Railway World
Volume 44 (1983)
key file

No, 513 (January 1983)

G.J. Hughes. '43 old engines to be withdrawn'. 6-10.
The Railway Finance Corporation was established in 1935 to fund the New Works Programme with £27 million of 2½% guaranteed stock to be repaid in 1951/2. The LNER share was £5.8m and nearly half (£2.8m) was dedicated to the Manchester-Sheffield/Wath electrification (where a 10% return was predicted); £¾m to improvements to the fish docks at Hull an Grimsby; improvements to the ECML, the conversion of rolling stock from gas lighting, 162 new coaches and the replacement of 43 locomotives. The locomotives to be replaced were D43 (ex-GNoSR 1); C2 20, C11 12, Q4 10 to be replaced by A3 17, B17 11, K3 10 and V2 5. A4s were substituted for the A3s. The K3 and B17 types were constructed at outside builders. The V2s were constructed at Darligton and the A4s at Doncaster.

D. Wilkinson. Romiley resignallrd—a typical rationalisation scheme. 11-15.
Between Ashbury's East Junction and Chinley on former Manchester, Sheffield & Lincolnshire Railway and Midland Joint Railway opened beteeen 1858 and 1865 where former semaphore signals were replaced by colour lights. New Mills and Strines are on the route.

David A. Clough. Diesel multiple-units at work. 16-21
Class 127 on St. Albans to St. Pancras service from Bedford; Class 115 on Warrington to Manchester Oxford service from Liverpool; Class 116 between Four Oaks and Longbridge; Metro-Cammell units between Wellington and Wolverhampton non-stop (from Aberystwyth); Class 101 from Birmingham New Street to Taunton "fast"; Classes 101, 110 and 124 between Huddersfield and Stalybridge; and Southern Region diesel electric units in general terms (last named sauntered as compared with Sadler units which leap out of Sheringham like trams).,

Bob Avery and Brian Dobbs. The tale of the Wheldale Austerity. 22-6

Mike Pope. Manx interlude. 27-30

Michael Harris. Clan Line — story of an overhaul. 31-6.

No. 514 (February 1983)

Frederick Rich. Boxhill, Morden and Waddon —  a tale of three 'Rooters'. 62-5
No.380S or No. 82 Boxhill  is a Stroudley A1 Terrier in original condition. Its place as Brighton Works pilot was taken by No. 2635 (No. 35 Morden) which became No. 377S Brighton Works. No. 680S was thre Lancing Works shunter and had originated as No. 54 Waddon and was acquired by the Canadian Railway Historical Association in 1962. It had been sold to the SECR in 1904 and became their No. 751 and at some time had been converted to a left-leading form at Ashford whereas Brighton engines were right-leading. Rich's associate at Brighton Works was Alan Brown who was older than himp; the other involved was Bill Gumbrill, the Works trials draiver..

Stephen Broadbent. Peak Rail: an ambitious private railway project. 68-72.
Ambjtions, but little achieved: Network trains still serve both Matlock and Buxton (and if young & fit it is possible to walk between the two)

H.G.E. Ellis. South Lynn's new Loco. 73-5
Depot built in 1958 to serve the Midland & Great Northern lines which shut down completely in following year. South Lynn station was also renovated. MPD shed was clad in asbestos on a steel framework.

D.E. Canning. The changing face of the Berks & Hants line. 76-81.
Photographs and notes centred on Colthrop: Class 56 on Merehead to Acton stone train on 12 March 1982; two Warship diesel hydraulics os. 819 Goliath and 827 Kelly on Sunday Cornish Riviera on 3 July 1969; diesel Pullman on Newbury Rac ecourse special passing Aldermaston; No. 1036 Western Emperor on excursion to Paignton on 30 March 1974; No. 47 338 on up commuter train at Midgham on 23 May 1977; No. 47 104 on Allington to Westbury stone emepties on 9 December 1978; Class 119 DMU with trailing Siphon G for newspapers on late running 04.40 Reading to Newbury seervice on 22 April 1982; Class 33 Nos. 33 010 and 33 Nos. Earl Mountbatten of Burma on Angersstein Wharf to Westbury stone empties at Matsh on 2 April 1982; Class 50 No. 50 014 Warspite passes Colthrop on St. Austell to Paddington car-only train on 14 August 1982; Class 50 No. 50 011 Centurion passes Hungerford on 09.30 Paddington to Paignton on 7 June 1980; HST overtaking Class 37 Nos. 37 208 and 37 152 on stone train at Newbury on 21 August 1882; Class 50 No. 50 046 Ajax on down Penzance express passing Little Bedwyn with Kennet & Avon Canal locks alongside on 28 August 1979 (colour).

