Railway World
Volume 45
(1984
)
Key file

Number 525 (January)

E.F. Clark. Kitsons of Leeds. 6-9. 12 illustrations.
Author was related to the family: mentions Kitson Still locomotive and  Kitson Meyer type.

C.R.L. Coles. Pictorialism in railway photography. 10-

V.R. Webster. Unusual lineage — the Cornwall Minerals engines and their Great Western descendants. 17-20.
Cornwall Minerals Railway 0-6-0Ts were designed by Francis Trevithick and built by Sharp, Stewart in 1873/4. They were designed for back-to-back working and the depot at St. Blazey was designed to accept pairs of them. When the Great Western took over the railway some of these specialised locomotives were sold off to some unlikely lies including the Lynn & Fakenham Railway and Colne Valley & Halstead Railway. The Great Weestern found the design increasinngly useful and Churchward had to build a modernised version the 1361 class of outside-cylinder saddle tanks and Collett followed with a pannier taank version: the 1366 class intended to displace the remanant CMR locomotives. Illustrations include works photograph of No. 1 Treffrey; No. 17 at work on Cornwall Minerals Railway and two as modified as tender engines on the Eastern & Midlands Railway and two of the locomotives retained and rebuilt as saddle tanks by the GWR: No. 1400 and No. 1395 at Swindon in 1931.

