framing seems to have been composed—at least in the forward portion—of four members and these were of some- what shallow plate form connecting the cylinders to the firebox throat-plate and -inclined throughout their length in accordance with the cylinder- lines; the slide-bars apparently being independent of the cylinders. The drawbar-pin was housed in a bracket attached to the back-plate of the firebox shell through which the whole traction effort was thus transmitted, so aptly described—and criticised—by D.K. Clark as "pulling by the firebox" .
The cylinders were inclined upwards towards the rear—notwithstanding that the piston rods were above the leading axle-the valves being on top located centrally with the length of the cylinder-bore and operated through rocking-shafts. Boiler feed was by means of two ram pumps driven from a lug upon the cross-head assembly, above the slide-bars, with delivery rather towards the front end of the boiler-barrel.

British Railways exhibition. 8
Stagied, at premises of Dean & Dawson, Piccadilly, an exhibition of photographs showing the history of railway-owned steamships from the 1850s down to the present time. In this exhibition could be seen not only the growth of the familiar Continental and Irish boats, but also their smaller brethren, many of them paddle-steamers, serving on the Clyde or connecting the train services with the many islands round our coast.

J.P. Maitland. 8
Award in New Year Honours: the Locomotive Running Shed Superintendent at Nine Elms, S.R., had been awarded the M.B.E.

Ministry of Supply 2-8-0 tender locomotive. 9. illustration
No. 7199 supplied by North British Locomotive Co.

L.N.E.R. 9
New B1 type: Nos. 8303 Impala; 8304 Gazelle and 8305 Oryx.

L.M.S. 9
Villagers of Troutbeck use station waiting room as church on Sundays: their Vicar, Rev. Lawrence Nobbs cycles 3½ miles from Parish Church in Mungrisdale to conduct service. Press release added war freight trains rumbling by and John Peel Country.

The North London Railway. 9-11 4 illustrations (including 3 line drawings: side elevations)
Three 0-6-0 type were purchased from the Northumberland & Durham Coal Co.  No. 28 (with inside frames) had 16 x 20in cylinders; 4ft 6in coupled wheels; 1009ft2 total heating surface; 11.8ft2 grate area and 120 psi boiler pressure. Nos. 29 and 30 (with outside frames) had 15 x 22in cylinders; 4ft 7½in coupled wheels; 693.99ft2 total heating surface; 14.43ft2 grate area and 120 psi boiler pressure. Begins the long story of Adams 4-4-0Ts which had outside cylinders 17 x 24in; 5ft 6in coupled wheels; 1015ft2 total heating surface; 14.72ft2 grate area and 160 psi boiler pressure..

C.M. Doncaster. GWR No. 197. 12-13. 4 illustrations (including 3 line drawings: side elevations)
Beyer Peacock 2-4-0 of 1862 originally supplied to the West Midland Railway for use between Wolverhampton, Worcester, Hereford and Neweport. They had 16 x 20in cylinders, and 6ft coupled wheels. In 1879-81 three were rebuilt as 2-4-0T for express services, but were rebuilt as 2-4-0 tender locomotives in "1882 and 1880". Photograph shows No. 197 in this form at Snow Hill station in Birmingham. Drawings show No. 197 as built and in final form and as 2-4-0T No. 201.

An old Belgian single locomotive. 13. illustration: line drawing: side elevation)
Crampton 0-2-4T used on Brussels to Tubize line of Belgian State Railways in 1841.

Overhead refrigerator car, Canadian Pacific Railway. 14. 3 illustrations

R.B. Fellows. A "slipcoach" on the London & Birmingham Railway. 15.
Herbert Spencer when surveying at Wolverton shed to return to Wembley, but the train did not stop there so he joined the last coach at Watford and uncoupled it north of Harrow and it came to rest on the embankment crossing the Brent valley. With the assistance of the Wilesden gatekeeper he pushed the vehicle into the Brent siding and walked bavk to Wembley. Fellows cites Spencer's Autobiography (1904). [Based on a Raillway Club paper presented on 11 October 1941: Ottley 3854]

Correspondence. 16

Miniature railways. Arthur G. Wells. 16. illustratioj
R.A. Whitehead describes the miniature railway in Dreamland Park, Margate, as being of the 18 in. gauge. This is incorrect. The line in question is of the 15 in. gauge. It runs round three sides of the Park, and for the greater part of its length is sandwiched between the backs of the various side-shows and the boundary fence of the Park, only appearing in public at the starting terminus and for about a hundred yards at the further end of the line. Here there was a passing loop whereby the engine could be run round its train, and return to "Park Station" tender first. Apart from the two ends of the line, all the rest is single-track, with a short siding about half-way along the line, leading to the engine shed.
The terminus at "Park Station" was a neat concrete structure with two platforms and a third track between the platform roads. At the ends of these tracks was fitted a traverser , When a train arrived the engine was cut off, run on the traverser, which was then moved over to the centre line. The driver would then give the regulator a touch, sufficient to run the engine off the traverser and nearly all the way down the station. Meanwhile, the traverser was returned to its original position. The engine No. 2, Dreamland Park Railway, Margate, was then run on to the train, and the train pushed back on to the traverser until the buffers of the four-wheel coaches touched the stops. All the points on the line were spring-operated. The other platform at the station was occupied normally by a four-car train and Atlantic engine No. 2. All movements of the traverser were done by the driver.
Two engines were in use on the line, both being of the 4-4-2 wheel arrangement. No. 1, which did nearly all the work, was a large engine named Billie. It was painted green with a polished brass dome. I do not know its builder.
The other engine, Prince Edward of Wales, was built by Bassett-Lowke, Ltd., of Northampton. It had an eight-wheel tender, but apart from that it was exactly similar to the Little Giant illustrated on page 53 of Locomotive Mag. for March, 1942. I now wonder if this could be the first engine of the Fairbourne Railway, which is mentioned on page 98 of the May issue of 1942.
I never saw No. 2 in steam, although I visited the line very many times before the War. I understand that it was used only on very busy days, such as Bank Holidays. Normally it stood idle in Park Station, looking ornamental.

Crewe Centenary. Walter Laidlaw. 16
In 1904 it was my good fortune to come across an individual who was greatly interested m L. & N.W.R. locomotives and who knew more about them than any other person that I have ever met. In 1917, at my instigation, he approached Bowen Cooke and suggested that he would like to have the list of Crewe-built engines revised and corrected, as there were many discrepancies that existed. Permission was readily granted, and all the records at Crewe were made available for his inspection. Several days had to be spent there before the job was completed, but entire satisfaction was obtained. The findings covered the first 398 engines built at Crewe. The 399th one was the first DX and was 355 Hardman . The records unquestionably prove that the first new locomotive built at Crewe was completed on  20 February 1845, and was No. 49 Columbme; the second was 73 Prince (later altered to Prince Albert), and the third was 19 Princess. These three were 6 ft. single passenger engines. The first goods engme built there was 78 Lonsdale in January 1846, 5 ft.,. four coupled. In the list there is one omission, and that is of the 7 ft. Crampton, No. 176 Courier. The first, 129 Martin, of Crewe build, was a DX, and was built m September, 1861, and was the 510th engine built there.

Locomotive valve gears. Montague Smith. 16
In the very interesting extract from T.H. Shields' paper on The Evolution of Locomotive Valve Gears I notice the old error that the Swindon, Marlborough and Andover Fairlie tank was the first engine in this country with Walschaerts valve gear has again appeared. C.R.H. Simpson pointed out in "The Locomotive" a few vears ago that hitherto locomotive historians had overlooked East & West Jc. Railway (later Stratford-upon- Avon & Midland Jc.) No. 1 of 1876. This was a double- boiler Fairlie engine which had been ordered from the Yorkshire Engine Co. by a Mexican railway in 1873, and later sold to the East & West Jc. An illustration of this engine was given in "The Locomotive" of November, 1911, Regarding" Allan link-motion, I might mention that all Matthew Stirling's engines on the Hull & Barnsley had this gear and I think I am correct in stating that Maryport & Carlisle 0-6-0 Nos. 29 and 30, built by the Yorkshire Engine Co. in 1921, were likewise fitted. Several other valve gears of interest, apparently not given in Shields' paper, have been applied to locomotives in this country, amongst which may be mentioned Younghusband's, used on the North Eastern, and the Riekie-McIntosh gear. The last-named received a trial on the Caledonian by McIntosh.

Review. 16

Quiz-on railroads and railroading. Washington, D.C.: Association of American Railroads.
How many locomotives are there on the railroads of the U.S.A.? How many parts are there in a locomotive? What are the costs of steam, electric, and diesel-electric locomotives? How many manufacturing plants contribute to the construction of a locomotive? In what cities of the U.S.A. have steam locomotives been built? Who was Horatio Allen, and what was his contribution to early railway history? What was the origin of the cowcatcher? How many drawings are required in the design of a railway passenger car? How many streamline passenger trains were operating in the U,S,A. in I94I? What is the world's largest railway library? Who was Casey Jones? What was the development of automatic couplers? These are a dozen of" the 400 railway questions asked and answered in this paper-backed volume issued for free distribution.

Number 618 (15 February 1944)

The braking of trains. 17
Although several brakes are in service throughout the railwayworld, only two are of prime importance: the air and the vacuum. In a more limited sphere the steam brake also operates successfully, but, as a rule, on locomotive stock only. Developments in air and vacuum brake design have been on an extensive scale the first including electro-pneumatic control for the more rapid application of the brake shoes, and the latter the Quick Service Application Valve. The real measure of any braking effort, however, is the adhesion between tyre and rail; when this is at a maximum, the brake effort should be similarly high. .
One factor which reduces the value of the brake power the driver has available is the friction in the rigging. On the majority of vehicles to-day the power is applied via the shaft, pull rods and cross-beams, all of which absorb their quota for operation. Were it possible to connect the source of power direct to the brake shoe and obtain the retardation with a fraction of the loss sustained to-day, more effective braking at a lower cost would be achieved. This is actually being accomplished on air-braked stock, but the latter is now virtually a "foreign" brake for new stock on British railways, and the vacuum unit does not appear to be quite so adaptable. .
Two directions in which layouts for the vacuum brake may be improved so far as their arresting potentiality is concerned, are the increasmg of the brake reservoir capacity, to minimise the fall in vacuum as the piston rises within the cylinder, and the raising of the vacuum to 24 or 28 inches. Pipe layouts also might be simplified with many of the bends eased, and not a few cut out altogether. If all the pivot pins could be provided with smaller clearance this would assist in eliminating much of the idie motion now so evident, and the fitting of self-lubricating bearings at each joint, if not too great a refinement, would result in a higher all-round gear efficiency. .
With the increased speed of pre-war long-distance express trains, the problem of stopping in a safe, or relatively safe, distance becomes acute, and the only solution available to-day is to ensure the maximum. pressure between tyre and shoe throughout the whole braking period, consistent with the adhesion of the tyre on the rail. The latter is recognised as a varying quantity, and the brake power applied should likewise change, a higher proportion of the train weight being thrown into the scales at speed, and gradually reduced as the velocity diminishes and the coefficient rises. A system which employs a special form of train retarder has been in operation on the London Underground Railways for several years past, and appears to function satisfactorily.
While all wheels on coaching stock are normally braked on locomotive stock the coupled wheels only have blocks fitted as a rule, and it would appear desirable to brake all wheels — bogie, coupled and truck, with, of course, all the tender wheels—for stock which is to service high-speed trains. The braking of bogies and trucks is .only carried out normally where the prospective duties of the engine justify this refinement, but for speeds exceeding 80 m.p.h. the fullest measure of brakmg is justified.
Engines of the double-ended type, i.e., 4-6-4, 4-8-4 and similar symmetrical wheel arrangements, are more effective stopping agents when both carrying units are braked, especially so where the coupled wheel 'blocks are pitched at some distance below the axle centre, and it has been found in practice that the application of the brake in such a design exerts a lifting component which raises the weight off the driving wheels and axles. Under such circumstances the adhesive load at the rail is sometimes seriously diminished, the wheels lock and skid, and a greater distance is .covered before the train comes to rest, unless terminal buffers achieve what the brake should have accomplished. The absence of brake power on the bogies .of such an engine is actually a reflection on the design, since the lifting effect of low-pitched brake blocks is purely a matter of calculation. See also letters from C.A. Branson and from Boneham & Turner Ltd.

New York Central 17.
Twenty-five 4-8-2 locomotives known as class L-4a have been delivered by the Lima Locomotive Works. These engines are the same as the class L-3a, illustrated on page 10 of Volume XLIX, but have driving wheels 72 in. dianieter and ·the diameter of the cylinders increased from 25½ in. to 26 in.

Southern Railway. 17
Of the110 standard 2-8-0 locomotives being built by the Southern Railway for the Ministry of War Transport, sixty-six had already been completed .. Lord Leathers recently inspected L.M.S. No. 8681 at Charing Cross Station

North British Locomotive Co., Ltd. 17
Three new directors had joined the board of the North British Locomotive Co., Ltd. W. D. Lorimer, son of Mr. William Lorimer, chairman and managing director of the company; J. B. Mavor, nephew of the late Sam Mavor , is a director of Mavor & Coulson, Ltd., and Sir Frederick Stewart, chairman of Thermotank, Ltd., and of Kelvin, Bottomley & Baird, Ltd. For some time past the North British Loco. Works.production capacity has been engaged on normal and special work, including the 2-8-0 and 2-10-0 austerity locomotives.

50 years' progress in design. 18-19.

P.C. Dewhurst. Midland Railway locomotives. Birmingham & Derby Junction Railway. 20-1. diagram (side elevation)

L.N.E.R. re-railing exercise under gas conditions at Picketts Lock. 21. illustration
J15 No. 7857 partially derailed with train of wagons derailed and contaminated with mustard gas.

F.C. Hambleton. The first locomotive to be fitted  with Joy's valve gear. 22. 2 diagrams (side elevations)
0-6-0 No. 2365 exhibited at Barrow in summer 1880 for Institution of Civil Engineers meeting. The locomotive also had a drumhead smokebox and a ¾in thick copper plate tubeplate. The firehole and ashpan were flanged. The hollow ashpan was arranged so that water from the firebox sides flowed across it.  No. 930 (also illustrated) was one of the main batch of Cauliflower 0-6-0s which did not feature the ashpan novelties.

E.A. Phillipson. The steam locomotive in traffic. XII. Rostering of enginemen, depot correspondence, conditions of service for staff in Great Britain. 23-5. 6 tables

Edward H. Livesay. Across Canada in the cab. 25-8. illustration
Toronto to Winnipeg by Canadian Pacific Railroad on the footplate of the Hudson type locomotives hauling the Dominion. The start from Toronto involved the use of the booster. The cabs were luxurious and had seats for three.

Post-War design. 29
Problems identified included hammer blow, flange wear, untreated water and boiler inefficiency

Stirling Everard. Cowlairs commentary. 29-31. 3 illustrations (drawings: side elevations)
Holmes replaced Drummond but further Drummond types were built with relatively minor modifications: thus there were further Drummond 4-6-0Ts and 17in 0-6-0s, but with Stirling-type cabs and his own design of safety valves in place of the Ramsbottom-type. In 1884 Cowlairs built his first 4-4-0 design with 6ft 6in coupled wheels and 17in cylinders: they were numbered 574-9 and had no names. The Stroudley yellow was replaced by dark brown.  The 592 class 4-4-0s were introduced to replace the Paton Beyer Peacock 2-2-2s on the Edinburgh to Glasgow expresses. They had 18 x 24in cylinders and were built in 1886/7 and numbered 592-603. Two batches of an 0-4-4T were built: six (Nos. 586-91) in 1886 and six (Nos. 90-5) in 1888. The Holmes 18in 0-6-0 was constructed between 1888 and 1900. This class became numerically the largest ever owned by the North British. They had 5ft. 0in. wheels and 18in. x 26in. cylinders, and were somewhat larger than the Drummond 18in. engines. Tlhe Holmes engines were used throughout the system as the standard heavy goods locomotive, many being fitted with the Westinghouse brake, and proving themselves equally useful, on heavy excursion trains. One hundred and sixty-eight were built between 1888 and 1900. Fifteen, Nos. 663-677, came from Neilson in 1891, fifteen, Nos. 678-692 from Sharp, Stewart in 1892 and the remainder from Cowlairs.

L.M.S.R. 31
Mr. P.J. Fisher, Assistant District Controller at Chaddesden before the war, and now Lieut.-Colonel in the Royal Engineers, has been appointed Assistant Director of Transportation in Italy. Mr. Fisher has had a wide experience of rail transportation on the L.M.S.
187 L.M.S. men had earned decorations or awards since war began. Fifty-four of these were won in air attacks while on railway duty on the L.M.S., ninety- one by staff in the Forces and thirty-five for meritorious 'railway service. The decorations include a D.S.O., a Croix de Guerre, eight George Medals, forty-six B.E.M.s, nine D.F.C.s and ten Military Medals.

Correspondence. 31

Springs, a miscellany. C. F. Dendy Marshall.
Had read the second volume of the late T. H. Sanders' Springs, a Miscellany with very great interest. It is a wonderful book. He has said very kind things about my books, and I am duly grateful, but, on page 951, there is a statement intended to give my views on the subject of the early history of the bogie, which, at all events, does not represent them now. It is as follows: "On the authority of Dendy Marshall, the first bogie which was fitted to any locomotive was designed by ... John Jervis." In Two Essays I wrote practically those words, but they were preceded by these: "Apart from the possibility of Chapman having put his invention into practice in 1813." I afterwards discovered the drawings of Chapman's chain engine in the Derby Museum, and gave reproductions of them in Early British Locomotives, from which Sanders took his own illustrations on page 949. Considering that we know the chain engine was built, and that the drawings agree with those in his Patent Specification, there can now be no doubt that Chapman was the first man to put a bogie on a locomotive. It would still be true to say that the first bogie which was fitted to a successful locomotive was designed by Jervis.

Locomotive valve gears. Harold A. Akroyd
Re January issue reference to locomotives built by this company (Yorkshire Engine Co., Ltd.). Fuller particulars of the valve gears fitted to those for the Hull and Barnsley Railway 0-6-0 engines Nos. 70 to 78 and 91 to 96, and 0-6-0 side tank engines No. 111 to 116 had Stephenson link motion with the reversing shaft underneath. 0-8-0 engines Nos .117 to 131 were fitted with Allan straight link motion. and five later 0-6-0 engines, Nos. 157 to 161, also had Allan motion which differed slightly in dimensions from the 0-8-0. The valve gear on the two locomotives built for the Maryport and Carlisle Railway, already referred to in Montague Smith's letter, was exactly duplicate of these five.

Manx Northern Railway. Ian MacNab.
Re cover page xxix of The Locomotive Magazine for November, 1919, with an advertisement by the British Commercial Lorry Engineering Co., of Manchester, offering for sale a 3 ft. gauge locomotive built by Sharp, Stewart & Co., with cylinders 11 in x 18 in. stroke; an illustration of the engine concerned appears with the announcement. Although the illustration is not too clear in detail, the engine is in all probability No. 1 Ramsey of the late Manx Northern Railway. This engine was sold out of service in 1918 by its then owners, the Isle of Man Railway, but records at Douglas do not indicate what actually became the fate of this locomotive. I am anxious to obtain details of the final history of this Manx Northern Railway locomotive, and if any of your readers can give further information, I should be greatly obliged.

Cowlairs Commentary. C. Hamilton Ellis..
In common, I am sure, with many other readers, I am greatly enjoying "Cowlairs Commentary." I would like, however, to point out that the drawing of the Helensburgh tank engine No. 1391, previously 495, does not show her quite accurately in the aspect she bore in 1921. All three of' these beautiful locomotives were rebuilt with new boilers in 1905, many years before they were given duplicate numbers in the thirteen hundreds, but your contributor's otherwise admirable sketch shows the new number in conjunction with the old Drummond boiler. The latter was always recognisable at once by the spacing of the safety-valves. Between the old seatings there was space for the spring of the original Ramsbottom fitting, while in the Holmes and Reid boilers the lock-up .valves were close together. The 1905 boilers on the three Helensburgh tanks had 150 psi with a slight reduction in the grate area and the tube heating surface. Photographs of these engines are rare and I have never seen a photograph of one on a train. I enclose, however, a picture of mine showing No. 1390 (originally No. 494 Craigendoran) as she appeared in the last days of the North British Railway. I painted. the picture a few years ago and for the sake of old associations depicted her with a Helensburgh train, though this would have been unusual towards the end. One, I believe, finished up at Aberfoyle and another at St. Andrews.

Reviews. 31

British Railways in Peace and War.
New facts about the railways were revealed in latest publication. In addition to a comprehensive survey of facts, a special chapter gives a behind-the-scenes account of the big task of moving an army, and a double-page coloured plate provides a visual impression of the vast number of trains needed to haul a force of the size of that which went to North Africa. A review of the "Progress Between the Wars." shows that cheap fare journeys more than doubled, the figures in 1923 being 209,600,000 and, in 1938, 492,400,000. Other facts given show that the same number of miles were run in 1923 as in 1938, but with 4,300 less locomotives; between 1923 and 1938, 350 new stations and 40 new goods depots were provided; £7,000,000 was spent on new steamships, and a £40,000,000 programme for London was commenced. The "Total War Effort" of the railways reveals that the movement of troops to "invasion" stations required one railway to run 116 special trains spread over twenty-seven days; the first exports to Russia involved one railway running 132 special trains between August and November, 194 I. Another section of this booklet gives an account of the war effort of railway steamships and marine staffs. Ninety- two railway vessels have been chartered by the Government for service as, hospital carriers, transports, assault ships, minelayers and sweepers, ammunition carriers, ack-ack ships and rescue ships sailing with Atlantic convoys. The last section of the book gives an indication of the post-war services which are being planned.

Testing locomotive slide valves: ports and pistons. E.J. Nutty.
Thirty-two page booklet compiled with the assistance of Engineman W.H. Nutty, explaining the relative positions of cranks, coupling rods, eccentrics, pistons and valves, and glVlllg useful information for locating blows or defects in the steam chest or cylinders. The diagrams are clear and the text is neatly arranged.

Locomotives .of the Metropolitan Railway, 1863-1943. P. Densham. . 20pp.,
A list of all the steam and electric locomotives that have worked on this railway, together with dimensions and rough sketches of t.heir outlines, A useful record of the builders dates and ultimate disposal of the engines of a line that dunng eighty years had many interesting designs of tank locomotives, but no tender engines.

A.B.C. of L.M.S. locomotives. Ian Allan and A. B. MacLeod; 52 pp. and cover. The A..B.C. of·L.N.E.R. locomotives, Ian Allan; 64 pp. and cover.
The authors have already published lists of the locomotives of the Southern and G.W. systems and the two new booklets deal with the L.M.S. and L.N.E., so that the series now covers the locomotive studs of all four British groups. The booklets have been officially corrected and are well illustrated by official photographs. The first-mentioned contains dimensional diagrams of the standard classes, whilst the L.N.E. book has a full table of dimensions of all types. A list of running sheds and a few other interesting notes complete two well arranged and produced reference books.

Number 619 (15 March 1944)

The future of transport. 33-4
Major-General Gilbert Szlumper paper presented to the Engineeering Industries Association in which he outlined three future strategies: the earlier one of unlimited competition between road and rail, government limited competition and nationalization: the last not being favoured

Conversion of L.N.E.R. "04" class locomotive. 34-5. 2 illustrations.
Thompson conversion of Great Central O4 type to O1 using B1 cylinders and valve gear and boiler

McEwan, James. Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 35-7. 3 illustrations, diagram (side elevation)
SNER 0-4-2T and 2-2-2 Vulcan Foundry delivered four Crewe-type 2-2-2 designed by Yarrow. These had 7ft 1½ in driving wheels, 16 x 22in cylinders, 1301.75ft2 total heating surface, 12.75 grate area and 120 psi bouiler pressure. A further locomotive was constructed at Arbroath but with 16½ x 20in cylinders and 7ft 0½ driving wheels. Four more were ordered from Vulcan Foundry, but the SNER had been absorbed by the Caledonian before they were delivered In 1870 the Arbroath locomotive was overhauled at Perth and the Yarrow firebox was replaced and standard 22in stroke cylinders were fitted. Table gives rebuilding, renumbering and withdrawal date. Figures: SNER 0-4-0t No. 32 (line drawing); 0-4-2WT No. 65; 2-2-2 No. 461 and CR 2-2-2 No. 316 as rebuilt (ex SNER No. 27). Continued page 71.

O.S. Nock. The "Claughton" class, L.N.W.R.: an analysis of their design and performance. 38-41. illustration, 4 diagrams.
The leading dimensions of the Star and Claughton classes are compared: the Claughtons had a higher superheat, but in other respects were smaller. On 2 and 4 November 1913 dynamometer car tests were performed between Euston and Crewe and between Crewe and Carlisle on No. 1154 Ralph Brocklebank hauling 435 tons to Crewe and 360 tons thereafter. The Engineer reported the results on 6 February 1914. 1500 horsepower was attained on Grayrigg bank and indicator readings taken on passing Tebay gave 1669 ihp.

Air attacks. 41.
"It can now be revealed" that the railways had experience over 10,000 incidents. A 3½ mile stretch of line near Coventry received forty high explosive bombs in one night.

Union Pacific R.R. 41
Five 4-8-8-4; ten 4-8-4 and twenty 4-6-6-4 locomotives had beeen ordered from the American Locomotive Company.

L.N.E.R. 41
J.S. Jones who had been engaged on special duties in the chief mechanical engineer's department, had been appointed assistant locomotive running superintendent Western Section, Southern Area. E.S. Bradley, district engineer Hull had been appointed district engineer York.

The North London Railway. 42-4. illustration, 2 tables
Adams resigned in 1873 and was replaced by J.C. Park as Locomotive Superintendent. He continued to build the 4-4-0T locomotives with slight modifications, notably the addition of cabs and the removal of the number and coppper cap to the chimneys. Tables list the running numbers, Bow Works numbers and rebuilding numbers with dates. Figurec 27 shows No. 48 at Alexandra Palace.

Review. 44

The evolution of railways, 2nd ed. Charles E. Lee.
Traces history back much further than might be expected.

C.M. Doncaster. Old banking engine, London and Croydon Railway. 44. illustration
G & J Rennie 0-4-2 locomotive of 1838/9.

Swiss Federal Railways. 44
Two electric locomotives were under construction for the Bern-Lotschberg-Simplon line. They had four driving axles and were intended for hauling express trains

Rapid repair of locomotives. 45; 46. 4 illustrations
One of photographs shows A8 No. 2162 being overhauled: main accent is on rapid stripping down with tanks of caustic soda being used to clean the motion and high pressure water being used to clean the frames, etc.

General Montgomery meets railway workers. 45

L.N.E.R. 45

Canadian National Railways. 45

F.C. Hambleton. The first 4-2-2 express loco. 47. 2 diagrams (including side elevation)
Dean built Wigmore Castle as a 2-2-2 which broke its leading axle in Box Tunnel on 16 Septdember 1893 and led to it being rebuilt with a leading bogie: the remainder of the class was similarly rebuilt.

Obituary. 47.
Harold Hume Brindley, Fellow of St. John's College Cambridge and Keeper of the War Transport Collection,Cambridge Musuem of Archaeology and Ethnology. Also A.C. Stamer.

Wagons for American railways. 47
4000 hopper wagons under construction using timber for floors and sides  to save weight.

Correspondence. 48

Memories of Havre and Rouen. John Poole.
Re Norman Duncan's reminiscences of Rouen of exceptional interest, as writer was, at the time or which he writes, stationed at St. Etienne-du-Rouvray, the C.M.E. Base Workshops. I only made one visit to Petit Quevilly (then commanded by, if I remember correctly, a Capt. Lyddon, of the Hull & Barnsley) this being on the occasion of trouble with the brake ejector of a G.W.R. 43XX class recently turned out from wreck repairs. I do not remember the well tanks still bearing "Ouest" plates at Quevilly, and was under the impression that, except for one preserved at. the works at Sotteville, and another stationed at Pon de I' Arch on a "push and pull" service, this class was extinct.
There was a Pacific design still earlier than the 231,001 class—two engines of this type were turned out by the old Ouest—characterised by super-smokeboxes and a peculiar form of conjugated valve-gear. I could never discover what happened to these two; possibly as relative failures they were decently interred.
The engines seen by Mr. Duncan at the Gare d'Orleans were probably not ex-Ouest. but ex-Etat. One with a form of Corliss valve-gear used to work a mid-day train past Sotteville. Outside cylinder passenger engines were rare on the Ouest after the Buddicorn period.

Joseph Hamilton Beattie. C. Hamilton Ellis
By way of supplement to my article on Joseph Beattie, I enclose a copy of a picture recording my impression of Nine Elms running shed in the early 'sixties [1860s], showing three different types of Beattie locomotive: Havelock, built 1858, one of the second series of Beattie single expresses; Medusa, a 5 ft. goods built in 1863, with a single jet-condenser feedwater heater, and Ajax (1855), one of the double-framed passenger engines which formed Beattie's first design for the London &. South-Western Railway, and as running with another form of condenser. In the original picture, the first-named is painted chocolate, lined out in red, black and white; the second similar, but without the red lines, and the third Iridian red with black bands, as used up to the end of the 'fifties. On the extreme right I have endeavoured to reconstruct their designer from the old por- trait still at Nine Elms. He is conducting a distinguished visitor round the shed. Behind is the old roundhouse and the drawing office resplendent in its new yellow brick. Bereft of its tower, smothered in dirt and with its windows blown in, this building has survived everything else in the picture.

North London No. "51" class. H.R. Norman.
Can any reader state definitely if the cylinders were enlarged to 17½ in. and coupled wheels to 5 ft. 11 in. in the 1883 to 1890 rebuilding, or if these enlarged dimensions apply only to the three engines rebuilt between 1902 and I907? My personal opinion is that Nos. 103, 114 and 117 only were so treated, as the 17½ in. cylinder appears to have been introduced by Park, and the first new engine to have such cylinders was No. 81, built in 1896. Furthermore, No. 109, which was rebuilt at Crewe and not at Bow, seems to have retained 17 in. cylinders to the end.

The North London Railway. C. W. Williams.
Regarding the 4-4-0 tank engines introduced by Mr. Adams in 1868 and described in the January issue according to official information, Nos. 1, 5, 6, 7, 25 and 42 were rebuilt and not broken up at the dates shown. No. I was renumbered 125 in November 1906, when It was replaced by a new engine of similar. type. Details of the six engines noted above-all of which survived into L.M.S. service-are as set out below:








































It will be noted that these engines fit in, as far as the L.M.S. numbering is concerned, with those mentioned in the January article; also that the series became .L.M.S. Nos. 6439 to 6458, inclusive, in the same order in which the engines were built.

Number 620 (15 April 1944)

Steam or diesel. 49.
The apparently successful .operation of the Diesel engille in road service has led many engineers to anticipate that equally good results will be achieved ill the held of rail transport. Whether such an assumption is justified we are not prepared to say, but a comparison of the two forms of motive power ill relation to the spheres of servlce available to each, together with a brief review of the success already achieved by diesel rail units, may give a pointer to the possjhiljties in the post- war world. The chief gains claimed for the Diesel are lower cost of fuel consumption, and increased availability. As the engine unit usually runs but a fraction of the time dunng which the machine is in actual service; the first claim must be admitted so long as the relative costs of the two fuels is favourable to the Diesel. Should circumstances operate adversely to the price of fuel oil. and favourably to the cost of locomotive coal, it is not difficult to imagine steam becoming the cheaper motive power. So far as increased availability is concerned, the I.C. engine also gains a point here over most steal? locomotives burning coal fuel, but whether this is likely to be a permanent handicap against the steamer depends on present and future develop- ments. The operation of rail transport is capable. of resolution into several clearly defined fields:
(1) Long-distance passenger services.
(2) Local passenger services.
(3) Long-distance goods and heavy mineral traffic.
(4) Short-distance goods traffic.
(5) Shunting operations.
In the first-named, many streamlined light- weight Diesel trains are operating in the U.S.A. with a fair measure of success, but at a high initial outlay and a permanent disability of no mean importance, viz.: a lack of flexibility in the handling of traffic during peak hours. These train sets obviously accommodate only a limited number of passengers, and seats are frequently fully booked in advance. With a steam-hauled train, additional coaches may be provided, and the same locomotive will usually handle the heavier train.
Local passenger transport, however, should provide an excellent held in which the Diesel car, or twin-car, may operate, and the G.W.R. is using a considerable number of these to the mutual benefit of the public and the railway company. Many branch lines, at present dosed down, might afford excellent opportunities of proving the benefits of this form of traction in competition with road traffic' most travellers prefer the comfort and rela- tive steadiness of the rail vehicle, not to mention safety, as compared with the aver.age road, and a carefully prepared schedule, with attractive cars operating at reasonably high speeds dunng the busy hours, would seem to be a worthwhile expert- ment.
Goods traffic whether main line or local, seems to remain the peculiar province still of the steam engine, at any rate until such time as the heavy Diesel engine becomes a more dependable proposition for rail service than it has so far proved. A fundamental disadvantage under which this unit suffers is the big drop in tractive power as the rail speed rises; this alone gives a considerable advant- age to the steam engine, particularly on express goods traffic such as the Green Arrow handled in pre-war years.
In shunting yards the Diesel—of all powers up to approximately 500 b.h.p.—has done excellent work, and if properly handled there seems to be no reason why this held should not become the exclusive province of the Diesel locomotive. Some few years ago the Baldwin Locomotive Company designed and built an automatically oil-fired switching locomotive as a reply to the Diesel shunter, but the latter has done, and is doing, such good work in this direction that the reversal to steam is unlikely, unless the cost of repairs and maintenance of the Diesel proves unduly high.
A particularly serious drawback to any of the Diesel engine units, especially when equipped with electrical transmission, is the prime cost, and unless this can be reduced appreciably, its future does not seem to be particularly promising except in the two fields indicated. True, the increased service rendered per day of twenty-four hours justifies a somewhat higher capital cost, but hardly three times the price of the corresponding steamer, which was the average pre-war ratio.
From the foregoing, it would appear that the Diesel is too greatly handicapped at present in the haulage of ,goods traffic, as well as for long- distance passenger trains, excepting the limited capacity lightweight streamlined set with power house built in. For the handling of existing passenger coach stock the steam engine still holds the field, though in the matter of branch line traffic the Diesel car is clearly justified, as also is the Diesel locomotive for shunting operations,

Personal. 49.
Sir Wm. Stanier, M.I.Mech.E., M.I.Loco.E., elected a Fellow of the Royal Society. He is the second locomotive engineer to be made a Fellow of the Royal Society, the first being Robert Stephenson. -

Examination of locootives during Black-out. 50-1. illustration, diagram
LNER Light Tunnel constructed of corrrugated iron

Stirling Everard. Cowlairs commentary. 51-2
Continued from page 31. Since these articles are intended to be a commentary of Cowlairs affairs rather than a comprehensive history of the North British locomotives, it is not proposed to consider in detail the subsequent classes built by Holmes. The reason for this is not only that full particulars have often been given of all the engines concerned, but also that Cowlairs for some years became almost an appendage of St. Rollox, and there is more than a suspicion that two of the North British designs were directly based upon those of the Caledonian. At the end of 1890 McIntosh took over at St. Rollox and instilled new life into the Drummond tradition there, which was already virile enough in all conscience. Cowlairs until 1906 remained one step behind,producing a counterpart to each St. Rollox type just in time for Mclritosh to go one better.
In 1890 Holmes standardised on the 6ft. 6in. 4-4-0 with 18in. cylinders for main line work, twenty-four examples being built between 1890 and 1895 at Cowlairs, namely Nos. 36, 37, 211-218, 262, 293, 312, 404 and 633-642. So far so good. They were admirable engines of the accepted North British type, and they put in a great deal of useful work. For the new West Highland line he introduced a modified design with 5ft. 7in. coupled wheels, of which twenty-four were also built at Cowlairs, the first coming out in 1892, two years before the line was ready for traffic. These were Nos. 55, 227, 231, 232, 341-346, 394, 395 and 693-704.
McIntosh was also busy on the 6ft. 6in. 4-4-0, but with a difference. His machines, the first Dunalastairs, had 18½ in. cylinders and larger boilers than had ever previously been used on this type of locomotive. With their ample stearning capacity they were an immediate success, and the North British engines were completely outclassed. Cowlairs decided that nothing could compare with a Dunalastair but another "Dunalastair", and as a result the North British 729 class of 4-4-0 with 18¼-in. cylinders appeared, engines almost identical to those of the Caledoman. Eighteen of these were built in 1898 and 1899, namely Nos. 729-740 and 765-770. In appearance they followed the usual Holmes standard, having the Stirlinz cab and details according to Cowlairs, but the sandboxes were below the running plate instead of incorporated in the leading splasher as in earlier engines.
Unfortunately in the game of follow-my-leader the initiative is, of necessity, unequally divided, and McIntosh's reply was a further series of Dunalastairs, this time with 19 in. cylinders, which' left the Cowlairs people relatively where they had been before. In 1903 the North British responded with the 317 class, twelve 19 in. engines with the novelty, for Cowlairs, of piston valves. These machines, Nos. 317-328, were glven a new type of cab, angular in line, with a slightly cambered roof and one side window on either side. This cab became the standard for the company thereafter. Nevertheless alterations in appearance do not necessarily make a locomotive the more suocessful, and the 317 class, although possibly as good as, was never better than the comparable Caledonian engines from which they were expected to wrest the traffic on competitive routes. This type was produced at a time when Holmes was on a bed of sickness, and William Paton Reid, the Outdoor Locomotive Superintendent was virtually in oharge. The new type of cab was decided upon because of Reid's desire to give the enginemen better protection from the weather than the Stirling design provided.
The North British had built no six-coupled tank engines since the last of the Drummond Terriers came out in 1878. The time having come when a more modern machine was required, in 1901 Holmes produced an enlarged version of the Drummond engines. In the new type the 4ft. 6 in. wheels were retained, but 17 in. x 26 in. cylinders were used. and, of course, considerably larger boilers. These engines were contract-built, twenty, Nos. 795-814 coming from Neilson, and twenty, Nos. 815-834 from Sharp, Stewart. These engines were used for shunting and short distance goods traffic, while several replaced the Wheatley tanks on the station pilot duties at the Waverley, where they are still to be found.
Reid, when deputising for Holrnes prepared a design of small six-coupled shunting tank in which, for reasons of accessibility, the cylinders were placed outside. These light shunters had 3ft. 6in. wheels and 15in. x 22in. cylinders, and were for use in dock areas and industrial districts where there were sharp curves and weight restrictions. In view of. the nature of the work they were given dumb buffers. None of the engines came out until 1904. when Reid had succeeded Holmes, but it may be said that thirty-five were built at Cowlairs between 1904 and 1919. Their numbers were 66, 87,114,116-119,121,130,132, 152, 233-238, 271, 277, 279, 288-290 and 836-847.
During Holmes' term of office a few 0-4-0 pugs by outside contractors were received by the North British as a result of working agreements. In 1889 a Barclay machine with 3ft. 6in. wheels and 14in. x 22in. cylinders was taken over and numbered 611. It had been built in 1884. At the same time a Grant, Ritchie example, built in 1887 and similar in dimensions, was also acquired. This became No. 612. These came horn Methil Dock. Another engine was received from the Gartness Coal & Iron Co. at about the same time, but was almost immediately replaced. This was No. 610, and was also of the pug design. In 1901 a further Barclay engine of diminutive size with 2ft. 11in. wheels and 13in. x 20in. cylinders became North British property and was numbered 835.
Holmes' rebuilding programme, except in the case of one engine, followed strictly the lines laid down by Drummond. For example the remain- ing Edinburgh and Glasgow engines of the later main line types, when these had not already been dealt with by Drummond, were brought up to modern standards. In addition the  382 class of 2-4-0 and the majority of the 15½in. 0-6-0 locomotives of the North British were also rebuilt. The double-framed St. Margarets 0-6-0 engines' with the 4ft. 6 in. and 5 ft. Oin. wheels were taken in hand. Johnson's double-framed 0-4-2 No. 262 was rebuilt as a saddle tank. For some reason the 341 class of 2-4-0 was not rebuilt when the very similar 382 series were modernised, and the former were replaced when the original boilers wore out. They were somewhat smaller machines than the 382 class Continued page 155.

South African Railways. 52
Orders for 1,000 large wagons have been placed with a firm in the Union.

L.N.E.R. 52
With a view to providing stronger track at some places on their system, flat-bottom rails had been laid.