Steam scene. 82-4 (centre pages)
Colour photo-feature/black & white feature (84): A3 No. 60042 Singapore with Grampian Aberde en to Glasgow express at Kinbuck in May 1964 (A.E.R. Cope); No. 1006 County of Cornwall (black livery) on Penzance to Plymouth express crossing Largin Viaduct in September 1958 (T.B. Owen); No. 2934 Butleigh Court (lined black livery) at Swindon in June 1950 (T.B. Owen); Patriot class No. 45519 Lady Godiva in lined green with black boiler near Dore & Totley in June 1960 (P.J. Hughes). No. 60103 Flying Scotsman on up South Yorkshireman near Lutterworth on 5 July 1952 and on 17.36 Grantham to Peterborogh six-coach express near Great Ponton on 2 August 1962 (both b&w images: T.G. Hepburn)

Michael Harris. Denmark — for main line steam. 87-92.

New books. 93

Pre-Grouping Southern steam in the 1950s. Peter Hay, Ian Allan, 112pp, hardback,
Unfortunately, many of those taking railway photographs in the steam era concentrated on records of locomotives only, sans trains, sans scenery, sans everthing else. Peter Hay had an eye for locomotives and locomotives with trains and in this book are included some characterful studies, the various types being included in families of locomotives — by company of origin and wheel arrangements.

BR steam motive power depots — ScR. Paul Bolger, Ian Allan Ltd, 112pp, hardback
Continuing his survey of post- 1948 steam mpds — LMR and ER volumes are in print — Paul Bolger moves north of the Border (not forgetting Carlisle Kingmoor). A good selection of photographs accompanies the descriptions of sheds, their layout and locomotive allocations.

Railway liveries: Great Western Railway 1923-1947. Brian Haresnape, Ian Allan , 56pp,
Pipped to the post by the Southern, the first in this series, Brian Haresnape now turns his attention to the GWR — warts and all. The author rightly points to the deterioration in locomotive and rolling stock external cleanliness in later years, although not all glistened in the 1930s. A good selection of full views and detailed shots of locomotives and rolling stock is included, with lesser treatment accorded to wagons, buildings and road vehicles.

Railways in the British Isles landscape, land use and society .David Turnock, Adam & Charles Black, 259pp.
What a relief to come across a book about the wider context of railways! The development of the railway system is ably handled, with useful maps, but the most valuable aspect is discussion of the creation of a national network with due attention to the constraints of terrain, competition between companies and the influence of landowners. Of particular note are chapters dealing with the build-up of urban networks and their effects on industrial and residential development. But there is much else, with detailed treatment of railway towns, railways and the slate, iron and distillery industries. The third part of the book looks at the contemporary scene, railway pres- ervation and the use made of closed railways. Stimulating and useful for reflection.

Crewe Locomotive Works and its men. Brian Reed, David & Charles, 256pp.
Sadly, the renowned author of this book died during the production of what is one of the most worthwhile railway books to have appeared in recent years - it is a veritable tour de force. Although very ably dealing with mechanical engineering, management and railway developments, this is also a valuable industrial archaeological record, with much on general British industrial development and social history. The story is taken to the present day. A worthy memorial to a fine writer.

London Midland Main Line cameraman. W. Philip Connolly, ed Michael Esau, George Allen & Unwin, 120pp, hardback,
Within the number of photographic railway albums appearing these days, some are deserving of particular attention and this is certainly true of Philip Connollv's work, displayed to the full in a professionally designed and well-printed book. It gains considerably from the preponderance of photographs from the mid-1950s and earlier. Not only that, but there are some fine shots of the railway at work, in signalboxes, at stations and of railwaymen engaged in everyday tasks. Albums come and go, but this one is a 'must'.

Charles Blacker Vignoles — romantic engineer. K H. Vignoles, Cambridge University Press, 187pp, hardback.
The British have not accorded their civil engineers due justice and it is fitting that Vignoles' great- grandson should produce such a fine book on a talented engineer whose work took him to America, to a position that enabled him to make a probably crucial intervention in the creation of the Liverpool & Manchester Railway, and saw him engaged in railway and civil engineering work in Ireland, the Midlands, Russia and elsewhere. A tribute to an eminent engineer and Victorian.

Other publications received . 93

Preserved NZR locomotives and railcars. Neill J. Cooper, NZ Railway and Locomotive Society, 96pp, hardback
An excellent survey of the achievements of New Zealand's preservationists, as well as a useful survey of that country's locomotive development — steam, diesel and electric.