J.N.C. Law and R.A. Rutter. Midland lines power & performance. 22-

Number 529 May

Editor:  Michael Harris

C.P. Atkins. No.71000 Duke of Gloucester 30 years on: a new appraisal of its design and performance, 230-5.
1984 marked the 30th anniversary of the appearance of the controversial British Railways Standard 8 4-6-2 No 71000 Duke of Gloucester: the largest of the projected BR Standard locomotive range, the Class 8 passenger engine also carried the lowest priority. One reason was that at the beginning of 1948 no fewer than 59 4-6-2s in this elite category were under construction at Crewe, Doncaster, Darlington, and Eastieigh Works.
These 59 Pacifies included the final LMS 'Duchess', No 6257, upon which not entirely unexpectedly in his June 1948 initial report!" on the projected BR Standard locomotives E.S. Cox envisaged basing the new heavy passenger engine. It was to be a Duchess with bar frames and Ministry of Supply/War Department Austerity pattern eight-wheel tender. Incidentally, 5,000gal/12-ton rigid frame eight-wheel tenders had been proposed originally for Nos 6256/57 in 1946. The good maintenance record of the LMS 4-6-2 boiler had commended it, and it was felt that four cylinders were preferable to three on account of 'lower individual loads on the inside big ends, and the very simple and robust mechanism by which the four valves can be driven by two sets of valve gear'. This view was not likely to be accepted east of the Pennines nor, for that matter, south of the Thames. In May 1950, in order to settle once and for all the argument of three versus four cylinders, Roland Bond suggested that Camden and King's Cross sheds should exchange temporarily five Duchess and five Peppercorn A1 4-6-2s. Their performance, especially from the point of view of servicing, should be monitored closely.!" Regrettably, this was not followed up, possibly because there was no immediate need for the proposed BR 8 4-6-2.
The 8 4-6-2 was briefly referred to in October 1951 at the monthly meeting of the Regional locomotive chief draughtsmen when Derby was instructed to look into the question of three versus four cylinders. Guide lines were to be, tractive effort around 40,000lb, 6ft 6in coupled wheels, and 50 ft2 of grate with mechanical stoker. At the same time, it was conceded that the engine might not materialise.
Almost certainly this would have been the case but for the tragic double collision at Harrow precisely a year later, when the newly reconstructed former turbine-driven 4-6-2 No 46202 Princess Anne was damaged beyond economic repair. Its replacement provided justification to proceed with the prototype BR 8, at a particularly fortuitous time when Derby Drawing Office had recently completed design work on the BR two-cylinder 4-6-2s, but before it was to become plunged into design work on diesel locomotives. Although Derby had been the headquarters of LMS locomotive design, which had indeed largely moulded the BR Standard steam locomotive range, by the early 1950s some 'foreign' influences had become established there. The Mechanical Engineer of the London Midland Region was J.F. Harrison, a strong disciple of Gresley. His Chief Technical Assistant was C.S. Cocks, who had been taken from Doncaster by O.V. S. Bulleid to be his Chief Draughtsman at Eastieigh, and so had been much involved with Bulleid's controversial 4-6-2s.
The use of three rather than four cylinders was therefore almost a foregone conclusion. The first scheme was for a 7 4-6-2 modified with three 18½in by 24in cylinders, each of which would have driven on to the centre coupled axle, Gresley and Bulleid fashion. To achieve this, the taper of the barrel of the otherwise standard boiler would have been confined to the underside.
This proposal, complete with double stovepipe chimney, and German Witte-type smoke deflectors, was first illustrated on page 108 of British Railways Standard Steam Locomotives by E. S. Cox (Ian Allan Ltd, 1966). However, it was found to be unacceptable and Cox examined the matter seriously in March 1953 when he made the following recommendations to R. A. Riddles:
1. The existing BR 7 4-6-2 boiler with 42ft2 grate area should be used as its free gas area was as large as that of the Regional '8' 4-6-2s, which therefore put its maximum steaming capacity above the manual firing limit. Reference was made to the sterling performances in wartime on very heavy trains by the LNER 'A4' 4-6-2s which had only 41¼ ft2 of grate and which were included in the Class '8' power category.
2. Three-cylinder propulsion was assumed, in conjunction with a K J. Cook-style 'Doncaster' big end.
3. Coupled wheel diameter to be 6ft 2in, on account of loading gauge considerations.
4. The employment of British Caprotti valve gear was advocated, but it was suggested that consideration should also be given to other alternatives, eg the Pouitney or Marten valve gears.
A week later, in a further memorandum, Cox again advocated use of the Standard '7' boiler, one of which could be appropriated from a batch of three spares currently building at Crewe. Should an increase in grate area be desired, he recommended that this should not exceed 45ft2, and initial scheming at Derby was indeed directed at lengthening the standard firebox by 4in. This was quickly dropped in favour of a 1ft extension giving a grate area of 48.6ft2, identical with that of the SR 'Merchant Navies'. Rugby tests with the '7' 4-6-2 had shown that at very high and very low outputs combustion was inhibited by the single damper, and so a back damper was also to be provided on the '8'.
To support the large firebox, a new pattern of trailing truck was proposed having helical in place of laminated springs. The two-cylinder 4-6-2s had proved somewhat hard riders and it was felt that improved riding qualities might enhance the reception of the new engine by crews. This truck was also to have featured on the 15 '6' 4-6-2s, Nos 72010-24, on the 1954 Building Programme, but then cancelled. By now, there was a definite decision to use British Caprotti valve gear in some form. Cox sought the expert opinion of George Fisher, a mechanical inspector with considerable experience of poppet valves, who favoured the latest form with external drive shafts, as applied to the last two LMS-design '5' 4-6-0s, Nos 44686/87, turned out in 1951. Thereafter, cylinders and valve gear were designed with commendable speed at Derby in collaboration with Associated Locomotive Equipment Ltd of Worcester, during the summer of 1953. The two 4-6-0s provided a very substantial basis and several components were common to both designs. In addition, No 44687 ran a series of indicator trials between Shrewsbury and Crewe during November 1953 in order to provide data for the valve events of the new 4-6-2.
Cylinder drive was divided after the fashion of the LMS three-cylinder 4-6-0s and Peppercorn LNER 4-6-2s, with the inside cylinder located forward and working on to the leading coupled axle. The need for any internal valve gear was obviated by taking a bevel drive off the front of the left-hand outside cylinder. Much thought was given to the inside big end, a potential source of trouble in a high-powered/high-speed locomotive. A roller bearing assembly, similar to that experimentally applied to rebuilt 'Royal Scot' 4-6-0 No 46140 in 1952 was seriously considered, but rejected on the grounds of requiring major works attention in the event of any defect developing. Instead, a massive yet finely adjustable forked big end of entirely new design was developed under Harrison's personal supervision and proved entirely successful.