The late MR. R. E. L. Maunsell, C.B.E.  52
Death of Mr. Richard Edward Lloyd Maunsell, C.B.E., who was, until his retirement in 1937, chief mechanical engineer of the Southern Railway. Maunsell started his engineering career in 1888 as a pupil under H. A. Ivatt at the G.S. & W.R. works, Inchicore. In 1891 he joined the former Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway at Horwich and after serving as a pupil there became locomotive foreman at Blackpool. In 1894 he went to India as assistant locomotive superintendent of the East Indian Railway, and remained for two years. In 1896 he returned to Inchicore and held the post of works manager there until he succeeded R. Coey as locomotive engineer in 1911.
Maunsell was appointed chief mechanical engineer of the former South Easten & Chatham Railway in 1913, and after the grouping became chief mechanical engineer of the Southern Railway. He was President ,of the Institution of Locomotive Engineers in 1918 and served as a member of the Council of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. He was also a past member of the Council of the Institute of Transport.

Southern Railway.  52
The first of ten of a new design of four-wheeled passenger luggage vans had been put into service. A number of interesting features, including reinforced plastic panelling, had been introduced. The bodies were built of electrically-welded channel sections on frames of channel section steel.

Kitson & Co. , Ltd  52
Owing to the heavy demands for locomotives, the Locomotive Manufacturers' Association have temporarily suspended the 1938 agreement with Kitson & Co. to discontinue building locomotives.

"Shadow" trains for invasion armies. 52
A complete "shadow" service of freight trains which can be put on the line in a matter of hours has been built up by British railways in collaboration with the Fighting Services. Material from ordnance depots and stores, dispersed throughout the country, may be required at any of many ports. The total probable journeys, running into thousands, have all been classified, routed and timed, any of which can be put into operation at short notice. Each train in the "shadow" service has a code number which indicates to the railway operating experts that "ABC 4217',' for instance, means that a locomotive and forty trucks must be at Depot "A" to load up and be ready to leave at 15.00 hours on a given day and go, by a prescribed route, arriving at 06.00 hours the next morning.

L.M.S. 52
Instead of a number of platelayers removing worn points and crossings and replacing them with new, worn rails are now welded and resurfaced by an expert welder while the rail is in its original position, in the intervals between the passage of trains.

H.F. Hilton. "The White Horse of Kent". 53-5. diagram (side elevation)
Correspondence between the Croydon & Dover Railway and Robert Stephenson & Co. through E.F. Starbuck and E.J. or E.I. Cook. W. Pulford was the Secretary of the Dover Railway. The White Horse of Kent was shipped on the Ann which was lost off Whitby: its WN was 399. A replacement WN 435 may have been constructed by Nasmyth & Co.: it was delivered on 5 September 1844. See also page 104.  

Propeller railcars. 56-7. 2 diagrams including side elevation), plan
Mentions the Bennie railplane, the Rail Zepplin which achieved 145 mile/h between Hamburg and Berlin and more recent work in France and the Netherlands

H. Fayle. The Dublin & South Eastern Railway and its locomotives. 57-9. illustration, map

O.S. Nock. The "Claughton" class, L.N.W.R.: an analysis of their design and performance. 60-1. illustration, 2 diagrams
No. 2221 Sir Francis Dent in 1924 between Hellifield and Aisgill with 350 tons and No. 6001 in 1930 between Leeds and Hellifield where a pilot engine was added. Concluded page 73

E.A. Phillipson. The steam locomotive in traffic. XII. Rostering of enginemen, depot correspondence, conditions of service for staff in Great Britain. 62-3
Rates of pay in Great Britain including London allowance and mileage payments and lodging allowances, etc.

Correspondence. 65

The braking of trains. C.A. Branston.
As none of your readers appear to have gone in on the matters raised in vour editorial on Brakes, I hope you will permit me to make one or two remarks on the subject.
Your placid acceptance of the present-day use of the steam brake is, frankly, disappointing. For locomotive brakes steam has long ago been replaced by air except in this country, where in certain cases a steam brake is employed in conjunction with the atmospheric brake on the train. This is presumably in order to avoid the difficulty of suitably locating the large number of bulky vacuum brake cylinders which the present-day weight of the locomotive demands; thus, on the London & North Eastern Railway, a locomotive weighing 165 tons is equipped with six 21 in. vacuum brake cylinders.
It is obvious that with such an arrangement the synchronisation of the initiation of an application and of the pressure rise in the brake cylinders on locomotive and train respectively must be very imperfect, as the build-up of pressure in the steam brake cylinders is erratic both in incidence and in degree, due to the initial condensation; to suggest that such irregularities can be smoothed out by a suitable design of brake valve is to envisage a mechanism of quite unheard-of precision and delicacy of control. Some experiments carried out on the Nord Railway in France showed that with a boiler nressure of 114 psi. it required I2 seconds to raise the pressure in the brake cylinders to l100 psi; when the cylinders were warm, i.e., immediately after a preceding application, the time was 4.2 seconds. There can be but little doubt that accidents, such as that at Oakley Junction in I938, have, to a considerable extent, been due to insufficient braking as a result of this feature of the peculiar brake equipment employed. As a matter of possible interest, I may perhaps add that, to actuate a train brake, steam has been tried seriously only once, as far as I know; this was Goodale's patent on the Chicago & Canada Southern R.R. about 1872; the experiment failed signallv.
To increase the efficiency of the brake you suggest reducing the frictional losses by simplifying the foundation brake gear. This expedient was actually employed in two of the brakes which participated in the Newark brake trials in 1875. in. the Clark hydraulic brake one brake cylinder was provided for each braked axle, while the Barker hydraulic brake comprised a separate brake cylinder for each braked wheel; both these equipments provided what amounts to a clasp brake. The brake or rocker shaft to which you allude is, of course, a feature peculiar to the normal foundation brake gear of the atmospheric brake only. It should be emphasised, however, that a simplification of the connections, however effected, is desirable, not so much on account of the consequent reduction of the frictional losses, but as lowering the amount of lost motion, which in a fluid pressure brake is the worst dissipator of brake power, as it increases the piston travel and thus lowers the final pressure of the air or degree of vacuum (as the case may be) in the brake cylinders. As an historical detail I may add that the use of locomotive truck brakes originated in the U.S.A. on the Old Colony R.R. about 1890, and has been general practice ever since.
To adjust the actual retardation of the brake in keeping with the adhesion of the wheels is a problem to which George Westinghouse found an ingenious solution in the course of the experiments carried out by Capt. (later Sir) Douglas Galton and himself on the London, Brighton & South Coast Railway in 1878-9. The air pressure in the brake cylinder is reduced as the coefficient of friction between shoe and tyre rises with the falling speed. However, as the adhesion between wheel and rail and the coefficient of friction between shoe and tyre are dependent on other considerations as well (e.g., atmospheric conditions, duration of application, etc.) Westinghouse considered that in service use the advantages derived from this torque- controlled brake cylinder pressure relief valve did not justify the necessary complications; the device appears to have been used for the last time to control the driver brakes on the locomotive which hauled the Westinghouse trial train in the second Burlington brake trials in 1887.
The device was, however, definitely revived in 1923 by Knorr in Germany for use with the Kunze-Knorr brake, type Kksbr, and eight years later with the Hildebrand-Knorr brake, type Hiksbr. In the latest German brake equipment for high-speed trains, type Hikssbr, a more elaborate arrangement has been adopted, comprising i.e., a centrifugal governor located on the end of the car axles. In this case, however, the pressure reduction in the brake cylinder is not effected gradually as the speed drops, but abruptly the moment the speed falls below the rate of 31 m.p.h., the braking ratio. being thereby reduced from 200 per cent. to 75 per cent. of the empty weight of the vehicle. Though irrelevant to ,the present point, it may be of interest to note that this particular brake equipment comprises yet another device originally the subject of a Westinghouse patent, viz., the remarkable accelerator with which the transmission of an application along the major portion of the length of the train is effected by means of wires, in which way the amazing rate of propagation of 3,000 ft. per sec. has been attained in a complete train.
Your editorial clearly reflects the difficulties which await or are even now already troubling brake engineers in Britain with a brake which would appear to have reached the highest development of which it is capable. We are, in fact, placed squarely before the question: Was the choice wise when in 1923 the atmospheric brake was selected as the common standard equipment for all steam trains of this country? At that time this brake was already fitted to approximately 2/3 of the power-braked rolling stock of the roads involved, so that, viewed from the standpoint of immediate outlay, the decision is intelligible. In order to judge of the general soundness of such a choice it is necessary, however, to consider other circumstances, existing or anticipated, when this step was taken.

British Railways. 64
A survey taken towards the end of last year revealed that over the busiest section of double-track line 284 trains passed in 24 hours. These included 120 passenger trains, 12 parcels trains and 144 freight trains composed of a total of 7,200 wagons.

The braking of trains.  Boneham & Turner, Ltd.  64
Re Braking of Trains: we have introduced a range of hardened and ground pins and bushes which reduce much of the idle brake movement which you mention. Due to the hardened surfaces, very little wear takes place, and the efficiency of the brakes is maintained over much longer periods. At the moment, these pins normally have a clearance of 1/32nd in. but if positive means of lubrication could be used together with methods for keeping out foreign matter, etc., this clearance could be considerably reduced.

Reviews. 64

Descriptive diagrams of the locomotive, including diesel rail cars. A.F. Hunt.
Illustrating the different valves and how they take steam from the boiler. Other sketches (not to scale) include Jumper blast-pipe, Swindon superheater, Cylinder lubrication, Slide valves, Piston valves, Stephenson and Walschaerts valve gears, Exhaust injector, Vacuum brake pump and Retaining valve. The Diesel Railcar Notes refer to the G.W.R. units supplied by the Associated Equipment Co.: Oswestry Mutual Improvementt class. Landscape format

The Railway Handbook, 1943-1944. Railway Publishing Co., Ltd.
Many of the sections in this useful handbook have been revised. New sections relate to the Railway Companies' Association, Railways and the War, and Express Traffic in North America.

Electrical Year Book, 1944. Manchester: Emmott & Co., Ltd.
New matter has been added on induction motors, commutators, frequency changers for high-speed drives, and in the Measurement and Testing Section there is new matter on D.C. and A.C. potentiometers.

Mechanical World Year Book, 1944. Manchester: Emmott & Co., Ltd.
This useful volume has been revised to keep it up to date. Workshop and factory processes, detailed particulars of the newer materials and present-day data are presented in a readily available form

G.E.R. locomotives, by C. Langley Aldrich. 55 pp.
A well-illustrated booklet in which is gathered together interesting details of all the locomotive types that existed on the old Great Eastern Railway when that company lost its separate identity in 1923, together with particulars of the changes that have taken place since then.

Locomotives of the Taff Vale Railway,  M. C. V. Allchin. , 14 pages,
A complete. list of the Taff Vale locomotive stock at the grouping, together with builders' dates and the numbers allotted when they were incorporated in the G.W.R. list. A number of illustrations, mostly of older types, are included. No dimensions are given.

Trade catalogues. 64

Elastomeric Engineering
Contains useful information about rubber-bonded-to-metals and may be obtained on .request from T. B. Andre Rubber Co., Ltd., Kingston By- pass, Surbiton , Surrey.

Number 621 (15 May 1944)

Locomotive power. 65-6.
Editorial examination of some of the formulae available: F.J. Cole (of Alco), E.C. Poultney (as stated in ILocoE Paper 445) and W.F. Kiesel. The significance of grate area was considered

South Australian 520 class engines. 66-8. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
Streamlined 4-6-4 with light green livery. Two 20½ x 28in welded cylinders with 12in piston valves, Cast steel bar frame. 45ft2 grate area; thermic syphones; 2163ft2 total evaporative heating surface; 651ft2 superheat and boiler set at 215 psi. Locomotive marked a return to Walschaerts gaer from Baker. F. Harrison, CME..

C.M. Doncaster. Sturrock's condensing tank, Great Northern Railway. 68. illustration
In 1865 Avonside supplied fifteen 0-4-4T: a further five were obtained from Neilson; and fourteen further were supplied to the London, Chatham & Dover Railway. In 1866 a further five given running numbers 270-4 were supplied by Neilson. They had 16½ x 22in cylinders and 5ft 6in coupled wheels. They tended to oscillate at high speed.

W.F. Wegener. Performance of class 19c engines on the South African Railways. 68-70. 2 illustrations
4-8-2 fitted with poppet valves working on severe gradients with heavy loads and capable of high speeds. . See also letter from M.M. Loubser on page 164..

James F. McEwan . Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway.71-3. 5  illustrations (including 1 line drawing: side elevation)
Continued from page 37. In 1868 there appeared from the Perth Shops two 2-4-0 type passenger engines. These had been on hand at Arbroath Works at the time of the amalgamation, but all new work there was stopped and the unfinished parts were taken to Perth and erected. The cylinders were outside and the typical double frammg was used. The cylinders were 17 in. diameter by 22 in. stroke. The coupled wheels were 7 ft. 2 in. diameter, and the leading wheels 3 ft. 10½ in. diameter. The wheelbase was 7 ft. 6 in. plus 8 ft. 0 in., total 15ft. 6 in. The frames were 24 ft. 2¼ in. long. The boiler was retained 4 ft. 1 in. diameter and 10 ft. 11 t in. long in the barrel. The distance between the tubeplates was 11 ft. 2t in. There were 227 tubes 1 i in. diameter with a heating surface of 1,040.61 sq. ft. The firebox heating surface was 101.42 sq. ft., includ- ing that of the ring type mid feather which was and gave 28.61 ft2 of heating surface, making a total of 1,142.03 sq. ft. The grate area was 13.52 ft2 and pressure 120 lb. The boiler had raised firebox casing and the cab was of the typical Stroudley type. There was a pillar safety-valve on the boiler barrel and another safety-valve on the dome, which was located over the firebox, The rims of the driving w:heels were not concentric, being 7/8in. thick minimum increasing to 21/8 in. on opposite side to the big end to act as a balance weight. Compensating beam springing was used. The firebox mid feather was removed about 1872, and some time before withdrawal the Westing house brake was fitted. The tenders ran on four wheels and carried 1,800 gallons of water and two tons of coal, and were made to the former S.C. pattern. When turned out these two engines bore the running numbers 472 and 473, which in 1876 were altered to 123 and 124. At the period of this renumbering the Caledonian were beginning to have their passenger engines and goods engines so mixed and scattered in numbering that a system of renumbering was being introduced. The scheme got a certain length and then was stopped, and from the renumbering particulars which have already appeared in the history it can be readily seen that the authorities were themselves getting a little bit confused in the endeavour to carry out the scheme. No. 472 (later 123) was generally employed on the Perth to Forfar run with an occasional turn to Glasgow. In 1886 the engine was renumbered 123A and withdrawn in 1888. No. 473 generally ran in the Perth and Glasgow link until about 1875,. when it was used on the Perth to Stirling locals. In 1885 it was given a heavy overhaul at St. Rollox, after which it went to work on the Perth to Crieff trains, via Methven Junction, although an occasional visit was made to Glasgow. In 1886 it was renumbered 124A and was withdrawn from the Crieff job and <<<scrapped in 1893. For local passenger traffic the well-known No. 1 class of 2-4-0 was turned out between 1869 and 1871. Neilson & Co. and Dubs & Co. both sup- plied locomotives. Neilson's lot had spring balance safety-valves enclosed in a brass casing over the firebox. A few of the Dubs' make engines had three-column Naylor safety-valves, and the re- ma:inder had Salter type safety-valves. All the boilers were flushed-topped. When most of the class went in for overhaul the Ramsbottom type of safety-valve was fitted, although in some cases this change was made some time after the overhaul. The usual design was followed, with outside cylinders, double framing with outside bearings on the leading axle and inside bearings for the coupled axles. The springs for the coupled axles were under the axle-boxes and were compensated. For the most part the tenders for these engines came from older engines which in turn had received even older tenders. The cylinders were 16t in. diameter by 22 in. stroke. The driving wheels were 6 ft. 2in. diameter and the leading wheels 3 ft. 8 in. diameter. In the Dubs' series the wheelbase was 15 ft. 1 in., and in the Neilson series this was 15 ft. 2in. The coupled wheelbase was 8 ft. 7 in. in both series, but the spacing of 4 C.R. 2.4.0 No. 59 (original No. 1) as overhauled and running 1891. the Ieading axle from the leading coupled was 6 ft. 6 m. m the Dubs' lot and 6 ft. 7 in. in the Neilson. The cylinders of the entire class were bored to 17 in. diameter in the '70s. The other dimensions were: Heating surface, tubes, 914 sq. ft., firebox, 68.2 sq. ft., total 982.2 sq. ft.; grate area, 14.,3 sq. ft.; working pressure, 140 lb. The weights m working order were: Leading axle, 11 tons. 2 cwt. 1 qr.; driving axle, 12 tons 6 cwt. 2 qrs.; rear coupled axle, 11 tons 11 cwt.; total, 34 tons 19 cwt. 3 qrs. The tender ran on four wheels and weighed in road trim: Leading 'axle, 10 tons 2 cwt. 2 qrs.; rear axle, 9 tons 2 cwts. 3.qrs.; total, 19 tons 5 cwt. 1 qr. These tenders carried 1,500 gallons of water and four tons of coal. No. 1 was first renumbered in 1881 so that the Officer's engine could have this number, and was sub se- quently renumbered when the new 4-4·0 engine was built. None of the class was rebuilt, although several of the overhauls were very heavy. Some of the engines so treated were Nos. 8 to 14 and 16 in 1880, No. 22 in 1886, and No. 26 in either 1890 or 1885: Although used on the Glasgow to Edin- burgh line and also to the Coast when built, the class soon became scattered throughout the system. Others finished their days as station pilots at Glas- gow (Central), Stirling, Carlisle and Perth, or on the stock trains. In the late '80s, Nos. 2 and 11 were at Dundee for the Joint Line trains. No. 17 remained at Forfar for many years, No. 13 was regularly employed on the Perth and Dundee trains, sometimes shedded at Perth and other times working from Dundee. Nos. 9 and 10 were Perth engines. In the late '70s several of the class were at work on the Portpatrick Railway. To be continued)

Image C.R. 2.4.0 l4a as finally running, and with original type boiler.
Image C.R. 2-4-0 Passenger Engine, built at Perth, 1868.Image C.R. 2-4-0 No. 0 (Class No. 1) as built with Naylor safety valves.
Image C.R. 2.4·0 No. Ha (Class No. 1) as overhauled and running 1895.

O.S. Nock. The "Claughton" class, L.N.W.R.: an analysis of their design and performance. 73-6. illustration, 2 diagrams
Concluded from page 61. Among engines transferred to the Midland Division was the pioneer of the whole class Sir Gilbert Claughton, then renumbered 5900. In 1931 this engine was doing some excellent work on the Settle and Carlisle line, a good example of which is shown m the graph, Fig. 7. This diagram forms part of a run in which the 48.3 miles from Carlisle to Aisgill summit were climbed in 66 minutes while on that part of the ascent illustrated the speed averaged 39 m.p.h. Generally speed was sustained at 34 to 35 m.p.h. on the 1 in 100 gradients with the load of 335. tons, the only falling-off from this standard bemg just above Kirkby Stephen, where a rmnimum of 31½ m.p.h. was recorded. It should be added that the weather was fine, though breezy on the exposed stretches of line. One interesting feature of Claughton performance on the Midland Division was the regular attamment of downhill speeds distinctly higher than those ordinarily reached on the L. & N.W.R. line to Carlisle. Since the early days of the Expenments, when speeds up to 90 m.p.h. were run in descending from Shap, the downhill running of L. & N.W.R. Scottish expresses was moderate, speeds much exceeding 75 mile/h. being unusual. The smooth riding of the Claughtons, due in part to the balancing of the revolving parts and the complete elimination of hammer-blow evidently tempted the Midland drivers to bursts of speed that would only be prudent when their own engmes were m perfect condition. (Only those who have ridden on a really rough compound will fully appreciate this last remark!) With the "Claughtons" speeds up to 84-85 m.p.h. became quite common in descending from Aisgill and Blea Moor, but perhaps the most remarkable example came on a rough winter's afternoon when the 2.42 p.m. express from Carlisle had lost a little time on the ascent to Aisgill. The table-land to Blea Moor was covered at normal speed, but then on emerging from Blea Moor Tunnel the driver evidently left his regulator and cut-off positions unchanged; for in a matter of six miles we accelerated from 58 to 88 m.p.h. The curve of acceleration is shown in Fig. 8, from which it appears that, but for the sudden brake application near Horton, the speed might have soared well over the 90 mark.
Under L.M.S. administration the Claughtons were allowed a maximum load of 380 tons on Special Limit trains on the Western Division, and even after the Royal Scots were in general use a number of important services were still worked by the ex-L. & N. W. R. engines, including the up Merseyside Express (55.5 mile/h, start to stop, from Mossley Hill to Euston, 189.7 miles), the 3½-hour Euston-Manchester expresses ((56.8 mile/h. start-to-stop from Wilmslow to Euston, 176.9 miles) and the up Mid-day Scot between Crewe and Euston. With gross loads of 390 to 400 tons behind the tender these were heavy turns. Another train on which I noted consistently hard work by the Claughtons was the 10.28 from Carnforth to Crewe. With stops at Lancaster, Preston, Wigan and Warrington, this train was allowed a running time of 102 minutes for the 78.2 milesã46 mile/h. average; and in consideration of the comparative shortness of the start-to-stop runs, the work involved, with loads varying between 346 and 393 tare tons, was very creditable. On one typical occasion, with a load of 379 tons tare, 405 tons gross, behind the tender, and engine No. 5945 Ingestre (L. & N.W.R. No. 2420) the actual running times were equal to a non-stop run of 91 minutes from Carnforth to Crewe, 51½ mile/h. average, including the usual very slow passage made by non-stopping trains through Preston.
There were occasions when pilots were not available and Claughtons were called upon to haul loads considerably above their maximum tonnage. I was fortunate enough to record one such instance, in 1930, when a performance almost up to Ralph Brocklebank standard was put up. The train concerned was the 17.20 from Euston, on a day of heavy traffic. From the start matters were quite normal, with a load of 370 tons tare, and Claughton class engine No. 6021 Beuere (L. & N.W.R. No. 192). The running to Rugby was smart, though nothing out of the ordinary by former L. & N.W.R. standards. At Rugby the load was increased to 398 tons tare, 435 tons gross behind the tender, and although the engine was, by contemporary standards, overloaded, no pilot was provided. It was certainly not necessary! The 51 miles from Rugby to Stafford were then booked to be run in 56 minutes, start to stop; No. 6021 made the run in exactly 52 minutes, with an average of 64 m.p.h. for 42 miles on end. At Stafford a further coach was added and, with the train now very crowded, the gross load behind the tender was 465 tons. Details of the run to Crewe are shown in the accompanying diagram, Fig. 9. The haulage power of a Claughton in the hands of a competent crew was amply demonstrated on this length. The start was very rapid, with speed rising to 50 m.p.h. in 3¼ miles, after which a D.H.P. of 1,050 to 1,100 was sustained throughout to Whitmore summit, where on the 1913 trials the corres- ponding figures of D.H.P. were around 1,115. A sustained maximum of 75 m.p.h. brought the 17.20 express into Crewe in 28¼ minutes from Stafford, nearly two minutes early.
In view of the strictures placed upon the original design in respect of the size of the boiler the fitting of enlarged boilers to certain engines of the class, under the L.M.S. ownership, was an interesting event .. The following table gives particulars of the original and enlarged boilers:

. Original Enlarged.
Length of barrel ..

14ft. 10½in.

14ft. 0in.

Number of small tubes 149


Outside diameter of small tubes 17/8


Heating surface (ft2.):
  Small tubes 1088


  Large tubes 486


  Firebox 175


  Superheater 379


Grate area (ft2) 30.5


Boiler pressure (psi) 175


There was thus no appreciable change in the total heating surface, but the shortening of the barrel, together with the use of larger diameter tubes, made for considerably freer steaming. Some of the re-boilered engines were fitted with Caprotti valve-gear, though, by this latter change the whole characteristics of the engine were so altered that they could no longer claim any engineering affinity with the original design, save that the same wheels and frames were used.
The true Claughton rebuilds, retaining the Walschaerts gear, proved excellent engines on the road. A number of them were stationed at Preston for working the Liverpool and Manchester-Scottish expresses, and on bookings of 105 minutes for the 90 miles from Preston to Carlisle— 51½ mile/h average—they handled loads of 400 tons, tare, over Shap without assistance. One such run that I experienced revived older memories, for the engine was none other than Ralph Brocklebank, L.M.S. No. 5906, with a load of 393 tons tare, and 415 tons gross behind the tender. The running was closely in accordance with the sectional times then scheduled, Shap Summit being passed exactly on time in 73 minutes from Preston, 58.7 miles. This involved sustained minimum speeds of 30 mile/h on the 1 in 106 leading to Grayrigg summit, and 21½ mile/h. on the 1 in 75 of Shap incline proper.
One of the most impressive examples of the work of the rebuilt engines that I ever noted was on the Ulster Express in 1935, when No. 5970 Patience (L. & N.W.R. No. 2499) took over the haulage of a 475-ton train at Crewe. The nominal tractive power of these locomotives has certainly been enhanced by the use of 200 psi boiler pressure, against the original 175 psi but, nevertheless, to make as fast a start out of Crewe as the fire-eating Ralph Brocklebank of 1913, and moreover to keep level for the first 14 miles, was a remarkable feat with a load 32 per cent. heavier. This performance is shown graphically in Fig. 10. It was only through the more pronounced slack at Weaver Junction that Patience fell behind at all, and even so she passed Warrington in 24½ minutes, against the 23¼ minutes of the 1913 flyer. After that the Ulster Express was delayed by signals, and further running, though good, was less spectacular.
It is idle to speculate as to how different L.M.S. locomotive history might have been had Crewe rather than Derby gained the ascendancy in 1923. The eclipse of the Claughtons was merely symbolical of a changed order of affairs that must have been a great disappointment to the majority of old L. & N.W.R. men. So far as actual haulage ability is concerned the 1913 trials alone are enough to place the Claughtons second to none among locomotives of pre-1914 vintage, and the work of Beuere seventeen years later shows that they were still capable of the same standard of performance. On the coal consumption figures taken by the L.M.S. the class stands condemned, by modern standards, on the score of extravagance, though why Derby did not pursue an alteration that is said to have yielded a 20 per cent. reduction is not generally known. It was on engine No. 1093 Sir Guy Calthrop, that this alteration was made—a rearrangement of the fire-bars, to give more air space, and some changes at the front end. The coal consumption of this modified engine was given as 4 lb. per D.H.P. hour, very little more than the 3.78 lb. per D.H.P. hour for the Midland compound used in the comparative trials. As pre-1914 standards went, even the 5 lb. per D.H.P. hour recorded with No. 5917 by the Derby authorities was not excessive. On expresses booked at no more than 47½ m.p.h. non-stop from Newcastle to Edinburgh, Atlantic engines of the North-Eastern Railway were 5 and even 6 lb. of coal per D.H.P. hour, with loads of 365 tons, and where heavy duties were concerned consumptions of 50 to 60 lb. of coal per train mile were quite usual. Only on the G.W.R. were to be found locomotives that, in heavy duty, approach the modern standard of 31b. per D.H.P. hour. In this connection it is, however, worth noting that when a Castle class 4-6-0 was tested between Euston and Carlisle, in 1926, her coal consumption was recorded as 3.78 lb. per D.H.P. hour-equal to a Midland compound. But it is hard to reconcile this figure with the 2.83 lb. per D.H.P. hour recorded on the G.W.R. in 1924 in a very severe test from Swindon to Plymouth and back on another of the Castle engines.
To conclude, the Claughtons were the last representatives of the old Crewe dynasty, a line that included the Lady of the Lake singles, the Precedents, the ill-starred Webb compounds, and the amazing George the Fifths. The Claughtons, although including several new features, such as a sloping fire-grate, Belpaire firebox, and the Walschaerts valve-gear, were essentially a Crewe design, and their feats of haulage provided a worthy conclusion to the line.

Indian Railways. 76
Forty locomotives of the XE type were being built in the U.S.A. They are for the broad gauge and will be known as X Eagle goods engines.

Canadian National Railways. 76
Locomotives consumed 7,500,000 tons of coal in 1943. A yard engine, used for shunting consumed approximatelv three tons in eight hours service, while a heavy main-line locomotive, Northern 4-8-4 wheel type, required nine tons for each three-hour run.

C.M. Doncaster. An old Rennie single. 76. illustration (drawing: side elevation) 
The engine London was one of four bu!lt by George and John Rennie, Engineers, Blackfriars, in 1838, for the London & Southampton Railway, which later became the London & South Western Railway.
The other three engines of the class were named Victoria, Garnet and Reed respectively. They were the first six-wheeled engines on the line, the only previous engines being of the four-wheeled Bury type—one, the Lark, having been used for ballasting work by the contractors.
George and John Rennie were famous engineers and, unlike most loco builders, were largely employed on shipbuilding, bridges, harbours. and general engineering construction. The engme illustrated bears a strong resemblance in design and proportions to the standard Sharp's engine  which first came out in the previous year. Actually, nine similar engines were delivered in 1838 by Sharp, Roberts & Company, with wheels and cylinders of the same dimensions as the Rennie engmes, namely, driving wheels 5 ft. 6 in., cylinders 13 in. dia. by 18 in. stroke. The tenders were four-wheeled. The tender on the Rennie engine London shown in the illustration has been added by the wnter of these notes and is not necessarily correct in detail, though it is copied from tenders in use at the date. It will be noticed that the brake-blocks were applied by the stoker pulling over a long lever.
Tender engines had no brakes on the engine wheels until about 1876, the tender only being fitted with them. It will be noted that London had no wheel-guards, hence there was no handrail along the boiler. The cylinder cocks could only be opened by hand behind the buffer beam whilst the engine was standing. The fixed safety-valve was inside the ornamental dome, and steam escaped through the small apertures at the top. The water gauge and cocks were on the side of the firebox. The water capacity of the little tender was 118.8 feet3, which was sufficient to supply the engme for 1.87 hours at an average evaporation of 63 feet3 per hour.

Locomotive power. 77-9. 2 diagrams.
Paper by E.C. Poultney, bearing the above title read before members of the Institution of Locomotive Engineers on 27 October 1943, explains a method which the author has evolved for determining the probable power output of simple expansion steam locomotives as measured by the power available at the coupling between the locomotive and the train. As a result of the study the conclusion has been reached that it is best and most convenient to separate entirely the boiler and engine performance and estimate locomotive resistance by some formula: which includes engine friction and the rolling and air resistances. The means proposed for estimating pulling power throughout the usual operating speeds obtaining in either passenger or freight service is therefore as follows. Four distinct processes are involved. These are the determination of:
1. The Tractive Force.
2. Boiler Steaming Capacity.
3. The mean effective pressure in the cylinders from which is calculated the Indicated Tractive Force.
4. Resistance of the Locomotive.
5. The Tractive Force depends entirely on the dimensions and the number of the cylinders, the diameter of the driving wheels, and the steam pressure, the mean pressure (maximum) being dependent upon the initial pressure and the full gear cut off.
2. Boiler capacity is taken to be proprtional to the grate area, and is determined by the firing rate and the heat value of the coal fired.
3. The available mean pressure in the cylinders depends upon the steam supplied to the engines per unit of time. This is governed by the boiler capacity in relation to that of the cylinders.
4. Locomotive Resistance is a function of the total weight, the size of driving wheels, the number of coupled axles, and the head-on air ap resistance.
Tractive Force.
(1) When calculating the tractive force what is usually wanted is the maximum value. This can In be estimated under two different heads:
  (1) The maximum tractive force in the cylinders called the Indicated Tractive Force. Ind. T.F.
  (2) The maximum tractive force available at the rim of the driving wheels at the point of contact between the wheel and the rail. The latter is called the Rated             Tractive Force. R.T.F.
The Author determines 1 and then 2.
The Indicated Tractive Force is made up of the engme constant C. This is purely dependent upon the cylinder dimensions and their number and the size of the driving wheels. The actual indicated tractive force is C multiplied by the mean effective pressure. The latter depends upon the initial pressure (psi). and the cut-off in full gear for maximum indicated tractive force. It therefore varies according to the cut-off in full gear. The mean pressure for any initial steam pressure and rate of admission has its maximum value at very low speeds r.p.m. or m.p.h., often called. zero speed. As the speed increases the cut-off remaining unaltered there is a gradual reduction III the mean pressure. Values for the factor expressing the mean pressure as a percentage of the initial at zero speed and at 60 r.p.m. are given for various rates of full gear cut-off. The Indicated Tractive Force for any pressure P taken as being the boiler working pressure is for a full gear cut-off of 75 per cent. as below:
ex P x 0.86
(2) Rated Tractive Force.
This is the tractive force, maximum, at the rim of the driving wheels. It is therefore equal to the Indicated Tractive Force less the mechanical resist- ances of the engines. This is taken to be equal to 8 per cent. of the Indicated Tractive Force, mean- ing that the value of the mean effective pressure factor already mentioned when referred to the rim of the drivers is reduced by 8 per cent., so that as a case in point the factor 0.86 becomes:
0.86 x 0.92 = 79.3
say, 0.79
The R.T.F. would therefore be:
ex P x 0.79
It is almost universal practice to use the factor 0.85 when calculating the R.T.F. regardless of the maximum cut-off in full gear, and while this is, strictly speaking, incorrect, no harm is done so long, as is usually the case, the value of the m.e.p. factor employed is stated.
Boiler Steaming Capacity.
To determine the weight of steam available from a boiler of given dimensions the author has, after mature consideration, decided to accept a method suggested by T.R. Cook, in an article which appeared in Baldwin Locomotives, October 1932, and in which a set of curves was published showing the hourly evaporations obtainable per ft2. of grate area at different rates of firing coal or oil pounds per ft2 of grate area per hour. In all nine different curves were shown, five for coal, each corresponding to a different heating value per B.Th.D. per pound and for values varying from 11,000 to 15,000 B.Th.D. The evaporatrve values suggested for estimating boiler capacity are put forward in the belief that they are reasonably applicable to good average practice; further, it is, of course, assumed that steaming power is proportional to the size of the fire grate, and is independent of the heating surfaces. Within the limits set by normal boiler proportions this may be accepted. There is, however, a further point which may be mentioned, which is the design of the front end arrangements, variations in which can and do affect steaming. A table setting out the evaporations at firing rates from 30 to 120 lb. coal per ft2 of grate area per hour was included in the paper and the author explained at length how the actual steam supply to the cylinders was computed, making allowances for that used by injectors, ejectors or air compressors for the continuous brake, etc.
Cylinder Power.
The power developed in the cylinders is expressed either in terms of tractive force or horse-power, and there are two different methods of determining tractive force. Tractive force can either be the tractive force exerted in the cylinders, which may be called the Indicated Tractive Force, or it may be measured at the rim of the drivers, when it is generally designated as the Rated Tractive Force. The maximum tractive force that a steam locomotive of normal design is capable of exerting when measured in the cylinders is dependent on the size and number of the cylinders and the diameter of the driving wheels, and by the mean effective steam pressure acting on the pistons. The mean pressure available being governed by the rate of cut-off in full gear. The speed that any given locomotive can attain when operating in full gear depends on the steam supply in relation to the cylinder volume swept out per revolution of the driving wheels, but, as already stated, as the speed increases the mean pressure will fall. This is due to throttling losses through the inlet and exhaust ports, and the building up of back pressure in the exhaust passages. An indication of how the mean pressure is influenced by increasing speed in r.p.m. is shown by Fig. 1, which also gives the indicated mean pressure factors at starting or zero speed, and at a speed of 60 r.p.m. for the full gear cut-offs most commonly used. The values given for 60 r.p.m. are empirical. In order to establish the power that a locomotive can develop in the cylinders or at the draw-bar throughout the speed range measured in miles per hour it is necessary to correlate the steaming capacity of the boiler with the steam usmg capacity of the engines. As the locomotive moves in full gear the time will come when the boiler can no longer supply steam for full gear operation, and it will then become necessary to reduce the rate of steam admission. Thus the mean pressure will be successively reduced with each increment in speed. In other words, the proportion of the maximum tractive force available at speed will depend upon the boiler steaming capacity. The effect of boiler capacity on engine power will be shown graphically later. To determine the point at which full gear working must be terminated, and the running tractive force indicated in the cylinders for any given rate of cylinder feed, the formulae devised by W.F. Kiesel, late Mechanical Engineer, Pennsylvania Railway, is suggested.
To illustrate the proposed method for plotting the curve of indicated tractive force against speed in miles per hour a graph (Fig. 2) is presented. This is plotted for two different rates of firing coal lb. per ft2 of grate area per hour, and the corresponding rates of cylinder feed per hour. The curves appertain to a freight engine of the 2-8-0 type, the pertinent particulars of which are as follow:
Cylinders (2), 19 in. x 28 in.
Drivers, dia. in., 56.5.
Steam pressure, 225 psi
Grate area, 28.6 ft2
Engine constant, C = 179.
Full gear cut-off, 75 per cent
Weight, engine and tender, 128 tons (full).
Curve 1. Steam to engines, 17,950 lb. per hour. Firing rate, 90 lb. coal per ft2 of grate area per hour.
Curve 2. Steam to engines, 13,340 lb. per hour. Firing rate, 60 lb. coal per ft2. of, grate area per hour.
Curves 1 and 2 corresponding to the rates of cylinder feed already mentioned are computed from the Kiesel formulae. The indicated tractive effort is plotted against speed in mile/h., the vertical scale being the tractive force in pounds. On the vertical scale the point A is the maximum cylinder or indicated tractive force computed by the forrnulee. At 60 r.p.m., equal to 10.1 m.p.h., with 56.5 in. drivers the maximum tractive force falls to a value equal to
C x P x 0.775
For the engine under notice the numerical values are
179 x 225 x 0.775 = 31,200 lb.
The line drawn passing through the point A and the point B corresponding to 10.1 m.p.h. on the horizontal and 31,200 lb. on the vertical scales respectively, indicates the rate of fall in the m.e.p. with increasing speed, the engine being in full gear. Further, the points of intersection between this line and the curves developed from the indicated tractive force formulae show where the change in cut-off is made, full gear cut-off being no longer possible, due to the steam demand exceeding the supply. The point C on the vertical scale corresponds to a value equal to 8 per cent. less than the maximum indicated tractive force, equal in this case to 32,000 lb. This is the actual maximum rated tractive force measured at the rims of the drivers. The line C—D is drawn parallel to the line A—B and indicates how the rated tractive effort falls as the speed increases while the engine is being operated in full gear. This will be further referred to when the method of arriving at the draw-bar pull characteristics is considered. The indicated tractive force curves 1 and 2 are completed as shown by joining them to the line A—B denoting the maximum indicated tractive force by two curves drawn tangentially to the curves 1 and 2 and to the line A—B as shown. Thus the completed curves indicate the cylinder tractive force developed from zero to the maximum speed.
The curves 1 and 2 show clearly the influence of boiler steaming capacity on the tractive force available. In addition to the indicated tractive force there is also shown the mean effective pressures in the cylinders. The line a—b again shows the fall in pressure in full gear cut-off and the transition curves are drawn tangential to this line, and the curves 1 and 2 showing the mean effective pressure in the cylinders in relation to the speed of the locomotives in miles per hour.

L.N.E.R. 79
One of the GWR diesel railcars was at work in the Newcastle district.

Solving a reclamation problem. 79. illustration
Use of electro-magnet to reclaim metal from the Thames lost during the demolition of the old Rennie Waterloo Bridge from a crane based on the new bridge.

Correspondence. 80

Class 19c engines on the S.A.R. "Firebox."
As letters on the relative merits of the R.C. poppet valve gear as against conventional valve gears appear from time to time, perhaps the following short account might be of interest to vou. The writer made a trip several years ago, on the footplate of a class 19C engine (which are fitted with .the R.C. gear) on the Cape Town-Caledon line,' during the most exacting portion of the run, viz ,; that between Sir Lowry Pass Station and Steenbras Siding. This portion, about nine miles in length, involves the Pass itself, a formidable climb having grades of 1 in 40 and 1 in 44, against the engine, and severe curves. The line rises 1,100 feet from Sir Lowry Pass Station to the highest point of the climb, just before Steenbras Siding. On this occasion the train consisted of seven bogies (225 tons)-the usual load-and the weather was fine. Starting from Sir Lowry Pass Station (post 14¼) at the foot of the Pass, the acceleration was rapid. I do not remember the cut-off at starting, but at post 14½ the speed was 23 m.p.h. on a 1 in 40 grade. At about this point the cut-off was set at 40 per cent., the regulator being about full open, and the driver did not touch either cut-off or regulator again during the whole ascent, except to ease the engine down on some of the curves. This, to me, was a pretty good show. The fireman fired regularly, but not heavily, and there was no suggestion of the engine labouring. So much for hill climbing. On the level, their accelerating powers are remarkable, and a 19c can always be distinguished by its snappy exhaust, which is noticeable even when notched up. I do not know how a similar engine having, say, Walschaerts gear would perform, but such a comparison would be very interesting. My own feeling is that the excellent performance of the 19C class is due in a large measure to their valve gear, and that this is not sufficiently recognised. See also letter from M.M. Loubser on page 164..