Alfred Whitaker and the tablet apparatus. Peter Cattermole, Somerset & Dorset Railway Trust, 32pp,
A worthwhile monograph on the work of the Locomotive Superintendent of the S&D from 1889 until 1911 in evolving a workable system for tablet exchanging apparatus on a mostly single-line railway. An excellent start to a promised new series.

Men of steam. H.G. Forsythe. Atlantic Books, 48pp
Essentially the enginemen's view of the steam locomotive at work and on shed, with some pertinent and useful captions on locomotive working. Recommended.

The Barry List (Seventh Edition). Urie S15 Preservation Group, 30pp,
Published October 1982, this is, as always, the invaluable guide to Woodham's, Barry and its past and present denizens

Austrian steam locomotives 1837-1981. R.A. Whitehead, R.A. Whitehead & Partners, 160pp, hardback,
This is a good book on a subject hitherto neglected in the English language and gives a good insight into one of the major schools of design of the steam locomotive. The author has confined himself to locomotives that worked within the bounds of present-day Austria, which means omissions of some interesting classes, but was no doubt necessary to keep the work within reasonable scope. This book is recommended to all those who have a real interest in the steam locomotive.

Letters. 93

BR in West Wales. R.L. Pittard  
Re Lewis article (December 1982). The withdrawn Class 03 No 03.121 at Landore does not have a cut-down roof; it was brought from Bristol to provide spares. The Milford Haven oil industry has stopped developing and Esso is to close its refinery at Herbranston. The 22.27 Milford Haven- Paddington and 02.00 Fishguard Harbour- Paddington now combine at Cardiff and run direct to Paddington, to arrive at 07.00. As to the dmus in use, two Class 120 three- car Cross-Country sets remain in service in West Wales and on the Llanelli-Shrewsbury trains. These and three two-car dmu sets cover all West Wales services.
Llandeilo Junction yard closed on 4 October 1982 and the freight train workings to West Wales have been reorganised to commence from, and return to, Margam. However, the down sidings at Llandeilo Jn are still used to recess empty wagon trains. The sidings at Fishguard Harbour were closed in October 1982; Fishguard and Goodwick yard remains open. Incidentally, there are no collieries near the BPGV line in the Kidwelly area: the line serves an opencast preparation point at Cwmmawr and a coal preparation plant at Coedbach.

Mallets to the mountains. A.E. Durrant
Further to Mr Ballantyne's article (October 1982), the CC10 were not the first Mallets in the country as they were only introduced in 1904. The first were the smaller BB10 class 0-4-4-2T, the earliest built by Hartmann in 1899. At least one of the first batch is reported as seeing occasional service — doubtless the oldest articulated steam locomotive in revenue earning traffic. Incidentally, there are also possibly 100 small 0-4-4-0T Mallets working on plantation lines of narrower gauges, serving the sugar estates of Java and the oil-palm plantations of Sumatra.

GNR No 1067 on loan. J. Sparrowe
Re January 1982 Railway World p.19 photograph of GNR 2-4-0 No 1067 on loan to the SE&CR, the caption reading that the location is 'probably Ramsgate Town'. This could not possibly be correct and, instead, I suggest that the locomotive was at the old Margate SER station, later Margate Sands. J.N. Maskelyne once commented that, apart from three photographs taken by him near Edenbridge of the GNR locomotives on loan, W.J. Reynolds 'seems to have been the only person, other than myself, to obtain photographic evidence ... he took a snapshot of GNR No 1067 at Margate ...

The Rushden and Higham Ferrers branch. S. Summerson  
Butler is in error (October 1982) in describing this branch as one of the lines worked by the ex-M&GN 4-4-0T with an ex-Pullman car. Reference to Midland Railway working timetables for the period shows that the branch was worked by ordinary passenger trains, The 'Motor Carriage' workings were confined to the Hemel Hempstead, Ripley, Wirksworth and Melbourne branches and had ceased — with the exception of the Hemel Hempstead branch — by July 1911. Push-pull trains on the Higham Ferrers branch were introduced by the LMS from 5 January 1931. Ex-SDJR 0-4-4T No 1230 provided an interesting variant to the push-pull fitted MR engines in the 1930s.