When originally designed in the early autumn of 1953, at Cox's behest the smokebox was to incorporate a single blast nozzle and chimney. About six months later, by which time the engine itself was rapidly taking shape at Crewe, there was a change of heart, possibly due to J. F. Harrison, and a double blastpipe and chimney was designed and incorporated instead. The nozzles were made a seemingly arbitary 4in diameter, as was later to be applied to some BR 9F 2-10-0s and '4' 4-6-0s, Precisely what prompted this modification is not clear, but it has been alleged that the ALE representatives advocated the provision of double Kylchap exhaust in association with the Caprotti valve gear.
The double chimney casting undoubtedly enhanced the appearance of the engine which, numbered 71000, emerged from Crewe Works on 18 May 1954. It had never received formal authority in the normai manner, and the Harrow casualty, No 46202, whose twisted frames still languished at Crewe, was condemned on the same day. The development costs of the BR '8' must have been high. Its official cost was £44,655, nearly twice as much as that of each of the last 10 '7' 4-6-2s, built concurrently at Crewe under the same lot number.
No 71000 was given a very similar tender to Nos 70045-54, fitted with a mechanical coal-pusher identical to that provided on the 'Duchess' tenders. This tender, BRIE/1272, remained with the engine until August 1957 when No 71000 entered Crewe Works for its first and only heavy general overhaul. The tender was dismantled, the frames becoming the chassis for a new BRIC tender (No 1360) for new 2-10-0 No 92162, while the tank was modified to reduce its water capacity from 4,725 to 4,325gal, and the coal bunker was slightly lengthened, although officially the coal capacity remained 10 tons. Given new frames the ensemble became BRlJ/1528.
On completion, No 71000 was immediately towed dead to Willesden for exhibition as a part of the 16th International Railway Congress held in London that month. The IRC Honorary President was HRH the Duke of Gloucester who officially named No 71000 after himself.
The Duke took up heavy passenger duties on the West Coast main line in July 1954 and was stationed at Crewe North, included in a link which comprised several 'Duchesses'. Working the Midday Scot was a speciality for several years, broken early on by a six-month sojourn on the Western Region from late October 1954 until May 1955 for testing purposes. This was because the Derby and Rugby testing facilities were fully committed to extensive road and plant tests of a 'Duchess', which quite fortuitously happened to be No 46225 Duchess of Gloucester.
On the WR, No 71000 was put through its paces on the Swindon stationary test plant, in addition to performing controlled road tests between Paddington and Bristol. The head of the Experimental Section was the redoubtable S.O. Ell who took the opportunity to conduct a meticulous mathematical analysis of the heat balance of the boiler. This was quite incidental to the unexpected discovery that its performance was notably inferior to that of the 7 4-6-2, an anomaly which was not explained.
Put briefly, at high outputs efficiency fell off markedly. Using similar South Kirkby coal at a coal rate (4,320Ib) which corresponded with the front end limit of the Class '7', despite the larger grate evaporation was actually less at 28,000Ib/hr. Increasing the coal rate to 6,850Ib, the grate limit was reached producing a ceiling evaporation of 32,750Ib, not greatly in excess of the corresponding maximum of 31,6001b by the  7. This was distinctly disappointing; on paper the 8 boiler was the equal of those of the Duchess and Merchant Navy, each of which could exceed 40,000lb per hour. In fact, the BR 8 boiler was theoretically the best proportioned of the three, having the generous free gas area of the former, and moderate tube length of the latter, in addition achieving ratios in the tubes closer to the optimum value of 1/400, this being the relationship between the free cross-sectional area of boiler tubes and their total swept area — the A/S ratio.
The anomaly was immediately the subject of correspondence passing between Bond, Harrison, Ell and Cocks.!" It was further compounded by the following seemingly self- contradictory observations inferred by Harrison in a memorandum to Cocks in relation to the earlier 7 4-6-2 performance data.!"
I. A lower smokebox vacuum in the 8 than in the 7 design lifted the fire.
2. For a given gas flow, evaporation in the 8 was higher than in the 7.
3. Despite identical total free gas areas and tube and flue configurations,
whereas tube and flue exit temperatures were almost identical in the 7, quite inexplicably in the 8 boiler flue exit temperatures were some 70°F lower than from the tubes.
Ell suggested that the blast area might be too restricted (with 4in nozzles blast area was 23% less than in the Duchess) giving too fierce a blast, but pointed out that to enlarge the nozzles could give poor performance at low outputs. Ironically, it was even suggested that a single orifice might have given better results!
Bond's own observation was that at high coal rates the fire tended to disintegrate, and he advocated a short series of tests using Welsh coal which was less prone to fragmentation, to ascertain whether the grate or the ashpan was at fault. Harrison did not concur and this suggestion was not taken up. Nevertheless, despite No 71000's solitary status and increasing dieselisation, as late as January 1958 the Locomotive Testing Joint Sub-Committee chaired by E.S. Cox approved a further series of tests on Swindon test plant.!" Six months later these were still awaited but the intention was quietly forgotten. By now increasingly preoccupied with diesel hydraulic locomotives, S.O. Ell considered the engine as designed to have been over-draughted, promoting high gas velocities, which could increase fuel loss by lifting the coal off the grate. Under test conditions, up to the con- tinuous manual firing limit of 3,000Ib/hr the Duke showed no inferiority to its peers, but in normal everyday service it quickly attained notoriety as a coal eater.
Writing in Railway World, D. H. Landau suggested that the low boiler efficiency at high outputs due to the ejection of unburnt fuel was caused by the extremely rapid exhaust opening characteristics of poppet valves compared to piston valves. He ingeniously postulated a high frequency wide fluctuation in smokebox vacua with sharp peaks such as would not be reflected by the mean smoke box vacuum as measured by a water manometer; which doubtless now could be monitored with modern electronic equipment. Against this theory it should be stated that applications of Caprotti valve gear to 5 4-6-0s of LMS and BR design (the latter having almost identical 'cylinders and valve gear to No 71000) showed small economies in fuel consumption of the order of 5%. Going back 40 years, the North Eastern Railway Stumpf Uniflow 4-6-0 No 825, which was characterised by a positively explosive exhaust, also showed a slight fuel economy when compared to its conventional peers.