Miniature railways. Robin D. Butterell.
Re Wells' recent letter on the Dreamland Miniature Railway. The builder of Billie was Albert Barnes, of Rhyl, who also built the locomotives in use in latter years on the Rhyl Miniature Railway. I can shed no light on the identity of Prince Edward of Wales; it would be interesting to have a table prepared of all the Little Giants and their ultimate "fates." Another Miniature Railway. which I do not think has been mentioned in your articles. is the 15 in. gauge line in Belle Vue Park. Manchester. Although only a pleasure line. and a few hundred yards long. it is of a rohust nature. and is at present undergoing overhaul for the summer season. It has been down about fifteen years. and has had three locomotives. The present one was built by Barnes, and is an "Atlantic"; it is a well-proportioned design and bears quite a close resemblance to the "improved" Little Giant type. as used to run on the Sand Hutton Miniature Railway. It draws a train of open coaches. There is also a train of closed bogie coaches. but this is at present under repair. It might also interest you to know that the Eaton Hall line is still flourtshing, I visited it about a week ago and discovered that trains. drawn bv the four-wheel petrol locomotive. still run every day except Sundays. It is interesting to find sleepers stamped "E.R. 1895 B" and "D B R. 1897 B." The good condition of the permanent way is no doubt due to these cast steel sleepers. The Cuckoo's Nest branch was removed recently.

The "White Horse of Kent." C. F. Dendy Marshall
The letters which have been brought to light by Mr. Hilton will be much appreciated by all who are interested in locomotive history. There is one passage in the article which conveys a wrong impression as it stands, viz., "there is no evidence that the second engine was named White Horse of Kent. The author doubtless meant that there was none in the papers he had been examining, but omitted to say so. There is plenty of such evidence elsewhere. For example, there are numerous references to the engine of that name in the Gauge Commissioners' Report (e.g., vol. 1, page 148, etc.). Warren distinctly says she was not built by Robert Stephenson & Co. It is well known that they often employed other firms as sub-contractors. .


The thermal technics of steam boilers. J. Webster.
This monograph deals with the sequence of problems, from the heat aspect only, as they occur with orthodox boilers. Much useful information is given in a style calculated to appeal to the busy reader. The calculations and rules are presented in a readily understood manner. As is only to be anticipated, water-tube boilers are chiefly dealt with, but the booklet is none the less interesting to those dealing with other types, as fundamental principles are the same.

White metalling. H. Warburton,
Apart from the firms who specialise in such work, most engineering shops, at some time or other, are called upon to line bearings, and it is upon such occasions that many have discovered that it is not such a simple procedure as might be supposed--or perhaps it has been left to the customer to make the discovery, at a later date, when shell and lining parted company. This monograph gives much valuable information upon the subject and deals with the operations and considerations involved in the metalling of bearings up to large sizes. It is a useful contribution to the literature of a subject not sufficiently understood by some of those who practise it.

L.M.S. Chief Mechanical Engineer. 80
C. E. Fairburn, M.IC.E., M.I,M.E., M.I.Loco.E., the recently appointed Chief Mechanical Engineer of the L.M.S. had been acting in that capacity since 1942, when Sir William Starrier was seconded to the Ministry of Production. He was born in 1887 and educated at Brasenose College, Oxford, entering the Derby locomotive works under Sir Henry Fowler in 1912. Afterwards he joined Siemens Bros. & Co., Ltd., being engaged in their railway department. During the period of the first world war he was with the R.F.C.-later the R.A.F.-and left this to join the English Electric Co. in 1919. In 1926 he was appointed general manager of Dick Kerrs, also presiding over the English Electric Co.'s car works, and rose to the position of chief engineer and manager of the traction department at the Stafford establishment. He entered the L.M.S. as electrical engineer in 1934, becoming deputy Chief Mechanical Engineer in 1937.

The "Railway Mania". 80
During 1844 a remarkable change in the railway world came about and spread rapidly. It was attributed to the improvement in trade activity following a severe depression. The total railway mileage at the time in Great Britain was approximately 3,000, owned by 118 companies. Sixty-six applications, involving 900 miles of new railway, were received by the House of Commons at the beginning of the 1844 session. The companies incorporated during the session were: the Chester & Holyhead; Fumess; Lancaster & Carlisle; Leeds & Bradford; Manchester. Bury & Rossendale; Preston & Blackburn: North Wales Mineral: South Devon; North British; Eastern Counties & Thames Junction: Eastern Union; Norwich & Brandon: Guildford Junction: Brighton & Chichester; and the Brighton, Lewes & Hastings.

Number 622 (15 June 1944)

British steam locomotives. 81-2. table

F.C. Hambleton. "Lord of the Isles", G.W.R. 83. illustration (drawing: side elevation)

L.N.E.R. 83.
Remaining four of 25 V2 type modified to Pacific type and classified as A2/1.

[Ministry of Supply 2-10-0 No. 3701]. 84
Photograph of locomotive in LNER Scottish Area

The North London Railway. 84-6. 2 diagrams (side elevations)
0-6-0T. Continued p. 120

O.J. Morris. Railmen's holiday. 86-7. illustration
Annual excursions to Eastbourne of the LBSCR Stationmasters' and Inspectors' Mutual Aid Society. Locomotives hauling these trains were decorated and there was competition between Battersea and New Cross sheds.

Boiler repairs. 88-9. 2 illustrations, plan
Progressive system of boiler repair introduced at the LNER Gorton Works involving purpose-built gantries

Commonwealth Railways of Australia. 89.
Eight 4-6-0 type locomotives had been taken over from the Canadian National Railways and a further two 4-6-0s had been acquired from the New York, New Haven & Hartford RR.

Locomotive power. 90-2. 2 diagrams.
Locomotive resistance

G.E.C. mobile sub-stations. 92. illustration
Mounted on a well wagon intended to accept a 11 or 6.6 kv, three-phase ac supply and output 1000 kw, 500 volt dc.

L.N.E.R. 92
Experiments in radio transmission between footplate crews and guards en route. Equipment from Rediffusion Ltd. Sir Ronald Matthews, chairman of the LNER spoke to Sir Charles Newton, general manager, as he travelled north by train (seems a long way before the quiet coaches now provided to switch off such chit chat)

L.M.S.R. 92
On 30 December 1943 cthe LMS ran its hundred thousandth OHMS train since the outbreak of WW2. Total included 52,603 troop trains, 25,288 stores trains, 6799 ammunition trains and 15,310 petrol trains.

L.N.E.R. 92
A.G. Minty, assistant district locomotive superintendent, Newcastle had been appointed acting district locomotive superintendent, Sunderland.

South Australian "520" class engines. 92
Further information about superheated fitted.

L.N.E.R. class Y8 0-4-0T No. 560. 92. illustration
Fitted with chime whistle off A4 No. 4469 Sir Ralph Wedgwood destroyed in Baedeker raid on York

New passenger luggage vans, Southern Railway. 93-5. illustration, 2 diagrams (including plans)
Four wheel vehicle where light weight was combined with added protection for the contents through isolating the body of the vehicle from the frame using suspension elements consisting of spiral springs with rubber elements. Plastic panels and welded components reduced the weight. Designed by O.V.S. Bulleid. Livery was black due to WW2 conditions.

R.B. Fellows. By train to the Eton Montem, 1838-1844. 95-6.
On Whit Tuesday 1844 the last Eton Montem was held. Was the Mortem killed by the railway? The Montem, which had been held for three, if not four hundred years, was essentially a school pageant, a feature being the procession of. the school from Eton to Salt Hill, near Slough, many of the boys being in "fancy dress", usually of historical type, then, the collection of money from the spectators, and indeed from all travellers on the road nearby, a custom open to criticism. The donations, often considerable, were called "salt", and after all expenses were paid the balance was handed over to the captain of the school for his use at the University. It is well known that the Eton governing body got a clause inserted in the Great Western Company's Act to prevent the building of a station within three miles of Eton College—this, of course, ruled out any station at Slough. James Wyld, the well-known compiler of early railway guides, states in his Guide to the G.W.R., published in 1839, that "the enraged Provost of Eton", having discovered that the company intended to convey passengers to Slough for the Montem, which in 1838 was held on 5 June, the day after the opening of the railway, applied to the Court of Chancery to restrain them from setting down or picking up passengers within three miles of the College, but the application was dismissed with costs. The Company's Act merely prohibited the building of a station. John Herapath, the editor of The Railway Magazine, travelled to Maidenhead and back on Montem Day, 5 June 1838, and in his magazine for July wntes an account of his journey. The 10 o' clock train from Paddmgton by which he travelled was made up of eight carriages headed by the North Star, and carried some 400 passengers; he rode in an open carriage and complained of the jolting. Returmng from Maidenhead by the 5 o'clock train—engine Eolus—the train he wrote, stopped at Slough and took up an enormous load of Montem gentry, who defied police and everything else to keep them out . . ." The Times stated that a special train of ten carriages was run late in the evening to bring people back to Paddington from the Montem.
The next Montem was held in 1841 when there was a station at Slough. In The Annals of Eton College published in 1898, Sir Wasey Sterry states that in 1841 the Great Western Railway brought down a crowd of most undesirable sight-seers and the next Montem of 1844 was the last." Perhaps this was as well, for according to the Telegraph Book kept at Paddington, some notorious thieves travelled down on that occasion. The telegraph had not been long extended to Slough, and It was on Montem Day of 1844 (May 28) that the instrument was used for police purposes for the first time. The entries show how the police at Slough were warned of the departure from Paddington by the various trains of these notorious characters. Extracts were given in the booklet Brunel and after published by the company about twenty years ago, and are amusing reading. From the Telegraph Book entries and from other contemporary sources we learn that special trains were run to Slough for the Montem of 1844, including a Royal special—for the company carried some very distinguished persons—which left Paddington shortly after 10 a.m. and returned from Slough about 2 p.m., conveying H.R.H. Prince Albert (the Prince Consort), and we also learn that part of the "A" Division of the London Police were on duty at Eton and Salt Hill.

Correspondence. 96

Condensing locomotives. W.O. Skeat.
You will doubtless have had notice of the very interesting paper on condensing locomotives by Professor Lomonossoff and Captain Lomonossoff presented at the Institution of Mechanical Engineers on Friday, May 19· This paper gives a most interesting world survey of condensing locomotives at the present time. It must be admitted that this country's contributions in that direction have not been particularly outstanding, but that may well be, as the authors suggest, because in such a climate as ours the advantages of condensing are much less than they would be in other parts of the world.
The authors give some space, however, to two very interesting experimental efforts by the North British Locomotive Company, the first being the Electro-Turbo-Locomotive of 1910, and the second the Reid-MacLeod Turbo-Locomotive which was exhibited in 1924 at Wembley. The authors make the interesting observation that the second locomotive was possibly a rebuilt version of the first, and Professcr Lomonossoff, in personal conversation with me, has pointed out that the arrangement of the bogies and also of the wheelbase was the same in both these engines thus supporting the authors' contention. I think it will be generally agreed that the authors, in their statement that the history of the first, known as the 'Reid-Rarnsay' locomotive, is somewhat obscure" are not guilty of exaggeration very much to be hoped that someone may come forward with further information about these two extremely interestinng and, from the national pomt of view, most important expenments.
Although in this case private locomotive-building firms were concerned, there is a tendency among the railways of this country, which seems regrettable, to suppress the publication of details of any experiments which they do not deem to be briliantly successful; thus engineers the world over are depnved of all means Of finding out just how much work has been done and what results have been achieved during the expenmental stages of any novel idea or principles m railway locomotion. Unfortunately, this outlook is extremely deep-rooted and is always instinctively bound up with the .idea that an unsuccessful experiment would impair the prestige of the administration concerned. In this direction one is sorely tempted to apply the old saying "The man who never made a mistake never made anything" and so it is with feelings of regret that we find so little information on these two notable experimental types has been allowed to be published. It is hoped, however, that after so many years have elapsed a more enlightened outlook on the matter may prevail and that someone may be ermitted to come forward with additional authoritative information. See also letter from C.R.H. Simpson..

Reviews. 96

The First Railway in Norfolk. George Dow.
The author, who will be known to most of our readers as the Press Relations Officer of the L.N.E.R., has produced an excellent booklet, the publication of which coincides wi th the centenary of the Yarmouth & Norwich Railway. . Many people will regard this booklet as a model of its kind; it traces the history of the Y. & N.R. from its inception to its ultimate inclusion in the Eastern Counties fold and later the G.E.R. The salient historical points are given Without an encumbrance of detail, and there are included, inter alia, a map of the line, illustrations of rolling stock and a complete list of the locomotive stock of the Norfolk Railway. In congratulating the writer upon the production of such an interesting contribution to the literature of railways, readers will add the hope that similar works will follow from his pen.

Number 623 (15 July 1944)

Articulated locomotives. 97.
Editorial: One of the features which attracts attention . when considering recent locomotive construction in the United States is the increas- ing use now being made of articulated designs, a principle of construction by no means new, but which has undergone considerable development, and has of late been adopted for general main line working of heavy freight trains. The type of articulation which is for all practical purposes exdusively employed is the Mallet system, first introduced on the Baltimore & Ohio in 1904. These engines were cross compounds having a tractive force working compound of 71,500 lb. and have proved to be the forerunners of many others, culminating in the introduction of the huge Virginian Mallets of 1918, weighing complete in working order 898,300 lb. and having a tractive effort in compound gear of 147,200 lb., a figure that has, so far as we know, not again been equalled. Except  for a relatively few small engines, all the early Mallet engines were compounds for the most part employed steeply-graded lines in heavy! slow- moving freight traffic, and it was not until 1924 that the first of the really large simple expansion articulated locomotives appeared in any number, in which year the Chesapeake & Ohio put into service several with four 23 in. by 32 in. cylinders, and a maximum tractive effort of 102,500 lb. Actually, the first large simple expansion Mallet was a single engine built experimentally by the Pennsylvania some time earlier in 1919, but which has not been repeated. While as compounds the Mallet has been built in large numbers, except where the loading gauge was of liberal dimensions, their power was much restncted, due to there being insufficient room for the L.P. cylinders, which m general were limited to about 40 in. diameter; further it was found that the compounds were unsuitable for the high speeds required for general road service, due probably to the difficulty of., getting sufficiently la:rg;e steam ports for the L.P. cylinders. The Virginian engines mentioned had 48 in. L.P.cylinders, the largest ever fitted; they could, however, due to clearance .limitations, only operate on certain parts of the line. The Chesapeake & Ohio engines can be said to be the precursors of modern articulated locomotives m the United States, many of which have attained large proOportions, and of which .one of the more recent we describe in our .preserrt Issue. While the Mallet design holds the field in North Amenca and has been used elsewhere, those of the now well-known Beyer Garratt articulated type have become much in evidence. These engines have met with considerable success; difficult operating conditions frequently found on both standard and narrow - gauge lines where high powers in conjunction with light axle loads,combined with the ability to negotiate tracks of a sinuous nature are deciding factors in the type of locomotive required. As in the case of the Mallet, this type has been developed from small beginnings, and the first engines for the Tasmanian railways of 1908, with a tractive effort of 16,290 lb., bear no comparison with large 4-8-8-4 engines built for service on the South African railways in 1929, and having a tractive effort of 89,130 Lb. Fundamentally the Garratt differs considerably from the 'Mallet, and in certain respects represents a more perfect form of articulation especially noticeable on sharp curves, when it is seen to accommodate itself well to the track, due of course to the fact that the locomotive is made up of three separate units. As both the engine units are quite distinct from the boiler section, the latter is in no way restricted in size, more especially so far as the firebox is concerned. In addition, whereas in the case of eight-coupled engine units wheel sizes are rather restricted, in the case of the Mallet design, due to the relative positions of the rear unit coupled wheels and the firebox, no such restrictions oocur with the Garratt system, neverthe1ess, recent Mallets have been built with 63 in. wheels, while if six-coupled engine units can be used, then coupled wheels of 70 in. are quite readily accommodated: Both types of articulation enable engines of great power to. be built on moderate. axle loads and in companson with two-cylinder engines of normal design provide four-cylinder engines, while maintaining outside cylinders and valve gear with relatively low piston loads, hence lighter motion and lower rail stresses, due to reduced dynamic loadings.

Canadian National Railways. 97
Ten diesel electric shunting locomotives delivered from American Locomotive Co. for use on Grand Trunk Western RR: 1000b hp; capable of 60 mile/h running: 0-4-4-0

Personal. 97
H.R. Carver, sales manager with Jonas Woodhead & Sons Ltd., Leeds had been made a director

Duluth, Missabe & Iron Range Ry. 2-8-8-4 type locomotives. illustration
Duluth is an iron ore port on Lake Superior and locomotives intended to haul long trains to port. They had 5ft 3in coupled wheels of the Boxpok type; 26 x 32in cylinders; 9528ft2 total heating surface; 125ft2 grate area

New Pacific locomotives for the L.N.E.R. 99-100. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
A2/1: four from final batch of V2 built as Pacifics with divided drive and three independent sets of Walschaerts valve gear. No. 3696 photographed in workshop livery.

Personal. 100
Frederick Hall, Works Manager of the Superheater Co. Ltd. had been awarded an MBE

The Battle of the Gauges. 100
Kenneth Brown spoke at a Railway Club Meeting. Refered to the Gauge Act of 1846 and to the Gauge Commissioners. Argued that the difficulties at Gloucester were deliberately exaggerated

McEwan, James. Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway.101-3. 4 illustrations
Continued from page 73. Forth & Clyde Navigation: This was the name used by the rail transportation section of the Forth & Clyde Canal Co. for the railways in and around the docks at Grangemouth. The entire undertaking was purchased by the Caledonian Railway in 1867, and the plant included two four-wheeled, four-coupled, saddle-tank engines. There is considerable confusion in the records concerning these two engines, as they appear to have been mixed up with the two General Terminus Railway ones, Nos. 116 and 117. These two engines were built in 1862 and either were the product of Barclay & Sons of Kilmarnock or of Sharp, Stewart & Co., Manchester, although the latter name is the more doubtful. When new they had plenty of brasswork around their boiler and chimney and coupling-rod ends. The cylinders were probably 12 in., but nothing is definite about them. Repairs appear to have been done at Stirling in C.R. days, and the engines were confined to their original location for their whole lifetime on the C.R. They bore the names Carron and Grange, which they kept for a time after the purchase, if not altogether. The C.R. numbered them 116 and 117, and in 1875 renumbered them 668 and 669. They were sold in 1876 and 1877 respectively.
Caledonian Railway.
When the C.R. had acquired the locomotives of the S.C. and the S.N.E. railways they had to make several replacements at once, and apart from two classes of passenger engines they removed the mid- feathers with ,all speed. Mr. Conner himself did n~t take any active part in the coal-burning expenments, as already indicated, but he followed closely the experiments of others. As coal-burnmg fireboxes became the standard practice on the C.R. the shape of the arch was for some time the diffi- culty. In a number of engines the arch had too much rise and the expansion of the bricks caused these to get distorted and fall. This failure was not uncommon in other spheres until the general form of the arch was developed successfully. Some time towards the end of his active connection with the company, Conner is said to have tried a steel firebox, but without any great success Very few of the Caledonian engines were ever tried experimentally with the "gadgets," perhaps on account of the misfortune with the 2-2-2 engine which came from Barclay's and built on the patent system of Ure.
The original stock of the line was now being renewed, and fonthe next few years several replace- ments were got and some additions made to the capital stock of engines.
In 1867 there appeared from St. Rollox works the first of an enlarged edition of the 6 ft. 2 in. 2-4-0 :type passenger engine. The series were built to work in conjunction with the 8 ft.passenger singles on the .main line express turns and were given 7ft. 2 in. coupled wheels. The cylinders were outside and the type was of the usual standard design. The springs on the driving axles were fitted with a compensating beam. The boilers of the first five were given raised firebox casings with the dome and Salter type safety-valves on the firebox. The remainder of the class got flush-topped boilers, and when the entire class was rebuilt, the flush-top boiler was used throughout, being similar to the previous flush-topped one in size, although those. fitted to the six engines from Neilson's were of an entirely different external appearance. The Neilson made boilers had lasted some ten years longer than the St. Rollox made ones, and they were not in consequence renewed until Lambie's term of office. The cylinders of the class were 17 in. diameter by 24 in. stroke. The coupled wheels were 7 ft. 2 in. and the leading wheels 3 ft. 7in. diameter respectively. The wheelbase was 7 ft. 1½ in. plus 8 ft. 7 in., total 15 ft. 8½ in. The flush boiler barrel was 4 ft. 2 in. diameter outside and had 150 tubes 2 in. diameter. These gave a heating surface of 834 ft2., to which the firebox added a further 86 ft2., making a total of 920 ft2. The grate. area was 14.4 ft2. Working pressure, 140 psi. These details refer to Nos. 108 to 112 and 466 to 471 as built, and Nos. 98 to 102 and 108 to 112, also when rebuilt. Nos. 466 to 471 were rebuilt with the standard Drummond 80 class 4-4-0 or 419 class 2-4-0 rebuild boiler, which had a heating surface of 939.02 ft2 total. As built the class had the following axle weights: leading, 9 tons 19 cwt. 1 qr.; driving, 12 tons 7 cwt.; rear coupled, 10 tons 12 cwt. 2 qrs.; making a total of 32 tons 18 cwt. 3 qrs. When rebuilt the six Neilson engines had a total weight of 33 tons 19 cwt. The class when new were efficient engines, but never excelled themselves on the Carlisle road. Shortly afterwards they were transferred to the North road, where they held sway for many years. Some ultimately returned to Carlisle for local traffic. The six Neilson .engines were sent direct to Perth for the North road, as will be observed by the numbering. After the general transfer of the class to the North the shedding of the class was: Aberdeen, Nos. 98 to 100; Dundee, Nos. 101, 102, 108 and 110; Stirling, Nos. '109, 111 and 112; Perth, Nos. 466 to 471. The Dundee engines were to be seen very frequently in St. Rollox shed; as there was an uncompensated turn from Dundee which prevented the engine returning the same day. The Perth engines in their latter days were used very often as pilot to Forfar on trains from Perth. The six Neilson engines after their rebuilding were amongst the smartest and neatest engines running an the system, and their lines were often admired by those interested in railways. The drivers, too, had a good word far the class. Many people officially regarded these engines as being of class 30, but in many ways there was a decided difference, and the earlier built engines were the mare lively of the two, lots. When built the class had the largest diameter of coupled wheel of any engine in the country. For a short time in the early Drummand period same were tried an the Clyde Coast trains, but they did not appear to, be suitable and were sent back to, their depots. As to, the rebuilding of the Neilson Iot, Nos. 118 and 119 got closed splashers , while the others retained the open vent type. No. 117 got a Lambie type bailer, whereas the others got Drummond type bailers which, apart from the location of the safety-valves, were similar.

No. Maker Date WN Rebuilt. Renumbered Withdrawn


CR 1867 1878 98A in 1897, S. No. 1222



CR 1867 1879 99A in 1897


100 CR 1867 1881


101 CR 1867 1874b 101A in 1897, 1223 in 1898


102 CR 1867 1882 112 in 1897


108 CR 1868 1879 S. No. 1224


109 CR 1868 1878
1885b 1225 in 1899, 56 in 1899
1109 in 1902


110 CR 1868 1878 1226 in 1899


111 CR 1868 1881 1227 in 1899, 1111 in 1900


112 CR 1868 1878 102A in 1897, S. No. 1218 in 1898


466 Neilson & Co. 1868 1382 1894a 117 in 1876, 1117 in 1912


467 Neilson & Co. 1868 1383 1892c 118 in 1876, 1118 in 1912


468 Neilson & Co. 1868 1384 1892c 119 in 1876, 1119 in 1912


469 Neilson & Co. 1868 1385 1894c 120 in 1876, 1120 in 1912


470 Neilson & Co. 1868 1386 1893c 121 in 1876, 1121 in 1912


471 Neilson & Co. 1868 1387 1894c 122 in 1876, 1122 in 1912


a=Lambie type boiler. b=Brittain type boiler.c=Drummond type boiler.
Illustrations: C.R. 2-4-0 No. 101 (1867) as built. H. Ogilvie, driver, on footplate; 98 class 2-4-0 No. 101 as rebuilt; 2-4-0 No. 122 (ex-No. 471)  rebuilt with Drummond type boiler (D. Littlejohn); 2-4-0 No. 117 (originally No. 466) as rebuilt with Lambie boiler

Tanganyika Railways. 103
A new report by the Chief Mechanical Engineer of the Tanganyika Railway and Ports Service gives some details of the work carried out by the workshops since they started converting passenger aircraft into military planes soon after the start of the war. The first order was for stars and crowns for the locally-recruited officers of the armed forces, and at first it caused consider- able difficulty. The work was almost given up when it was learned that an expert coiner had just been released from prison. He was quickly enrolled and soon turned his knowledge and expert craftsmanship to something better. Many hundreds of stars and crowns were in this way produced. Other work undertaken at the beginning of the war was the manufacture of machine-gun mountings, mechanism for the synchronised firing of aircraft guns, parts for a locally-designed bomb-sight, and, later on, mobile engine repair platforms. At the beginning of 1940 the shops began work on Bren gun tnpods, uniform buttons and badges, air raid Sirens, .field cooking pots and rifle pull-throughs. At the same time, the Kenya & Uganda Railway workshops were also busy on varied jobs, and when they ran short of matenal for the trench mortars they were making, the Tanganyika Railways collected, tested and supplied about one hundred old railway axles. It was interesting to note the name on them was Krupp. A little later, when the Kenya & Uganda Railways started to manufacture land mines, the Tanganyika shops undertook to make the machined parts for these in order to achieve the maximum output. Another urgent call was for the transformation of a passenger train into an ambulance train. Seven vehicles were needed, each with 28 bunks, and the work was completed in five and a half days. In twelve weeks the shops also made 50 river pontoons that were used at the crossing of the Juba during the Abyssinian campaign. In 1941, the work completed included quantities of land-mine firing assemblies, land-mine firing assemblies shear pins, earth rammers, mechanical transport towing ropes, parts for rifle cleaning, water carriers and aiming rests. These heavy demands by the military continued during 1942, when it became necessary to assist in the production of plant and spare parts for local industries.

L.N.E.R. 103
The last surviving L:N.E.R. 4-4-0 of Class D13-No. 8039-was withdrawn from service in March. This class, which was formerly G.E.R. Class T19, was introduced by James Holden in 1886, between which year and 1897, a total of 110 engines of the class were built. The original design was of the 2-4-0 type, with coupled wheels 7 ft. 0 in. diameter, cylinders 18 in. by 24 in., boiler diameter 4 ft. 3 in., and weighing 42 tons. Between 1902 and I904, twenty-one of them were rebuilt with 4 ft. 8 in. diameter Belpaire boilers and improved cabs, and weighing 45 tons 9 cwt. They ran in this condition until their withdrawal between 1913 and 1920. No. 769 was the first engine to be so rebuilt, and was the first to go to the scrap-heap. Between v roo ; and 1908 a further sixty of the class were similarly rebuilt, but were fitted with leading bogies and lengthened frames, thus producing a useful secondary main line class. The weight of these rebuilds was 48 tons 6 cwt. The first example of this series was No.  1035. From 1913 the majority of them were superheated. Rebuilding was discontinued in 1908 on account of the greater superiority of the Claud Hamilton 4-4-0 class, so that twenty-nine engines of the class were scrapped in their original condition between 1908 and 1913. The withdrawal of the 4,4-0 rebuilds commenced in December, 1922. On the outbreak of WW2 only three remained in service.

H.F. Hilton. Stephenson letters of 1844. 104-6. illustration
Since compiling the "White Horse of Kent" article which appeared last April, I have perused more letters relating to business in which Robert Stephenson was engaged. Some of these throw interesting light on another of this year's centenaries—the opening of the Norwich & Yarmouth Railway.
On the 1st May, 1844, this railway was opened to the public after the promoters, officials and their friends had enjoyed travelling on the line the previous day and had dined together in the evening. Robert Stephenson was present, as shewn by one of Starbuck's letters to the works. manager at Newcastle, dated 27th April, 1844. "Mr. Robt. Stephenson has gone to Norwich and I am therefore unable to shew him the drawing. E. F. S." This short railway, 20t miles in length, connecting the two towns from which it derived its title, was for about 14 months isolated from any other line, the nearest railway being at Colchester, 63 miles away. It was practically level and there were no large engineering works. The station at Yarmouth (afterwards known as Vauxhall to distinguish it from the East Suffolk Railway terminus at South Town) remains much as it was originally built. It was the first railway in England to be provided with the electric telegraph for working traffic by means of messages.
A letter from Starbuck to Professor Wheatstone, whose address was 21, Conduit Street, Regent Street, London, dated June 1, 1844, states: "Sir, My friend Mons. Clarke, Iugénieur-en-Chef of the Paris & Orleans Rly. of about 90 miles and for some time in operation, has pretty much decided on applying the Electric Telegraph to the whole length. In consequence of Mr. R. Stephenson's advice it is his intention in a few days to proceed to the Norwich &Yarmouth Rly. E. F. S." For a time it was thought probable that the N. & Y.R. would be of 5 ft. gauge to correspond with the Eastern Counties and Northern & Eastern, but unfortunately the "Battle of the Gauges" with Stephenson as chief exponent of the narrower gauge decided otherwise.
The contractors for the construction of the line, Messrs. Grissell & Peto, had their headquarters in Belvedere Road, Lambeth, London, with Mr. Morton Peto as resident engineer in offices at St. Michael-at-Plea, Norwich, and they were responsible to the company for providing the locomotives. It is stated in Volume 10 page 2, that there were five engines, "Nos. 1 and 2 probably being contractors' engines used in the construction of the line, and there is no record as to what they were like." In fairness to the late A.C.W. Lowe, the author of the Locomotives of the Great Eastern Railway, from which the above quotation was taken, I would state that a considerable number of the early records of Robert Stephenson & Co.'s locomotives were destroyed about the time he was writing his instructive and accurate articles, and as the book from which I have extracted information was rescued from destruction the particulars I have now given were denied to him. One of the letters indicates that these two engines came from Stephenson's: '
"E.J. Cook, Esq., Messrs. Robt. Stephenson &. Co., Newcastle, London, 12 Feb., 1844. Dear Sir—Mr. Peto says 'Commence the Shear Legs at once'. Your Yarmouth engine goes away easily WIth 120 tons, he speaks in the highest terms of them, he will send names for them soon. E.F.S." In all probability. these two engines were also used m the construction of the Norwich & Brandon and other lines on which Messrs. Grissell & Peto were engaged and never became railway company's property. On May 17, 1843, a contract was made between Messrs. Grissell & Peto and Robert Stephenson & Co. to build three engines similar (except for the name) to the White Horse of Kent; they are those referred to as Nos. 3, 4 and 5 in Mr. Lowe's history. .
On 16 Jan., 1844, the following letter was sent to the contractors: "Dear Sirs-I have the pleasure to acknowledge receipt of your favour of yester- day enclosing copy of a letter from Mr. Till regarding the delivery of the Locomotive Engines for the orwich &Yarmouth Rly. In reply I beg to say that you may have the engines at any time you want them. E. F. S."
Mr. Till was the treasurer of the railway; he had offices at Guildhall Buildings; Norwich. On 9 March the Works Manager received instructions to dispatch the engines and on 25 March Messrs. Grissell & Peto were written as follows: "Dear Sirs -I now beg to enclose you two Invoices and two Bills of Lading for 2 Engines and 2 Tenders and a set of Shear Legs shipped from Newcastle to you per 'IsabellaHeron' Capt. Dixon to Yarmouth, the vessel will sail to-day or to-morrow. The amount of the Invoices for the Engines and T en- ders is £3,600 for which Messrs. Robt. Stephenson & Co. have drawn on you two Bills at 6 months' date which you will oblige by accepting and return- ing to me. E. F. S. W. W."
The third engine and a number of spare parts were shipped a few days later per "Princess", Capt-, B. Thompson, to Yarmouth.
A few weeks after the opening a letter dated 7 June, 1844, was sent to Mr. Cook containing the following passage: "A Norwich Engineer who has carefully examined your Engines and seen them run called on me; he speaks in unqualified praise of their performance and says each engine appears to have some little improvement on its predecessor."
On the 16th July, 1844, contract No. 239 was made with Robert Stephenson & Co. to supply six passenger engines of 2-2-2 wheel arrangement having 6 ft. driving wheels, outside cylinders 15 in. by 22 in. ; four goods engines, 0-6-0, with 4 ft. 9in. wheels and inside cylinders 15 in. by 24 in.; ten tenders, each with six wheels, holding 950 to 1,000 gallons of water. It specified that all the engines should be constructed on Mr. R. Stephenson's new patent system with long boilers and to be fitted with his "variable expansion system". This "patent system" refers to the arrangement of the wheels and provides for them to be placed in the frames between the smokebox and firebox. The cost of the passenger engines was £1,500, the goods £1,600 and the tenders £300 each respectively, all of which were to be delivered in June, 1845.
One of these passenger engines was derailed between Harling and Thetford when working an up passenger train on 24 December, 1845, causing the deaths of the driver and fireman.
It has been stated by W. R. Jenkinson in his "Predecessors of the G.E.R.", published in the G.E.R. Magazine, that the engine concerned was named White Horse of Kent, and he gives J,S his authority for this statement an extract from The Railway Record which is as follows.
"In the report of his investigation of the accident General Pasley commented adversely on the construction of the engines and at the Annual Meeting of the N.R. in February, 1846, one of the Proprietors spoke on the subject as follows: 'On General Pasley's return from the inquest he rode on an engine of similar construction to that which he had condemned as rocking like being on the ocean which he (the speaker) thought a very apt simile, as the General was evidently all at sea on the subject himself, and did not find it to rock. In fact he believed that the White Horse of Kent was an exception to the rule as regards the rocking and that the General had formed his opinion on the exception rather than the rule.' "
This quotation in itself is insufficient to prove the name of the engine, and it may be that it refers to the class, as engines of the White Horse type are mentioned in the Stephenson letters. Probably General Pasley had ridden on the engine of that name working on the Dover line and was comparing its running with that of the Norfolk Rly. engines. It can, however, be taken for granted that this type of engine did not give good results; the short wheelbase, flangeless driv- ing wheels and overhanging weight at each end of the frames tended towards unsteady running, especially on the light permanent way which then existed, and it would certainly have caused repairs to be frequent and excessive.
The following letter refers to names of engines, but I am unable to say to which it applies: "E. J. Cook, Esq. Newcastle. 24 July, 1844. My Dear Sir—The Contract you now have for the Norwich & Yarmouth Co. for 10 engines does away with the 6 for delivery in the Summer of 1845 spoken of by .Mr. Peto. This Gentleman thought you were under some mistake as to which of the Engines were to bear the names of George Stephenson and Robert Stephenson, Will you refer to Copy of their Instructions sent you on 1st inst." "At Lynn there is a Crane which will take 9 Tons. If Mr. Till should comment on the prices of the 10 Engines you can state that they were determined by Mr. R. Stephenson and that it includes Freight, Insurance, Delivery, etc., besides. which the Driving Wheels are large and the general dimensions also. E. F. S."
This refers to contract No. 239 mentioned previously.
Messrs. Grissell & Peto were also contractors for the Norwich & Brandon Railway, which was opened in the following year.
This line commenced at a junction with the N. & Y.R. about a quarter of a mile from the Norwich terminus, and runs through undulating country for 37 miles to Brandon, where it connected with the Eastern Counties Railway Co.'s extension from Newport, Essex, through Cambridge and Ely, the whole length from Newport to Trowse, a distance of 83 miles, was opened on 30 July, 1845, and to the Norwich terminus a few months later. The engineering works were somewhat heavier than on the N. & Y.; four river bridges were necessary on the Norwich area, one of which at Trowse was of the swing type on account. of traffic on the river. The illustration of Trowse swing bridge shows the original structure as it appeared in 1902, a year or so before it was replaced by a double line bridge operated by electric power. The locomotive on the bridge is G.E.R. No. 117 of No. 1 class built by Sharpe & Co. in 1871, and is hauling a train to Wells.
The first bridge was constructed to carry engines weighing about 30 tons and for 60 years it stood the increasing strain of engine loads up to 90 tons before it became dangerous. In addition to protection by fixed signals which were interlocked with the bridge, a "bridge~an" , wearing a distinguishing armlet who was also responsible for "working" the bridge rode on the engine of each train, and his presence on the engine was the driver's authority to proceed. As the Yarmouth & Brandon Railways were amalgamated in the latter part of 1844 under the title of Norfolk Railway whilst the Brandon line was being constructed, and after orders had been placed with Stephenson's for engines for both lines, it is impossible to state definitely to which line they were first allocated. The correspondence shews that some of the 6 w.c. engines when new did their first work in the construction of the Brandon line and probably two of tihem were shipped to Lynn (now known as King's Lynn) and taken by road to some point, possibly Brandon, where work had been started. Later engines ordered for the Bran- don line were shipped to Yarmouth and erected there before Trowse swing bridge was opened. It is recorded in "Predecessors of the G.E.R." that the Bill for the construction of the Brandon line met with no opposition and received the' Royal Assent on 10 May, 1844.
The contractors were evidently so optimistic and anxious to complete the work that on 26 February, 1844, nearly three months before official sanction was given, they made a contract for three 6 w.c. engines to be delivered in from three to four months' time.
The contract is numbered 214 and is as follows:
"London, 26 February, 1844. Contract for Three Locomotives and Three Tenders. Between Messrs. Grissell & Peto and Messrs. Robert Stephenson & Co. We hereby agree to supply Messrs. GrisselL & Peto for the service of the Norwich & Brandon Railway Company Three Locomotive Engineson, our Patent plan and Three Tenders. The Engines to be mounted on Six Wheels all of which are to. be combined and the Tenders are to be mounted on Six Wheels. The price of .the Engines to be £1,600 each and that of the Tenders £300 each for delivery and mounting at Yarmouth. Both Engines and Tenders shall he of the very best construction, finish and material, combining every Improvement and Perfection as recently adopted by us. One of these Engines to be ready for shipment at Newcastle-on-Tyne in twelve weeks and the other two in sixteen weeks. The Cost of each Engine and Tender to be paid for in cash on delivery. Signed Edward F. Starbuck for Robert Stephenson & Co. Illustration: Trowse Swing Bridge, near Norwich.