The Wisbech and Upwell Sentinels. John M. Hutchings . 94 
Re Fell's article (October 1982). two minor errors? The two engines of a Y10 were mounted completely in the front cab, not partly as stated, and the cylinders did not exhaust separately to the chimney: each engine had a separate exhaust pipe, leading up to either side of the boiler top-plate where the exhaust was split, giving four blast nozzles.  Regarding the chain modification, the 2¼in chains were of the duplex pattern, the 3in replacements, single pitch. Renewal of the chains after two years was not exceptionally short —I have records of Sentinel chains being replaced after 12, or 18 months. As to the suggestion of difficulties with single-manning, driving a Y10 from the front (engine) end would mean not only neglecting the fire but, more important, ignoring the boiler water level; when working a Sentinel the level went down very quickly due to the small capacity of the boiler. I was told that it was only possible to enter the engine end cab of a 'Yl 0' from one side, the left-hand side having a permanently fixed door. Can this be confirmed?

Steam stronghold in Nepal. C. J. Clark  
As a former employee of Marshall, Sons & Co Ltd of Gainsborough, Lirics and having spent 19 years in the company's India Office which acted in the UK for the Indian offshoot, I was most interested in this article (November 1982). May I point out that the 'traction engine' depicted on p577 is in fact a Marshall portable engine.

Motorail 1955-82. I.C. Macpherson
Re Faulkner's article which brought back happy memories of holidays, he had travelled on practically all the services out of London over the years and it is testimony to Faulkner that I can fault him on no point of detail. However, as I understand it, one reason that the use of Cartics on Motorail was discontinued was due to the reluctance of some cars to start after travelling for a long distance at an angle. Brake block dust from the Cartics also disfigured passengers' cars and proved difficult to remove.

WR diesel power and performance Part 3 . G.L.T. Walker
This admirable article (November 1982) refers to a run with a 'Western' on the up Cornish Riviera that produced what C.J. Alien described in 1973 as 'about the minimum time possible with existing Western Region motive power' between Exeter and Paddington — the net time for the 173.5 miles was 132½tmins. However, in 1974 a similarly loaded 'Western' on the same train gave me a net time of 129 mins: over the unchecked sections common to both runs, totalling 123.7 miles, my run was 3½tmin faster. Indeed, coupled with an actual time of 53min 40secs from Plymouth-Exeter, it is possible that my journey was the fastest 'Western' run on record between Plymouth and Paddington — a net, equivalent non-stop time of less than 1 min over 3 hours.

No. 515 (March 1983)

Michael Harris. Steam at York and the success of the Scarborough Spa Express, 118-23

Geoff Pember. An afternoon at Abergavenny Junction. 126-9.
Memories and photographs of trains on 1 in 34 gradient ar Govilon between Abergavenny and Merthyr including Blackpool to Pontllanfraith return excursion hauled by two G2a 0-8-0 Nos. 49113 and 49422 double-heading train on 29 August 1949. Other illustrations: map, Ivatt Class 2 2-6-2T No. 41201 near Gorvilon with train for Merthyr in August 1949; G2a 0-8-0 No. 49121 on freight near Gorvilon; coal tank 0-6-2T No. 7823 on turntable at Abergavenny shed in August 1939; 0-8-4T No. 7044 at Abergavenny shed in August 1939; gradient post; Class 5 No. 5108 on through Hereford to Merthyr train in July 1938 and two by H. Gordon Tidey: Castle class No, 5078 Beaufort on 09.10 Manchester to Plymouth passing Pandy on 28 July 1956 and No. 4959 Purley Hall near Pontrilas on 26 July 1956.

Derek Cross. Steam, snow—and Shap. 133-8.
In February 1960 Cross met hi wife off the morning Caledonian from Glasgow and she reported on the brilliant sunshine and snow at Shap, so he booked a first cllass sleeper to Carlisle, then took a morning train to Tebay, thumbed a lift up to the Summit on one of the bankers and got to work: some of the results are reproduced herein. Class 5 No. 45386 on freight with banker at Shap Wells on 2 February 1960; Jubilee No. 45625 Sarawak at Lune Bridge with up Horse & Carriage; Fowler 2-6-4T No. 42403 at rear of freight at Shap Wells Duchess No, 46245 City of London on up Royal Scot near Shap Wells; Jubilee No. 45596 Bahamas on iron ore hoppers; rebuilt Patriot No. 45512 Bunsen on Euston to Perth; No. 45500 Patriot at Shap Summit with 14.05 Manchester to Carlisle. Also two colour photographs taken in summer: rebuilt Patriot at Tebay with Keswick to Manchester train? in July 1962 and No. 46201 Princess Elizabeth on Crewe to Perth train formed of Gresley and Thompson coaches.

D.E. Giles. 'At least we hadn't become a total failure': pages from a diesel engineer's logbook. 139-43

No. 516

D.L. Franks. LNER laundry van. 204.
Illustration: see letter from J.B. Dawson and from Author.