Unusually for a modern British steam locomotive — the ex-GWR 'King' and 'Hall' 4-6-0s excepted — the fact the grate limit was reached before the front end limit suggested that all was not well at the back end of the boiler of the Duke, particularly in the vicinity of the firebed. In the late 1970s, when the 71000 Duke of Gloucester Preservation Society was restoring the engine from scrap condition, in fabricating a new ash pan to the original drawings it became apparent that Crewe Works had not strictly complied with these, with the result that the maximum damper opening would have been some 10-15% below what the designers had intended. Expressed as a percentage of grate area, damper openings — like air space through firebars — nevertheless varied widely in different British 4-6-2 designs with no discernible ill-effects.
The exhaustive data tabulated in graphical form in the official British Transport Commission Test Report published in 1957 nevertheless suggested that gas flow was restricted at high outputs. Thus, for a given smokebox vacuum above 4in of water, which happened to correspond with the manual steaming limit of the 8 boiler, the 7 boiler experienced a greater gas flow, whereas at low vacua the 8 boiler was in the ascendant. The writers own compromise theory is that the sharp exhaust, due solely to the pro- portions of the blastpipe, in conjunction with insufficient damper openings promoted unduly high gas velocities through the ordinary tubes, thereby ejecting appreciable quantities of unburnt fuel as fines. This being the case, the substitution of an increased number of fire tubes having reduced diameter, in association with a double Kylchap exhaust or Giesl oblong ejector, should have produced an appreciable improvement in boiler efficiency. The published report made no comparisons, odious or otnerwise, between the performance of the 7 and 8 boilers, nor any direct reference to the distinctly disappointing performance of the latter at high coal rates. On the credit side, it recorded in detail the excellent cylinder performance of No 71000 which permitted very short cut-off working and hence considerable economy in the consumption of steam, regardless of the cost in fuel. This has been popularly associated with the poppet valve gear, although the Deutsche Bundesbahn 10 three-cylinder 4-6-2 (built 1957) with Walschaerts valve gear and piston valves actually achieved a slightly lower minimum indicated steam consumption, 12.07lb/ihp hr as compared to 12.2lb/ihp hr by No 71000. One Derby analyst attributed the cylinder characteristics of the 8 not to the poppet valves themselves but to the combination of low back pressure and high superheat (700°F plus). It is interesting to note that a pair of two- cylinder 4-6-2s with Caprotti valve gear built in 1933 for the Alsace-Lorraine Railways on test displayed similar characteristics of low boiler efficiency and high cylinder efficiency .
The Stanier Duchess did not display a particularly high cylinder efficiency, as a consequence of moderate superheat (about 600°F) and a decidedly high cylinder clearance volume — for a piston valve engine — of 12.5%, compared to 10.6% (mean) for the Duke. However, the Duchess was endowed with a boiler of superlative steaming capacity which largely outweighed the other deficiencies. The official report on No 46225 remained unpublished, its completion being delayed by difficulties in reconciling results obtained from road tests with those obtained from Rugby test plant. If taken at face value it makes an interesting comparison with that for No 71000. The internal resistance of the latter, despite the extensive endowment of roller bearings and the provision of poppet valves, was allegedly appreciably greater than that of the Duchess.
This was regrettable in that whereas at a given constant steaming rate the indicated horsepower of the Duchess would peak at around 60mph, that of the Duke would continue to rise slightly at 80mph. The greater internal resistance of the BR design counter-balanced this advantage, with the result that at the manual steaming limit of 24,000lb/hr the drawbar horsepower/speed curves of both designs were almost coincident. Had No 71000 possessed the resistance characteristics of the Stanier engine it could have developed a continuous drawbar pull of 3+ tons at 70mph, as against 2+ tons by either design hand-fired.
The performance of No 71000 as a unit of motive power was also distinctly poor. No reference has previously been made to its poor availability in traffic, and documents'!" disclosing this have only recently become available for public scrutiny. Comparing No 71000 with six Duchesses similarly continuously stationed at Crewe North shed during the period 1956-58, the records are revealing.
Before the advent of diesel traction the LMR-based Duchesses averaged about 70,000 miles run annually, but No 71000's own best was a moderate 53,000 miles in 1956. It is interesting to note that during 1939 LMS 4-6-2 No 6230 Duchess of Buccleuch (new in June 1938) covered no less than 95,917 miles, its availability having been 78%. The poor availability of No 71000 is difficult to explain. For instance, unlike a radial valve gear with piston valves, its poppet valve gear should have been largely self-contained and required relatively little day to day attention. Having said this, the engine's availability was better than that of the WR Kings, by then 30 years old, and of the SR Merchant Navies, of which in their original condition the least said the better. The Peppercorn A1 4-6-2 were quite outstanding in this respect, but in a class were of recent construction and existed in appreciable numbers.
Having covered nearly 300,000 miles, No 71000 was put into storage in early October 1962, and condemned about six weeks later. Originally scheduled for official preservation in its entirety, it was later decided only to retain one of the engine's outside cylinders, to be sectioned, and exhibited with a portion of the valve gear in the Science Museum. After languishing al Crewe for three years, the remains of the locomotive were disposed of to a scrapyard in South Wales, and remained there for several years. Then, in 1973, almosl incredibly a rescue operation was mounted, With tremendous resource the hulk has been gradually restored at Loughborough with a view to eventual main line running. This operation has involved the fabrication of replacement outside cylinders.
To summarise, from the evidence presented above No 71000 was, to use E.S, Cox's own words, a 'near miss'. Interestingly, in his authoritative book on the BR Standard locomotives he makes no reference to his original recommendation that the 7 4-6-2 boiler be used. So one is left wondering what might have resulted, or if the proven LMS 'Duchess' or Southern 'Merchant Navy' boilers had been utilised unaltered. Nevertheless, even if these alternatives had been adopted, the outcome still would have been academic. The engine would inevitably have suffered a premature demise on account of the advance of diesel traction, and not least its solitary status, which undoubtedly was also a major contributory factor to its apparent lack of success in everyday service.