Institution of Loco. Engineers. Locomotive axleboxes. 106-8.
Very extensive precis of Paper 447 in Volume 34; A comprehensive paper on locomotive axleboxes was presented to the Institution in London by E.S. Cox, Member. The author pointed out that the design, manufacture, operation and maintenance of the large number of bearings involved is an important part of the work of the Mechanical Department, especially in the case of the coupled boxes which are subject to such a variety of fluctuating forces. as to render them something quite apart from journal bearings as normally understood in engineering practice. The service given by these axleboxes is one of the major controlling features in locomotive availability.
There are three principle factors which directly affect such availability so far as axleboxes are concerned:
1. Rate of wear.
2. Number of failures in traffic—almost entirely in the form of hot boxes.
3. Time taken for repairs.
These factors are in turn affected by:
(a) Inherent characteristics such as loading, design, choice of material and lubricating oil, method of lubrication, repair procedure, etc.; and
(b) Incidental failure in individual cases due to. human element, defective material or accident.
The greater part of the Paper was devoted to (a) and referred to the experience of the L.M.S. Railway. In view of the many abnormal features of war-time operation, it was confined, with one or two exceptions, to the period before the present war.
Referring to the bearing pressures of coupled axleboxes, it was pointed out that whereas on carrying wheel bearings of all kinds the pressure per sq. inch of projected area due to the static weight of the vehicle is the measure of journal loading, in coupled axleboxes the maximum pressure is in- creased and altered in point of application by the loading due to pis tun thrust when steam is on. It has always interested the author to see this latter factor only casually referred to in many publica- tions on the subject, and comparative tables are sometimes given of coupled bearing pressures based on static load alone.
To express the piston thrust effect in a representative way is far from easy, since it varies through- out each stroke as the steam is expanded, and also from time to time throughout a run as speed, steam chest pressure and cut-off vary. None the less this piston thrust effect can produce and sustain for long periods a resultant load on the bearing not only several times that due to vertical loading alone, but acting in the case of certain designs in a direction not many degrees above the horizontal centre line, being resisted by a portion of the bearing ill fitted to take it. Since driving boxes are the most heavily loaded of all they were considered in some detail, and the forces to which they are subject in the case· of inside and outside cylinder engines shown diagrammatically. Inspection of these diagrams showed that the resultant force on the boxes varies with cylinder disposition. Nearly the whole of the piston load, modified by leverages, is transmitted through the driving boxes of inside cylinder engines, no matter how it is subsequently divided up among the other coupled wheels. In the case of outside cylinder engines the effect of piston load in the plane of the driving box is greater than for inside cylinders because of the transverse leverages across the engine, but of that greater load, part is distributed direct down the side rods to the other wheels, and only part comes on to the driving box. Final resultant loads are thus somewhat lower in the latter case.
There is a small but clear advantage for the outside cylinder arrangement based on maximum values alone. The average value of the loading throughout a revolution is more markedly in favour of outside cylinders. If for each angular position of the crank, the value of the resultant of vertical load and piston thrust be plotted for one revolution, the area beneath the curve can be used as a comparative "work factor".
This improvement is turned into a large one if advantage is taken of the outside cylinder arrangement to provide longer beanngs. This has not always been done for the sake of standardising axlebox sizes, and the inside cylinder bearing length is limited by the presence of the crank axle. A length of 11 in. is usual on recent L.M.S. design, and with axleboxes 8½ in. x 11 in. the maximum bearing pressures on the outside cylinder enzine become 558 and 499 lb./sq. in. for R.H. and L.H. boxes respectively, a reduction of 35 per cent. over the average for the inside cylinder driving boxes. another way in which the resultant axlebox loading is more severe with inside cylinders and normal disposition of cranks. The angle at which the resultant load acts varies throughout each revolution, but not at a uniform rate. With inside cylinders its acts for nearly half a revolution within a range of angles averaging not more than 30 deg. above the horizontal centre line. It then rapidly reverses to produce a similar concentration of loading on a relatively small angular range on the opposite side of the bearing. In other words, the box takes a. pounding down near the horizontal centre line and is only momentarily loaded on the vertical centre line, under the particular conditions of working in question.
For outside cylinders conditions are more favourable and the angle at which the resultant load acts passes fairly evenly round the surface of the bearing and back again during the course of revolution. There is a heavier loading on the axlebox on the same side of the engine as the leading crank. This is not because any component of the resultant load is greater in magnitude at a given angular position just because it is acting on one box instead of the other. It arises from the way the different forces add up throughout a revolution when one crank is 90 deg. ahead of the other. If the cranks were spaced at 180 deg. this inequality would not occur. The other major force affecting axlebox wear is that arising from wheel flange forces when the engine is traversing a curve or when oscillating on a straight track. This force is transferred directly to the wheel boss and axlebox face, subject only to slight modification due to the flexibility of the wheel centre. It can reach high values when the engine is grinding round sharp curves, or at high speeds on curved or straight track on engines in- sufficiently controlled by their guiding wheels. The author knows of no means by which this force can be calculated, depending as it does as much on track as on engine characteristics. Direct measurements have been made in France, India and elsewhere, and values up to'15 tons were obtained on the leading boxes of engines without ~uidiIlg wheels or with insufficient bogie side control. There is reason to believe that on a well-designed engine having fore and aft guiding wheels with adequate side control, loads up to about five tons are obtained.
The axlebox load arising from brake application was left out of consideration since its value is lower than the maximum due to piston thrust and is not applied when steam is on.
Theory indicates that coupled axlebox loadings are very variable and can reach high values. The load is irregularly applied throughout each revolu- tion, and the incidence of the greatest load often falls on a part of the bearing near the horizontal centre line on a surface usually ill-designed to take it.
The inside cylinder engine is at a disadvantage, but it would not be correct to condemn it out of hand. Obviously, if the bearing pressure on such engines could by any means be made as low as on outside cylinder engines, other things being equal, then there should be no difference in their bearing performance. There is a way of approaching this, by placing the coupling rod crank-pins on the same centres as the adjacent connecting-rod cranks-in other words, to apply to inside cylinder engines the same relative disposition of cranks and side rods as obtain with the outside cylinder arrangement.
The resultant loadings are more in line with out- side cylinder values, but three objections can be raised to its adoption.
(1) More revolving balance weight is required in the wheels, since with the ordinary arrangement the big-end portion of connecting-rod partially balances the weight of the side rods. This increase may be 800 lb. on a large 0-6-0 engine and takes the form of unsprung weight.
(2) The bending moment in the crank axle is increased, and the stress in tons per sq. in. may increase accordingly by as much as 50 per cent.
(3) The inequality in loading between the boxes on the two sides of the engine is increased.
The second is probably the real reason why so obvious an improvement has not been more widely adapted. With solid crank axles it is a very real obstacle, but with suitably designed built-up cranks, where evidence of movement usually precedes development of flaws, it seems quite feasible. The arrangement was introduced by Stroudley, but the author is doubtful if any engines so fitted remain on the Southern Railway. To the best of his knowledge there is only one example of' this arrangement in main line service to-day, namely, the ex-G.E.R. inside cylinder 4-6-0 engines on the L.N.E.R. These engines appear to have been the only really successful inside cylinder 4-6-0s in the country, as evidenced by their survival on important work, and this fact appears significant. continued pp. 122-4.

E.A. Phillipson. The steam locomotive in traffic. XII. Rostering of enginemen, depot correspondence, conditions of service for staff in Great Britain. 108-111. 3 tables

Correspondence. 111-12

The North London Railway. James F. Vickery.
Re C.W. Williams' letter, page 48, I am somewhat surprised at his statement: Nos. 1, 5, 6, 7, 25 and 42 were rebuilt and not broken up at the dates shown." From my own copious notes and recollection I agree that Nos. 1 and 25 were rebuilt (No. 1 In 1882 and 1895, and. No. 25 in 1883) but I always was under the firm impression that the others were scrapped in the.years when, apparently, new engines appeared bearing their numbers, viz., Nos. 5 and 7 in 1890, No. 6 in 1894; and No. 42 in 1893. I well remember six all apparently new in shop grey coming out in 1890, viz., 5, 7, 23, 24, 26 and 27. At the end of that year old Nos. 26 and 27 stood awaiting scrapping at Devons Road. To the end they were almost in their original condition, in green livery, but fitted with cabs. But whereas No. 27 still had a brass dome, No. 26 had a plain round top dome painted green. Both retained their sandboxes on top of boiler, and No. 26 still had a copper cap to chimney. Of course, I am not contradicting  Williams' statement, as there was very little difference between a so-called rebuilt engine and a brand new one, but the number plates showed the engines as rebuilt or just Bow Works as I have enumerated above. The information on the date plates cannot always be regarded as actual fact in this matter, as, for instance, in the case of the first ten L.T.S. type 4-4-2Ts built new subsequent to the Midland absorption of that very progressive little line, Nos. 2110-2119 built in 1923, although the date plates stated "rebuilt Derby" 1923, they were of course new machines. As a youth I often noticed "new" N.L.R. engines in shop grey with the wheel centres of old locomotives, and: on the other hand, "rebuilt" ones, also in shop grey, with new cast steel wheel centres with the more graceful crescent-shape balance weights.

British locomotive builders. R. Abbott
Re The Locomotive for 1927 there appeared a list of British locomotive builders past and present; SInce then additional makers have been mentioned in various journals, and I have come across others in correspondence with friends. Additional notes are available about the firm of Dick & Stevenson; their address was Airdrie Engine Works, Bel! Street, Airdrie. Established 1790, closed down 1890, and buildings dismantled soon after. Said to have built exactly 100 locomotives, mostly to a standard design, 0-4-0ST, with 14 in. cylinders; some went to SIngapore and one to Poland. I am indebted to Mr. Pearce Higgins for this information, which he gathered. locally.
The following fourteen makers were not noticed In the 1927 article:
Blackie & Co., Dundee. Built for the Aberdeen Railway.
Carrett Marshal! & Co., Sun Foundry, Leeds. built for the Kendal & Windermere Railway.
Clayton & Shuttleworth, Lincoln. Built a few locomotives of traction engine type for industrial railways.
R. Daglish & Co.. Wigan. Built for the St. Helens Rly.
Gibb & Hogg, Airdrie. Built industrial locos.
Gourlay, Mudie & Co., Dundee. Built for the Aberdeen Railway.
Leeds Foundry Co., Leeds. Built for the Blyth & Tyne Railway. [KPJ: difficult to identify]
McHendrick & Ball, Glasgow. Built industrial locos. with vertical boilers.
Mills Forge Co. Built for the St. Helens Railway.
J. M. Rowan & Co.., Glasgow . Built for the Pollok & Govan and Wishaw & Coltness Railways.
Sandys, Carne & Vivian, Copperhouse Foundry, Hayle. Built for the Hayle Railway.
W. Sisson & Co., Ltd., Gloucester. Built the engine- bogies for the Cardiff Railway rail-motors,
Simpson & Co., Dundee. Built for the Aberdeen Railway.
Joseph Smith. Built for the Stockton & Hartlepool Railway. I have not been able to fix the location of the works of the Mills Forge Co., or of Joseph Smith, but perhaps Joseph Smith is the same firm as J. Smith of Bradford who, on page 104 of "The Locomotive" for 1927 were said to. have ordered the Tantalus from the Haigh Foundry .and supplied it to. the Grand Junction Railway.

"Railmen's holiday." W.G. Tilling. 112
Re. Morris's article, "Railmen's Holiday:", in which he mentions No. 203 Henry Fletcher working one of the specials from London Bridge. My father was a personal friend of Mr. Pierpoint, the stationmaster at London Bridge, and went to. Eastbourne as a guest, and I well remember, as a schoolboy. asking him to. make a note of the name of the engine. When he told me, on his return home, that it was a brand new engine named Henry Fletcher , I was quite excited. The date would be about June, 1897.

Reviews. 112

Who, wrecked the Mail? By C. Hamilton Ellis. Humphrey Milford
The author describes in considerable detail an imaginary railway in Spain. The hero is appointed locomotive superintendent and the story deals with a plot to sabotage the line so. that the British company working it would lose its concession through inefficiency and German interests take over: this plan is, of course, discovered and foiled by the locomotive supermtendent. As might be expected of the author. the technicalities of railway working are described in a convincing manner, and the interest and excitement is well sustained to. the end. One of the best railway yarns we have read. A word of praise might be added for the well-drawn and very attractive dust-cover.

James Watt and the Industrial Revolution. H.W. Dickinson and H. P. Vowles.
Published for the British Council, deals with the life and achievements of James Watt, and paints a background of the conditions prevailing during his time. Such background is essential to enable one to. fully appreciate his achievements, the difficulties to. be overcome m attarmng them and his influence upon the industrial era. The matter is presented in a more condensed and easily digested manner than some previous accounts of the life of Watt, and will, no. doubt, be read by those m search of information both upon James Watt and the industrial and economic conditions which his work so largely affected.

Early railways in Surrey. Charles E. Lee. London: The Railway Gazette. 112
Works of this well-known writer on early railway matters exemplify much painstaking research, and the booklet under review-which is the text of a paper presented to. the Newcomen Society in 1940. and reproduced by the courtesy of that Society's Council is no exception. The raiilways concerned are the Surrey Iron Railway and its continuation, the Croydon, Merstham & Godstone Iron Railway. To. what length the author is prepared to. go. in pursuance of facts is well demonstrated by his chartering a 'plane to. carry out an aerial survey of the more important town sections of the route traversed by this first example of a public railway, which was also the first of any kind in the neighbourhood of the Metropolis. It is gratifying to be able to add that from the air a nearly continuous track may be traced. The Surrey Iron Railway has received a large amount; of notice and publicity, much of a contradictory nature, but there is no. doubt that the subject has never been so. fully investigated or so. lucidly dealt with as it is in the present publication. The work is well annotated and the authoratably assisted, as he acknowledges, by his wife and father- has succeeded in bringing to light much information hitherto. overlooked. Among the Iittle-known matters may be mentioned the part that both the S.I.R. and the C.M. & G.R. played in the series of quarrels that the old Brighton Railway had with its Eastern and Western neighbours, The illustrations are of interest and the whole forms a complete work of reference which all students of early railway history will wish to. add to. their collection.

Locomotives of the Somerset & Dorset Railway and the Irish narrow gauge railways. M.C.V. Allchin. 12pp.
List of the numbers, types and building dates of the railways mentioned in the title, together with the number allocated to. the individual engines when absorbed by the larger groups. Twelve illustrations add to. the booklet's interest.

G.E.R. detailed loco stock list. C. Langley Aldrich. 32 pp.
A list of the numbers, classes and dates of the Great Eastern Railway locomotive stock compiled from an official register dated 1April, 1921, with some notes on subsequent additions..

Historical models. 112
W.H. Smith, of Bingley, has offered his valuable collection of engine models to. the Bingley Urban Council. The collection includes locomotives. mill engines, portable and semi-portable engines—all working models. Many readers will remember the magnificent North Eastern model shown at the Railway Centenary Exhibition at Darlington.

Sierra Leone Railways. 112
The pioneers who built Sierra Leone's single track in 1896 could never have imagined the work the railway is doing to-day, and the way in which the problems created by the demand for the Colony's iron ore have been solved is a tribute to. the versatility of the workshop men. One of the most notable achievements has been to. rebuild locomotives to. give greater pulling power, and Sierra Leone now boasts the only eight-coupled Garratt of standard gauge. Another rebuilding job is a tank engine that now has ten coupled driving wheels. It was necessary to convert these locomotives because supplies from Britain could be sent only to standard specifications, while replacements of any kind were virtually unobtainable. Parts that would normally be scrapped are being reconditioned by welding. Parts beyond repair are being replaced by castings made from scrap metal. At the same time the greatly increased traffic has meant a much higher rate of wear and tear, and every aspect of locomotive and rolling stock repair work has been stepped up.

Three further class B1 4-6-0. engines were in service, No. 8307 Black Buck, No.. 8308 Klipspringer and No.. 8309 Kudu,

Number 624 (15 August 1944)

Locomotive design and train operation in the future. 113.
Proposed 2-8-2 version of V2, but with smaller coupled wheels, but larger than those fitted to P1 to operate faster mineral trains. Express locomotive design would depend on whether a policy of fast frequent services were required or heavy, but infrequent services. The former could be met by 4-6-0s, but the latter required Pacifics. See letter from D.H. Miles

Modified 4-6-0 "Hall"-class engine. 114. illustration, diagram (side & front elevations)
No. 6959 illustrated painted in unlined black without a name: new plate frame bogie and separate castings for cylinders

Baldwin 2-8-0 locomotive built for Russia. 115. illustration
Loaded onto a bogie flat car for transport to docks: named Stalingrad.

Review. 115.

The steam locomotive, its theory, operation and economics. R.P. Johnson. New York: Simmonds-Boardman Publishing Co. 564pp.
The author of this work was the Chief Engineer of The Baldwin Locomotive Works, and he states that this book has been written to present in convenient form certain fundamental facts regarding locomotive theory and operation—the object has been admirably achieved. The information has been gained from many sources, most of which would be inaccessible to residents here [in UK]; the convenience resulting from having this collected in one book is enormous. There are 29 chapters dealing comprehensively— and, of course, accurately—with the many sides of the subject. Some of the headings will be familiar enough, e.g., Combustion, Superheat, Valve Gears, Horse Power, Resistance, etc., but each theme is treated in a refreshingly explicit and very practical form. We say refreshingly explicit because, for example, the derivation of formulae (and their use) is explained; writers too frequently assume that their readers are more familiar with such matters than is actually the case.
Many of the chapters deal with subjects which previously have been omitted from the literature of the subject; in some instances due to their being problems of comparatively recent advent. Included in this category are High Speed Trains, Streamlined and Light Weight Trains, and Motive Power for High Speed Service.
There is an excellent chapter on Locomotive Testing and another valuable one on Dynamometer Cars. Among chapters relating to the economics of the subject may be mentioned The Relation of Locomotive Operating Expense to Net Operating Income, and Economic Life. Locomotive Testing Apparatus, the Derivation of Economic Life Formula, and Typical Locomotive Dimensions form the subjects of appendices. The author has most carefully compared diesel-electric and steam power, the characteristics of both being fully and fairly presented.
From what has been said it will be apparent that the author has collected- a wealth of most useful information and by incorporating this in one volume has bridged some of the gaps previously existing in locomotive literature. This book, well illustrated where necessary, will be of great value to the rnany between the locomotive builder and designer at one end of the scale and the student at the other.

Illumination of engines undergoing repairs. 115-16. 2 illustrations
Air raid precautions led to the Home Office demanding restrictions on illumination. The LNER overcame this by constructing light tunnels where work could continue and inside these mobile illuminants could be used using heavy duty batteries on trolleys. Illustrations show these trolleys and a B12/3 replete with electric lighting fitted to its boiler.

J.C.M. Rolland. An episode in locomotive history. Victorian Railways. 117. illustration
Richard Speight, the Assistant General Manager of the Midland Railway became Chief Commissioner of the Victorian Government Railways in 1884. He pursued a policy of standardisation aiming to limit locomotive types to: main line passenger, main line goods, light line passenger, light line goods, suburban tank and a six-coupled shunting engine. Jeffreys, an iron founder from Leeds,  got Kitson's to draw up designs. This led to a six-coupled locomotive WN 3089 and a 2-4-2T WN 3088 being exhibited at the Melbourne Centenial Exhibition: they were named Victoria and Tasmania. These were followed by twenty D class 4-4-0 locomotives fromn the Phoenix Foundry at Ballarat in 1887-8; thirty Y class heavy 0-6-0, 25 E class 2-4-2T and 15 A class express passenger 4-4-0. Robinson Brothers, Campbell & Sloss of South Melbourne supplied 25 R class light freight 0-6-0 in 1890-1. 25 further E class were supplied by Phoenix plus a further 25 from David Munro & Co. of Melbourne. The final 5 standard locomotives were 0-6-2T shunters.

O.J. Morris. By rail to the Devil's Dyke Hotel. 118-20. 3 illustrations (including diagram/plan)
The Brighton & Dyke Railway Co. built a branch line which rose at 1 in 40 to 500 feet above sea level, about 200 feet below the summit. This was worked by the LBSCR: push & pull working was rarely employed because of difficulty with water supply at the summit. The Southern Railway used a Sentinel railbus for a time. The gap between the railway terminus and the summit was closed by the 3ft gauge Dyke Steep Grade Railway which opended on 24 July 1897 and closed in about 1908. This was designed by Charles Blaber (who may not have been an engineer) and built by Courtney & Birkett. It was powered by a Hornsby Akroyd oil engine. The ravine was also crossed by a cable car.

Obituary. 120.
Frank Dudley Docker and R.M. Deeley

The North London Railway. 120-2. 2 illustrations
Previous part pp. 84-6
In 1894 Pryce resumed the construction, at Bow, of the standard 4-4-0 type passenger tank engine which class had by this time become regarded as the most suitable type of locomotive for working North London services. Twenty-four more of these engines were built, details of which are given below

72 1894 240
36 1894 241
44 1894 246
71 1894 247
6 1894 248
1 1895 249
68 1895 250
69 1895 251
2 1896 252
25 1896 253
81-84 1896 254-257
85-87 1897 258-260
88 1898 261
89/90 1899 262/263
1/2 1906 322/323
3/4 1907 324/325

It will be observed that two of these locomotives carried the same numbers as earlier engines of the same type, which were, as a consequence, renumbered. No. 4 had the distinction of being the last of locomotive to be built by the North London Railway. This last batch of engines had the same dimensions as those built during Park's regime in their rebuilt condition. Some of them were rebuilt at Bow, and the dates thereof, together with new Works numbers then allocated to them, are as follows
: Vorks TO. on Rebuilding 3II 320 36 1905 44 1906 71 1910 6 1909 337

Running No. Date of rebuilding Works number on rebuilding
36 1905 311
44 1906 320
71 1910
6 1909 337

All of them except No. 2 (of 1896) lasted until the passing of the North London Railwa) as a separate entity and the followmg paragraph gives details of the fate of the individual engmes concerned.
No. 72 became 2858 in the L.N.W. list in 1923 and L.M.S.R. No. 6470 in November, 1926, and was broken up at .Crewe in 1928. No. 36 became 2829 in the L. & W. list in 1923 and L.M.S.R. No. 6465 in May, 1927, and was scrapped in 1928. No. 44 became 2837 in the L. N . W. list in 1923 and L.M.S.R. No. 6468 in April, 1926, and was scrapped at Crewe in 1929. No. 71 became 2857 in the L.N.W. list in 1923 and L.M.S.R. No. 6469 in February, 1927, and was scrapped at Crewe in 1929. No. 6 was to have become L.N.W. No. 2805 but never carried that number. In March, 1927, it became L.M.S.R. No. 6445 and in 1929 was withdrawn from traffic and sent to Derby for prervation, but was eventually broken up there in September,1932. No. 1 (of 1895) was renumbered 125 in 1906 and became L.N.W. No. 2872 in 1923, and was allocated L.M.S.R. No. 6443 but the last mentioned number it never carried, beining broken up in 1925. No. 68 was allocated L.N.W. No. 2854, but never carried it and became L.M.S.R. No. 6462 in December, 1923, and shared with N.L.R. No. 5 (L.M.S.R. 6444) the distinction of being painted in the red livery of the amalgamated Company. It was broken up  inI 1925. No. 69 became 2855 in the L.N.W. list in 1923, and was allocated L.M.S.R. No. 6463, but never carried it and was broken up in 1926. No. 2 (of 1896) was renumbered 126 in 1906 and was withdrawn from traffic in 1909 and scrapped in the following year. No. 25 became L.N.W. No. 2819 in 1923 and was allocated L.M.S.R. No. 6442, but was scrapped in 1926 without carrying the latter number, No. 81 became L.M.S.R. No. 6499 in June, 1927, and was broken up at Crewe in 1929. It was to have become L.N.W. No. 2861, but it never ran in this guise. No. 82 was broken up in March, 1923, as L.N.W.R. No. 3650. It was allocated L.N.W. No. 2862 and L.M.S.R. No. 6500, but never carried either of these. No. 83 was broken up in September, 1923, as L.N.W.R. No. 3629. It was allocated.L.N.W. No. 2863 and L.M.S.R. No. 6501, but did not run in either condition. No. 84 became L.N.W. No. 2864 in 1923 and was allocated L.M.S.R. No. 6502, but was withdrawn in 1926 without carrying the latter number. No. 85 became L.N.W. No. 2865 in 1923 and L.M.S.R. No. 6503 in January, 1927, and was scrapped at Crewe in 1928. No. 86 was scrapped in February, 1924 without bemg renumbered, although it had been allocated L.N.W. No. 2866 and L.M.S.R No. 6504. No. 87 became L.N.W. No. 2867 in 1923 and L.M.S.R. No. 6505 in July, 1926, and was broken up at Crewe in 1928. No. 88 became L.N.W. No. 2868 in 1923 and L.M.S.R No. 6506 in January, 1927, and was broken up at Crewe in 1928. No. 89 became L.N.W. No. 2869 in 1923 and was broken up in 1926 without being numbered in with the L.M.S. stock, although it had been allocated the No. 6507 by that Company. No. 90 became L.N.W. No. 2870  in 1923 and L.M.S.R. No. 6508 in May, 1926, and was broken up at Crewe in 1929. No. 1 (of 1906) became L.N.W. No. 2800 in 1923 and L.M.S.R. No. 6509 in May, 1926, and was broken up at Crewe in 1929. No. 2 (of 1906) became L.N.W. No. 2801 in 1923 and L.M.S.R. No. 6510 in June, 1927, and was broken up at Crewe in 1929. No. 3 became L.N.W. No. 2802 in 1923 and L.M.S.R. No. 6511 in October, 1926, and was broken up at Crewe in 1929. No. 4 became L.N.W. No. 2803 in 1923 and was broken up in 1926 without being renumbered by the L.M.S., although it had been allocated the No. 6512 in that Company's list. Fig. 30 shews No. 1 of this class, whilst Fig. 31 shews No. 88 at the head of a N.L. passenger train on the Alexandra Palace branch of the G.N.R.

Institution of Loco. Engineers. Locomotive axleboxes. 122-4
Previous part of precis pp. 106-8. Very extensive precis of Paper 447 in Volume 34. The four types of coupled axleboxes in use on L.M.S. locomotives were illustrated and the following comments made on them.
The steel with pressed in brass was standard on the old L.N.W., but bearing performance was below standard due to insufficient size, excessive loads and inadequate oiling arrangements. The box of this type, now standard on all new L.M.S. construction since Sir William Stanier's advent, derived more from G.W. design and contained features which have 'raised locomotive bearing performance to a very high level. These are:
Generous bearing and radiation surfaces and low unit loading.
Thin white metal lining unbroken by brass strips or oil grooves.
Deep underkeep with large oiling pad.
The liability of anyone of the engines so fitted to run a hot coupled bearing is once in ten years per locomotive, so that the bogey of the hot bearing has been practically exorcised.
When. however, this design of box has been applied to engines having high loads with inadequate bearing size, it has not been especially successful.
The steel or wrought iron box with loose brass was a specialitv of the old Midland Railway: it has little virtue. The additional surfaces increase the places where wear can and does occur. and the heat transfer away from the bearing is poor.
The object of the manganese bronze box was to obtain good thermal conductivity without the disadvantages of the solid brass box. After many years of experience, however, its disadvantages seem to outweigh its advantages. As the manganese bronze is too soft to take a pressed in brass and is not itself a bearing metal. it is necessary to confine the white metal by bronze strips dove-tailed into the parent metal. These strips, even if carefully fitted into their grooves, and suitably located with pegs, tend to come loose in time and disturb the white metal. Where inside collars are fitted to the axles, this is particularly likely to happen, and where an engine is a heavy one with big sIde thrusts on the boxes disintegration is inevitable. '
The example may be quoted in this respect of the 70 Royal Scot engines, built with this type of box in 1927-30. In 1932 there were no less than 102 hot boxes. They were replaced by steel boxes WIth pressed m brasses to the original overall dimensions and to the same design as the Stanier engines m 1934, the collars being at the same time turned off the axles. In 1939 'the total number of hot boxes was six. The conversion was thus successful where unit loading was low. Where heating occurs manganese bronze boxes often become deformed, and in such circumstances they have to be scrapped.
In the case qf solid bronze boxes, since this is a bearing metal no strips or white metal are needed on the flat surfaces when the box is new, and it gives also most excellent thermal conductivity. It has been stated that such a box will run at 10°F lower temperature than a non-ferrous box otherwise identical. 'Where high bearing pressure is inevitable this may offer real advantage. On the other hand, high capital value is permanently locked up by its use, and after a few reboring's from a higher centre line the whole box must be scrapped and replaced, which is a waste of man hours even although the bulk of the material is recoverable. It is also weak mechanically unless it is made very heavy.
After referring to the composition of the white metal used on the L.M.S. in peace-time conditions, * the author dealt with the disposition of the bearing metal. Whatever the general design -of the box, the arrangement of the bearing surface itself regarding the extent and thickness of the white metal lining can be independently varied. For many years the deep pocket shrouded with brass all round held the field. This deep pocket allowed the brass to be rebored from successively higher centres a considerable number of times be- fore the white metal eventually became too thin . -On the other hand, it was not customary to machine the bottom of the deep cast-in pockets, so that bondmg of the white metal to the brass was -often poor, with subsequent failure of the bearing.
In 1932, Sir William Stanier brought on to the L.M.S. the conception of the thin layer of white metal not shrouded at the sides, but only at the ends, thus allowmg the brass to be machined before the metal was applied to ensure a perfect bond. To give increased surface for effective bonding this machining took the form of serrations, six to the inch.
The shrouding all round previously necessary to prevent the thick white metal from spreading under load was no longer necessary since tendency to :spread almost vanishes if the metal lining is made sufficiently thin.
This arrangement brought with it the further advantage that with suitable adjustment of the oil supply arrangements the actual bearing surface could be made to consist of an unbroken white metal surface. This design has proved entirely satisfactory where bearing pressures have. been reasonable, although at the cost of increased machining hours.
Some controversy has, however, surrounded its application to the heavily loaded bearings, the claim bemg made that as the metal wore thin under the constantly repeated blows of the piston load effect, the presence of the serrations initiated disintegratlon of the metal. This, however, is very difficult to prove or disprove, many white metal surfaces '.'caught m the act" showing crumbling in lines at right angles to the serrations.
Improvements in bonding due to research in methods and control do, however, seem to avoid the need for serrations altogether, and the latest L.M.S. arrangement is with 1/8 in. thick metal bonded to a plain machined surface.
Actually it is necessary to allow an upwards tolerance on this value. There are practical reasons why this upper limit should be as high as possible, and a point on which information is still sought is what is the maximum thickness such an unshrouded lining can attain before the metal begins to flow and extrude along the length of the bearing under the effect of load.
Dealing with lubrication, the author stated that the main points are: ~
(a) Quality of oil.
(b ) Method of supply, i.e., trimming feed or mechanical lubricator.
(c) Method of application to journal. .
Particulars were then given of the five oils used on the L.M.S. in recent years.
The first of these oils was and still is the general standard which has proved satisfactory with all. normally loaded bearings, and is the oil associated with the good bearing performance given by the modern steel boxes with pressed in brasses. The use of this oil compounded with free fatty acid instead of rape was undertaken as a precautionary measure so as to have a ready alternative should there be any interruption in supply of rape under war-time conditions. With mechanical lubrication it can be said to have given fairly satisfactory results, but with trimming feed some adjustment in the number of trimmings was found desirable since this compound has not in general such good syphoning properties.
The next two oils described were attempts to deal with the problem of the overloaded bearing where a greater film strength and degree of that elusive property "oiliness" was obviously desirable to withstand the pulsating and heavy loads on the large inside cylinder engines.
The use of superheater cylinder oil may seem an unusual approach. Although open to criticism as a bearing oil, it was, introduced on to the 0-6-0 Cl. 4 freight engine at a time when heated bearings were becoming especially troublesome arising from a variety of factors. It was in fact successful in arresting the upward trend, although it produced no actual improvement. It could, of course, only be used with a mechanical lubricator, and has now been superseded.
A welcome reduction in hot boxes on overloaded bearings has, however, resulted from the introduction of oil which not only was compounded with 15 per c~nt. of rape, but was specially produced by the oil companies to meet the particular conditions of the case, and was based on investigations onginally carried out by the L:N.E.R. This oil is now standard for certain classes of engine, but is more expensive than the other oils. Straight mineral oil is used on engines wholly engaged on shuntmg where runs are very short and average box temperature are probably low, even although with a high degree of full gear working , resultant box loadings are high.
Without going any further into this very controversial subject, it seems probable that beanng performance improves within limits with improvement in quality of oil, and indeed provision of the best oil obtainable seems to be the only palliative in the case of overloaded bearings. Rape oil is the most satisfactory compounding medium and is especially desirable when trimming feeds are used because it promotes ready syphoning. It also undoubtedly assists in providing continuity of lubrication where the oil film tends to become broken down by reciprocating loads. Whether the modern moderately loaded bearings would run satisfactorily on straight mineral oil is a debatable point. There seems no reason why they should not.
In dealing with the pros and cons of mechanical and trimming feeds, the author pointed out that two railways employ the former in their latest designs, one employs the latter, and the remaining company uses neither, nor indeed any type of feed external to the axlebox itself. The G.W.R. has dispensed with upper feed entirely on its modern engines and relies solely on underkeep and pad for coupled axlebox lubrication, the pad in this case being of felt. That railway has, however, a preponderance of outside cylinder engines with generous-sized bearings. The felt or worsted underpad, like the trimming, is subject to variation of feed depending on vis- cosity and any variations in quality of oil and textile as delivered. If this .is relied on alone to lubricate the bearing it is probable that a higher standard of control and periodic inspection of these items is necessary than in the case of the mechanically-fed engine.
A possibility which has not been explored very far is that of conducting heat away from the bearing by circulation of an excess volume of oil, by means of an axle-driven pump contained within the keep itself. There is a proprietary brand of American axlebox which takes this idea a certain distance.
The maintenance of boxes was dealt with at some length, and mileages between shoppings quoted for various classes, after which bogie, pony truck and tender bearings came in for notice. As the author pointed out, the only available alternative to the plain bearing is the roller bearing, and locomotive engineers are viewing this with considerable interest, having regard to its increasing use in the U.S.A. in all types of axle box, both carrying, coupled and tender. The bearings of this type fitted to the L.M.S. Turbomotive were then illustrated and described.
The paper, which was well illustrated by drawings and photographs, and contained many useful tables and graphs, was summed up by six conclusions as follows:
(1) Bearing pressure arising from combination of static weight; piston thrust and the area of bearing surface is the most important factor in performance and should be as low as. possible.
(2) The large inside cylinder engine as normally designed is the most unfavourable type from this point of view. Moving the coupling rod crankpins on such engines through 180 deg. will give improvement at a certain cost in other directions. The outside cylinder arrangement allows of the lowest unit pressures obtainable for given conditions of piston thrust and static weight.
(3) The design of axle box should include generous dimensions, thin white metal lining and well lubricated underkeep. Above all it must provide for rigidity, as loose strips and loose brasses give trouble whatever the axlebox size and loading.
(4) Given the conditions in (1) and (3) above, considerable variations in class of oil and white metal, and in method by which oil is fed to the bearing seem possible without much variation in performance.
(5) By suitable design in new engines the hot box problem for the plain bearing can be said to have been solved, with a recorded liability of not more than one hot box per engine in ten years. The potential mileage of such boxes before wear requires shopping is about 70,000 miles on the average, with in- dividual performance both above and below under different conditions of service.
(6) There seems little hope of bringing the bearing performance of the inherently over-loaded types anywhere near the above level, whatever design of plain bearing is, adopted. Use of the best quality of oil procurable with a 15 per cent. rape content is the best palliative so far discovered.

U.S.A. railways. 124
Several locomotive sheds on the New York, New Haven & Hartford R.R. were having ordinary glass windows removed and glass bricks built in to take their place, The Denver  & Rio Grande Western Railway had completed the continuous welding of 17,000 ft. of track through a single-track tunnel. The New York Central R.R. had ordered an experimental locomotive with a 4-8-4 wheel arrangement. The Pennsylvania R.R. installed an automatic coach washer capable of cleaning the exteriors of 200 cars per day. The plant was erected in the Philadelphia coach yards

Stephenson Locomotive Society. 124
Recent lectures and papers have been the Presidential address in London by J.N. Maskelyne, entitled "What of the Future?"; "Newcastle and the Locomotive," by J.W. Hobson, General Manager of Robert Stephenson & Hawthorns, Ltd., at Newcastle; and a practical address on "Engine Failures," by A.G. Dunbar at Glasgow, where, by courtesy of the L.M.S. Company, the Society's meetings are held in the Board Room, Buchanan Street.

L.M.S.R.. 124
Ceremony at Lichfield where 4-6-2 locomotive No. 6250 was named City of Lichfield by The Mayor.