Alex Rankin. The 'Lothian Coast Exppress'. 236-7.
In 1914 the North British Railway started the Lothian Coast Express from North Berwick, Dunbar and Gullane to Edinburgh and the ran non-stop to Glasgow in one hour. It departed Dunbar at 07.55 and from the other two ponts at 08.00. It returned from Glasgow at 15.50 on weekdays and at 12.30 on Saturdays. It carried a headboard with the train name. It ceased during WW1, but was started again in 1923, but without a Dunbat portion. In 1929 a Pullman car was added, but the Gullane branch closed in 1932 and the service ceased at the end of the summer in 1933. Also included in C.J. Allen's Titled trains of Great Britain (3rd edition)

New books. 238

BR Locomotives: 2 Sulzer Types 2 and 3. A.T.H. Tayler, Ian Allan Ltd, 96pp, illus, hardback.
It is always of value to have locomotive histories written by engineers with first-hand experience of the subject. In Tayler's case, he was involved as a member of the S&D is offset by the quality of material, staff of the prime mover manufacturer, and so and the careful and interesting captions. A gives valuable information on the cornmemorable tribute to the demise of a plucky missioning and service experience with the railway and its men and machines.

Railway lveries: London & North Eastern Railway. Brian Haresnape, Ian Allan Ltd, 56pp, illus with colour, soft covers.
The last of this series dealing with the Big Four—more are to come featuring BR liveries and LTE — it is perhaps the most interesting, in view of the LNER's inconsistency of styles: the handsome Gill Sans graphics co-existed with traditional pre-Grouping schemes and liveries. Nothing has approached the elegance of finish, lettering and colour choice of, for instance, the A4s and the streamlined train sets. It is perhaps a pity that there wasn't room to give even greater coverage to the LNER's graphics and its often superb posters, some now available in postcard size from the National Railway Museum.

Great Western 4-6-0s. Brian Stephenson, Ian Allan Ltd, 128pp, illus incl 8pp of four-colour, hardback
This is the second in this series of bound issues of Locomotives Illustrated and deals with all four- and two-cylinder classes. The varied range of photographs is accompanied by tabulated details of numbers, names, building and withdrawal dates and allocations.

Great preserved locomotives - 1. Stanier '8F' No 8233. Alan Wilkinson, Ian Allan Ltd, 48pp, illus, soft covers
There is growing interest in the life and times of loco- motives in preservation, and this is the first of a new series. The '8F' 2-8-0s were well- appreciated by railwaymen and enthusaists alike, and the choice of No 8233, preserved by The Stainer 8F Locomotive Society Ltd on the Severn Valley Railway, is of particular note in view of its remarkable overseas service in Iran and the Middle East and subsequent perhaps unexpected return to BR ownership. The book sensibly widens its scope to cover the general history and service experience of '8Fs' at home and abroad, illustrated by many rare photographs; naturally Wilkinson features the perservation and current major overhaul of No 8233.

The Somerset and Dorset in the sixties Volume Four — 1963-1966. Ivo Peters, Oxford Publishing Co. 112pp, illus, hardback
Obviously, this is the last in this particular series of books featuring the outstanding Somerset & Dorset line photographs of thr author. The sadness of the final years of the S&D is offset by the quality of material, and the careful and interesting captions. A memorable tribute to the demise of a plucky railway and its men and machines.

A regional history of the railways of Great Britain. Vol 14. The Lake Counties. David Joy, David & Charles, 270pp, illus, hardback
The last in this series dealing with the English and Welsh regions; only the Scottish Highlands volume has yet to appear. As one might expect from the author, this is a thoroughly readable and carefully researched study, which not only features the West Coast and Settle & Carlisle main lines, but the under-recorded and fascinating railways of West Cumberland, Furness and the Lake District. Heartily recommended, not least for some interesting photographs.

Branch line charm. Walter Sinkinson. Yorkshire Arts Association in association with British Railways, 139pp, illus, paperback.
Railway people have always guessed that signalmen were philosophers. Now they have proof. Waiter Sinkinson, Yorkshireman, now retired, was a railwayman for 47 years. This joyous, evocative volume of economical and thoughtful poems is something rare. Within its covers is to be found more about railways, their relationship with town and countryside, and the men and women who work and travel on them than in hundreds of prosaic historical studies. If the poems were merely descriptive they would be pleasant light reading, but Sinkinson's feeling for the railway community has made them remarkable. Further, his Christianity and appreciation of humanity lift them such that they are dramatic art of a type that is rarely found. Nor are they purely nostlagic, but many poems are descriptive of our current railway age. Glossy Paperbacks on Railway Bookstall is a splendid and shrewd insight into modern society and its environment; not surprisingly, Sinkinson is an admirer of William Blake, that British genius. Evokinq railway rhythms, the poetry is often n of a high technical standard, too.

Alford & Sutton Tramway . George Dow, published by the author: 32pp, illus, soft covers.
This is an enlarged and revised edition of a title first published in 1947, and which now makes its appearance to commemorate the centenary of the opening of the tramway. The undertaking operated its steam-trams on 2ft 6in gauge in East Lincolnshire from 1884-89 only, failing receipts leading to its inevitable closure. A model history of an ts interesting and little-known system which doubtless would have lasted longer in, say, Holland.

Western steam in colour. Hugh P. Ballantyne
BR colour album. L.A. Nixon.
Both: Jane's Publishing Co Ltd, 96pp, illus of four-colour throughout, hardback
Four colour printing is only satisfactory if the original colour transparencies are of excellent quality and when colour separation processes and printing are equally so. The immediate attraction of these photographic albums is that all conditions hold good. Both photographers are experts in their art. Hugh Ballantvne's book probably contains the best historical colour transparencies yet seen on the printed page and the variety of WR steam studies (also by of other photographers) is full of detai! and interest. L.A. Nixon's album not only features the highest quality work from his and other people's cameras illustrating the present BR scene, but also includes rare and attractive studies of diesel and electric traction at work from the late 1950s onwards.

British locomotives of the 20th century Vol 2: 1930-60 . O.S. Nock, Patrick Stephens Ltd, 256pp, illus, hardback
This is the middle volume of a three-part history and it can be said immediately that it exhibits the highest standards of the author's scholarship in matters of steam locomotive design and opera- tion. Of particular note also are the many useful line drawings of locomotive features and design detail. Particularly revealing are the comments on, or sections dealing with, the proposed Hawksworth Pacific, 15xx 0-6-0PT and the wise evaluation of Edward Thompson and his works. Locomotive testing, and non- steam designs receive good treatment, too.

Midland Line memories. Brian Radford, Midas Books, 144pp, illus, hardback.
An excellent and splendidly executed pictorial history of the Midland main line between St Pancras and Derby. Some of the photographs, a number illustrating the construction of the line, are of outstanding interest, and the text, as one would expect from the author, is erudite and relevant. In the publisher's style, the railway history is made more relevant by illustrations and descriptions of the towns alongside the route and their social history.

Railways in Ireland 1834-1984. Oliver Doyle and Stephen Hirsch, Malahide (Ireland): Signal Press, 204pp, illus, hardback
>This is the second general history of Irish railways published to commemorate their 150th anniversary of service and it is the better of the two. Apart from a clear and well-written account of the development of way and works, motive power, stock and operations, there is much of more specialised interest, such as on the Great Southern Railways period and concerning labour relations. The text is accompanied by a good selection of historical and present day photographs.

Rheidol Journey —Siwrnai Rheidol. C.C. Green, Birmingham: Author. 18pp, illus, soft covers
This is a journey in pictures, with a mile by mile descriptive narrative, of the Vale of Rheidol narrow gauge line, the illustrations covering the period c1955 to the present, and complemented by a route map. It is a pity that the majority of photographs have no captions.

Quarterly reprints of Great Western Railway Magazines. Avon-Anglia Publications & Services, 64pp, illus, soft covers.
By arrangement with BR Western Region, the publisher is producing facsimile reprints of the inestimable GWR Magazine, and the first reprint appeared in December 1983. The first issue includes articles of a wide variety of subjects from magazines of 1888, 1889, 1890, 1908, 1921 and 1934. Of particular note are articles dealing with the 1930s reconstruction work at Cardiff, Brunel's tide gauge, the Cornish wooden viaducts, rail motor services in the Brent Valley and the building of the North Warwickshire line. Each issue will include articles from all periods in the 1888-1947 history of the GWR Magazine.

The triumphs of Duchess of Hamilton. D.R.  Smith
Re  ood's article (November 1983)? The 'locomotive exchanges' taking place these days over the Settle & Carlisle line are every bit as interesting as previous ones. I hope you can publish detailed logs of other performances — even when they are not so brilliant —accompanied by 'inside' stories from the drivers and firemen. To bring the 46229 story' up to date: on 5 November last, the engine put up a very good performance, taking 25imin Appleby (start) to Ais Gill (pass) on 14 coaches. On 7 January this year, a new record was established in wintry conditions, with 13 coaches of 490 tons gross. The time from Appleby dairy (start) to Ais Gill (pass) was 21 min 40sec — equivalent perhaps to 22tmin from Appleby station, beating the best by a substantial margin. The maximum speed at Ormside was about 52mph, with 48mph sustained to Griseburn, 55mph at Crosby Garrett a (record?), 52mph through Kirkby Stephen, 48mph sustained through Birkett Tunnel, and an increase to about 53mph at Ais Gill summit.