H. Fayle. The Dublin & South Eastern Railway and its locomotives. 125-7. 2 illustrations
Continued from page 59).The D. W. & W. Railway obtained powers in 1877 to construct a branch line to New Ross from Palace East, a point an the newly-acquired line 2¼ miles short of Ballywilliam; it was opened far traffic on 19 September 1887, and it was intended ta carry it on to Waterford, fifteen miles beyond, but this did not come about far same time. In the meantime the company was now left with the unremunerative short branch from Palace East to Ballywilliam, where an end-an junction was made with the G.S. & VV. Railway; after some years of working, terms were arranged to lease this short line to the G.S. & W. Railway, who took over the working from 1 October 1902; since this date G.S. & W. Railway trains worked through from Bagnalstown to Palace East, but this section is now in use for goods traffic; only.
The main part of the receipts of the D. W. & W. Railway were derived from the suburban traffic at the Dublin end of the line which is the most intensive of its kind anywhere in Ireland; the main suburban development of Dublin has been an the south along the coast as far as Greystones, a distance of seventeen miles, and the company had two routes serving this district. The main line, from Harcourt Street terminus, united with the coast route from Westland Row at Shanganagh Junction, 1½ miles from Bray. Both these routes had generally an hourly service throughout the day, with extras in the morning and evening, certain trains proceeding to Greystones, though the service beyond Bray was by no means so frequent. Between Dublin and Kingstown there was an half-hourly service of stopping trains, in addition to the through trains proceeding to Bray, which generally made but one stop, at Blackrock, between these points. .
The company also handled the important cross-channel mail traffic between Dublin and Kingstown, the boat trains running alongside the steamers at Carlisle Pier. Westland Raw station was, however, unconnected by rail with the other Dublin termini, and several schemes were put forward, at various times, to remedy this defect. Eventually, in 1887, the City of Dublin Junction Railway, jointly guaranteed by the D.W. & W. Railway, G.N Railway (I) and the City of Dublin Steam Packet Co. (the holders of the mail contract}, was authorised to construct, 1¼ miles of   line connecting Westland Row and Amiens Street stations and continuing to make a junction with the Midland Great Western Railway Northwall branch at Newcornen Junction .. By means of the latter access was obtained to the G.S. & W. Railway system, so making it possible to run through carriages to and from Kingstown Pier and the three main Irish railway systems.
Though the connecting line was but a short one, the construction was very expensive, as it ran an the high level, and included several viaducts, the largest of which crosses the River Liffey. It was opened for traffic on 1 May 1891, and was worked by the D.W. &-W. Railway, and the latter company also provided the engine power for working the G.S. & W. Railway mail trains between Kingstown Pier and Kingsbridge. A new station, known as Amiens Street Junction, was provided adjoining the G.N. Railway (I) terminus at Amiens Street,
and has three through platforms; from this date most of the local trains to Kingstown and Bray were altered to start from Amiens Street Junction. In connection with the new line, Westland Row station was rebuilt; previously it had been a somewhat dark shed with three platforms; as reconstructed, it was considerably lengthened and provided with five platforms, two of which have through lines for trains proceeding to the Loop Line; though not too well situated, it handles the largest traffic of any station in Dublin, and has somewhat overgrown its accommodation; since the ·closing of Broadstone station from January 17, 1937, the main line trains to the M.G.W. section of the G.S. Railways have also used it as a terminus.
Following the construction of the Loop Line, the War Department laid cfown a siding to the Victoria Wharf, Kingstown, in order to facilitate the conveyance of troops and luggage from the interior of the country; it was completed in 1892. The Royal Dublin Society, in the year following, built, at their own expense, a short branch line connecting their show premises at Ballsbridge with the D.W. & W. Railway at Lansdowne Road, the latter company. agreeing to work the line; during the show periods, a special shuttle train service was run over the line, connecting with the ordinary trains at Lansdowne Road.
In connection with the proposed establishment of .a new short steamship crossing from Rosslare to South Wales, a separate company, the Waterford & Wexford Railway, had built a line from Wexford to Rosslare, which was opened for traffic on June 24, 1882; it made an end-on junction with the D.W. & W. Railway at Wexford, and' was worked by the latter company up to May 17, 1889, when it was practically closed, being only in occasional use after. This line was reopened on 6 August 1894, in connection with the Fishguard & Rosslare Railways and Harbours scheme, but the D.W. .& W. Railway had no further hand in the working. This latter scheme was indirectly the cause of the construction of the last portion of the D.W. & W. Railway. As already mentioned, the line ended at New Ross, and the remaining fifteen miles to Waterford remained unbridged. The London & North Western Railway, who controlled the Holyhead route to Ireland, feared that their South of Ireland traffic would be adversely affected by the new Rosslare scheme, as this was guaranteed by the Great Western Railway of England and the G.S. & W. Railway of Ireland.
The L. & N.W. Railway had already some financial interest in the D.W. & W. Railway, and they now urged the latter company to complete their line to Waterford, so as to provide access to that port independent of the G.S. & W. Railway. Actually a new company, the New Ross & Water- ford Extension Railway, was incorporated on August 6, 1897, to construct the line, which was opened for goods traffic on 15 February 1904, and for passenger traffic on 27 April. This line joined the new line from Waterford to Rosslare at Abbey Junction, half a mile from Waterford, where the G.S. & W. Railway station was used by the D.W. & W. Railway trains; until the opening of the new station in 1906, the D.W. & W. trains had to run round the old terminus, which faced west, and then reverse into a bay provided for their special use.
Under the terms of the G.S. & W. and Waterford,. Limerick & Western Railways Amalgamation Act of 1900, the D.W. & W. Railway had been granted running powers between Waterford and Limerick, and these they now proceeded to exercise; a daily goods train was run between Waterford and Limerick Junction, and although a certain amount of traffic was obtained, the venture proved unremunerative, and came to an end about 1908. For a time, however, there was considerable competition between the two companies for the Waterford to Dublin traffic. The D.W. & W. route was six miles longer, and considerably harder, having long banks of 1 in 60 between Macmine and Waterford, so after a few years the passenger service was reduced; this company was, however, the first to provide refreshment cars on the Waterford to Dublin service, a facility which has been continued up to the present day on this route.
Under the terms of the lease of the Dublin & Kingstown Railway, the D.W. & W. Railway had been paying a rent of £36,000 for the use of the line between Dublin (Westland Row) and Dalkey, although they had been under the expense of adapting the atmospheric portion from Kingstown to Dalkey for locomotive working. There was, however, a clause in the lease that the terms were subject to revision if a competing railway or tramway were built between Dublin and Dalkey. A somewhat moribund horse tramway had been operating over this route since 1878, but as the through journey from' Dublin involved three changes of car and took the best part of two hours, the railway receipts had not appreciably suffered . This tramway was electrified in 1896, and the fares reduced by one-half, becoming a formidable competitor; the railway fares had, of course, to be reduced, and even then much of the traffic had gone for good. Finally, in 1906, after protracted negotiation, the payment under the lease was reduced to £30,000, and from January 1, 1907, the company assumed the more comprehensive title of Dublin & South Eastern Railway. As already mentioned, the line ran close to the sea-shore for a good part of the distance between Dublin and Wicklow; two sections in particular, between Killiney and Bray, and Bray Head and Wicklow, were particularly subject to coast erosion. As early as 1856 trouble was experienced at Bray Head, and some damage was done by a gale to the embankment near Ballybrack, while two years later the rails had to be moved in ten feet on some portions between Killiney and Bray. In the 1880s work was started on protective embankments just north of Bray, while in 1889 the line from Morris' Cliffs to near Greystones was moved in for about a mile. It was, however, soon apparent that these measures would not provide a permanent solution of the difficulty, so powers were obtained in 1911 for two extensive diversions. The first of these started just south of Killiney station and extended for three miles to Bray Bridge, including also a short portion of the Harcourt Street line; a new double line was built from Killiney to Shanganagh, where a junction was formed with the line from Harcourt Street; this point is some way inland from the original Shanganagh Junction; the double line continues on to Bray Bridge, where the original line is rejoined; the total length of new line was 3 miles 31 chains, and it was fully brought into use on 10 October 1915.
The second part of the scheme was a diversion, about two miles in length, between Bray Head and Greystones Harbour; this was single line, but proved a costly and difficult undertaking as it involved a tunnel 1,100 yards in length, the longest on the system; it was brought into use on 17 December 1917. In both cases the original lines were completely abandoned, and have by now been washed away by the sea in some places. No further new lines were constructed after this, the system now comprising 156 miles of route owned and worked, of which but 33½ miles were double line. Under the general amalgamation of the railways in the Irish Free State in 1924, the D. & S.E. Railway became a portion of the Great Southern Railways, and lost its separate existence. As already mentioned, the largest station was Westland Row, the original terminus of the Dublin and Kingstown Railway, which had five platforms, while Amiens Street Junction had three. The other principal stations, Harcourt Street (Dublin), Bray and Kingstown, were all single platform erections, long overdue for reconstruction, but so far the only one to receive attention from the Great Southern Railways has been Bray, which was provided with a second platform from 10 October 1927. The arrangements at Dun Laoghaire (Kingstown) are particularly bad, as a frequent service has to be conducted over but one through road, which also serves the Pier traffic; there is, however, a terminal bay used by a few trains; the station is a regular bottle-neck, and considerable delay ensues at times. ( To be continued)

F.C. Dewrance. Midland Railway locomotives. Birmingham and Derby Junction Rly.  127-30. diagram.
Continued from page 21. The principal constructional features of the B. & D. engines were as follows:
The outside main frames were of "sandwich" pattern with bolted-on axleguards to all wheels. similarly to the Tayleur engines, but in this case the frame curved up to give the necessary height at the driving horns without the lower portion of the L. & T. guards being excessively long. The L.& D. springs were above the framing, but the T. springs were under the sandwich within the axleguards. Unfortunately, neither the drawing nor the other sources provide full details of the inside frames.
The cylinders were horizontal, with the valves on top operated through rocking-shafts, whilst the slide-bars were of the normal four-bar pattern supported from the inside longitudinal frames independently of the cylinders, from which it is. clear there were four inside frames from the cylinders to at least as far back as the rear of the slide-bars. The boiler feed was by long-stroke pumps driven from a downward projection well below the crosshead, delivery being made to clack-boxes—low down as usual for the period—but affixed to the firebox throat-plate in the angle just above the running plate, a position both awkward and. undesirable.
The valve-gear was of the four-eccentric under-hung gab pattern, with the Stephenson arrangement of two-shaft gab-litters giving alternate lifting and lowering; all very similar to the gear as illustrated in Fig. 1.of the Sheffield & Rotherham engines (THE LOCOMOTIVE, April, 1943) although these Mather Dixon engines would appear—from the drawing—to have had the outer pair of eccentrics within the outer pair of inside frames, the other pair being, of course, located between the cranks. There were, in addition, rods from the top end of the rocking-levers to the footplate, where they occupied the customary position of the driver's vibrating levers; there was, however, provision for maintaining the front ends of the vibrating rods clear of the rocking-levers, and thus there was no continuous movement of the vibrating levers when the engine was running as on earlier valve gears, they only functioning when the driver desired to aid the effect of the taper leads of the gabs to move the valves when reversing the engme.
The boiler was typical of the time, although the firebox top was raised higher than usual and it had two domes—in which respect it coincided with the Tayleur practice of the period—but it is not now known from which steam was taken. The provision of two domes rather indicates a lack of steam space in the boiler, and, in fact, Gooch of the G.W. Railway complained of lack of steam space in the engines which M.D. .supplied to that railway, although it is clear from the dimensions available in Whishaw that the firebox crown in the B. & D. (and also North Midland) engines was lower in relation to the top of the barrel than in the engines complained of by Gooch. An unresolved point is that in Whishaw's figures of Mather Dixon's engines of the years 1838-9, the entries for the two sets for the Birmingham & Derby and North Midland show the tube length as equal to the length of the boiler barrel: it is a mystery "how it was done" —it seems the smokebox tube-plate must have been in some manner recessed into the boiler barrel.
The whole design of these engines appears light, particularly the- framing, the main portion of the outside sandwich frames being of less depth than usual; although—according to the 1841 Returns—the engines were no lighter than the similar ones of Tayleur & Hawthorn; whatever the reason, either the light frame or some feature of the boiler, these engines disappeared, like their companions of the North Midland, very soon after the amalgamation of 1844; certainly the motion in general and the valve-gear were of adequate design for their date, so that it was probablv one of the before-mentioned features which was the cause. In fact the only Mather Dixon engine to have an appreciable life was one of the sister singles supplied to the Chester & Birkenhead Railway, which lasted into the 18705, having been rebuilt in 1853 and taken over by the G.W.R. in 1860, being illustrated as rebuilt in THE LOCOMOTIVE, November, 1914, p. 292.
There is no record of any special occurrences with these engines whilst belonging to the B. & D., with the exception of a caustic reference to supposed "tinkering" on the part of Mr. Kirtley described (no doubt with adequate exaggeration) by "Veritas Vincit" in another of his well-known "Letters to the Editor" on Locomotive Management—which perhaps may here be given in full: "Previous to the Barton being taken to work, the steam was got up to a very high pressure. From the alterations Mr. K. has made upon this engine, I believe that she is obliged to be worked at a pressure of nearly 100 Lb. upon the square inch. The boiler burst below, and the boiling water was exhausted in a minute, and if either engineman or fireman, or both, had been underneath they would have been scalded to death. This engine, about ten months ago; was sent to Leeds to get a new copper firebox, a new set of tubes, and new cylin- ders. On her return she was put into the shed for the purpose of making a few more alterations. Mr. Kirtley, like his brother, Mr. Thomas, must have a dabble at 'improving'. In the fixing of his weigh-bar shaft, he was compelled to suspend it by a bracket under the boiler, and he knew of no other method ·than screwing the bracket to the bottom of the boiler plating. Owing to the water no being very good on the Derby line, and from age and corrosion of the boiler, when the plate was drilled it was only -h in. thickness. He was told that it would be impossible for this plate to sustain the pressure, and, besides, the lever that reversed the motion, by his alteration, took two men to reverse her. The whole of this leverage was hung upon the bracket, and hence occurred this explosion". For accuracy it should be mentioned here that quite possibly V.V. was himself in error when stating that the changes were made to the Barton engine, because the incident was much more likely to have oocurred with one of the Hawthorn 'engines which had a principal part of the valve- gear hung' from under the barrel of the boiler. The above reference, of 1843, to sending an engine to Leeds provides one of the earliest surviving records of a practice fairly commonplace at the period, of sending locomotives for heavy repairs to locomotive-builders—generally to Leeds and frequently to Kitsons and to Shepherd & Todd, later E. B. Wilson-and which persisted well into the 1850s. As, like manv other railways, the Midland and its constituent lines had various classes of Sharp "singles", and as no detailed account of the progressive development of the design has hitherto appeared, it is thought to be of interest to deal with the matter somewhat extensively here, before describing the B. & Derby Sharp engines.. . These Sharp singles fall into three principal bars. The boiler feed was by long-stroke pumps driven from a downward projection well below the crosshead, delivery being made to clack-boxes -low down as usual for the period-but affixed to the firebox throat-plate in the angle just above the running plate, a position both awkward and. undesirable. The valve-gear was of the four-eccentric under-hung gab pattern, with the Stephenson arrangement of two-shaft gab-litters giving alternate lift- ing and lowering; all very similar to the gear as illustrated in Fig. 1. Of the Sheffield & Rotherham engines (THE LOCOMOTIVE, April, 1943) although these Mather Dixon engines would appear-from the drawing-to have had the outer pair of eccentrics within the outer pair of inside frames, the other pair being, of course, located between the cranks. There were, in addition, rods from the top end of the rocking-levers to the foot- plate, where they occupied the customary position of the driver's vibrating levers; there was, how- ever, provision for maintaining the front ends of the vibrating rods clear of the rocking-levers, and thus there was no continuous movement of the vibrating levers when the engine was running as on earlier valve gears, they only functioning when the driver desired to aid the effect of the taper leads of the gabs to move the valves when reversing the engme. The boiler was typical of the time, although the firebox top was raised higher than usual and it had two domes-in which respect it coincided with the Tayleur practice of the period-but it is not now known from which steam was taken. The provision of two domes rather indicates a lack of steam space in the boiler, and, in fact, Gooch of the G.W. Rail- way complained of lack of steam space in the engines which M.D. .supplied to that railway, although it is clear from the dimensions available in Whishaw that the firebox crown in the B. & D. (and also North Midland) engines was lower in relation to the top of the barrel than in the engines complained of by Gooch. An unresolved point is that in Whishaw's figures of Mather Dixon's engines of the years 1838-9, the entries for the two sets for the Birmingham & Derby and North Midland show the tube length as equal to the length of the boiler barrel: it is a mystery "how it was done" - it seems the smokebox tube-plate must have been in some manner recessed into the boiler barrel. The whole design of these engines appears light, particularly the- framing, the main portion of the outside sandwich frames being of less depth than usual; although-according to the 1841 Returns- the engines were no lighter than the similar ones of Tayleur & Hawthorn; whatever the reason, either the light frame or some feature of the boiler, these engines disappeared, like their companions of the North Midland, very soon after the amalgamation of 1844; certainlv the motion in general and the valve-gear were of adequate design for their date, so that it was nrobablv one of the before-mentioned features which was the cause. In fact the only Mather Dixon engine to have an appreciable life was one of the sister singles supplied to the Chester & Birkenhead Railway, which lasted into the 1870s, having been rebuilt in 1853 and taken over by the G.W.R. in 1860, being illustrated as rebuilt in THE LOCOMOTIVE, November, 1914, p. 292. There is no record of any special occurrences with these engines whilst belonging to the B. & D., with the exception of a caustic reference to sup- posed "tinkering" on the part of Mr. Kirtley described (no doubt with adequate exaggeration) by "Veritas Vincit" in another of his well-known "Letters to the Editor" on Locomotive Management—which perhaps may here be given in full: "Previous to the Barton being taken to work, the steam was got up to a very high pressure. From the alterations Mr. K. has made upon this engine, I believe that she is obliged to be worked at a pressure of nearly 100 lb. upon the square inch. The boiler burst below, and the boiling water was exhausted in a minute, and if either engineman or fireman, or both, had been underneath they would have been scalded to death. This engine, about ten months ago; was sent to Leeds to get a new copper firebox, a new set of tubes, and new cylinders. On her return she was put into the shed for the purpose of making a few more alterations. Mr. Kirtley, like his brother, Mr. Thomas, must have a dabble at 'improving'. In the fixing of his weigh-bar shaft, he was compelled to suspend it by a bracket under the boiler, and he knew of no other method ·than screwing the bracket to the bottom of the boiler plating. Owing to the water no being very good on the Derby line, and from age and corrosion of the boiler, when the plate was drilled it was only 3/16 in. thickness. He was told that it would be impossible for this plate to sustain the pressure, and, besides, the lever that reversed the motion, by his alteration, took two men to reverse her. The whole of this leverage was hung upon the bracket, and hence occurred this explosion". For accuracy it should be mentioned here that quite possibly V.V. was himself in error when stating that the changes were made to the Barton engine, because the incident was much more likely to have oocurred with one of the Hawthorn 'engines which had a principal part of the valve-gear hung' from under the barrel of the boiler. The above reference, of 1843, to sending an engine to Leeds provides one of the earliest surviving records of a practice fairly commonplace at the period, of sending locomotives for heavy repairs to locomotive-builders—generally to Leeds and frequently to Kitsons and to Shepherd & Todd, later E. B. Wilson—and which persisted well into the 1850s. As, like manv other railways, the Midland and its constituent lines had various classes of Sharp "singles", and as no detailed account of the progressive development of the design has hitherto appeared, it is thought to be of interest to deal with the matter somewhat extensively here, before describing the B. & Derby Sharp engines..
These Sharp singles fall into three principal groups: the first may be now termed the "Early" Sharps, the others being contemporaneously known as "Little" and "Big" Sharps respectively. The first group having 5 ft. 6 in. driving wheels—except the initial set, which had 5 ft. 0 in—with cylinders from 12 in. by 18 in. to 14 in. by 18 in. and. boiler barrels 8 ft: long; the second group havmg 5ft. 6 in. and 5 ft. 0 in. drivers with 15 by 20 m. cylinders and 10ft. barrels, and the third group having 5 ft. 6 in. drivers with 16 by 20 in. cylmders, 9 ft. 6 m. barrels, but of larger diameter, and a larger firebox. Besides the various lesser sub-divisions it is necessary to appreciate that these Sharp engines were not a continuous "run" of practically the same design; the engines of the early series—up to the 1842-4 period—were entirely different from those built subsequently, the only features in common, apart from the dome and safety-valve casings, being the form and width —42 in.—of the firebox, the position of the dome, and a general resemblance in the outside main frames. These outside frames of sandwich pattern, being curved upwards at the driving horns,had the advantage of less "whip" in the horn-plates or axle-guards of the carrying wheels than in most other frames of the period, and having flitch-plates in one piece —and thus no bolting-on of horn-plates—was a further advantage.
The earlier group had horizontal cylinders with valves above, placed somewhat forward of the middle of the cylinder bore, four light inside framings, somewhat similar to the style—but really shallow plate-frames—of other makers' engines of the 1836-40 period, slide-bars fixed to the shallow frames and thus independent of the cylinders; whilst the valve-gear was of the four-eccentric type having one pair of eccentrics between the outer pair of inside frames and the inside face of the driving wheels, whilst the pair of back-gear eccentrics were placed between the innermost pair of inside frames. Although there were four inside frames, all being straight and running continuously from the cylinders to the firebox throat-plate, there were bearings in the two inner ones only, and these were merely steadiers, having no springs. The mode of applying traction was also the old-fashioned one of a drag-assembly attached to the firebox. The distinct design from 1843-4 onwards, however, of the pattern which became so well known and successful, had the usual arrangement of two inside frames extending from the cylinders to the firebox with inside bearings and springs upon the crank axle, there being a substantial cross-member, "motion- plate", connecting both the inside frames and the outside frames together,the rear end of the slide-bars being attached thereto, whilst their front ends were attached to the cylinder covers, the valve-gear being of course the link-motion; also there was a drag-plate across from the outside frames at the rear and traction was thus applied through the outside frames and not through the firebox.
There were many more variations in the outside main frames of these well-known engines than is generally supposed; there actually being no less than seven distinct varieties, those from the earliest of the type in 1837 to about the end of 1843-four styles—corresponding to boilers with 8 ft. barrel lengths, whilst the following—three styles—corresponded to the longer boilers. These various styles of frames are shown in Fig. 3; .the first style corresponding to the engines of 1837 of the Grand Junction Railway with 5 ft. driving wheels and fireboxes 28 in. long inside and having unequal leading and trailing wheels; whilst the second style corresponds to the 5 ft. 6 in. engines of 1838-40, havmg fireboxes 32 and 36 in. long inside, but with equal carrying wheels and two-level frame tops; the third sty le for similar engines 0 f 1839-41, but having fireboxes 36 and 40 in. long inside and with the front end of framing modified in form. The fourth style, which corresponds to the years 1841-2 (possibly also i843) is very similar in boiler and firebox to the third style, but having the trailing springs above the running plate, allow- ing the front and rear portions of the frame to be of equal height; this arrangement of springs and level frame-top continuing throughout the ensuing styles. It may be noted that during the final phase of the "early" pattern-the fourth style-the prac- tice of cutting holes above the leading and trailing horn-spaces began, some of the engines of that style being so treated and others not; also during the same years 1842-4-and possibly 1845-the dome was sometimes placed upon the middle of the boiler-barrel. The fifth style corresponds to the 5 ft. 6 in. engines with boiler-barrels 10 ft. long, and dates from about 1843-4, the earlier fireboxes being similar to those of the previous short-boiler engines, and the framing was not again varied either in whee1base or form until just prior to the introduc- tion of the third group. The sixth style is merely a variant of the fifth, the lesser diameter of the driving wheels, viz., 5 ft., allowing the elimination of the peculiar humping of the lower edge of the frame to suit the driving horn-spaces on the 5 ft. 6 in. engines. The seventh style is practically a combination of the two foregoing in which the strength of the lower portion of the frame around the driving horns' corresponds to the sixth style, but with its upper portion suitable for 5 ft. 6 ip. drivers. There were possibly a few engines built WIth this type of frame in which the wheelbase was similar to the fifth and sixth styles. The fifth and sixth styles correspond· to' the "Little Sharps", whilst the seventh corresponds to the "Big Sharps'", and .the foregoing exposition dearly indicates the considerable differences which existed between the early Sharpies of the 18 in. stroke and 8 ft. boiler group and the 20 in. stroke and 10 ft. boiler group which succeeded. Dimensions have occasionally been published which indi- cate that a few engines may have been built with a wheel-base intermediate between the earlier and later groups, and these may have had 9 ft. 6 in. boiler barrels and a wheelbase of 12 ft. 2 in., i.e., both length of boiler and length of wheelbase being 6 .m . .less. than the traditional Sharp standard. The distribution of the wheelbase of the early singles, It may be noted, conforms to its evolution from the fou~-wheel~,~ single, whilst that adopted from 1844-5 is an 'independent" 2-2-2 design. The former phase did not occur in the case of Stephenson's singles, whose very first 2-2-2 of 1833 was a "full-fledged" design.
The valve-gear of the early Sharps—of the four-eccentric type—was in the earlier 1838-40 engines of the opposed-gab pattern, having both eccentrics, as also the gab-ends of the eccentric-rods and the lifting mechanism, outside the outer pair of inside frames—between the frame and the wheels—on each side, the fore-gear rods having the gabs below and the back-gear being connected above. Although this opposed-gab gear with gabs linked together and working alternately upon coinciding pinion- centres, had some similarity of appearance to the link motion, there was, of course, no means of notching-up. Later engines had an adaptation of the "Cabry" gear, the fore-gear ecoentrics being between the wheels and the outer members of the inside frame, whilst the back-gear eocentrics were in the middle· between the inner pair of 'inside frames, the fore-gear gabs engaging the upper arm and the back-gear the lower arm of a rocking shaft. This "Cabry" gear provided a modicum of expansive working by means of a very deep fore-gear gab in which the gab-pin could be set at an intermediate (generally only one) position, thus producing a lesser valve movement. In the particular arrangement used by Sharps this special fore-gear gab was upon the rocking-shaft arm and the gab-pin was on the end of the fore-gear eccentric-rod, whilst the back-gear gab was on the eccen- tric-rod with the gab-pin on the rocker-arm as in normal practice. In neither case were there any vibrating levers on the footplate. The later Sharps, of course, had the link-motion, the reversing-shaft being above, and very far forward—almost over the leading axle—thus giving the advantage of very long eccentric-rods.
It may here be remarked that in all Sharp's own designs the driver's position was on the left side and the reversing lever placed accordingly, and this custom persisted to a relatively late date, even in the. case of engines supplied to the general design of railways having the right-hand position standardized. The early Sharps had ram-pumps driven off the crosshead gudgeon-pin between the slide-bars, and whilst the later enlarged design also had ram-pumps driven from the crosshead, the drive was not between the slide-bars.
The Sharp boiler was of normal construction with the firebox top slightly raised; in the early group the corners of the firebox shell were not Hanged, but formed with angle-irons, and the firehole was of the shallow-ring pattern, whilst the later fireboxes had flanged plates and the firehole was a full-width ring. The regulator of "butter-fIy" valve type, was, of course, in the dome, so close to the front that the regulator head was fixed to .the smokebox tubeplate, whilst support for the boiler at the front end was very substantial being composed of arch-plates at front and back' of the smokebox straddling across to the outside frames , Continued page 153.

Gloucester Railway Carriage & Wagon Co., Ltd. 130
A scheme for re-lighting the works had been carried out with highly satisfactory results by Messrs. John Newth Ltd. Mazda 500 watt lamps in Mazdalux L.T. type disperive reflectors used throughout. The mounting height was 15 ft. above floor level, the spacing 19 ft. by 16 ft. 6 m. staggered, and the average illumination 11 foot candles.

Number 625 (15 September 1944)

Light weight rolling stock. 131
Bulleid welded underframe without sole bars and a plastic superstructure.

Jamaica Government Railways. 131
Canadian Locomotive Co. supplying six 4-8-0 locomotives

Institute of Transport. 131
Opening meeting of Siver Jubilee session to be held 3 October at Institution of Electrical Engineers when Robert Kelso to deliver Presidential Address (mainly on road transport into Europe.

Condensing locomotives. 136
See also page 157

The Portstewart Tramway. 138-9. illustration
Due to the inaccessibility of the B. & N.C. Railway station at Portstewart to the resort of that name, an undertaking known as the Portstewart Tramway Co., Ltd., was promoted for the purpose of constructing and operating a tramway for conveying passengers between the station and the town, a distance of nearly two miles. The hne, which was constructed entirely along the public highway, was opened for traffic in June, 1882. It was laid to the 3 ft. 0 in. gauge and was single track throughout its total distance of 1 mile 67 chains, except for run-round loops at Portstewart Station and Portstewart Terminus, and an intermediate crossing-place at Victoria Terrace.
The financial condition of the company became desperate after a few years of operation, and it eventually went into liquidation, and in March, 1897, was offered for sale. In view of the value of the tramway, 'as an aid to the development of Portstewart as a resort, the directors of the B. & N. C. Railway decided to submit a tender for its purchase by that company. This tender was duly accepted, and on 1 June 1897 the tramway passed to the control of the railway. The directors of the B. & N.C. Railway, in their report for the half-year ending 30 June 1897, stating that "the engineers have been engaged in improving the line and rolling stock, and it is expected that in a short time an efficient service will be maintained between your station and Portstewart Town." This purchase was subsequently confirmed by an Act of Parliament of 13 July 1899. From the date of its acquisition by the B. & N.C. Railway the tramway was worked as a feeder service in connection with the trains to and from Portstewart station.
On 1 July 1903, the undertaking passed into the possession of the Midland Railway, but was administered from Belfast by the Northern CountiesCommittee set up by that company. The next change was on 1 January 1923, when the L.M.S. Railway was formed and absorbed the Midland Railway, including the N.C.C. Nevertheless, the tramway survived all these changes and continued to perform a useful service until 31 January 1926, when it was closed largely owing to omnibus competition and also to the traok requiring renewal, the expense of which could not be justified in the changed circumstances.
After the closing of the tramway the L.M.S. Railway (N.C.C.) made arrangements with a local omnibus proprietor to run a 'bus service over the route equivalent to. that provided by the trams. This arrangement lasted until 1 January 1933, when the railway company took over the running of the road service themselves. This, however, proved to be a short-lived venture, as, consequent upon the setting tip of the Northern Ireland Road Transport Board in 1935, the operation of the 'bus service passed into the hands of that undertaking.
The rolling stock used on the Portstewart Tramway comprised three locomotives, two eight-wheeled open top double deck tramcars one four-wheeled single deck open-sided car, and one four-wheeled luggage van. Dealing first with the locomotives: these were all built by Kitson & Co., of Airedale Foundry, Leeds. They were all of that firm's four-wheeled tram engine type.
No. 1, built in 1882 (makers' number T56), and No: 2, built in 1883 (makers' number T84), were of identical design, They had two outside cylinders of 8 in. diameter and 12 in. stroke placed high up in an inclined position. The coupled wheels were 2 ft. 4t in. in diameter, and the wheelbase was 5 ft. 0 in. The valve motion was a modification of Walschaerts -gear. The boiler was of the locomotive type, fitted horizontally; with a diameter of 2 ft. 5 in. and length, including firebox and smokebox, of 6 ft. 9 in., with 72. flue tubes of I! in. outside diameter. The heating surface was: Firebox, 19.4 sq. ft.; tubes, 96.6 sq. ft.; giving a total of 116.0 sq. ft. The grate area was 5.17 sq. ft., whilst the working pressure was 160 lb. per sq. in. Coke was used as fuel so as to avoid unnecessary smoke being given off along the public highways. The engine was completely encased by a cab and the motion enclosed by side sheets with doors. Ex- haust steam from the cylinders was conducted into air-cooled condensers composed of longitudinal tubes connected by arched transverse tubes carried along on the roof of the cab.
The total weight of the locomotive in working order was about eight tons.
Dual control levers were fitted to enable driving to be done from either end.
0.3, built in 1901 (makers' number T302), was a more powerful machine than the other two engines, although of the same general design. It had 9! in. by 12 in. cylinders, 2 ft. 3i in. diameter coupled whels, a wheelbase of 4 ft. 6in., a boiler of 2 ft. 7i in. diameter with a working pressure of 160 lb. per sq. in. The heating surface of the tubes was 109.96 sq. ft., and of the firebox 26.43 sq. ft., making a total of 133.39 sq. ft. The grate area was 5.72 sq. ft. and the weight in working order 11 tons. This locomotive is believed to have been the last tram engine built by the firm of Kitson & Co.
Nos. 1 and 2 were sent to Belfast after the closing of the tramway, and remained there together in a carriage shed for many years. In April, 1939,. through the efforts of the late Dr. H. A. Whitcombe, No. 1 was sent to the Museum of Transport at Hull, where it was to have been preserved for all time as an example of the steam tram engine, once! in fairly general use on British tramways. Unfortunately, however, in one of the heavy air raids on Hull the Museum, together with the tram engine which it housed, was destroyed. o. 2 still remains at Belfast, although the shed in which it is stored was one of the buildings to suffer damage during the air raid on that city in May, 1941. No. 3 was sold to Warke, a contractor, at Castlerock in 1926, who used it for supplying steam for driving machinery until 1935, when he dismantled it for scrap. Portstewart Tramway, Loco No. 3 The engines were painted invisible green and lined out similarly to the main line locomotives of the N. C. C. Our illustration shews No. 3 outside the Tramway office and depot at Portstewart Town. The double-decked tramcars in use on the lme were Milne vehicles built in 1899, whilst the single. decked car was a Metropolitan Railway Carriage & Wagon product. All were painted red in later years and after the dosing of the line they were sold for use as summer houses, etc.
All traces of the tramway have now practically disappeared, as the track was lifted shortly after the closing.

G.W.R. 139
One of the oldest steam engines still at work regularly is at Crofton Pumping Station, near Marlborough, on the Kennet and Avon Canal, belonging to the G.W.R. It is a Boulton & Watt engine and was probably built about the time of the completion of the canal in 1810. The cylinder is 42 in. diameter, with a stroke of 7 ft. 9 in., and pumps 240 gallons of water per stroke at eleven strokes per minute from a depth of 40 ft. The steam pressure is 20 lb. per sq. in.

L.M.S.R. 139
To eliminate overhead lifting equipment, an appliance for wagon lifting has been installed at the Barassie repair shops. The installation consists of four electrically- operated lifting units working in pairs; either or both ends of the wagon can be raised according to requirements.

L.M.S. appointments. 139
Ashton Davies C.V.O., O.B.E  retired on 31 August and T.W. Royle became a Vice President: he had previously been chief operating manager; and his post was filled by T.H. Fisher, the former deputy. also retirement of A.F. Bound and replacement by his Deputy W. Wood as Signal & Telegraph Engineer.

Tapered roller bearings L.M.S. 4-6-2 "Turbomotive" No. 6202. 139. illustration
British Timken Ltd: noted that still in perfect condition and cited Cox's Paper on axleboxes The turbine driven 4-6-2 express locomotive, which was designed by Sir William Stanier, who recently retired from the position of Chief-Mechanical Engineer of the L.M.S., had completed some 250,000 miles' operation. This was the first locomotive in Great Britain to be equipped throughout with roller bearing axleboxes, and when recently attention was given to the gear drive, opportunity was taken to examine the Timken tapered roller bearings with which all the axleboxes were fitted, and we are able to give the accompanying illustration by courtesy of the Chief Mechanical Engineer of the L.M.S., and of British Timken, Ltd.
The condition of the bearings fully justified Sir William's confidence in leading the way in the mounting of all axles on anti-friction bearings. All were found to be in perfect condition. The leading
bogie axles were carried in a split cast steel cannon box. The driving axle employed two boxes, each with a double row bearing. A point of special interest about this axle is the ratio of the resultant to the static loads on the bearings, this being approximately 7 to I. The static load was 22,700 lb. per journal, but the actual resultant load due to dynamic augment attained 144,000 lb.
The coupled axles were also carried in cannon boxes, incor- porating a single row bearing of 19 in. outside diameter at each end. The high polish attained by the rollers indicates their first-class condition.
The Bissel type trailing truck axle was carried in two single boxes, each containing two single row bearings

O.S. Nock. Automatic train control in Great Britain. Part 1.140-2. illustration
The fatal collision at Ilford on 16 January 1944, due to a driver overrunning signals in conditions of bad visibility, led to a revival of interest in systems of Automatic Train Control. As in previous accidents of the same kind, notably after the Castlecary disaster of December 1937, not a few questions have been asked in Parliament, and suggestions for increased safety measures have been put to the Ministry of War Transport. Before the war a considerable amount of research and experimental work was being carried out on certain British railways, and the matter will undoubtedly come to the fore again when the time arrives for pre-war speed and frequency of service to be restored. The present position in this country with regard to A.T.C. merits, therefore, a careful study, and it is a position that cannot be considered wholly from the locomotive point of view. While complete standardisation throughout the country may be the ultimate, though very remote and improbable ideal, the present systems m use are based upon the existing wayside signalling, and to a lesser extent upon traffic conditions. Before making any detailed reference to apparatus already in service, it is important that the fundamental difference between the two existing systems of wayside signa:lling should be fully appreciated. The Block System is in use on an overwhelmingly large proportion of this countrys railway mileage. Each intermediate station along the line has its own signal box, sometimes two or three, and for each box there is a series of absolute-stop signals' the "home", the "starter", sometimes an "outer home", and an "advanced starter" as well. Before a driver sights any of these stop signals he encounters the "distant", which is only in the clear position if all the stop signals are "off". Thus, if the "distant" signal is "off", a dnver can justifiably assume that he has a clear road through the particular station m junction; and beyond the need for confirming that the other signals are clear he is "right away" until the time comes for sightmg the next "distant". Thus, so far as the maintenance of high speed is concerned ; the "distant" is the important signal. With multiple-aspect signalling, as installed on certain sections of the Southern Railway in the London suburban area, and on the main line of the L.N.E.R. between York and & Darlington, every running signal is of equal importance; a driver may be required to bring his train to a dead stand at any one of them, and any one of them may, in turn, give the caution indication requiring a reduction from his full runnmg speed. Also whereas under manual block working the signal boxes are rarely less than a mile apart, and are mostly spaced considerably further, with multi-aspect signalling the signals are much closer together; on some sections they are less than half a mile apart, a condition that necessitates continuous observation of signals by the driver. How far multi-aspect signalling is likely to be extended in the country is a topic outside the scope of the present series of articles; it is enough to emphasise that the problem of applying A.T.C. or cab signalling on multi-aspect sections is quite different from that in manual block territory. So far the only sections of any extent in this country equipped with A.T.C. apparatus are worked on the manual block system, and in presentmg a survey of the position as now existing one might, on these grounds, be justified in confining attention solely to these installations. Furthermore, the installation of multiple-aspect day colour-light signals has come to be regarded, in some quarters, as an alternative to automatic train control on the dual grounds that the signals in. themselves are better visible than semaphores m thick weather, and that their closer spacing calls for increased vigilance on the driver's part. This is, however, a controversial point, to which the misreading of the signals in the recent accident at Ilford has not added any weight. The argument is, however, one of first class importance just now, and, accord- ingly, some space will be devoted in the latter part of this series of articles to the system of continuous-indication cab signalling, which has been developed to operate in conjunction with multiple-aspect wayside signals.
Among A.T.C. systems actually in service in this country, that used on the Great Western Rai1wway is based wholly upon the indication displayed by the distant signal. It supplements the visual signal—a semaphore arm by day or a coloured light after dark—by .an audible signal in the locomotive cab. If the distant signal is clear a bell is rung; if the distant. signal is displaying the "caution" indication a siren is sounded in the cab and the brakes are applied. The audible signals correspoding to clear and caution are entirely different, so as to avoid any possible chance of their being mistaken, and the engmemen have grown to place such confidence in the apparatus as to run at full express speed in foggy condifions when visibility is practically nil. At the same time it is only a safeguard agamst dnvers' errors; the signals are operated on the manual block system, and the A.T.C. apparatus merely supplements the indications they display. The brake application on passing a distant signal at caution is an important feature; it is made automatically, and is such as to bring the train to a stand before the stop signal is reached. But were such. a brake application to be made every time a distant signal was displaying "caution" was passed, very serious inconvenience in operatmg would be caused. In m.any cases, particularly in the working of slow freight trains, these caution indications do not eventually prove to be preludes to a dead stand. More often than not a driver, by suitably reducing speed and crawling from one stop signal to the next, can avoid a stop altogether; yet such would be cornpelled if the A.T.C. apparatus was allowed to function irrevocably.
We thus come to a point that has been the subject of much controversy in the past. If, through the provision of some additional device, the driver who is properly on the alert can cancel the automatic brake application,. and retain control of the train himself, it would seem that an important safeguard has :been lost for the sake of greater operating convenience. It is true that on passing an adverse distant signal he will have received the audible warning, and his vigilance is proved bv his pressing of the cancelling button; beyond that, however, there is nothing to prevent a careless or inexperi- enced man from continuing at speed, or so mis- judging his brake application as to overrun the stop signal and endanger the safety of his train. Such action may well seem so unlikely as to be neglected in a consideration of basic operating principles affecting the use of a system of A.T.C. There is, however, unhappily a certain footplate mentality that is given to the taking of extraordinary risks. A case occurred in America on the New York Central System, on a line equipped with an intermittent type of A.T.C., in which the driver of an important express passenger train received a caution indication, took the necessary action to reta:in control of the brakes himself, and yet con- tinued af a speed of over 70 m.p.h. until, indeed, he sighted an obstruction ahead; it was then too late to pull up safely, and a disastrous collision occurred.
While no such parallel exists on British lines equipped with A.T.C., there are instances, under extenuating conditions, in which drivers have failed properly to observe the wayside signals, and yet have continued at speeds that under the particular circumstances can only be described as reckless. The historic accident in 1913 near Aisgill summit on the Midland Railway was caused in this manner, through a driver, while trying to remedy steaming and injector troubles on his engine, misreading the distant signal and failing to observe anyone of the stop signals at an intermediate box; in full knowledge of this he continued at running speed, with so little attention to the look-out ahead as not to see an obstruction until he was within 20 yards of it. The collision at Ilford on January 16, 1944, was a repetition of the same curious kind of negligence; for here a driver, running in darkness and dense fog, and apparently not losing his sense of location, passed five successive signals at danger. The first two were long-range colour lights, and both were misread; of the three succeeding signals, all semaphores, this driver saw not a sign, and yet continued running at a fair speed. Such instances, though disturbing, are, happily, very rare, as indeed are the occasions in this country where misread or overrun signals have been the cause of accidents.
When means exist by which a repetition of even these few accidents, and their attendant loss of life, can be avoidedit is clearly desirable that financial considerations should not be allowed to loom too large. But, quite apart from the increased safety in working, A.T.C. apparatus has proved a direct aid towards the more economic operation of traffic. The author recalls a journey by an im- portant business express service on an evening when thick ground mist was lying at many locations along the 200-odd miles of route. The schedule, though very fast, was well within the capacity of the locomotive, but the crew were evidently finding great difficulty in sighting the signals. On the clear stretches speed was worked up to well above normal for the particular train, but elsewhere many times there came severe reductions of speed until the driver had sighted the next distant signal. It was noticeable, however, that the moment the distant had been properly observed the train was very rapidly accelerated, even in the fog, and speeds of over 70 m.p.h. attained before the next slackening to sight signals. Actually the road itself proved dear throughout, and by this alternation of spurts and slowings the driver succeeded in maintaining an overall average speed of 57! m.p.h. But, never- theless, nearly 18 minutes had been lost on schedule time, and the strain of driving in such circumstances needs no emphasis.
By contrast, instances have been recorded on the Great Western Railway wherein the fastest booked trains have been run practically at normal speeds on days when dense fog Ihas prevailed in the Thames Valley. The  Cheltenham Flyer, in particular, scheduled in pre-war days to average 80 m.p.h. for some 65 miles on end, has been run punctually to time in very bad conditions of visibility,. while such a feat makes it clear that other traffic was running equally well, otherwise so fast a train would not have had a clear road. This warning system based on the distant signal has proved its worth in a variety of ways, and its installation over the entire main-line network of the Great Western Railway represents a valuable additional safeguard in train operation over an extensive area of the country as a whole. In the next article of this series the apparatus will be described in detail. Illustration: GWR West of England express at Westbury South passing A.T.C. location, on up road, where ramp is ahead of the signal. (Photo: G. H. Soole).
Part 2 page 160

West Highland Railway—Jubilee. 142
Fifty years ago (7 August 1894) this line was brought into use for public traffic between Craigendoran and Fort William and four days later the official opening by the Marchioness of Tweeddale took place. The engineers for the line were Formans & McCall. of Glasgow. and their task was not made easier since the line had to be constructed with economy through most difficult country. and in districts where roads had never existed and even footpaths were scarce. Rivers and mountain torrents were spanned. and the track laid alongside lochs. in some instances hundreds of feet above sea level. No less than 400 bridges of different types were required. One of the greatest problems confronting the engineers was the crossing of the wide. boggy expanse of Rannoch Moor. The bed of the railway was cross-drained. a thick layer of tree roots and brushwood laid down. on top of which were thrown excavations from other parts of the line until the whole was solid enough to allow the permanent way to be laid. Even then a viaduct 684 feet in length. with nine clear spans of 70 ft. 6 in. had to be constructed to carry the line over a depression on the moor. The summit of the line is reached at Corrour, 1.347 ft. above sea level. Sharp curves abound throughout the route. which is single except at passing places. and the gradients are steep. In 1895 a branch from just outside Fort William to Banavie Pier was opened. and in the following year the construction of the extension from Banavie to Mallaig, including a harbour at the latter place. was authorised by Parliament. Work commenced on 21 January 1897. and the line was opened in April, 1901.