Pullman restaurant cars of the LNER in Scotland . A. L. Barnett
May I apologise — and to Mr Behrend — for an unfortunate slip in my letter published in the December 1983 issue? The number of the spare Pullman car was No 53, not as stated.

Stroudley 'D1' 0-4-2Ts in Scotland . E.S. Youldon
Re article May 1983 the photograph of No 2605 there is a suggestion that the engine might be in black livery, and the location suspect. No 2605 was given a general overhaul at Eastleigh in October 1940 and was repainted in unlined green with Bulleid lettering — almost certainly the condition of the engine when photographed. After a while, the green would have darkened and so appear as black in a reproduced photograph. There is therefore no reason to doubt that Ayr is the location.

Great Northern Railway (Ireland) 'VS' class 4-4-0s. J.W.P. Rowledge
In his letter (February) commenting on this article published in the December 1983 issue, Love asked why it was that the engines received out of sequence Works Nos. Beyer, Peacock progressive numbers 6958-69 were originally allocated to order No 1543 which was for 12 2-10-0s ordered by Turkey in 1939; of these, BP Nos 6958-60 were built to that order, the other nine being postponed and then cancelled in about 1946. Afterwards, Works Nos 6961-65 were used for order No 1558, for the GNR 'VS' engines. Nos 6966-69 were used for part of order No 11141, 2-8-2 + 2-8-2s for the Great Western Railway of Brazil, but actually built in Germany.
Order No 1558 seems to have been allocated some other progressive numbers at first, but whomever altered Bever's record book at the time made a very thorough job of erasing the original entry. From 1940 onwards, there were so many cancellations and variations of orders that it is very difficult to establish the original allocation of progressive numbers and I would not even attempt to guess what was entered when the order was placed in June 1947.

Great Northern Railway (Ireland) 'VS' class 4-4-0s.  A.E. Durrant
W.T. Scott's article on the 'VS' 4-4-0s was most interesting, but the 10ft 8in coupling rod length of these engines was not quite a record. The Dutch Railway had a class of 35 4-4-0s, very British in concept, although built in Germany and Holland, with a coupled wheelbase of approx 10ft 915/16in.

Wilkinson's Patent No 47. R.G.P. Tebb  
In his article (February 1984) describing the 'Wilkinson Patent' steam tram preserved at the National Tramway Museum, Crich, he accidentally perpetuated an unfortunate myth about William Wilkinson's Foundry at Wigan, an error indeed which has been current for half-a-century. The idea that his Holme House Foundry was a small establishment only, and with limited capabilities, was first recorded in Whitcombe's History of the Steam Tram, dating from 1937. However Mr E. K. Stretch has now drawn attention to the fact that the Holme House Foundry was not in Pemberton, but in Swinley Lane, Wigan, and far from having an insignificant output was one of the principal manufacturers of colliery winding engines, as well as producing engines for canal boats.
Licensees of the patent appear to have been a little more extensive that my article indicated as a photograph has been discovered recently of a Dubs-built 'Wilkinson Patent' tram locomotive.
In the September 1981 Railway World there was a fascinating article by Mike Fell about the last generation of tramway locomotives, the British Railways Drewry Class 04s and, in particular, the D2200 to D2203 series, used on the Wisbech & Upwell roadside tramway. However these were not the only BR diesel trams, although they were the first. Several engines in later batches of the 04 build had cow-catchers and side-skirts, examples known to me being D2210/12/81; the 0-4-0 Hunslet diesels D2950-52 were, I believe, similarly equipped. I wonder if Railway World readers could help me on two points about these diesel trams, viz: Did any other Class 04 locomotives, apart from those listed above, carry cow-catchers and side-skirts, and when? Did any of the diesel trams, apart from D2200-03, have the automatic speed governors to comply with the full rigours of the long-established regulations?

Essence of LMS. D.P. Rowland
Since Part 2 of this series —Some mysterious wagons (March 1984) — was written a kind friend clearing out some railwayana gave me a Christmas present of an LNER specially-constructed wagons diagram book, thinking 'it might be of interest'. How right! From this I find that the LMS was not alone in converting five-plank open wagons to carry aeroplane propellors in packing cases: the LNER converted some as well. A total of 150 were dealt with and were numbered between 213321 and 219443. They were given the code name 'Aero'. All appear to have been vacuum fitted. A note in pen indicates that they were 'now being converted into Hvfits' on 29/4/46. By 18/2/48, conversion was complete and the diagram (pages 116/4 and 117/4) was cancelled. The LMS and LNER conversions were very similar so it seems more likely that the LMS wagons also reverted to their former use. The similarity of conversion is not altogether surprising because, from just before the war, both companies co-operated in the design and manufacture of special wagons. There was much to commend such a step and I suspect that there was a formal agreement, possibly contemporary with that to establish joint locomotive testing facilities at Rugby, but I have never seen any evidence of one.