James McEwan. Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 142-6.  6 illustrations, 2 tables

Number Maker Date WN Renumbered Withdrawn
1 Dubs 1869


61 in 1881; 59 in 1885; S. No. 22A in 1896


2 Dubs 1869


2A in 1893; 1201 in 1899; 1002 in 1900


3 Dubs 1869


3A in 1893


4 Dubs 1869


4A in 1893


5 Dubs 1869


5A in 1893


6 Dubs 1869


6A in 1893


7 Neilson 1870 1515 7A in 1893; 105 in 1895; 1213 in 1899; 1105 in 1900


8 Neilson 1870 1516 8A in 1893; 1202 in 1899; 54 in 1900


9 Neilson 1870 1517 9A in 1893; 1203 in 1899; 55 in 1900;


10 Neilson 1870 1518 10A in 1893; 1204 in 1899; 58 in 1900;1010 in 1902


11  Neilson 1870 1519 11A in 1893; S. No. 1205


12 Neilson 1870 1553 12A in 1893


13 Neilson 1870 1554 13A in 1895; 203 in 1898; 1220 in 1899; 1013 in 1900


14 Neilson 1870 1555 14A in 1894


15 Neilson 1870 1556 15A in 1894; 1206 in 1900; 162 in 1900


16 Neilson 1870 1557 16A in 1894


17 Dubs 1870


17A in 1894


18 Dubs 1870


18A in 1894; S. No. 1207


19 Dubs 1870


19A in 1895 (not carried)


20 Dubs 1870


20A in 1895; 1208 in 1899; 1020 in 1900 


21 Dubs 1870


21A in 1895; 1209 in 1899; 166 in 1900


22 Dubs 1870


22A in 1895


23 Dubs 1870


23A in 1895; 96 in 1896; 96A in 1897


24 Dubs 1870


24A in 1895; 59 in 1896;  1204 in 1902


25 Neilson 1871 1605 25A in 1895; 1210 in 1899; 1025 in 1902


26 Neilson 1871 1606 26A in 1895; 1211 in 1899; 1026 in 1902


27 Neilson 1871 1607 27A in 1895


28 Neilson 1871 1608 28A in 1895; 106 in 1896; 1214 in 1899; 1028 in 1902


29 Neilson 1871 1609 29A in 1895; 1212 in 1899; 1029 in 1902


It will be observed that some of the renumbering was caused by boiler exchanges.
In the five years following the amalgamation several small tank engines were obtained. Six were of the 0-4-0 wheel arrangement and two of the 0-6-0 wheel arrangement. Five of the four-wheeled tanks were made by A. Barday & Co., of Kilmarnock, and the sixth one by Neilson & Co. All were saddle tanks with outside cylinders and 3 ft. 6 in. coupled wheels. The cylinders of the Neilson engine were 12 in. diameter by 18 in. stroke. The heating surface was made up by: Tubes, 485 ft2.; firebox, 40 ft2.; making a total of 525 ft2. The grate area was 7.5 ft2. and the working pressure 140 lb. The weight in working order was 20.9 tons. Tank capacity, 500 gallons. Wheelbase, 5 ft. 6 in. The Barclay engines had 12 in. diameter by 20 in. stroke cylinders. Wheelbase of 5 ft. 6 in., and the tanks varied from 500 to 600 gallons capacity. No. 134 (then 523) was rebuilt n 1878 with a new tank carrying 800 gallans of water. Two of the Barclay engines came from John MacKay, the contractor far the Callander & Oban Railway, in 1869, through the bankruptcy of the owner. There is said to have been a third engine taken over and that this was six-coupled, but was sold to a colliery without being taken into C.R. stack. It is passible that this was the engine made by Cross, of St. Helens, used in the construction of the Wigtownshire Railway and sold to MacKay (see Locomotive Mag., 1943, 49, page 27).

Number Maker Date WN Date acquired Renumbering Withdrawn
123 Neilson 1867 1247 1867 151 in 1872; 521 in 1877 1884
134 Barclay 1870


1870 523 in 1877; 527 in 1884; 527A in 1888  1896
 16 Barclay 1868


1869 135 in 1870; 524 in 1877 1884
 16 Barclay 1868


1869 136 in 1870; 525 in 1877; 369 in 1884; 369A in 1887  1888
137 Barclay 1871


1871 526 in 1877 1883
138 Barclay 1870


1871 527 in 1877 1882

The two six-coupled tanks had outside cylinders 15 in. diameter by 20 in. stroke, 3 ft. 8 in. coupled wheels, and a wheelbase of 9 ft. 2 in. divided 4 ft. 8 in. plus 4 ft. 6 in. Tank capacity, 800 gallons. Working pressure, 130 psi. These were manufactured by Neilsan & Co. in 1870 (maker's numbers 1559 and 1560) and were C.R. Nos. 139 and 140 until 1877, when they were renumbered 510 and 511. In 1890 they became 510A and 511A. The first one (originally No. 139) received S. No. 1362 and was withdrawn in 1899. The second one (originally No. 140) was renumbered 1363 in 1899 and 1511 in 1900. It was withdrawn in 1901.
In September, 1869, the Caledonian Railway took aver the working of the Solway Junctian Railway, although it was not until 1870 that the line was opened for passenger traffic. Owing to the light construction of the now defunct Solway Firth Viaduct, the load per axle had to be limited and consequently only lighter types of engines were permitted to use the section from Annan to the English shore.
None of the Solway Junction Railway engines carried their numbers. In the SJR. list, although for a short tune they were referred to by them in the books. It had been arranged that the C.R. were to work the line from the opening and all the engines were delivered to the C.R. Co. When the Solway Junction Railway ordered their first engines, Neilson & Co. had in stock four locomotives which suited their requirements very well. These four engines had been built in 1866 for the Northampton & Banbury Railway Co., but had been left an the builders' hands due to financial difficulties arising with the N. & B. Railway. These four engines were delivered to the  C.R. in 1868 along with the two new 0-6-0 engines ordered far the mineral trains. The two engines which were to have taken S.J. Nos. 1 and 2 were 0-4-2 type well tanks with weatherboards only, but owing to the exposed nature of the line they received canopies over the footplate shortly after going into service. The cylinders were inside and were 16 in. diameter by 20 in. stroke. The coupled wheels were 5 ft. 6 in. diameter and the trailing wheels 4 ft. 0 in. diameter. The wheelbase was 17 ft. 0 in. spaced 7 ft. 6 in. plus 9 ft. 6 in. The length over the buffers was 30 ft. 1 in. The capacity of the well tank was 450 gallons,. while the capacity of the coal bunker was 25 cwt. The heating surface was: Tubes, 924.5 ft2; firebox, 84.7 ft2; total, 1,009.2 ft2. Grate area, 13.75 ft2. Working pressure, 130 psi. Weights per axle in working order: Leading coupled, 10 tons 17 cwt. 1 qr.; driving axle, 12 tons 5 cwt. 3 qrs.; trailing, 12 tans 19 cwt. 2 qrs.making a total of 36 tons 2 cwt. 2 qrs. The C.R.. Nos. were 540 and 541 (makers' numbers 1217 and 1218 of 1866). Both engines were put on to the duplicate list as 540A and 541A in 1892. In 1899 they be- came 1354 and 1355 respectively. No. 540 was withdrawn in 1900, while the remaining engine became 1541 in 1901. It was, however, withdrawn in the same year.
S.J.R. Nos. 3 and 4 were 0-4-2 type tender engines with cylinders, motion, wheels and boilers interchangeable with the well tanks Nos. 1 and 2. The tenders ran on four wheels and had a wheelbase of 8 ft. l0in. Their capacities were 1,700 gallons of water and 2½ tons of coal. The length of the engine and tender over the buffers was 42 ft. 1 ½in., and total wheelbase 30 ft. 8 in. The engine wheelbase was 14 ft. 6 in., divided 7 ft. 6 in. plus 7 ft. 0 in. The weights per axle in working order were: leading coupled, 10 tons 19 cwt.; driving, 12 tons 1 cwt. 2 qrs. ; trailing, 5 tons 12 cwt. 2 qrs.; total, 28 tons 13 cwt. The tender weighed 10 tons 1 cwt. 2 qrs. on the leading axle and 9 tons 19 cwt. 2 qrs. on the rear making a total of 20 tons 1 cwt. The C.R. Nos. when received were 452 and 453 (makers' numbers 1219 and 1220 of 1866), and in 1877 they were renumbered 322 and 323. In 1887 they became 322A and 323A. The first one received S. 1 o. 1279 when withdrawn in 1899. The second one became 1280 in 1899 and 1323 in 1900, being withdrawn in 1906.
S.J. Nos. 5 and 6 were 0-6-0 type tender engines ordered in 1868 by mutual agreement with the C.R. Co. They never bore S.J. Nos., being given C.R. Nos. 542 and 543 when built by Neilson & Co. The cylinders were inside and were 17 :in. diameter by 24 in. stroke. The driving wheels were 5 ft. 1 i in. diameter and the engine wheel- base 7 ft. 3 in. plus 7 ft. 9 in., total 15 ft. 0 in. The axles were of Yorkshire iron and tbe tyres of Krupps' cast steel. Only one injector was provided. The heating surface was: 176 brass tubes 2 in. diameter, 957.05 ft2; firebox, 86.95 ft2; total, 1,044 sq. ft. Grate area, 16.58 sq. ft. Work- ing pressure, 130 lb. sq. in. The boiler barrel was 4 ft. 1 in. diameter outside at the front (and smallest) ring. The distance between tubeplates on six wheels 3 ft. 9 in. diameter spaced 5 ft. 8i in. centres, making a total tender wheelbase of 11 ft. 5ir in. The total wheelbase of engine and tender w"as 34 ft. lOt in. Length of engine and tender was 10 ft. 4ft in. The coupling rod was nutted and split-pinned. The weight per axle was: Lead- ing, 11 tons 11 cwt.; driving, 12 tons 10 cwt. ; rear, 9 tons 19 cwt. ; total, 34 tons. The tender ran over buffers, 47 ft. 0 in. The tender carried four tons of coal and 1,800 gallons of water. The tender in working order weighed 25 tons 19 cwt. 2 qrs., made up as follows: leading axle, 8 tons 15 cwt. 2 qrs.; middle axle, 8 tons 11 cwt.; rear axle, 8 tons 13 cwt. The axles were of Yorkshire iron and the tyres of cast steel. The weight of the engme and tender empty was 30 tons 17 cwt. and 13 tons 17 cwt. 2 qrs. respectively. The C.R. road numbers were 542 and 543 (Neilson & Co. 1388 and 1389 of 1868) which they carried until 1892, when they became 542A and 543A.

Illustrations: C.R. 0-6-0 S.T. No. 139; Solway Junction Railway 0-4-2 W_T. No. 1 (C.R. No. 540) as built (Photo: N.B. Loco. Co.); C.R. 0-4-2 W.T. 540A (exS.J. Ry.) as finally running (Photo: F. Moore); ,Solway Jet. 0-4-2 (C_R. Nos. 452 and 453) as built Image (Photo: N.B. Loco. Co.) C.R. 0-4-2 1323 (orig. S .. J. Ry, No. 4) as finally running (Photo: F. lVIoore)

Correspondence. 146

British locomotive builders, H.F. Hilton
Re the name of Goldsworthy Gurney, noted as the builder of steam road carriages, should be added to the list of locomotive builders. In 1830 one of his steam road engines was taken by road, pulled by horses, to a place near Aberdare, S. Wales, at the request of Mr. Crawshay, provided with cast .lron wheels and put to work on the Hirwain Railway hauling coal and iron. It is stated that the engine worked there throughout 1831, successfully performing everything it was expected to do.
Re firm of Murdock & Aitken mentioned in Locomotive Mag, 1927, 33, page 163. This firm's works were situated in Hill Street, Glasgow, and in 1831 built two engines for the Monkland & Kirkintillock Railway. The first engine was put to work on 10 May and the second on 10 September, the former being the first locomotive to be constructed .in Glasgow. I hope to be able to send you some further particulars and a drawing of these engines.

Reviews. 146

Diesel electric shunting locomotives. V. Finegan. George Newnes Ltd.
Intended for all interested in the practical side of diesel electric shunting locomotives. The author, in Chapter II, gives various reasons why he considers diesel locomotives are superior to steam; now if the case of steam versus diesel is going to be discussed it should be done in an unbiassed way and the merits of each prime mover should be adequately presented. Although the author does not even suggest it, there are conditions, even in main line yards, where steam has advantages over diesel. While the title of the book leads one to expect a work dealing with the sundry types of shunting locomotives, the author confines himself almost entirely to those employed in large marshalling yards. In many industrial yards the so-called fireman of the steam locomotive is equally a shunter and cannot be dispensed with; if a second man must be retained, diesel traction may never pay as well as steam.
The book is notable for some sweeping assertions which are inaccurate. On page five it is stated that practically all road transport vehicles are powered by diesel engines; it would be nearer the truth if this statement had been qualified by the word "heavy". On page 73 the following appears: "it may be noted that whereas only a small number of bearing surfaces are required for changing electrical into mechanical energy, a much larger number are required for the other type of conversion, from heat into mechanical energy." The form of energy converted does not influence the matter. The comparison is made between different types of machine, viz.., reciprocating and continuously rotating; if similar types are compared the results are very different, a turbine has no more bearings than an electric motor. On page 190 we read that in the U.S.A. "the diesel electric system has invaded main line services in addition to completely eliminating the steam locomotive in shunting work." As the U.S.A. possessed 7115 steam switching locomotives in 1941, no one will be prepared to believe that these have been completely eliminated in the short space of three years, especially. as some of these were of modem design and construction.
There is unnecessary repetition, the sequence in which items are descnbed is capable of improvement, e.g., a detailed descnption of the cooling system is followed ten pages later by an explanation of why the cooling system is necessary.
In some cases the diagrams, text and index are, in the opinion of the reviewer, misleading, and one is forced tu the conclusion that the best has not been made of the opportunity to place a useful booklet in the hands of those concerned.

Coming of age of Railway Grouping. The Railway Gazette.
Unable, due to paper restrictions, to publish a supplement of the comprehensive character associated with the productions of our contemporary m peace time, a reprint had instead been issued m booklet form of articles appearing in The Railway Gazette in connection with the "coming-of-age" of the Main Line Railway Companies of Great Britain.
The grouping of the railways is described as the one big thing. done when peace came after WW1, and the effectiveness of the scheme has since been amply proved under conditions of both peace and war. The Select Committee's findings are referred to together with the circumstances prevailing pnor to, at grouping and afterwards. The subject has been handled almost entirely from an economic aspect, which is logical in view of the fact that the raison d' etre of grouping was economic. A great deal has been accomplished since 1 January 1923, and the major events are duly chronicled. Maps of the four groups and their constituent lines are included—unfortunately and no doubt of necessity—on a small scale. Photographs of the Chairmen and General Managers are given, and the booklet concludes with a report of the luncheon held at the Dorchester Hotel to celebrate the occasion.

A plan for post-war transport. Modern Publishing Co., Ltd.
This book comprises a revised reprint of a series of articles which appeared in Modem Transport, and many will find it convenient to be able to obtain these schemes in booklet form.
The subject is undoubtedly a complex one; the plans put forward in each branch of inland transport—including, of course, air and water transport—are sound rather than spectacular, providing for evolution rather than revolution. None of the elements suggested is wholly untried, so that the plans should have far greater prospects of success than any superficially attractive schemes which would probably be unable to fulfil their promise. It has been written, by men who are experts in transport manipulation; from an entirely independent standpoint.

Wireless on freight trains. 146
A loaded freight train of sixty-eight wagons equipped with two-way radio-telephone communication had completed a satisfactory series of tests. over a stretch of 2,200 miles on the Atchison, Topeka & Santa. Fe Railway.

Number 626 (14 October 1944)

The rehabilitation of motive power. 147.
Editorial: though the prolonging of the war is complicating many political and economic issues, there seems a: good prima facie case for sup- posing that what seems its inevitable extension will simplify at least one major transport problem in this country. That is the nature of the rehabilita- tion of the four group railways in motive power and rolling stock, handled by the chief mechanical engineers', running and operating departments. If post-war plans had to be put into effect within the next few months it is not unreasonable to suppose that some measure of chaos or pandemonium would result; not chaos in execution,' for the departments listed are, in this country, fully capable of carrying out orders. No: the chaos would be that of policy, the initiation of which is above those departments. Is there as yet any settled idea as to a policy which will provide smooth and continuous transition from established practice to the ever- present trend of progress in technics and economics? Despite the interest of the group railways in aviation, it may be doubted. But the longer the war lasts the dearer will become certain aspects of economics, or rather the economic aspects of certain political forces; and the dearer will become the practicabilities of several technical improve- ments of the war years. New potentialities in the technical field, though they should come after policy and give effect to it, may in this case help vacillating policy over difficult stiles. Already the four group companies seem to have made plans to offer air travel for certain long-distance, high-speed passenger traffic. This does not mean- all traffic of that type will be air-borne; . but it does mean a' clearer pre-view should be obtained as to how rail-borne traffic of that kind is to be handled. The question is of considerable importance to locomotive engineers. For example, will such traffic be hauled at 1939 speeds in 15/ 18~ coach train formations by extrapolations of 1939 Pacifies? Or will it be handled at increased speeds by smaller locomotives pulling lighter trains, or by railcar-trains, running much more frequently? There is no doubt as to which method of travel would best please the public. There is no technical bar'to increased frequency of train service up to L.P.T.B. standards. Nor can there be any doubt that mechanical engineers can produce highly effi- cient motive power of any type. But it would be fair to give those engineers in ample-time an indication as to which of the two or three principles enumerated is to be pursued, because the development of any of those policies has innumerable: ramifications in all phases of railway work, and will necessitate much co-ordination and preparation m each department, as well as inter-departmentally. For instance, if the policy of running frequent high-speed light-weight trains was adopted, the total traffic on many hnes could be handled only If all traffic was speeded up appreciably. That in itself is an admirable corollary; but it would necessitate British wagon stock being equipped with continuous brakes, a further admirable corollary, though one which would add much to the responsibilities of the mechanical engmeenng and running departments.
Such major issues of railway policy as those grven above, and those of what is to be done with branch lines and suburban traffic, have a vital effect on the functions and composition of the engineering and operating departments which needs long and careful consideration. If existing lines of the lightcountry branch type are not to be eliminated, the proper use of the rail-car seems the only way to serve them and to cater for their passenger and freight traffic. Admission always has been made that railways are particularly suited to heavy traffics, not only in freight, 'but also in suburban transit. Yet in reviewing the question of electrifi- cation or dieselisation, or of special steam locomotives for suburban routes, it should not be overlooked that in several cities abroad applications have been made already for helicopter licences. for machines to deal with outer suburban and short-distance inter-urban passenger traffic. Such proposals are by no means so far-fetched as they might at first appear. Technically there is probably little difficulty. And as to the possibility of helicopters dealing with the traffic offering, one must not forget that quite likely social and economic habits may change so much in a few years that there will not be the inordinate morning and evening rush- hour traffic peaks of to-day. In such a case, nothing like full economic benefit would be obtained from millions of pounds spent on electrification. But from the point of view considered here the most profound effect will be on the responsibilities of the railway technical departments, and on the qualifications of the men composing them; because whatever the means of transit or type of motive power adopted, the nucleus of. the organisation will have to anse from the.existing personnel and departments.

Southern Railway. 147
Additional Merchant Navy class locomotives under construction at Eastleigh.

Mallet locomotives for the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. 148. illustration
Baldwin Locomotive Co. 2-8-8-4 with 24 x 32in cylinders, 5298ft2 evapourative heating surface, 2118ft2 superheat and 117.6ft2 grate area.

Diesel electric locomotive LNER. 148-9. illustration
Built at Doncaster with 350hp diesel electric equipment supplied by English Electric; similar to that supplied to LMS. Capable of working as mobile power stations: four on order. No. 8000 illustrated.

Nose-suspended v. fixed motors. 150-3. 5 diagrams
Costs, ease of maintenance and track damage are considered for nose-suspendended, jackshaft and cardan shaft drives. Some attention is paid to resilient wheels with rubber inserts.

P.C. Dewhurst. Midland Railway locomotives. Birmingham & Derby Junction Railway. 153-5. 2 diagrams (side elevations)
Continued from page 130. During the years leading up to. 1841 the boiler-barrels of six-wheeled locomotives of all makers had been 8 ft. long far passenger engines and 8 ft. 6 in. long for goods—in the 1837-41.period this was practically a "regulation" — it bemg remarkable to note that this was the same as Bury's four-wheeled engines, in fact there was some tendency far Bury's engines to have 8 ft. 3 in. and 8 ft. 6 in. barrels — i.e., frequently longer than the s:x- wheelers! As most of the boilers had 15/8 in. to. 2 in. tubes it is evident that much heat must have been lost up the chimney, and this circumstance caused the oft-related but authentic, tests carried out on the North Midland at R. Stephenson's instance to ascertain the heat in smokeboxes and which led to the "long-boiler" pattern of Stephenson's Patent of June, 1841, with boiler-barrels about 13 ft. long. The 1ength of Sharp's bailer-barrels seems to have jumped straight from 8 ft. to 10 ft.—-only dubious traces of one intermediate size being known to the author—and the early 10 ft. barrels accompanied fireboxes of similar sizes—viz., 36 in. long by 42 in. wide inside; but somewhat higher—to those used latterly with the 8 ft. barrels. As above noted, the "long-boiler" principle developed directly from the short barrels of 8 ft. 0 in. (and 8 ft. 6 in.) to. 13 ft., and whereas Stephenson's and associated firms used the long-boiler pattern for both passenger and goods engines, Sharp's adopted it only for their particular "Sharp" design of six-coupled goods, and apparently went straight to. a moderate barrel length without suffering the unfortunate "long-boiler" passenger engine phase of most of their competitors.
The "early" Sharps had boiler-pressures of 50-55 lb., whilst the later ones of 1847-9 had 80 lb. The total heating surface of the "early" group varied from 480 to 600 ft2., with a grate area of 8 to. 10½ ft2 respectively and a weight in working order of 13½ to 15 tons; the "Little" Sharps from 750 to. 830 ft2 with 10.6 ft2 grate area and weight af 18 to. 18½ tons, and the "Big" Sharps of 1848-9 some 920 ft2., a. 12.6 ft2. grate and weighed 21½ tons in working order. The first singles with 20 in. stroke were two for the Ulster Railway in 1842, whilst the first for the standard gauge were for the Sheffield & Manchester in 1844 with 14 by 20 in. cylinders; but the first of the extensive brood of well-known
Fig. 4. B. & D.J.R. "Sharp's Singles"
Cylinders  12in. x 18in
Wheels (diameter): Leading and trailing 3ft. 6in.
Driving 5ft. 6in.
Wheelbase, total engine 11 ft.0in.
Boiler: Length of barrel 8ft. 0in.
Mean diameter  3ft 4in
Inside firebox: Length 2ft. 8in
Width 3ft. 6in.
Tubes: Number 132
Outside diameter 15/8in.
Heating surface: Tubes 476 ft2
Firebox 43.5 ft2
Total 519.5 ft2
Grate area 9.3 ft2
Boiler pressure about 55 psi

Weights in working order about: t c q
On leading wheels



Driving wheels



Trailing wheels


18 0
Total engine 14 11 0

Divided wheelbase: Leading to driving 6ft. 0in.
Drivmg to trailing 5ft. 0in..
Rated tractive force (at 75 per cent.) 1620 lb.

"Sharpies" having 15 by 20 in. cylinders commenced with Sharp's No. 285 for the Brighton, Croydon & Dover line early in 1845. . To sum up, it may be said that the "early" Sharps were a goad average design for the period, but not outstandingly superior to contemporary engines by some of the other makers; and whereas it was mostly the former which became so popular on Continental railways, it was the true "Sharpies" of the years 1845 onward which became so widespread in England, where its excellence of detail design secured a reputation which has been handed don amongst railwaymen.
The three B. & Derby singles were Maker's Nos. 51, 52 and 55, delivered September-October, 1839, and their names were Dewent, Trent and Dove. They were of the smaller of the two sizes of singles —subsequent to the original design for the Grand Junction — made by Sharps during the 1838-40 period; having 32 in. length of firebox and consequently their framing corresponded to style "2" and their other constructional , features all pertaining to those given above as "early" Sharps — it being probable they had the opposed-gab gear with rocking shafts — they being exactly similar to eight engines built for the London & Southampton in 1838, ten for the Grand Junction in 1838-9, and three for Baden & Belgium in 1840, and hence at a disadvantage in size of firebox with the engines supplied by the firm to the London & Brighton, London & Croydon and to some of the French and German lines in those years. .
There is fortunately extant, in a German publication of 1842, a drawing of the two sister engines built for Baden, and Fig. 4, representing the engines of the B. & D., is derived from this drawing with the addition of a few constructional details from other contemporary Sharp drawings and the elimination of the spark-arresting chimney-cap which is not likely to have been present on those for England. The Ieading dimensions are appended to the figure. No special mention of these Sharp engines occurs in material now available beyond a complaint dur- ing June, 1840, from the London & Birmingham Railway that "the Dove is out of gauge with our line of rails and has broken several chairs and torn a piece from the points and crossings at Hampton" , the Board of the L. & B. at the same time notifying the B. & D. that the Dove would not be allowed to pass on their line until the gauge of the wheels conformed to the L. & B. rails. The after-career of the engines upon the Mid. Rly. has already been dealt with; it may be mentioned, however, that C.E. Stretton was informed by an old MIdland dnver that in 1846 M.R. engines 121 and 122 were two of these 1839 Sharp engines but this is considered very doubtful. '
An analysis of the Hawthorn singles of the maker's "Standard" pattern up to early 1840 may be worth while,. as in the case of the Sharp locomotives. It is similarly clear in this case that the length of boiler barrel did not vary from 8 ft. 0 in., nor. did the width of the firebox—41¼ in.—change until the beginning of 1840, except in some special cases where a definitely larger engme was in question. The earliest of these engines—Hawthorn's 244-7 of 1838 to the Paris & Versailles Railway, as also some for the Newcastle & North Shields Railways—had 39 in. diameter boilers and 30 in. length of firebox, whilst the engines built in 1838-39 for the Grand Junction, Birmingham & Derby and Great North of England railways—five, three and eight in. number respectively—had the same barrel, but with a firebox 32 in. long; subsequently 42 in. and 43 in. boiler-barrels were used with fireoxes 405/8. in. and 41 in. in length by 44 in. in width, whilst in one case, engines for the Paris-Orleans, the 42 in. barrel was used with the 32 in by 41¼ in. firebox, but these three last cases were obviously outside the maker's general practice.
Takmg the two first groups as A and B the only really contemporary drawing that the author was aware of is that (or rather two of them, identical) representing Hawthorn's 244 and 245 of 1838 to the Paris-Versailles line of group A, having a firebox length of 30 in., and to. illustrate the B. & Derby engines allowance has been made for their 2 in. greater length of firebox, together with some increase in its depth; also the D. & T. wheelbase has been altered to suit the longer firebox, because it would have been impossible to get the increased length into the same wheelbase without altering the relative position of the boiler to all the rest of the engine, which is unlikely to have been done. As Hawthorn's practice subsequently showed a partiality for what may be called the G.W.R. style of "cut-out" framing, it is to be supposed that all Hawthorn-designed engines of 1838-40 followed the style of the Paris-Versailles locomotives; hence Fig. 5 can be reasonably considered as representing the Birmingham & Derby—and other engines—of group B. No illustration is known of the larger, 42 in. and 43 in. barrel examples.
The B. & D. singles were named Anker, Tame and Blythe, being delivered about the end of 1839, the maker's numbers being 262-4, their leading dimensions are appended to the figure, and their principal constructional features were as follows: Fig. 5. B. & D.R. "Hawthorn's Singles"
Cylinders , 12 in. x 18 in ,
Wheels (diameter): leading and trailing 3ft. 6in.
Driving 5ft. 6in.
Wheelbase, total engine 10ft. 1½in.
Boiler: Length of barrel 8ft. 0in.
Mean diameter 3ft. 3in
Inside .firebox: Length 2ft , 8in:
Tubes: number 121
Outside diameter 15/8in.
Heating surface: Tubes 427 ft2.
FIrebox 51 ft2..
Grate area 9.2 ft2
Boiler pressure about 50 psi

Weights in working order about: t c q
On leading wheels



Driving wheels



Trailing wheels


10 0
Total engine 13 10 0

Divided wheelbase: leadmg to driving 5ft. 1 in.
Drivmg. to trailing , 5ft. 0½in.
Rated tactive force (at 75 per cent.) 1473 Ib:
Whilst the outside main frames were of the usual "sandwich" pattern" the axle-guards were in one piece with the flitch-plates of the upper portion and of the cut-out pattern so long associated with the G.W. Railway, the driving springs being above, but both the leading and the trailing springs were between the sandwich and the axleboxes. The in- side frames, of which there were three, were of the usual forged slab pattern, all three being straight from the cylinders to the throat plate and having "bearings" without springs. The traction effort was transmitted from a stout pair of plates athwart the main frames at the extreme rear end, and so there was no pull through the firebox.
The cylinders were horizontal, with valves on top placed central with the cylinder-bore length. The slide-bars were oLthe four-bar pattern With their rear ends attached to a stout cross-piece- motion-plate, as it came to be called later-stretching right across the three inside frame-members, whilst their front ends were attached to the cylmder covers. The boiler-feed was from ram-pumps upon extensions of the cross-head gudgeon-pins outside the slide-bars, the delivery being low down slightly forward of the middle of the boiler-barrel. The valve-gear was no doubt of the special form employed by Hawthorn at this period in which the use of eccentrics was avoided; the motion being derived from the connecting-rod by means of a block located about the middle of its length, working in a slotted frame from which motion was given to the valve-rod through a rocking arm of the Carmichael type. There was necessarily much "thrashing about" of relatively heavy parts in service, and in addition a considerable portion of the gear was generally hung from the boiler-barrel; both features undesirable. Reversing was obtained by a single lever upon the footplate which changed the engagement of the valve-rods with the fore-gear or back-gear pins of the Carmichael "T" lever-the gab-horns being tapered wide enough to accomplish this—and also varied the disposition of the slot- link, thus providing the necessary variations in valve events. The valves, although above the cylinders, were operated without the intervention of rocking-shafts. .
The boiler had a slightly raised top to the firebox shell, and the firebox crown was supported by longitudinal roof-bars, the firehole having no "ring", but the plates were pinched together at the centre of the water-Ieg-something of an early attempt at the "Webb" form of later years. It is notable that the flanging around the firebox shell was practically square, no real radii being given, and this also applies to the corners of the inside firebox; this was a poor—although not very unusual—feature of the time. The regulator was in the smokebox, the internal steam-pipe leading thereto from very high up, in the dome. There were rather. elaborate supports, for the boiler upon the side of the srnokebox, very similar to that of Tayleur's engines and for the same reason, as there were no transverse ties from the inner group of frames to the outside frames at this region. These Hawthorn engines were a good, straight- forward job, and in fact it can be said that with the exception of the "exotic" valve-gear they were probably the most soundly-constructed of all the twelve singles. No incidents of their after-care are known, unless it was really one of them which was the protagonist in the misbehaviour attributed by "Veritas Vincit" to Mather Dixon's Barton.

Stirling Everard. Cowlairs commentary. 155-7. 2 illustrations (drawings: side elevations)
Continued from page 52) The rebuilding of the Wheatley classes began in the eighties. The 17in. goods engines were given boilers comparable to those of the Drummond machines, and the 16in. mineral engines, the large tank classes, the 4-4-0 and the 2-4-0 designs were similarly brought into line with current Cowlairs practice. The two 0-4-0 mineral locomotives were not only rebuilt by Holmes, but were subsequently again completely modernised, although on the duplicate list, being given new boilers, 4ft. 3in. wheels and abbreviated cabs of the latest type, but, for want of space, without side windows. In this form they continued in service until the nineteen-twenties, and were the last 0-4-0 tender engines to remain in service in Britain. A number of Wheatley 's 4ft. 0in. mineral engines, upon coming in for rebuilding, were converted to saddle tanks and transferred to shunting duties. These were the series 430-449.
The one engine upon which Holmes let himself go was the unfortunate Wheatley 4-4-0 No .224. As if a sojourn in the Tay was not enough, this was the locomotive chosen for conversion to compound propulsion. In 1885 No. 224 emerged from Cowlairs as a Nisbit tandem compound with two 13in. x 24in. high pressure cylinders mounted at the forward end of the frames in a position above the leading axle of the bogie, and with two 20in. x 24in. low pressure cylinders beneath the smokebox. Two separate sets of Joy valve gear were provided. In this form it ran for a number of years, but whether the art of driving a compound was not properly mastered by the engine men, or whether no master touch could coax results from an unwilling steed will never be known, unless and until official figures are published. The results, it must be assumed, were not impressive, for No. 224 was later restored its previous layout as a 17in. x 24in. simple, retaining, however, the Holmes boiler.
Most  of the Wheatley rebuilds were scrapped, but the reconstructed Hawthorn, No. 38, was again rebuilt, this time as an additional unit of the 349 class of double-framed 2-4-0. The rebuilt Crampton, No. 55, which had reached the duplicate list as No. 100Q, was also reboilered , .os. 38 and 55 lasted for more than sixty years. Towards the end of his time Holmes began the reboilering of the early Drummond engines, the N.B.R. No. 543 Drummond's 17in. Goods as running in 1921 18in. goods class receiving Stirling cabs at the same time. The Drurnmond 4-4-0 locomotives were brought up to the standard of the " 729 " class, receiving new and larger boilers and 18iin. cylinders. The first put in hand received also the Stirling cab, while the later rebuilds were given slightly larger boilers and the new design of side- window cab.
After the introduction of the side-window cab the Drummond 17in. 0-6-0 engines were allowed ta keep their Drummond cabs an rebuilding instead of having them exchanged far the Stirling pattern, with the result that their appearance changed little during the whole of their lang lives. The influence of Cowlairs upon the locomotive design of other companies had been considerable in the past, but during this period the only North British man to make his mark elsewhere was Peter Drummand, the brother of Dugald, who in 1896 succeeded David Jones on the Highland. He very soon introduced' the Drummond type of locomotive to that concern, and made short work of many of the early Allan types which were still to be found at Inverness, but it must be admitted that he drew more inspiration from his brother than from Cowlairs, for the North British had no use far the water-tube firebox nor for the "water- cart" tender which' appeared on the neighbouring line as part and parcel of many of the new Drummond machines.
In 1903, W.P. Reid, who had deputised during his Chief's illness, succeeded Holrnes at Cowlairs, and was confronted by an immediate problem regarding the company's motive power, for in 1903 the Caledonian had broken ground so horrifyingly new that the North British people were put at a serious disadvantage.
The facts of the case were these: McIntosh, having developed his 4-4-0 designs to a high state of efficiency, had launched out with a huge 4-6-0 with 6ft. 6in. wheels and 21in. x 26in. inside cylinders, the Caledonian company's No. 49, which was obviously likely to be the first of many similar or even better machines. Moreover the Caledonian showed signs of developing what would now be called "luxury corridor expresses," and this meant that the North British must be provided with similar heavy rolling stock. To handle the East Coast traffic north of Edinburgh, however, the North British could put in the field nothing more formidable than the new 317 class of 4-4-0.
Reid immediately began to look into the question. Precedent suggested that the North British should follow suit and build huge inside-cylindered 4-6-0 express engines on the McIntosh model, but this idea was soon dismissed by the directors, who would not consider a six-coupled type for use on the Waverley route. .
Thrown back upon the choice of a four-coupled type Reid not unnaturaly decided upon the Atlantic layout, but experience was lacking as to the capabilities of such engines. He therefore approached the locomotive departments of the North Eastern and the Great Central companies for advice. Wilson Worsdell's North Eastern Atlantics with 20in. x 28in. cylinders and 6ft. l0in. coupled wheels were already working into Edinburgh on the East Coast expresses from the south, having been introduced in 1903. Robinson's first Great Central Atlantics having 6ft. 9in. coupled wheels and 19½in. x 26in. cylinders had also come out in 1903. Both companies were considering the introduction of compounds. The Cowlairs people found much to interest them in both designs of simple 4-4-2, and also in Robinson's comparable design for a. Smith compound Atlantic with one 19in. x 26in. high pressure inside cylinder and two outside low-pressure cylinders, each 21in. x 26in.
Reid studied the Worsdell and Robinson types very carefully, and decided to prepare alternative designs for the North British, the one compound, the other simple. The compound design incorporated one 19in. by 26in. high pressure inside cylinder and two 21in. by 26in. low pressure outside cylinders. The coupled wheels were to be 6ft. 9in. in diameter, the boiler pressure 225lb. per sq. in. The assumed weight of engine and tender was 113 tons, 43.7 tons being carried by the coupled axles. In the end the compound design was shelved, as the stakes were too high to entrust the company's competitive expresses to experimental machines, and fourteen of the simple Atlantics were ordered from the North British Locomotive Company, and were delivered' in 1906.
The new simple engines were a mixture of Great Central and North Eastern practice. There was a complete break from the Drummond tradition. The wheelbase of the new engines, 6ft. 6in. + 5ft. 91in. + 7ft. 3in. + 8ft. 3in. was the same as that of the Great Central machines, and the raised running plate was also similar, including the reduction of width forward of the front splashers. The cylinders, however, were of the North Eastern dimensions of 20in. x 28in., and a North Eastern type of cab with two side windows' and a high domed roof was adopted. Ill;ustrations (drawings): NBR Drummond 0-6-0 17-in goods No. 543 as running in 1921 and No. 875 Midlothian, Reid 4.4.2, as running in 1921

L.M.S.R. (N.C.C.). 157
Two of the standard 0-6-0 freight tanks have been adapted for the 5 ft. 3 in. gauge and are now numbered 18 and 19 (originally No. 16539 and 16636, and since 1936 Nos. 7456 and 7553 respectively).

L.M.S.R. 157
Since the beginning of July, 623 special L.M.S. trains conveying nearly half a million evacuees left London (Euston and St. Pancras stations) for the Midlands and the North.

Condensing locomotives. 157-8.
As mentioned in our report on page 136 the paper on Condensing Locomotives recently presented to the Institution of Mechanical Engineers was followed by an interesting discussion; the following matters were among those commented upon. O.V.S. Bulleid stated that the steam locomotive to-day was a machine which was in competition with other forms of traction. It was criticised as being inferior to the diesel-electric locomotive and to the electric locomotive on several heads, the major one being its lack of availability. When the causes of lack of availability were examined, it was found that the fundamental cause was the use of raw water in the boiler, which caused the steam locomotive to be out of service for something in the order of 12 per cent of its time; consequently, anything which could be done to reduce that loss of time necessitated by washing out the boiler, or repairing damage due to dirt in the boiler, would at once contribute to the greatly increased availability of what was, after all, the best traction machine at our disposal. The present paper, therefore, by calling attention to the question of the recovery of the water, was very valuable,. and it was that recovery which was very much more important in locomotive practice than any question of a saving of 2, 3 or 4 per cent. in the fuel burned in the locomotive.
It would be appreciated that, taking the coal consumption of a locomotive as of the order of 50 lb. per mile, and having in mind the fact that that consumption included the lighting up of the locomotive, the fuel thrown away when the engine was taken out of service, the standby losses when the engine was standing, and, above all, the fact that at one moment the locomotive would be working at high rates of output, using the whole of the steam available, and at another moment would be running under very low conditions of pressure and very early cut-off, it was not to be hoped that any substantial reduction in that figure of 50 lb. per mile would be effected by condensing. On the other hand, if, as he had said, it was possible to avoid filling the boiler with raw water, that would be a means of very substantially improving the use which could be made of the locomotive.
Sir Williarn Stanier considered the paper an interesting review of the number of experiments which had been made with condensing locomotives, and remarked that the authors had hit the nail on the head when they said that from the practical point of view any locomotive should be not only be economical and flexible in control, but as simple as possible. With regard to turbine locomotives, unfortunately, in this country, the conditions were not such that turbine power could be used efficiently, because the conditions varied foot by foot along the road. When an engine was called on, as Bulleid had said, for maximum output over a short section and theri for zero output over the next, it did not promote the efficient working of the turbine. The experiment made on the L.M:S. Railway with a non-condensing turbine locomotive had indicated, as far as it had gone, that the coal consumption per D.B.H.P .-hour was very much the same on the turbine locomotive as on the four-cylinder locomotives on work of the same nature. The turbine locomotive was employed only on straightforward runs between London and Liverpool, and not on trains stopping at many intermediate stations. So far as the coal consumption was concerned, the comparison between the reciprocating engine and the turbine engine was of the order of 2.8 lb. per D.B.H.P.-hour and 2.78 lb. per D.B.H.P.-hour, while the water consumption was 24.7 lb. and 24.8 lb. respectively. The evaporation per pound of coal was 8.3 and 8.4. There was very little in it when there was no condensing
E.S. Cox said that two of the condensing locomotives mentioned in the paper were tried on the L.M.S. Railway, and some notes as to their performance would allow certain conclusions to be drawn. The first was the second of the two Ramsay locomotives mentioned in the paper. It was a two-unit locomotive of the 2-6-0—0-6-2 type. It was designed with four 275 h.p. traction motors, and the intention of its designers was to produce a locomotive of approximately the same power as the. London & North Western Railway four-cylinder Claughton locomotive of those days. This engine was delivered at the Horwich works of the London, Midland & Scottish Railway in February, 1922, and on weighing it was found to be 35 tons above its designed weight, with individual axle loadings as high as 24 tons—an unheard of figure in those days. At first It was rejected out of hand by the engineer, but afterwards permission was given for it to run as far as Southport, a distance of 25 miles, and throughout its whole life its test runs had to be confined to that short distance.
The results at first were very unsatisfactory. The .motor-driven forced-draught system was so defective that proper combustion was impossible, and even when running light there was heavy smoking and inability to maintain the pressure. Moreover, the condenser, which was of the evaporative type, was not at first able to produce a higher vacuum than 20 in., though designed for a vacuum of 2H in. and therefore increased steam consumption m';de impossible demands on the limited boiler -capacity. By the end of June of tha.t year vanous alterations had been carried out WIth a VIew to improving the running, inclu.~ing a new chimney with a blast arrangement takmg steam from the condenser ejector, and a larger condenser of the "Same type was fitted. Between November, 1922, and June, 1923, a number of trials was carried out with this engine to Southport WIth a trailing load of 65 tons, when a maximum speed of 59 m.p.h. was attained. The engine was cut up and sold for scrap in 1924.
The second condensing locomotive. which. was run on the London Midland & Scottish Railway was the Beyer-Peacock Ljungstrbm, a direct-drive turbine locomotive. It was a much more practical proposition and ran for a while on regular express passenger train work between Manchester and Lon- don. In May, 1927, on a test run from Derby to Bedford and back a maximum speed of 76 m.p.h. and 1 ,2QO D.B.H.P. were obtained. Tl'te coal consumption, however, was per mile and 5.6 lb. per D.B.H.P.-hour, because at that early st,:ge the same troubles were being expenenced as WIth the previous turbine locomotive.
Generally speaking, boiler pressure and con- denser vacuum were well maintained, except that on the 1 in 100 bank starting south from Sheffield, when the locomotive had to pass through a tunnel very slowly, the extremely powerful fans drew off all the soot on the tunnel lining and such smoke as might be coming from the chimney, and that led to trouble.
Mr. H. Ho1croft described in some detail the unusual form of condensing applied to a Southern Railway locomotive some fifteen years ago. (See page 104, Vol. XLII). The whole of the exhaust steam from the cylinders entered an oil separator on its way to a multi-tubular cooler, the headers of which were formed to make the steam pass three times through the cooler. On emerging from the bottom set of tubes the steam was dealt with by a three-throw combined compressor and feed pump, from which it was discharged as feed to the boiler. The working fluid of the engine therefore operated in a closed circuit .. Water carried m the tender was . fed to the cooler and was evaporated there at 212 deg. Fahr. under atmospheric pre~sure, and the vapour resulting was conveniently discharged WIth the products of combustion in the chimney .. Th~ function of this water was to abstract a portion or the heat contained in the exhaust steam and so con- dition it that the special form of pump could deal with it.' In order to create a temperature difference to bring about the necessary heat transmission across the tubular cooling surface, the temperature corresponding to a back pressure .on the cylinders of from 4 lb. to 7 lb. per square m. above atmos- pheric was sufficient under normal conditions, being no more than that usually found at the base of a blast pipe in an ordinary locomotive. An induced draught fan was provided in place of the blast pipe. The work obtained from the steam passing through the cylinders was not greater than in. an ordinary locomotive. Fuel economy was entirely on the boiler side due to the return heat to the boiler ; III other words there was an increased evaporation per pound of fuel. The system was not suitable for waterless regions, but was of value where water supplies contained impurities. It was independent of atmospheric temperature and could therefore be used in hot climates and high altitudes. This report has been confined, due to considera- tions of space, to some of the matters raised affecting British practice, but other speakers con- tributed interesting points, on Amencan and Colonial locomotive design and operation.

The first locomotive in Russia. 159. illustration
Robert Young in Timothy Hackworth and the Locomotive states:

In 1836 Hackworth built a locomotive for the Russian Government, and despatched it in the autumn of that year, which was the first ever run in that country. It was a 'double trunk' engine, of handsome appearance, built with firebox and smokebox, and containing 135 horizontal boiler tubes It in. diameter. The cylinders were 17 in. diameter with a stroke of 9 in. only, and the whole was mounted on six wheels with single drivers 5 ft. diameter, the leading and trailing wheels being 3 ft. 6 in. diameter. (Locomotives with short- stroke pistons had some vogue during the next year or two, but the practice was not long continued.) Hackworth's ledger shows the total cost of the engine was £1,884 2s. 9id., which included £140 for the wheels and £330 9s. 0d. for the tender, the . latter being fitted with brakes and capacious tank. .1

The duty of introducing the locomotive to Russia devolved upon Hackworth's eldest son, John, then not quite 17 years old. But he was a well set-up youth, nearly as tall as his father, was a keen and clever young engineer absorbed in his profession, and in appearance much older than his years. The summer was over before the little party started, and the journey was by no means devoid of adventure. At that time of the year the ordinary channels of communication were closed, and they had to land at some open port in the Baltic, and make the journey to St. Petersburg by sleigh in weather so severe that the spirit bottles broke with the frost, .and they had to run the gauntlet of a pack of wolves. John Hackworth had a small staff of men with him, including a foreman from Shildon, George Thompson, whose mime deserves recording for a smart piece of work which he carried out. When the engine had worked a few days one of the cylinders cracked, and Thompson went from St. Petersburg to Moscow, a distance of 600 miles, to the ordnance factory, made a pattern for the cylinder, got it cast, bored out and fitted, returned to St. Petersburg, and fixed it in the engine (The Graham Reports).
John Hackworth has left some record of his visit among his manuscripts, from which we find the engine was taken by him from St. Petersburg to Tsarskoye-Selo, where the Imperial Summer Palace was situated. It was here that the locomotive was. started in the presence of the Tsar and a distinguished company in November, 1836. Young Hackworth relates that he was introduced to the Tsar Nicholas, who told him of a visit paid to England m 1816, before his accession to the throne, when he had witnessed with great pleasure· the runnmg of Blenkinsop's engines on the colliery line from Middleton to Leeds. The Tsar added some complimentary remarks regarding the new locomotive under their present inspection, saying' 'he could not have conceived it possible so radical. a change could have been effected within twentv years.' j
The engine, before being brought into public requisition, had to be put through a baptismal ceremony of consecration according to the rites of the Greek Church. This was done in the presence of the assembled crowd. Water was obtained from a neighbouring bog or "stele" in a golden censer and sanctified. by immersions of a golden cross, amid the chantmg of choristers and intonations of priests,. while a hundred lighted tapers were held round It.
This was followed by the invocation of special blessmgs upon the Tsar and Imperial Family, and fervent supplications that on all occasions of travel by the new mode, just being inaugurated; they might be well and safely conveyed. Then came the due Administration of the Ordinance by one priest bearing the holy censer; while a second, operating with a huge brush and dipping in the censer, dashed each wheel with the sign of the cross, with final copious showers all over the engine, of which John Hackworth was an involuntary partaker." When discussing "short stroke" locomotives, Ahrons tells us that Timothy Hackworth also tried this type in a locomotive built in 1836 for Russia, which had cylinders 17 in. diameter and a stroke of only 9 in. It was 2-2-2 type with 5 ft. driving' wheels, outside frames .and inside horizontal cylinders. It was also the first engine built at Shildon with a multibular boiler and inside firebox of the ordinary type. Most of Hackworth's engines carried boilers which were modifications of the single flue type and were fired from the funnel end-in fact he continued to build these at Shildon until 1842. They were not suited to fast running and passenger work.
The Russian engine was built at Shildon, but it is interesting to note that the funnel and boiler mountings were exactly as fitted to Hawthorn's engine, The Comet, in 1835, for the Newcastle &' Carlisle Railway. Perhaps he bought the boiler and fittings complete from Hawthorns, especially as he was not used to making this type of boiler. Illustration: Hackworth's Locomotive for Russia (From a drawing by C. M. Doncaster)

[O.S. Nock]. Automatic train control in Great Britain. Part  2.  160-2. 2 illustrations
Continued from page 142.  The Great Western system of intermittent Automatic Train Control is very simple. When approaching a distant signal the locomotive passes first over a ramp fixed in the four-foot way, and usually located about 300 yards before the signal itself. The central portion of the ramp is 4 in. above rail level,. and the outer portions are sloped down to a height of 2½ in. above rail level at each end. A contact shoe is suspended from the locomotive, and to this shoe is imparted a vertical motion of 1½ in. when passing over a ramp. The vertical motion takes place every time a distant signal is passed, and, of course, irrespective of whether the signal is displaying the "clear" or "caution" indication. An electric switch is controlled by the vertical movement of the shoe, the' contacts being closed when the shoe is in its normal position and open when raised due to passage over a ramp. The equipment on the locomotive is so designed that passage over a ramp, and the consequent opening of the switch, applies the train brakes, unless the ramp is electrified. First of all, however, consideration will be given to the case when the ramp is dead.
In normal running conditions a battery on the locomotive supplies current, through a switch controlled by the contact shoe, to energise an electro-magnet; when a dead ramp is passed over the armature of this electro-magnet falls and opens a valve, which admits air to the brake pipe and sounds a siren in the locomotive cab. The armature falls away to such a position that the air-gap between it and the pole faces of the electro-magnet is greater than the pull of the magnet when energised can overcome so that when the locomotive has passed over the ramp and the electric switch controlled by the contact shoe is closed again the electro-magnet remains in the de-energised position. The only way the armature of the electro-magnet can be brought up to the pole- face once more is by the driver moving it mechanically, by means of the re-setting lever. It will be appreciated by this that the energised position of the electro-magnet can be restored at any time; and that there is nothing to prevent a driver who is on the alert from depressing his re-setting lever immediately he sights an adverse distant signal- before his locomotive passes over the ramp by thus keeping the lever depressed the opening of the train control valve can be avoided altogether. The contact rail of the ramp is connected to a cabin battery, and when a locomotive passes over, with the distant signal in the "clear" position, the circuit is completed to earth through the contact shoe, and through a'relay carried in the engine cab. This relay is energised during passage over an electrified ramp, and by the Closing of certain contacts on the relay during this time an alternative circuit is made up which maintains current on the electro-magnet controlling the A.T.C. valve; the . opening of the contact shoe switch is thereby coun- teracted. A bell starts to ring at the same time. Even in the case of clear signals a positive action must be made by the driver at each distant signal location; for unless he presses an acknowledging button the bell will continue to ring. The apparatus is neatly housed in a small case mounted on the right-hand side sheet of the locomotive cab, thus bringing the units providing the audible signals close to the driver's normal position.
A variation in the position of the ramp has to be made at locations where home and distant arms are mounted on the same post. If the ramp were fixed at its normal distance, about 300 yards before the signal itself, the audible signals would be received in the cab just at a time when the indication displayed by the home signal might be of considerably greater importance than that of the distant. A driver who had passed the previous distant signal at "caution" would ne running with full vigilance and preparing to stop at the home signal; with a heavy train he would naturally be anxious to avoid a dead stand, and would be approaching slowly, constantly watching for the signal to dear. In such circumstances the receipt of the audible signal corresponding to the "caution" aspect of the distant arm would be no more than a distraction. Thus, to leave the driver free to observe the stop signal, the A.T.C. ramp is placed just beyond the signal post, and when the upper arm is in the clear position and the train is passing the particular location the audible signal corresponding to the position of the distant arm is received immediately after the signal itself has been passed.
Several accidents have occurred in this country over the past forty odd years the cause of which has never been definitely ascertained, largely due to the death of the men most concerned. In the derailment at Grantham in 1906 it was generally thought that the unfortunate driver was taken ill and that his fireman was so concerned in rendering assistance that they ran past all the si,gnals, with disastrous results. In the Shrewsbury accident in the same year it was generally supposed that the driver was dozing. In a recent instance on the L.N.E.R. this latter form of negligence was actually shown to be the cause of a rear-end collision. With these happenings in mind, it is naturally interesting to find out what would, occur on a line equipped with the G.W.R. system of A.T.C. were a locomotive crew, through some exceptional circumstances, to lose control for a short time. With this object in view a test was made, shortly before the present war, between Paddington and Reading. The test train was hauled by a 4-6-0 locomotive of the "Castle" class, weighing with its tender 126½ tons; the train consisted of ten bogie passenger coaches, and weighed 304 tons behind the tender.
On a straight and level section of line a distant signal was kept in the "caution" position; the driver was instructed to ignore this signal altogether, to ignore the audible cab signal, and to omit to use the re-setting lever-in other words, to let the engine continue as though it were out of control. With the regulator open and at a speed of 59 m.p.h. the ramp was duly passed over. The brakes were automatically applied, and, though continuing with steam on and no change in the controls, the train was brought to a stand in 900 yards from the ramp. At this particular location the ramp is situated 318 yards before the distant signal, and with a distance of 1,032 yards between the distant and the home signals,. the locomotive stopped 450 yards short of the "home". Although the speed from which the train was stopped, 59 m.p.h., is not high by modern standards of running with a load of 300 tons on level track, the stop may be regarded as a very good one. With such a load the same type of locomotive is easily capable of maintaining 80 rnile/h. on level track, and in stopping under similar circumstances the margin of 450 yards would probably be fully absorbed.
The lines of the former London, Tilbury & Southend Railway have been equipped with the Hudd system of intermittent A.T.C., again based upon the existing manual block signalling. The basic principles, of control, and audible signals in the cab, are exactly the same as on the Great Western Railway, except that the indications are received inductively instead of through contact between the ramp and the locomotive shoe. In this particular L.M.S.R. installation there is one important difference in the nature of the "clear" indication given in the cab; this is sounded on the same hooter that provides the "caution" indication. The "clear" is one short blast and the "caution" is a continuous note that sounds until the driver silences it by pressing the acknowledging button. Recently, however, a modified design has been prepared in which the "clear" indication is given by the ringing of a bell, thus bringing the cab signals into exact conformity with those given by the Great Western system.
Although the indications received are so very similar, the locomotive equipment for the Hudd system is entirely different from that of the Great Western on account of the inductive pick-up. On the track two inductors are used instead of a contact ramp, one inductor being placed about 60 ft. ahead of the other. The first of these is a permanent magnet, and the second an electro-magnet energised only when the distant signal is in the clear position. Passage over the permanent magnet causes a magnetically controlled valve on the locomotive to open, and this partially destroys the vacuum normally maintained on the hooter valve; the hooter thereupon begins to sound. The second track inductor has a polarity opposite to that of the first, and if it is energised it counteracts the effect of the first inductor upon the magnetically-controlled valve on the locomotive, and restores the vacuum in the hooter valve. If, however, the second inductor is not alive, the locomotive valve will remain as set after passage over the first inductor, and the hooter will continue to sound. The hooter valve also controls admission of air to the A. T. e. brake valve, though a time lag device is included to prevent a brake application being made until the locomotive has passed over the second inductor.
The completion of another important installation of the Hudd A.T.C. system, namely on the L.N.E.R. main line between Edinburgh and Glasgow, has been held up on account 'of the war. For any installation of A.T.C. to be fully effective, both for providing increased safety, and in making possible improved working in conditions of bad visibility, it is necessary for all the locomotives operating over that section of . line to be equipped. Therein lies a point of some difficulty where British railways are concerned. The rostering of locomotives, particularly on the L.M.S.R. and L.N.E.R., tends to become more and more complex, and units from manv depots, both English and Scottish, may regularly operate over a particular section of line ,chosen for a trial of A.T.C. apparatus. This, in part, explains the choice by the L.M.S.R. of the Southend line, and by the L.N.E.R. of the Edinburgh-Glasgow main line for installations of the Hudd apparatus; for both these sections are more or less self-contained so far as locomotive workings are concerned. It is only after such extensive trials that any decision to standardise on a particular system can be made. What the complete equipment of an entire main-line network involves may be seen by referring to the Great Western Railway, which has laid down 2,114 ramps, and their associated apparatus, and equipped over 3,000 locomotives. Illustrations: L.M.S.R. View showing track inductors on a double-slip crossing. Hudd A.T.C. System; L.M.S. Hudd System. A.T.C. location, showing relation of permanent and electro magnets. (E. R. Wethersett)

4-8-4 passenger-freight locomotives, U.S.A. 162
The Northern Pacific Railroad put into service a number of 4-8-4 type locomotives for hauling heavy passenger and freight trains over the steep gradients in the Rocky Mountains. They have driving wheels 6 ft.1in. diameter and cylinders 26 in. diameter by 30 in. stroke. The weight of the engine totals 246 tons, of which 140 tons is on the driving wheels. The boiler is 7 ft. 6 in. diameter and has a working pressure of 285 lb. The firebox was 12 ft. 6 in. by 8 ft. 6 in., with a heating surface of 559 ft2. The tender ran on six-wheeled bogies and had a capacity for 20 tons of coal and 20;000 gallons of water.

Australia's narrow gauge railways. 162
The sum of £1,600,000 had been allocated for the construction of narrow gauge locomotives and rolling stock to meet increased needs.

On Time. 162
A survey of the running of special trams for workers at Royal Ordnance factories revealed that punctuality was 99 per cent. perfect. During a recent month, at six of the largest factories, from the point of view of passenger traffic, which between them received 3,070 trains, only 23 arnved more than ten minutes late. At twq.of these factories, out of a total of 1,350, not a single train was late.

F.C. Hambleton. Great Western goods engines. Class 2361. 162-3. 2 illustrations (line drawings: side elevations)
Twenty interesting goods engines were built at Swindon in 1885-1886 from the designs of William Dean. These locomotives had the unusual combination of double frames with underhung springs fitted to the outside axleboxes. Dean, from his early days as an articled pupil in 1855 to Joseph Armstrong at Wolverhampton, was very familiar with the old G.W.R. type of double-framed engine, and remained throughout his life an adherent of this method of construction. Indeed, even to-day it is one of the surviving features of many Swindon products. In the period under notice (1885) Dean made some attempt at standardisations in four designs: the 0-6-0 goods, the 40 saddleback counterparts of the same class, the mixed-traffic 2-4-0 Barnum class, and the smaller version known as the Stella type. As regards the boilers, his early preference for domeless barrels had given place to a design in which a rather tall and narrow dome was placed fairly near the chimney. In later years his domes got bigger and were positioned nearer to the firebox, and finally disappeared altogether with the advent of the domeless Camel and Atbara classes! The clack-boxes were placed, in the 2361 class, on the firebox sides, just above the footplates—another example of the survival of early locomotive practice. Like all G.W.R. engines, there was a considerable amount of polished brass and copper work in evidence—even the clack-box seatings were covered with an ornamental brass plate. All this contributed to the handsome appearance of these excellent engines. The effect of the big polished dome-covers and valve-casings was really wonderful, and made the G.W. engines of those days most fascinating to behold. Many of the mechanical details were also very interesting. For instance, the elegant safety-valve cover enclosed two safety-valves, one a small direct-loaded valve, the other a Salter. The spring and its casing were attached to the firebox front, and the wooden cab roof had a hole on the left hand side through which the spindle and adjusting nut projected! The gauge glass cocks were connected by a rod, with a lever to actuate the same, placed outside the left cab sheet, a useful and safe method of control in the event of a glass bursting. Behind the gauge glass was a connecting pipe on which were mounted two test-cocks. The link motion was underhung, and balanced by a long, horizontal spiral spring. The very long reversing lever passed through a slot in the cab floor to its fulcrum below. This arrangement recalls the similar one fitted to Stroudley's celebrated L.B.S.C.R. 6 ft. 9 in. single, Grosvenor. The intermediate valve spindles had rectangular bearing 'surfaces through the motion plate, and these, and the forked small ends of the connecting rods with their straps and cotters, were features taken from the L.N.W.R. DX goods engines. A steam brake was provided, the cylinders of which were placed behind the cab footsteps.
The principal dimensions were: Cylinders, 17 in. by 26 in.; 5 ft. 1 in. wheels; wheelbase, 7 ft. 9 in. plus 8 ft. 0 in.; heating surface, 1,157 ft2.; grate area, 15.2 ft2; 140 psi. The second drawing shows the engines as rebuilt with Belpaire fireboxes, and with other slight modfications. They were numbered 2361 to 2380, Swindon numbers 1032 to 1051, the first appearing in September, 1885, and the last in May, 1886.
illustrations: G.W.R. No. 2374 0-6-0 Goods; G.W.R. No. 2366 0-6-0 Goods, rebuilt 

Pullman with three decks. 163
Designed by the Pullman Standard Car Manufacturing Co. for post-war development. The Railway Age (Chicago) descnbes it as having four side entrances on the middle level, one on each side at each end. This level extends into the coach and over the trucks, and each end contains two game or card rooms with seats for four persons each. From this middle level, which is at the same height as present coach floors, two side stairways lead to the lower deck and cne central stairway leads to the upper deck. The lower deck is about five steps below and the upper five steps above the middle deck. The height of the coach is about 13½ ft. Wide windows are incorporated in the design, while general artificial lighting is supplemented with specially focused lighting at the reading level in each seat. Accommodation for 112 passengers is provided.

South African Railways. 163
It had been decided that the essentials of the S.A. Railways plan for New Cape Town should be proceeded with. The new suburban station will have to deal with 30,000 passengers per hour during the peak hours. Over 67 million journeys per annum  being made on the Cape Town suburban system.

Railway steamers. 163
Since the outbreak of war 92 British Railways' steamers had been chartered to the Government at varying periods as hospital carriers, transports, assault ships, minelayers and sweepers, ammunition carriers, ack-ack ships and rescue ships with Atlantic convoys; and 23 had been lost by enemy action. Certain of the vessels flew the White Ensign and ran directly under the control of the British Navy, while others were still manned by their peace-time crews, many of whom, both officers and ratings, had received awards for gallantry at sea.
The first American troops from Ireland to this country were brought on an S.R. steamer, while vessels of all four companies played their part at Dunkirk, in which operation some eight were lost. An L.M.S. steamer was the last merchant ship to leave Dunkirk.
A famous G.W.R. steamer, the St. Patrick, was sunk by enemy air attack on 13 June 1941, while on her ordinary passage from Ireland to England. The master, I7 of the crew and 12 passengers lost their lives. Another G.W.R. steamer, the St. David, employed as a hospital carrier, was bombed and sunk off Anzio Beach, the master and 12 of the crew losing their lives, apart from many military casualties.
The s.s. Autocarrier of the Southern Railway, known in peace-time as the motorists' steamer, was now a Navy recreation ship, providing comforts, entertainments and recreation facilities to the various vessels of the Royal Navy. The three train ferry vessels of the S.R., which enabled through sleeping cars to be run between London and Paris, were doing useful and interesting work elsewhere. The G.W.R. cross-channel steamer St. Helier, the L.M.S. Clyde steamer Caledonia and the Isle of Wight Southern steamer Southsea each had an enemy. aircraft to its credit, while the L.M.S. Clyde boat Queen Empress shot down two.
No fewer than nine L.M.S. Clyde steamers were fitted out as minesweepers and have done good work round the coast of Britain. Five of them rendered notable service in a similar capacity in  WW1..
Several L.N.E.R. steamers performed signal services in bringing evacuees from Holland at the time of the German invasion. One well-known Harwich steamer, the St. Denis, had to be scuttled and abandoned in Rotterdam. The crew, after great hardship, made their way to the Hook of Holland and returned to England in a British destroyer. The L.N.E.R. cargo steamer Sheringham worked for a time in the Channel Islands services, while other L.N.E.R. vessels, the goods train ferries normally on the Harwich-Zeebrugge route, assisted in the Channel Islands evacuation. One of these vessels was lost in evacuating British troops from St. Valery. On the same occasion two G.W.R. cargo vessels narrowly escaped destruction, being badly damaged, whilst several of the crews were killed and others wounded. In peace-time, steamers of the British railways—numbering in all 130—plied daily and nightly between English and Scottish ports on the one hand, and those of Scandinavia, the Low Countries, France, the Channel Islands and Ireland on the other. Smaller railway steamers operated between the mainland and the Isle of Wight, the Scottish islands, and so on.

Mobile power generating plants for Russia. 163
Complete power generating plants mounted on specially designed railway cars for use in rebuilding devastated areas and for operation of repair plants are being delivered from the United States. There are forty 3,000 kW. and twenty-three 1,000 kW. plants being supplied by the General Electric Co. and the American Car & Foundry Co. The Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Co. is supplying power units for ten 5,000 kW. trains and twenty-four 1,000 kW. trains. Each of the 3,000 kW. plants' consists of seven or eight cars, depending on the method of cooling. There are two boiler cars with tenders, one turbine car, one switch gear car, three cooling tower cars (or two radiator type cars) and one car for the crew. (Railway Mechanical Engineer.)

Correspondence. 164

S.A.R Class 19-C engines. M.M. Loubser (Chief Mechanical Engineer, S.A.R) 
Re article entitled Performance of Class 19-C engmes .on the South African Railways and letter with reference to the same subject.
The article quotes various detailed performances, and the paragraph, "I know of no other type of. branch line locomotive on the S.A.R.—or anywhere else in the wo:ld for that matter—that can be relied upon to perform with such extraordinary versatility", sums up the trend of the first part. The letter says: "I do not know how a similar engine having, say, a Walschaerts gear, would perform, but such a comparison would be very interesting..
The Class 19-D locomotive is a similar engine with Walschaerts gear, and I cannot do better than give briefly the results of comparative dynamometer car tests.
The steam consumption curves in lb; per hour per h.p. for drawbar, effective and indicated horsepower indicate that the Walschaerts gear is more economical than the R.C. poppet valve gear in the use of steam by 10 to 11 per cent. These values are independent of the boiler except inso far as the quality of the steam is concerned. The two boilers are very similar, and while the pressure would therefore be substantially the same in all circumst:nces, the superheat on the 19-D was higher by 20 to 40 Fahr. This would account for a difference of from 2 to 4½ per cent., but the remaining 6 to 8 per cent. must be put down to better performance of the engine with the Walschaerts g:ear. Generally, therefore, the 19-D was the supenor engine, alld this was evident even without the dynamometer car test results.
Regarding the comparison of maintenance costs, I can only say that our experience is just the opposite to that quoted, as the following average figures indicate very clearly:

Class of Locomotive 19-C 19-D
Type of Valve Gear RC Wal
(pence per mile)
(1) Total cost of maintenance, 1941-42 8.80 4.85
(2) Total cost of maintenance, 1942-43 7.55 5.46
(3) Cost of heavy repairs, 1941-42 4.18 1.81
(4) Cost of heavy repairs, 1942-43 3·98 2.03
(5) Cost of Heavy Repairs, exclusive of boilers, 1941-42 3·37 1.35
(6) Cost of Heavy Repairs, exclusive of boilers, 1942-43 2.95 1.55

Condensing locomotives. C.R.H. Simpson.
W.O. Skeat, in his letter published on page 96 of "The Locomotive", refers to the possibility of the Reid-MacLeod Turbo-Locomotive exhibited at Wembley in 1924 being a rebuilt version of the Electro-Turbo- Locomotive of 1910.  Volume I '(l1927) of The Beyer-Peacock Quarterly Review contained a series of excellent articles on the subject of The Turbine Condenser Locomotive, and in the second of these the 1910 engine is illustrated and described, after which it is stated that "this locomotive has within recent years been considerably modified, the whole of the electric transmission being removed and substituted by direct gearing. the turbines being arranged on each bogie frame ... " etc. Illustrations are given of the engine in its rebuilt condition, i.e., as .exhibited at Wembley. Apart from the same bogies being utilised after alteration, it appears that the original frame was also retained.

Locomotive design and train operation in the future. D.H. Miles.
Re Editorial in August issue which noted the possibility of all freight wagons bemg fitted with continuous brakes. It does seem doubtful whether the time saved on the jonrney would be as great as the time asted coupling and uncoupling the brake connections, and it would seem that more congestion would be caused at the marshalling yards than would be saved on the roads. On the other hand, there are a number of measures connected with the lay-out of the running roads which would enable considerably higher speeds to be run by freight trams than at present. Firstly, consider the analogy of the other trains where the normal distance was inadequate to pull up, namely the "streamlined" trains pre-war of the L.N.E.R. The method adopted here was the double-block system. This clearly would be impracticable for any but the extremely limited extent to which It was required for the  streamlined trains. But m its place .it should be possible to have a repeater for the distant signal. It is. already done with four-aspect colour light signalling, and this would meet requirements where sections are short. On longer sections an outer distant signal should be placed, roughly as far from the distant signal as that signal is from the first stop signal. ..
The next consideration is that relief roads should be suitable for running at fairly high speeds. This would mean:
(1) That they should be continuous, and not be interrupted by stretches where trains have to use the main line.
(2) That, particularly at stations and junctions, realignment would be necessary to enable higher speeds to be run.
(3) That permissive block working be discontinued. (There would be exceptions where it would be desirable to retain it.)
(4) That signalling be installed on slow roads as described above for main roads.
(5) Slips to or from the main road should similarly be signalled with distant signals.

Reviews. 164

Cargo coaling plants. J. Dalziel. Railway Gazette.
This is a reprint of a series of articles which were published in "The Railway Gazette". The author was formerly assistant electrical engineer of the L.M.S.R., and he has covered in a comprehensive way the considerations involved in the design, construction and operation of such plants.

Workmen's fares. Chas. E. Lee. Railway Gazette.
This is a survey of the history of the provision of cheap daily travel facilities and consists of extracts from a paper entitled "Passenger Class Distinctions" which the author presented to the Institute of Transport.

Our railway history. R. Bucknell. Part 1. 48 pp. and 30 illustrations.
A short history of the railways of Great Britain to be completed in three parts, the first of which, now published, . deals with the L.N.W., G,W., Midland, N.E. and G.N. railways. Written in a readable style and well illustrated, this retells in brief fashion the origin and growth of our railways. A few errors have crept in. We cannot recall any Atlantic engine named Quentin Durward. The longest tunnel on the old G.N.R. is at Ponsbourne, not Ponders End, whilst the L.N.W.R. engine Coronation came out as 5000 (its Crewe works number) and had been renumbered 1800, not vice-versa. It is brightly written and. well printed, and we shall look forward with interest to the remaining parts.

Number 627 (15 November 1944)

Economic life of locomotives. 165

Automatic train control in Great Britain. Part III.  165-8. illustration, 2 diagrams

Examination of locomotives on a mileage basis. 168-70

The locos of the Buenos Aires Northern Railway. 171-3. 6 diagrams (side elevations)

The North London Railway. 173-6.. 2 illustrations

McEwan, James. Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 177-8.   2 illustrations, table
Continued  from page 146. As these engines were beginning to wear out, McIntosh considered replacing them. The cost was considered too great, and the engines were brought in turn to St. Rollox and reboilered with standard boilers as fitted to the 0-6-0 side tanks. These boilers had a heating surface of 1,086 ft2, of which the tubes provided 975 ft2. and the firebox 111 ft2t. The grate area was 17 ft2 and . the working pressure 150 lb. The weight was scarcely altered. After the reboilering, which was done in March, 1898 (No. 542) and November, 1897 (543) respectively, the engines returned to their old job. In 1897 both had been taken from the duplicate list and riumbered 381 and 382 respectively. No. 381 was brought in for rebuilding in March, 1902, and No. 382 followed in February, 1903. Some time subsequent to this both engines got other tenders to replace their own, which had worn out. No. 382 got a rebuilt passenger one with a footboard for the shunter added, whereas No. 381 acquired a four-wheeled one adapted for passenger working and also provided with a footboard for the shunter. No. 382 had a mishap which subsequently deprived it of its leading and trailing wheels, and these were replaced with cast iron wheels fitted with, steel tyres. The change was noted about 1920,. but the cause was apparently unknown to anyone. Both of the 0-6-0 type engines lasted to become L.M.S. stock in 1923 with the numbers 17101 and 17102 respectively. They continued to work on the now shortened S.]. section between Annan and Kirtlebridge until withdrawn in 1927 and 1928 respectively. These were the oldest C.R. engines to have L.M.S. numbers.
After working on the S.]. section for some years the 0-4-2 well tanks were sent to Glasgow (South Side sheds) to work on the Rutherglen to London Road section, then for a short period were sent to v work on the Dundee & Arbroath Joint Line. Both returned to Glasgow. No. 540 went to Perth and shortly afterwards was sent to work the Millisle Branch (about 1890) and finished its days there. No. 541 went to Grangemouth for the Larbert & Grahamston trains, and finally finished up at Perth as the Methven branch engine. The 0-4-2 engines were taken from the Solway Junction section when the are traffic began to decline rapidly, (and worked between Carstairs, Lanark and Muirkirk. Later, one went to Lockerbie and the other to the Brechin to Bridge of Dun section.
The seventh engine of the Solway Junction Railway was destined to appear more than once in a railway stock list. It was an 0-6-0 type saddle tank of Manning Wardle's standard design, being their No. 196 of 1866. It was supplied new to Eckersley & Bayliss at Chesterfield, but in the following year was sold to Brassey & Co., who were the contractors for the Solway Junction Railway. It had inside cylinders 11 in. diam. by 16 in. stroke, and coupled wheels 3 ft. 0 in. diameter. After the completion of the line the S.J.R. took, the engine over as previously arranged, as they expected to have a use. for it as the yard shunting engine. On coming to the Caledonian Railway it. was given the number. 539.. In January,1872 it was disposed of to the contractor for ,the Wigtownshire Railway, and is fully creferred to in the articles on the Wigtownshire. Railway: which appeared in THE LOCOMOTIVE for 1943.
Before leaving the Solway Junction section. reference must be rnade to a story which has been perpetuated, but of which no evidence of fact can be produced, and supporters of the Maryport & Carlisle Railway must suffer disillusionment. The myth is that M. & C. No. 5 was lent to the Caledonian Railway by request and did such good work that the CR. people wanted to buy it for their line; but that the M. & C. people in turn were so proud of their handiwork that they refused to sell. No. 5 was a 2-2-2 type, tender engine built at Maryport in 1857, and was inside-cylindered. The M, & C. and Caledonian railways were, generally speaking, on fairly friendly terms, and both Mr. Connor, of the CR., and Mr. George Tosh, of the M. & C.R., agreed to try the M. & C. engine out art the C.R. metals if their respective directors would agree. Connor was an outside cylinder exponent, while the M. & C. engineer favoured inside cylinders. No. 5 was tried out on the C.R. main line about 1859 between Carlisle and Beattock, and forward later to Carstairs with a regular train. Indicator cards were taken when the test ; was made, and it was generally agreed that while the engine had done well it was not made for the C.R. route. The boiler failed to supply sufficient steam while ascending the Beattock incline, but could generate plenty for the level parts of the line. The other drawback was the light loading of the driving axle compared with the Conner passenger engines. The conclusion.reached by the M. & C, engineer was that for his own line 6 ft. diameter wh'eels would be: large enough for future construction. The M. & C. were entitled to run over the  S.J. section and lfor ,a short space of time in 1870 sent No. 5 over the section.
In 1870 Neilson & Co. delivered a further batch of goods engines, intended primarily for use on the former Scottish Central and Scottish North Eastern  sections. The design was mainly a. repeat of the one used for the ScottIsh Central engmes of 1863, with the adoption of double frames and outside: bearings. for ilie leading wheels. Also the flush-topped boiler was used. The engines were of the 2-4-0 type with outside cylinders 17 in. diameter by 24 in. stroke, coupled wheels 5 ft., 2 in. and leading wheels 3 ft. 2 in. diameter respectively. The dome was placed in the middle of the boiler barrel and had Salter type safety valves. The wheel centres were 6 ft. 2½ in. plus 8 ft. 9in., total 14 ft. 11½ in. The heating surfaces were: Tubes, 783.2 ft2..; firebox, 85.6 ft2.; total, 868.8 ft2.. Grate area, 15.0 ft2.. Working pressure, 120 lb. The weight per axle was: Leading axle, 10 tons 18 cwt. 2 qrs.; driving, 11 tons 18 cwt. 1 qr.; rear coupled, 11 tons 6 cwt.; total, 34 tons 2 cwt. 3 qrs. The tenders were standard four-wheeled type carrying 1,540 gallons of water and 2½ tons of coal. Eight of these engines were allocated to each section, those for the S.C. being renewals and those for the S.N.E. being additions to capital account. These engines were never rebuilt, although some of them in later years received good second-hand boilers with the Rarnsbottom type safety valves over the firebox. The last survivors of the class were generally to be found around Perth and Dundee, the exception being 1377, which was to be seen anywhere between Stranraer and Lockerbie.

No. WN Renumbered Withdrawn
372 1502 372A in 1891, 1283- in 1899, 1372 in 1900 1904
373 1503 373A in 1891 1893
374 1504 374A in 1891, 1284 in 1899, 1374 in 1900 1902
375 1505 375A in 1891, 1285 in  1899, 1I375 in 1900; 1544 in I904, 1375 in 1906   1908
376 1506 376A in 1891, 1286 in 1899 1899
377 1507 377A in 1891, 1287 in I899, 1377 in 1901 1911
378 1508 378A in 1891 1896
379 1509 379A in 1891 1898
544 1510 544A in 1892, 1288 in 1899, 1544 in 1900, 635 in 1902, 1375 in 1904, 1544 in 1905 1905
545 1511 545A in 1892 1894
546 1512 546A in 1892, 1289 in 1899 1900
547 1513 547A in 1892, 1290 in 1899, 1547 in 1900 1905
548 1514 548A in 1892, 1291 in 1899,  1548 in 1900 1905
549 1550 549A in 1892, 1292 in 1899,1549 in 1900 1901
550 1551 550A in 1892, 1293 in 1899. 1550 in 1900 1910
551 1552 551A in 1892, 1294 in 1899, 1551 in 1900, 639 in 1904, 1551 in 1904 1908

NOTE.-Nos. 544 and 551 got old close-coupled 0-6-0 engine boilers to wear out, hence the renumbering to 635 and 639 respectively. ( To be continued)

In tabulated list on page 143, for third engine read No. 15 built 1867, makers' number 71, and thereafter as printed.

L.M.S. 6252 "City of Leicester". 178. illustration
Caption: showing the latest development of the "6235" class as introduced for series 6249 to 6252 completed during 1944.

Correspondence. 179

The North British Atlantics. W.B. Thompson.
Your interesting account of the origin of the North British Atlantic engines illustrates once more the insularity of British railway. practice. The fact that the directors would not allow a six-coupled passenger engllle on the Waverley route may perhaps be excused on the ground that directors are not generally engineers and cannot be expected to know much about. contemporary locomotive work in other lands. But the attitude of W.P. Reid seems inexplicable. You say (on page 157) that when he found himself obliged to use an engine of the Atlantic type he contemplated building compounds on the three-cylinder system introduced on to British railways by the North Eastern engine 1619, but that the stakes were too high to trust the expresses to experimental machines, and he accordingly decided to build simple engines.
At that date the French compound Atlantics were doing consistently brilliant work; they had long been world-famous and there was nothing "experimental" about them; and if in any other country an Atlantic compound had been required, the French system 'would have been adopted as a matter of course. But there is nothing in your article to show that Reid ever gave it a thought, or even was aware of its existence.
In an earlier generation, F W. Webb rejected the Westinghouse brake because he was not going to be taught his business by a Yankee, and we have suffered from his folly ever since; the use of French compounds on the Waverley route might have given a very beneficial stimulus to British loccmotive design.