The 'Royal Link' at King's Lynn. Berwyn Stevens 
Re Harry EIIis' article (February 1984) describing the King's Lynn Royal Link. Features such as this, written from first-hand experience by professional railwaymen, invariably have that extra interest that journalists or researchers are unable to match. I was very interested in the photograph of 'B 17/3' 4-6-0 No 2847 Helmingham Hall at King's Lynn, reproduced on page 82. It is the only one I have seen of this engine paired with its original small tender. Almost certainly, the date of the photograph was 23 January 1936, when No 2847 was chosen by Cambridge shed to haul the funeral train of King George V from King's Lynn to King's Cross. The Royal locomotive at that time — No 2800 Sandringham — was laid up with boiler trouble and No 2847, just four years old, was the newest 4-6-0 at Cambridge. No 2847 exchanged tenders with No 2858 (an LNER group standard) and was sent to Neasden shed for use on the Great Central section, not to reappear on the Great Eastern until 1950.

J.N. Faulkner. Railway to runway. 242-7
Southern Railway and Region involvement in train services to airports, notably Gatwick. Consultants Norman, Muntz & Dawbarn reported in March 1934 on the prospects for civil aviation in Britain. Portsmouth, Southampton and Shoreham airports are mentioned and the failed attempt to develop airports at Lullingstone and Fairlop are mentioned. The Empire Air Serviice flying boat was based at Hythe on Southampton Water. Short trains or through coaches were provided in Pullman cars to and from Victoria hauled mainly by T9 4-4-0s. During WW2 flying boat services were move to Poole and specials ran from Victoria. Eventually, after numerous enquiries and postponements, a London Underground extension to Heathrow opened and improved air and crailway terminals were provided at Gatwick. Bus and coach connections are also considered. Illustrations include No. 338 on inaugural special for Imperial Airway at the special provide at Victoria for departure to Southampton Docks on 6 June 1939; plan of Lullingstone airport; Maglev car at Birmingham International Airport

H.I. Quale. Discovering Great Norrthern Railway somersault signals. 248-51.
Between Boston and Wainfleet

John Burnie. The new Bo'ness train shed. 254-5

J.B. Snell. Romneyrail reviited/  256-9.
Romney Hythe & Dynchurch Railway'

Number 531 (July)

E.J. Tyler. Massey Bromley. 346-9.
Most of the material used to create Bromley biography or to augment material on Bromley locomotives..

E.R. Carling. What was wrong? – three studies in design failings –. 350-3.
Considered two Garratt designs: the huge three-cylinder type for the New Zealand Government Railways which were far too big and ended up being rebuilt as six 4-6-2s and the highly unsatisfactory locomotives ordered by the LMS (Carling was involved with the second batch at the delivery stage). The final design to be considered was the Highland River class.

Number 535 (November 1984)

V.R Webster. .. 'F. Moore': the story of a notable railway artist. 582-91.
The text forms the basis for a Moore page. The illus. are as follows: Walter Bell, who died on 18 September 1938 aged 64, was the third of the Bell brothers involved with LPC, and was probably instrumental in establishing Thomas Rudd's association with the Company. W. J. Bell is seen in front of 'A4' Pacific No 2512 Silver Fox at the LNER's Romford Exhibition on 6 June 1936. (E.R. Wethersett); remainder from F. Moore material (some reproduced in black & white): LNWR 2-2-2 No. 3020 Cornwall (b&w); LYR 4-4-2 on Walkden troughs (b&w); GWR Bulldg on sea wall  at Dawlish (b&w); GWR broad gauge Great Western (colour); SECR D class 4-4-0 No. 730 emerging from Shakespeare Cliff Tunnel (colour); GNR 0-8-2T on suburban set of four-wheel stock between Gasworks and Copenhagen Tunnels (colour); Denver & Rio Grande Railroad express climbing 1 in 25 grade powered by four locomotives plus a banker (b&w); Drummond Paddlebox 4-6-0 and early aircraft (b&w); GER rebuilt class T19 crossing swing bridge at Carlton Colville (b&w); Precursor leaving Watford Tunnel (b&w); decorated TVR 4-4-2T No. 175 (colour); Pickerdsgill and McIntosh Dunalastair III No. 890 stated to be leaving Carlisle (colour);

Number 536 (December 1984)

M.J. Cruttenden. Changing times on the Brighton Railway. 635-7
Industrial relations during the 1870s when demonstrations were oragnized in Brighton by the workforce. imed at reduced working hours. Porrtraits of Samuel Laing, Chairman; Allen Sarle, company Secretary and Stroudley. Also mentions John Peake Knight, Traffic Manager and Evan Cameron head of the carriage & wagon department

Michael Harris. Bigger is beautiful: the Severn Valley Railway in 1984. 638