Our Railway History-Part I .(Rixon Bucknall). W. Beckerlegge.
In the review published on page 164 are two items calling for comment. The G.W.R. Atlantic Quentin. Durward. was No. I79, dated April, 1905. When first put into traffic it was named Magnet (see The Locomotive, Vo!. 11, p. 73). About the end of 1906 it was decided to name all the Atlantics after characters in Scott's novels, and 179 was accordingly renamed Quentin Durward . In August, 1912, the engine was converted to 4-6-0 type and in December, 1912, was renumbered 2979, but the name was retained and it is understood that the engine is still in 'service (with this name).
With regard to L.N.W.R. Coronation, this engine left the erecting shop as No. 1800. A photograph was reproduced in The Locomotive, Vol. 17, p. 119, showing the engine with this number, but without name plates. When painted and named, the number-plates were altered to 5000 (the Crewe number) and the engine never ran again as 1800 (although entered as such in the Company's records) and retained the number 5000 till the L.M.S. renumbered the engine 5348 in June, 1927.

[The rehabilitation of motive power]. R.S. Guinness
I have read with much interest your leading article in the October issue on page 147, and though doubtless those responsible for the commercial and technical operation of the railways are giving careful thought to the future, one sometimes wonders if they fully realise the advantages they have at their disposal, such as unrestricted rights of way and none other than, broadly speaking, self-imposed speed limits. Judging, however, from what one sees and what one experiences, I cannot help thinking that the word "speed" is by any means written to the extent it might be on the railway brow, and that if the railways are to regain anything approaching their premier position (under normal conditions) speed is the essence of the matter. As to· how they are to achieve this is a matter for themselves, but I am particularly glad to see your reference to the braking of goods stock, for the railways have as yet devised no general means of enabling fast traffic to overtake slow, without causing great delay to the latter and, in causing this, they get to cross purposes with their freight customers, who, quite often, find things so that they have to resort to other means of conveyance. Logically the solution should be for all railway traffic to move at the same speed, but if that is a practical impossibility, it surely could be made less so by discarding relics of antiquity in the shape of the modern goods train.
Though not touched on in your article, it sometimes occurs to me that London is looked on as a centre to perhaps too great an extent; that day and night travel under comfortable conditions might be extended so as to enable other centres to be better linked, and that synchronized departure times would save the present generation from telephoning for information, when they find the railway timetables, as they well may, something they cannot afford the time to study the complexities of.
In conclusion, your query of more frequent running is "best perhaps answered in that these Islands are not a Continent, so that the vast distances incidental to the latter and the necessary conditions to meet them hardly apply.

British locomotive builders. S.H. Pearce Higgins
Although the last locomotive built by Dick & Stevenson carried the works number "1'00", the total output of the firm was probably exactly half that number, as it was-in later years at least-the practice to allot two numbers to each engine, and only the even number appeared on the plate. This firm built three narrow-gauge locomotives for Spain; several locomotives were sent to Singapore, and possibly one to Holland. Dick and Stevenson were also numbered among the select, and long extinct generation of builders whose works were never served by a siding to a railway; and when completed the engines were driven under their own steam through the streets of Airdrie: in earlier days the locomotives were taken to Hallcraig Station, but most of the later engines were driven down the hill to a siding at Airdrie South Station. I think it is unlikely that McKendrick & Ball built any locomotives: this firm were at one time the London agents of A. Chaplin & Co., of Glasgow, and no doubt several of Chaplins once familiar vertical-boiler engines were supplied through these agents.
The claim of Lennox, Lange & Co. as builders of locomotives seems yet to be proved. The firm is known to have obtained at least once locomotive from Andrew Barclay, Sons & Co.; and although the earliest Snailbeach District Railways locomotive Fernhill is attributed to Lennox, Lange & Co., it would not be surprising to find that this 2 ft. 4¼ in. (or 2 ft. 4½ in.) gauge locomotive was only supplied by Lennox, Lange. The Glasgow directories of the period show a City address for this firm, and I have been unable to discover any reference to their yard or works.

[Bramah & Fox]. H.F. Hilton.
It is' recorded in "The History of the G.E.R. Locomotives" that one of the engines of the Eastern Union Railway taken over by the Eastern Counties Railway when the two lines were amalgamated was built by Bramah & Fox. The name of this firm does not appear in the list of builders published in "The Locomotive" for 1927, and I have been unable to trace it in other publications. It would be interesting to have some further information about the firm in question, and thus add to the completion of the list. .

The inventor of the steam superheater. H. F. Hilton. 180
.It has been stated that Timothy Hackworth invented the steam superheater in 1839. In order to correct this statement and place the credit for the idea with the rightful person, I would state on the authonty of Luke Herbert, who was a patent agent and editor of The Journal of Patent Inventions at that time, that "The last invention of Richard Trevithick, of Camborne in Cornwall, was for improvements in the steam engine and in their application to navigation and locomotion, for which he obtained a patent on 19 March 1833. The first of these improvements consisted in interposing between the boiler and the worrking cylinder, in a situation to be strongly heated,. a long pipe, formed of a compact series of curved plates, in which .the steam, after it has left the boiler, passes with great velocity, and is further expanded in volume before it enters the cylinder. And in order still further tu augment this volume of steam, he placed the working cylinder within a case constituting a part of the chimney, where the cylinder was kept hotter than the steam employed in it, and by these means employed the otherwise waste heat in augmenting the power of the engine." It is not recorded whether this invention was ever applied to a boiler or engine. Timothy Hackworth fitted a superheater to a locomotive constructed by Hawthorns in 1839.

Reviews. 180

British railways facts and figures:
Simplicity is the keynote of this official publication which contains 16 pages and has for simple and ready reference all the facts arranged alphabetically. Three pages are devoted to a chronological table of outstanding events dating from the opening of the first public railway in 1825. The story of the Railways and London Transport, their work and progress, equipment and achievements, both pre-war and during the past five years, is told factually under 48 separate headings covering subjects as wide apart as railway bridges and workmen's travel
One learns that 10,000 air attacks have been made on railway property; track repairs are generally completed within 12 hours; shelter accommodation has been provided for over 500,000 people, and 1,000 carriages have been con- verted into ambulance and casualty evacuation trains. During the first evacuation of London the railways ran 4,349 trains carrying 1,428,425 civilians to safer areas, and 620 special trains were run in 16 days for 3I9,II6 troops evacuated from Dunkirk.
Since the outbreak of war to the end of June last over 300,000 special trains have been operated for the movement of troops and equipment, whilst in connection with the North Aftica expedition over a period of a month 185,000 men, 20,000 vehicles and 220,000 tons of stores were carried to the ports in 440 troop trains, 680 freight trains and 15,000 wagons attached to ordinary goods trains.
Paragraps are also included giving much useful information about railways, docks, electrification and Government control, rolling stock, staff, stations, and track, whilst for the serious student of railway affairs a ten-page folder giving a summary of the latest available financial and other statistics in handy form is appended. These statistics tell their own story and reveal the magnitude of the war-time task the railways have had to perform, and the efficiency and economy with which it has been accomplished. A glossary of railway terms is also included, together with a diagrammatic illustration of railway operating statistics for 1943 compared with pre-war.

The story of the .West Highland. George Dow.
In this all-embracing history of one of .the most interesting lines of the British Isles the author has lived up to the high standard which he set in his previous book, recently reviewed in this column. The first of the four chapters relates to an historical survey and amongst other matters refers to the skirmishes which the North British had with the Highland and Caledonian railways, together with the history of the unlucky Invergarry & Fort Augustus Railway. The second chapter deals with engineering features, of which it can certainly be said that the line had its fair share; possibly the best known of these is the snowshed north of Rannoch, but a number of the bridges, and especially the Glenfinnan Viaduct, are of considerable interest. Next the subject of locomotives receives detailed attention, full particulars being given of all the various types .which have worked over the line dunng the fifty years It has been open.. Finally, train services and other features are dealt with. An outstanding feature of this publication is its illustrations, they are copious and good; in fact, although it is a minor criticism, one cannot help thinking that in some cases they are unnecessarily complete. There are four appendices consisting of elevations and plan of the typical station buildings, a gradient profile, a sectional view of a coach and the principal dimensions of locomotives. This excellent book will be valued by the many who have traversed the railway and will attract many who have not yet travelled the metals to what is one of the great scenic lines of Scotland.

Our railway history. Part II. R. Bucknall. 48 pages 8vo.,
This is the .second of three parts in which the author plans to epitomise the history of the railways of Great Britain. It deals with the Great Eastern, L. & Y., Great. Central, L.S.W., L.B, & S.C. and South Eastern & Chatham railways, Excellent illustrations add to the interest.

The medal of the London & North Eastern Railway has' been presented by Sir Ronald 'Matthews to Driver Gimbert, G.C., and the mother of the late Fireman Nightall, G.C for gallantry in saving from complete destruction a burning ammunition train.

Newcomen Society. 180
At a meeting held on 18 October a paper was presented, Stephenson Locomotives for the St. Etienne & Lyon Railway, by E. A. Forward, M.I.Mech.E,

Institute of Transport. 180
On 3 November a luncheon was held in London to commemorate the twenty-fifth anniversary of the founding of the Institute. The President, Robert Kelso, was supported by Sir William Wood, Vice-President of the L.M,S., Herbert Morrison, the Home Secretary, and Lord Woolton, as well as many other distinguished visitors. Mr. Morrison, in proposing the continued success of the Institute, congratulated the members on its work, and while keeping clear of controversial aspects, emphasised that transport was a basic industry and that it was essential to the country's welfare that all forms of it should work together in a "streamlined" fashion. In celebration of this anniversary the Institute of Transport has issued in pamphlet form a paper prepared by D. R. Lamb, one of its members, reciting the beginning and achievements of this latter-day scientific society. The record bears witness to the power of the technical Press, not only in arousing interest in a worthwhile object, but also in setting it in motion, for the author explains how the Institute owes its origin to the enterprise of Modern Transport in successfully soliciting the support of the leaders of the industry towards the founding of a society which to-day enjoys Royal Patronage.

New Zealand Govt. Rlys. 180
The conversion of the class A 4-6-2 four-cylinder compounds to two-cylinder simples was proceeding. Of the 57 engines built between 1906 and '1914 over 30 had been converted since 1941.

Southern Railway. 180
A. Cobb, the Locomotive Running Superintendent, had retired, and as from 1 November T,E. Chrimes had been appointed Superintendent of Motive Power attached to the Office of the Superintendent of Operation.

Number 628 (15 December 1944)

The British 4-6-0. 181-2
Broad survey: partly history (Highland Raiway Jones Goods to GWR Kings..

4-8-2 Mountain type locomotive Canadian National Rlys. 182. illustration.
Built by Montreal Locomotive Works: first of batch of 20: No. 6060. Inspected by E.R. Battley, Chief of Motive Power; W.N. Townsend. Works Manager of Montreal Locomotive Works, Francis Williams, Chief Mechanical Engineer and R.F. Walker mechanical engineer (locomotoves)

Dynamometer car Victorian & S. Australian Rlys. 183-4. 2 illustrations, diagram (elevation & plan).;
Fitted with Amsler equipment and constructed at the Islington workshops of the South Australian Railways in 1932. Illustrations include view of instrument table.

F.C. Hambleton. G.W.R. saddle tank engines Class 1661. 185. 2 illustrations
Drawings of Nos. 1695 with saddle tank and and 1685 as pannier tank. Withdrawn locomotives were sold to the Cardiff Railway, Alexandra Docks Cp. and to the Brecon & Merthyr Railway. See below

L.N.E.R. 185.
Over £3,000,000 was to be spent by the L.N.E.R. on the construction of 10237 new wagons for 1945. Four thousand of the new vehicles will be 16-ton end-door mineral wagons, and 3000 13-ton open goods wagons. Included in the remainder will be 1750 hopper wagons for mineral traffic, 200 13-ton single bolster and 100 21-ton double bolster wagons, mainly for iron and steel products; 500 covered vans of 12 tons capacity, 100 10-ton air insulated fish vans; 30 machine wagons of 20 tons and 25 tons capacities, and 100 20-ton brake vans

Londonderry & Lough Swilly Ry. 185.
4-6-2T No. 12 had been scrapped leaving only 10 locomotives in stock. Passenger services still ran between Derry and Buncrana and freight ran to Gweedore.

L.M.S.R. 185.
The fifty American 2-8-0s and the fifty British-built 2-10-0s which were on loan to this company during the summer have now been returned to the Government for service overseas. The output of standard Class 5 passenger and Class 8 freight engines continues. Of the 5P 4-6-0 type Nos. 4800 to 4814 and 4826 to 4845 are in service, while the 8F 2-8-0 engines are out up to No. 8374 (built by the L.M.S.), while the G.W. have built 8400 to 8459, all in service on that line) and the L.N.E.R. have built 8500 to 8524 (all working on the L.N.E.R.).

Unintentional parting of trains. 186
It is not possible accurately to assess the cost to the railway of an unintentionally divided train. Apart from the actual costs of replacing the defective drawgear and any other consequent damage to stock, way and works which may accrue, and the settlement of claims by consignors for goods damaged or delayed in transit, overtime may be incurred by the train news and other operating staff, and the line capacity of the section concerned temporarily reduced. In any event such train partings are of considerable nuisance value, and practical considerations alone demand their minimisation. Assuming good workmanship and satisfactory material for the drawgear in the first instance, and given good design, the possible causes of drawgear fractures are in the main of a cumulative nature. They are:
(a) Unsatisfactory standard of shunting in that shunting movements are badly con- trolled and result in unnecessarily abrupt starts and stops, or snatching at couplings during movement.
(b) Unsatisfactory standard of driving as regards control of the regulator and brake; this may be aggravated by the consistent giving of shunting signals on the side away from the driver and / or inefficient transmission of instructions by the fireman. These two causes, it will be observed,. can only be eliminated by careful attention to the systematic training of staff and subsequent supervision of their work.
(c) Fatigue or excessive wear of drawgear. If many cases of partings are attributable to reasons in these categories, it is obvious that the standard of rolling stock maintenance must be raised. Limits of maximum wear must be specified and, when these are reached, either by length of service or exposure to atmospheric conditions, the drawgear must be brought back to drawing dimensions by makmg up with welding or other means. Fatigue brittleness, a frequent cause of mechanical failure, can be counteracted by periodic normalisation, and it is felt that the more general adoption of this practice in future will be advantageous. It is equally as important that drawgear springs be regularly and thoroughly examined, scragged and retempered as necessary, this examination being extended to all nuts, taper pins and cotters used for their retention.

Great Southern Rys. Ireland. 186
No. 463 4-6-0T (formerly No. 11, Cork, Bandon & South Coast Ry.) has been fitted with an R class Belpaire boiler. .

G.W.R. 186
Further standard 0-6-0 goods engines were appearing from Swindon, numbered 2231 onwards. Some of the 2:8-0 Austerity engines only recently transferred to this line from other companies have been handed back to the Government.

P.C. Dewhurst. Midland Railway locomotives: Birmingham & Derby Junction Railway. 186-8.
Continued from page 155. The next locomotives were two 0-4-2 goods engines supplied by the firm of Thompson & Cole, their names being Kingsbury and Willington; no maker's numbers are known of this firm, whose out- put of locomotives appears unknown except for the engines they supplied to this railway and the North Midland. The firm is believed to have been located at Carlisle, and it is also probable that the first- named partner- Thompson-was the Thompson who afterwards became one of the members of Messrs. Kitson, Thompson & Hewitson when the Airedale firm was re-formed with that title in 1842. This fits in well with the supposition that Thompson & Cole ceased business as locomotive-builders in 1841-although an alternative version is that the Fig. 6 Mr. Isaac Thompson of Kitson & Co. had previously been an iron merchant of Northallerton; possibly the two accounts are complementary. The delivery of these engines must have been between the Secretary's letter of June, 1840, and the Return of October, 1841, and probably early in 1841. The apparently very SImilar goods engines built by the same firm for the North Midland were delivered July-September, 1840, hence it is likely these B. & D. engines were delivered between September, 1840, and September, 1841, and as a minute of the latter date reading "to consider providing two additional goods engines" , suggests that some time had elapsed, the deliveries were probably nearer the former than the latter date.
In the Secretary's letter of June, 1840, already referred to, which gives the upper limit for the delivery of these engines, it is stated "your list includes an engine named Wellington. We have no engine so named". At first sight this might indicate there was already a B. & D. engine named Willington mistakenly written Wellington by the London & Birm.; if this had been the case, however, it seems obvious that the B. & D. Secretary would have pointed it out as an error and given the true name. . Although no drawings, and only a few dirnensions are directly traceable, the probable form of these Thompson & Cole engines can be derived from the following considerations: The October, 1841, Returns give the type 0-4-2 and state that they had inside and outside beanngs, and hence had main frames outside the wheels, i.e., double- framed; the diameter of driving wheels 5 ft. 0 in. ; and the weight in working order, 15.5 tons. As the only engines with 5 ft. 0 in. wheels in the MId. Rly. Gauge Returns of 1845 have 14 by 18 in. cylinders and further the engines appear with 14 by 18 in. cylinders in the Mid. Rly. list of 1849, also the average weight of the twelve Birmingham & Derby singles (which had 12 by 18 in. cylinders according to Whishaw) being given in the 1841 Returns as 13.9 tons, it is clear the goods locomotives were much larger engines. Regarding their general features: as Robert Stephenson had considerable influence on the Birrningham & Derby line from about 1840, and as Thompson & Cole also built three 0-4-2 double-framed goods engines with 5 ft. 0 in. wheels and 14 by 18 in. cylinders for the North Midland during 1840, for the purchase of North Midland locomotives Robert Stephenson being at that time responsible, there can be little doubt but that the B. & D. goods engines followed closely the pattern of 0-4-2 engines put upon the N. Midland by R. S. & Co., Thompson & Cole, and other firms. These latter engines will be fully dealt with later on in that section of the history. As, however, there is fortunately extant a R. Stephenson & Co.'s drawing as supplied to those firms which built engines to what were practically sub-contracts of Stephenson's, a precis-outline is given here as Fig. 6 and probably represents these engines very closely. Apart from the actual dimensions of these engines already given it may be added that the heating surface would have been about 550 sq. ft. in the tubes, plus 56 sq. ft. in the firebox, a grate area about 11 sq. ft. and a wheelbase 11 ft. to 11 ft. 6 in. Whether the boilers had domed or "Gothic" firebox shells is not definitely known, although as practically all locomotives constructed under the auspices of Stephenson's in 1840-4 had the latter, these B. & D. examples probably followed the practice.
The Mid. Rly. numbers of these two engines when first placed upon the Amalgamated Stock list are not certain; they may at first have been numbered between 77 and 85, but in any event they were Nos. 298 and 299 in 1849, the former of these being sold—a 14 in. cylinder coupled engine ten years old at that time had considerable secondary usefulness—in April, 1851, whilst the latter, after being renumbered 307 in June, 1852, was sold in November of that year.
It has been supposed that there was a third goods engine, thus making the total "amalgamated stock" contributed to the M.R. 15 locomotives, but although there is room for such an engine amongst the 13 such goods in the 1845 Return, .the extra one is possibly a North MIdland engine. That there was some intention to obtain more goods engines is evident from a B. & D. minute of September, 1841, "to consider providing two additional goods engines for the opening of the New Line" (i.e., the direct line from Whitacre to Birmingham). This proposal is clearly additional to the two goods engines which appear in the October, 1841, Returns, but as a minute of October, 1841, refuses a tender from Braithwaite Milner & Co. to supply locomotives and another minute of November, 1841, declines an offer of a. locomotive with the remark "that the Company are not at present purchasing engines", it would seem the proposal lapsed. No minutes are available for the subsequent period until 1843, so it is not possible to prove the negative, but as no reference has been traced of such engine subsequently upon the Mid. Rly., the fifteenth locomotive upon the B. & D. must remain "not proven". No information is known as to the colour of the locomotives of the B. & D. Railway, and sparseness of records prevents any fuller reference to the characteristic features of the carriages and wagons, although of the carriages, which were of first, second and third class and stated at the time to be "very similar to the London & Birmingham carriages.' ,
Regarding the locomotive depots and workshops, it has already been mentioned that there were sheds at Hampton (now used as a timber and corn mill) and the fact that Mr. Kirtley was stationed there indicates that they formed the principal depot. There was also a locomotive running-shed at Derby from the beginning; it consisted of a straight shed 143 ft. long by 43 ft. wide, having three lines for the engines, a blacksmith's shop, offices, etc., and was at the southerly end of the area occupied by the works and yard of the North Midland and Midland Counties under what came to be called the tri-partite arrangement, being towards what is now known as the London Road Bridge. When the extension line to Birmingham (Lawley Street Station) was built, running-sheds were established at Saltley, from when, or at some time between then and the amalgamation, the Hampton shed would appear to have been closed, because by June, 1844, only two active locomotive depots are recorded, Derby and Birmingham, and the latter must have been represented by Saltley.
There were no tunnels; the principal bridges and viaducts consisting of a very fine viaduct over the River Anker just south of Tamworth having 19 stone arches in all some 700 ft. long, the Wichnor Viaduct between Burton and Tamworth over the confluence. of the rivers Tame and Trent, some 1,.300 ft. long, originally constructed of timber—and which lasted until 1879—and a smaller viaduct, also originally of timber, over a tributary of the River Dove south of Repton. The ruling gradient was 1 in 339.
From the earliest timetable known—of October, 1839—it is seen that there were four passenger trains each way on weekdays and two on Sundays, one each of the weekday trains making intermediate stops at Burton, Tamworth and Hampton only; whilst by July, 1840, the service comprised five passenger trains each way per day—and three each way on Sundays—increased to six and four respectively by November, 1840 — mostly takmg 1 hour 40 minutes to two hours between Derby and Hampton (one train 1 hour 30 minutes) giving average speeds from 19 to 26 m.p.h. including stops, whilst between Hampton & Bummgham—no doubt including a wait. at Hampton in some cases —a minimum and maximum of 20 and 35 mmutes was allowed. Whishaw gives the average speed as 23 m.p.h. at this period. It may be. noted that there was no station at Whitacre at this time. Later when both the use of the route as a London traffic link had ceased, as also the direct line from Whitacre to Birmingham had eliminated even the Birmingham traffic from the Hampton line, the service in 1851 was still five passenger trams, but by 1852 the service between Whitacre and Hampton was reduced to four passenger and one goods train per day (no trains on Sundays) and in that year trains took 1 hour 55 minutes between Derby and Hampton and two hours between Derby and Birmingham direct, except one or two w.hlch did each run in 1 hour 45 minutes. All trains—passenger and goods—then took 30 minutes for the 7¼ miles from Whitacre Junction to Hampton, but only 15 to 20 minutes in the reverse direction.
One of the earliest railway journeys of Queen Victoria included the Birmingham & Derby line as a link in a round trip from London via Hampton to Tamworth and on via Derby to Chesterfield, then from Chesterfield via Derby to Nottingham, and, finally, after travelling from Nottingham to Leicester byroad-for what reason the road was chosen is not now known—from Leicester via Rugby to London. It will be observed that four distinct railways were travelled over and that both of the one-time rival "London and the North" routes, viz., via Tamworth and via Ullesthorp, were patronized. This journey took place at the end of November, 1843, and the B. & D. engine used was Tayleur's Burton (not Barton, as erroneously stated by "Veritas Vincit", but corrected by him later) as is duly chronicled in the Press of the time, which also states that the directors of the Derby line travelled with the train, which was "under the guidance of Keightley, the Resident Engineer of the Line" and that the run from Hampton to Tamworth—15 miles—as made in 20 minutes. The reference to Mr. Keightly (sic) supports the view expressed at the beginning of this account that Mr. Kirtley was also Resident Engineer during the later life of the B. & D. During its separate existence the B. & D.—contrary to at least one of its later partners—appears to have led a fairly blameless life in respect to accidents; there being, it is believed, only one case "recorded against it" ,. this being a "collision with a truck on the line" on 2 December 1840, when one person was killed. The shadow of impending amalgamation appears definitely in a minute recording the appointment of a "Joint Committee" composed of North Midland, Midland Counties and Birmingham & Derby members from September, 1843, amongst the early actions of which was to recommend' to the Midland Counties and North Midland "to provide two powerful Locomotive Engines, viz., one by each Company", to which both the before-mentioned companies retorted they considered "two engines each instead of one be ordered." The last minute dealing with locomotive matters ends on a typical key of improvement of constructional details whereby, in view of a driver having been injured by falling from an engine in motion, Mr. Kirtley was instructed "to narrow the space between the Tenders and the Engines" —an improvement to which full effect was not given by locomotive designers for very many years.

H. Fayle The Dublin & South Eastern Railway and its locomotives. 188-90. 3 illustrations
Continued from page 127. With this somewhat brief resume of the history of the company, the locomotive stock will now claim attention. The company took over with the Dublin & Kingstown Railway in 1856 that company's locomotive works at Grand Canal Street, Dublin, just outside Westland Row station, and these premises, with a few minor extensions, served in this capacity throughout its entire existence. The works, which had originally been a distillery, were very inadequate, but, nevertheless, a considerable number of locomotives were built there. starting with the Princess of the Dublin & Kingstown Railway in 1841,. the first engine built in Ireland. Plans had been made about 1905 for transferring the works to Rathnew, but never came to fruition owing to the financial state of the company.
In stating that engines were built at Grand Canal Street, some qualification is necessary; the cylinders were sometimes cast on the premises, but the boilers and mountings came complete from some English firm, and this sometimes applied to the cylinders too. So cramped was the accommodation that engines under repair remained partly out in the open, and construction was an extremely slow business. Still, when all these drawbacks were allowed for, the quality of the work turned out was very creditable, more particularly of latter years. Some good coaching stock was also built on the premises that was quite up to the standards of that time. The old stock running on the local trains was, however, none too creditable, being all six-wheeled or four-wheeled up to about 1905, the third class being innocent of upholstery. Itis worth noting that second class accommodation predominated in the local trains, and the company had more coaches of this class than any other in the early years of the present century, Eventually, however, in 1921, second class accommodation was discontinued throughout the system.
For the opening of the line five engines were obtained from Wm. Fairbairn & Son, and two others were temporarily hired from Wm. Dargan, the contractor. Regarding the latter, nothing is known of their type, but one of them, named William Dargan, was afterwards used on the construction of the line to Wexford. Nos. 1 and 2 were single well tanks, which are said to have had 13 in. by 20 in. cylinders, and 5 ft. 6 in. driving wheels; very little is known about them, but No. 1 was working on the Wexford & Rosslare Railway when the D.W. & W. Railway were operating that line between 1882 and 1889; it may have lasted to 1892, when a new engine bearing this number was built. No. 2 was renumbered 45 in 1885 and adapted for use as a stationary engine to work the machinery at Grand Canal Street works, being finally scrapped in 1901.
No. 3 was a 2-4-0 tender engine with cylinders 15 in. by 22 in. and 5 ft. 0 in. coupled wheels; it appears to have been very similar to some engines supplied by Fairbairn at the same time to the Waterford & Limerick Railway, and may have been one of the same batch. This engine received a new boiler in 1879, and was rebuilt as a side tank locomotive in 1884; in this state lit somewhat resembled the later side tanks built at Grand Canal Street, but the cab was open at the back; as in the case of other Grand Canal Street rebuilds, the plate carried the date of the boiler (1879) but not that of the actual rebuild; it was scrapped in 1898.
The two remaining engines, 4 and 5, were 2-2-2 well tanks of a larger type than Nos. 1 and 2; the cylinders were 15 in. by 20 in., wheels 3 ft. 6 in., 5 ft. 6 in. and 3 ft. 6 in. respectively, boiler 9 ft. lit in. by 4 ft. 0 in. (inside), firebox 4 ft. 6t in. by 4 ft. 0 in. (outside), tubes 2 in. by 10 ft. 4 in. long, heating surface 635.35+73.35= 709 sq. ft.; weights: 7.5 tons + 13.0 tons+7.5 tons = 28.0 tons in working order. All these five engines were probably supplied in 1853. No. 4 blew up on September 16, 1872, when standing at Bray station, the engine being a total wreck. No. 5 was rebuilt in 1870, and made more powerful by decreasing the size of the driving wheels to 5 ft. 3 in. ; in 1882 it was further rebuilt with all-over cab and bell-mouthed dome on the first boiler ring; this type of dome was fitted to many Grand Canal Street rebuilds of this period; the engine became No. 5A in 1897 and was scrapped in 1900. It would appear that all these early engines bore names, only one of which is known, the Avoca, which worked a special train to Bray WIth the directors on 25  March 1854.
In 1854 the Vulcan Foundry supplied two single saddle tanks (Nos. 392/3) which became Nos. 6 and 7; the cylinders were 13 in. by 20 in.; wheels, 3ft. 6¼ in. 5 ft. 3¼ in. and 3 ft. 6¼ in. respectively; wheelbase, 12 ft. 9 in. equally divided; boiler, 10 ft. 0 in. by 3 ft. 01/8 in. (small end); height of centre line, 5 ft. 105/8 in.; firebox, 4 ft. 0 in. by 3 ft. 11 in.; 158 tubes of 17/8 in.; heating surface, 712.6+ 64.0=776.6 sq. ft.; grate area, 12.25 sq. ft. ; tanks, 450 gallons. The eng:ines were domeless and had two 4 in. safety valves; they were fitted with Dodd's wedge valve motion. As the water in the shallow saddle tanks was liable to get over-heated, these were replaced by well tanks under the footplate, and, probably to preserve the weight distribution, shallow trough tanks were also fitted along the frames. These trough tanks were almost a D.W. & W. Railway speciality, and cabs and the usual bell-mouthed domes were also added. No. 6 was rebuilt in 1877, and became 6A in 1894; it continued to work till 1903, when it was hired to the contractor of the new railway then building between Waterford and Rosslare, and was probably broken up soon after. No. 7 became 7A in 1895, and was scrapped in 1902; in both cases the cylinder diameter had been increased to 14 in. when the engines were rebuilt; despite their small size, this type had done good work on the light trains then in vogue on the level portion of the line between Dublin and Kingstown, and lasted nearly fifty years.

L. & N.E.R. 190
It was reported that one of the Ivatt 4-4-0 engines, No. 4075, had been allocated to Directors' use, and had been renumbered 2000 and repainted in the standard L.N.E. green Iivery with polished brasswork. In consequence the N.E. Area 0-6-0 formerly No. 2000 had been renumbered 2050. Engines built at Darlington so far this year in order of works numbers (1923 to 1944) are: 3691, 8500, 3692, 8306/7/8, 3693/6, 8309, 8501, 3697, 8310, 3694/5. 8502 to 8508 and 3698 . Nos. 3691 to 3695 were Class V2, 3696 to 3698 were A2/1, 8306 to 8310 were B1 (Antelopes) and 8500 to 8508 were L.M.S. 8F 2-8-0s on loan to the L.N.E.R.

Lightweight passenger stock . 190-1.
Save for the advent of the war, lightweight passenger stock would by now be a familiar feature upon the railways of this country and the Colonies. For some years considerable developments took place, and the weight had been greatly reduced by scientific design coupled wIth the use of metals which the continuous progress in that field had made available. How considerable these developments had been may be realised by comparing the 1,600 lb. weight per passenger seat of the orthodox third-class coach with that of some stock placed in service by the L.M.S.R. shortly before the conflict commenced, where the equivalent weight was reduced to 500 lb. Obviously this reduction was not achieved over- night; it represented, in fact, some seven years' progress.
The advantages of weight reduction appear to have been appreciated far earlier—if not better—in the road transport sphere, where, many years ago, it was realised that the chief constituents of what is understood by performance, viz., acceleration, maximum speed and fuel consumption, were dependent upon the ratio of power to weight. Light weight also greatly lessened wear and tear of both vehicle and road. All these findings apply with equal emphasis to the weight reduction of rolling stock with certain added advantages; e.g., existing types of locomotives are capable of working longer trains to existing schedules, or, alternatively, trains of orthodox seating capacity to schedules calling for higher rates of acceleration and greater maximum speeds than those in force with existing stock. It is of interest to note that experience in America has shown that for high-speed operation a satisfactory weight/power ratio is 450 lb. per horsepower (including the weight of the locomotive).
The war has been responsible for prodigious developments in the technique of manufacturing and utilising lightweight alloys and stainless and high-tensile steels, so that to-day it is no exaggeration to state that in such products this country may claim to lead the world. Such alloys are naturally higher priced, but the additional capital cost is justifiable from the economic aspect. alone, for weight reduction pays a continuous dividend m the form of lower fuel and maintenance costs. A point frequently overlooked with the aluminium alloys is that a considerable saving is effected in the working, and a further saving results in the paint-shop, for, generally speaking, less preparatory work is necessary in obtaining a suitable surface, with the added advantage that rusting troubles are unknown. Still further advantages accrue from the point of view of finishing by the use of stainless steel, which may be left in its natural condition; the results thus obtainable are very satisfactory, both from the point of view of attractiveness and ease of deaning.
Problems arise in connection with the braking of such trains, for although the train, being lighter, requires less retardation in itself, the fact remains that normally the locomotive does not do its fair share of the braking, and, as a corollary, the train has to do more than its fair proportion viewed on a weight basis. The solution is a simple one and consists of much higher braking ratio, m some cases as much as 250 per: cent. may be called for, and fitting of decelakrons becomes necessary.
It is impossible to touch upon more than a tithe of the considerations involved in design in an article of this length, nor, for that matter, is it necessary; our pages in recent years have contained much information upon the subject, together with particulars of experience obtained elsewhere. What is necessary at thrs Juncture, is the formation of a clear-cut policy on the construction of light-weight passenger stock and, equally Important,. a definition of the spheres where Its operation will prove of the utmost benefit to railways and public alike. The sphere of operation will affect the root of the whole matter, for any weight-saving is largely dependent upon design and to derive the maximum benefits such coaches must be operated only in conjunction with other lightweight stock. Should it be decided to utilise hght stock with heavy, the design of the former must allow for the increased buffing and draw stresses and the maximum savings cannot result.

Stirling Everard. Cowlairs commentary . 191-2. illustration (drawing)
Continued from page 157. The Atlantics were put into service with appropriate publicity, and they were all given names suitable to Scottish engines. Their numbers were 868-881. In comparison with the "317" class they were enormous, and possibly for this reason there was an initial prejudice against them .. After a few months of service all were temporanly withdrawn and one was sent to the North Eastern for dyriamometer trials, but the trials proved so satisfactory that the engines were all returned unaltered.
The Cowlairs authorities still hankered after a 4-6-0 design, and a comparative trial was arranged between an Atlantic and a locomotive of the London & North Western Experiment class, taking place on the English company's line: Nevertheless the ban on six-coupled express engmes was not raised, and in 1911 six further Atlantics were ordered from Robert Stephenson & Co. These engines, Nos. 901-906, varied from the original machines slightly in detail..
Reid had no intention of abandoning, except ill this one case, accepted North British practice. Only in the case of the Atlantics did he stray far from the beaten track. In 1906, for example, he introduced a typically Cowlairs 6ft. 4-4-0 with 19in. x 26in. cylinders, officially named the 19in. Intermediate Goods" class. Twelve were built, Nos. 882~893, which were, despite their classification, used almost entirely on passenger duties. They were followed in 1909 and 1910 by a further twelve. These were numbered 331-333, 382-385, 864-867 and 894. In common with all Reid's main line passenger engines, this class had piston valves.
In 1909 and 1911 sixteen 6 ft. 6in. 4-4-0 express engines on the same general lines were built, and since they would come more under the eye of the public it was decided to name them after characters in Sir Walter Scott's novels, one, No. 898, being named after the author himself. The engines of this, the first "Scott" class, were numbered 243-245, 338-340, 359-362 and 895-900.
When the Intermediates were introduced an 18½in. 0-6-0 goods class was also put in hand to take over from the 18in. Holmes engines the heaviest main line traffic. The design followed conventional North British practice. Seventy-six in all were built, Nos. 848-857 coming from the North British Locomotive Company in 1906 and 197-208 and 364-381 from the same firm in 1909 and 1910. The remainder of the class were built at Cowlairs between 1906 and 1913, and were numbered 38, 56-59, 86, 115, 120, 124, 126, 127, 129, 185-196, 220, 226, 228, 253, 254, 329, 330, 335-337, 347 and 348. The first to appear were the Cowlairs engines Nos. 329 and 330 which were the first goods engines owned by the North British to be fitted with piston valves. There was nearly a year's delay in their completion from the time they were laid down, the frames lying unused in the boiler shop for most of this time.
All the Reid classes so far described had relatively large boilers, high pitched, and, therefore safety valves mounted above the firebox. Reid, however, had not so far departed from the old practice of placing them on the dome from any reason of policy. His tank engines built in 1909 had the safety valves on the dome.
The two tank classes brought out in that year were based on the types which had originally been introduced by Drummond. For passenger service he ordered from the North British Locomotive Company twelve large 0-4-4 with the 5ft. 9in. coupled wheels which Cowlairs had standardised for that wheel arrangement, but with 18in x 26in. cylinders.
It had been decided in 1909 to abandon once again rope haulage on the Cowlairs bank, and Reid, therefore, decided to introduce a powerful class of six coupled tank for banking service. Such engines, however, would be equally useful for short distance goods traffic. He took the " Terrier" as the basis of an 18in. design of 0-6-2 wheel arrangement with 4ft. 6in. coupled wheels, the trailing axle being added to allow of a larger coal bunker. This class with modifica- tions from time to time was built from 1909 to 1924, thirty examples being put into service after the North British had been merged into the L.N.E.R. The boilers of this class were interchangeable with those of the 0-4-4 tanks.
The 0-6-2 engines were for the most part built on contract, Nos. 7, 20, 22, 29, 47, 49, 54, 61, 65, 69, 70, 96, 97, 106-108, 142, 154, 165, 166, 209, 210, 219, 223, 224, 229, 230, 240, 246, 251, 252, 257, 259, 264, 276, 282, 386-393, 369-399, 453 and 858-863 coming from the North British Locomotive Company between 1909 and 1920. Nos. 519-528 were built by R. Stephenson & Co. in 1923, and the N.B. Loco. Co. built Nos. 907-926 in 1912. After the grouping twenty were built at Cowlairs, Nos. 9019, 9023, 9031, 9052, 9055, 9060, 9067, 9071, 9074-9079, 9099, 9125, 9147, 9174, 9225, 9227. The greater number of these carried North British numbers when put into service, with or without the suffix " B," being delivered before the introduction of the scheme by which the North British numbers were increased by nine thousand.
The 0-4-4 tanks did not prove to be the last word for suburban traction, so in 1911 Reid introduced a 4-4-2 tank design for these duties. These loco- motives were similar in power to the front coupled tanks, having 5ft. 9in. coupled wheels, 18in. x 26in. cylinders and standard boilers with safety valves over the firebox, as in the case of the later 0-6-2 engines. They were the lineal descendants of Drummond's 4-4-0 express tanks for the Helensburgh route. Thirty in all were built between 1911 and 1913 by the Yorkshire Engine Company, their numbers being 1-6, 12, 15, 16, 25, 26, 39, 41, 43, 48, 51, 53, 64, 102, 122, 131, 133-135, 141, 155, 164, 265, 267 and 309.
About this time a further trial of a 4-6-0 passenger engine took place, the North British borrowing a Castle class engine from the Highland, and running it between Edinburgh and Perth. For comparison an "Intermediate" 4-4-0 was used on similar duties. This experiment resulted in no change of North British policy, and in fact the 4-6-0 did not appear on N.B.R. routes, even in L.N.E.R. times, until long after the type had become commonplace on every other main line in Britain. (To be continued)

H.F. Hilton. Gurney's Locomotive on the Hirwain Railway. 192-4. 2 diagrams
From time to time methods of locomotion designed for roads have been adopted on railways, and one of the earliest instances occurred on the Hirwain Railway in South Wales in 1830.
Goldsworthy Gurney had introduced steam carriages on the streets in London and on the road between Gloucester and Cheltenham about the same time as Hancock, an engineer, of Stratford-le-Bow, Essex, was running several steam vehicles of different types in and about the Metropolis. In spite of the rough roads and other difficulties, he had established the adaptability of this form of locomotion, and it would appear that Gurney, in an attempt to gain equal success, had intruded on the 'ingenuity of Hancock and put forward fictitious claims for his ideas. He forwarded his own interests by every possible means and obtained the patronage of influential persons.
Wilham Crawshay, a prominent ironmaster, of Cyfarthfa Castle, near Aberdare, laid down a railway on Hirwain Common far the conveyance of ironstone and coal to his furnace, a distance of 2! miles, and early in 1830 induced Gurney to sell him one of his London-built road engines. Hebert, an engineer, in one of his books states the engine was hauled by horses to South Wales,

P.C.D. Commentary on the "White Horse of Kent". 194-6