No. 517 (May 1983)

R.E. Rose. Manchester Central revisited.  230-4.

Alex Rankin. Stroudley 'D1' 0-4-2Ts in Scotland. 235. 3 illustrations.
See also letter from J,F. Burrell

James Page. The Dundee and Newtyle Railway. 236-8.

Alan Wilkinson. Grand Junction. 242-4

No. 518 (June 1983)

Bob Avery and Brian Dobbs. Bickershaw—Austerities in variety, 286-9
Between Leigh and Wigan on the Lancashire Coalfield. Last survivor painted maroon and had a Giesl ejector, Black & white photographs taken with snow on ground.

Les Bertram. 'Westerns' to Newquay. 290-2. 6 illustrations.
Overnight holiday trains from Manchester and Sheffield and their return workings and trains to and from Paddington seen on Luxulyan bank worked by Western diesel hydraulic locomotives photographed by author on 5 June 1976. Locomotives: No. 1056 Western Sultan, No. 1070 Western Gauntlet, No. 1001 Western Pathfinder and No. 1068 Western Reliance.

T.A. Simister. Why the Great Eastern? 295-7.

Peter Deegan. The North Wales Narrow Gauge Railways Co. 298-301. 
1982 marked the 45th anniversary of the withdrawal of services on the Welsh Highland Railway, after a mere 15 years of operation, but the northern sections of the track bed had been in use for a lot longer. Indeed, it is now over 105 years since the North Wales Narrow Gauge Railways Company opened the major portion of its Moel Tryfan undertaking in 1877. The final authorised section followed nearly four years later.
The North Wales Narrow Gauge Railways Company was conceived to protect the earlier Festiniog Railway from the approaching standard gauge companies. Had the original plans been carried out, it would have operated over a route length of almost 100 miles, with a through line stretching from Corwen to Porth Dinllaen via Bettws-y-Coed, Beddgelert and Porthmadog, and a short branch serving Penmachno. In addition, a completely separate system would have linked the slate quarry complexes at Moel Tryfan and Glanrafon with Caernarfon, by means of an interchange with the London and North Western Railway at Llanwnda.
This ambitious scheme — perhaps the most grandiose of its kind within the British Isles — was not to be. This was in spite of the active involvement of the foremost narrow gauge engineer of his day, C.E. Spooner. The authorising Act, receiving the Royal Assent on 6 August 1872, omitted the extremes of the 'main line', and the 'General Undertaking' was to run from Porthmadog, absorbing the Croesor and Portmadoc Railway and extending through Beddgelert to Bettws-y-Coed, with a total route mileage of more than 26. The separate 'Moel Tryfan' undertaking passed through Parliament unscathed, with a route mileage of over 12 split between the 'main line' from Llanwnda to Bryngwyn and a branch from Tryfan Junction to Rhyd-Ddu.
In view of the tactical advantages that were sought from the general undertaking, it might have been thought prudent for the Company to commence work on that railway: progress on a link between Porthmadog and Bettws-y-Coed might have dissuaded the LNWR from pursuing its proposals for a narrow gauge line from Bettws to Blaenau Ffestiniog, which involved tunnelling beneath the awesome Crimea Pass. In the event, the North Wales Narrow Gauge Railways Company failed to construct its general undertaking, and the LNWR was obliged to complete a railway directly to Blaenau Ffestiniog. This featured the longest tunnel on the LNWR in reaching the slate quarries: for a number of reasons the line was constructed to standard gauge.
Information so far to hand has failed to establish a reason for the commencement of work on the Moel Tryfan undertaking as the prime objective. However, the involvement of several of the North Wales Narrow Gauge directors with quarries in the Moel Tryfan complex may be conjectured to have some bearing on the decision. The engineer to the Railway was C.E. Spooner, and he was to be assisted by H.U. McKie, a director of the Croesor and Portmadoc Railway. McKie was appointed as contractor, and commenced work by preparing the formation. In the meantime, another director of the Croesor company, H.B. Roberts, reached agreement with the North Wales company: he was to lease and operate the Moel Tryfan undertaking after completion. Roberts was a local solicitor, and had been the owner of the Croesor Tramway before its incorporation by an Act of 1865; he had become a founder director of the North Wales company as a result of the intention to absorb the Croesor company in the general undertaking. His new agreement, which was subsequently ratified by a further Act, bound him to purchase locomotives and rolling stock (with funds provided by the North Wales company) and to operate the system, returning to the North Wales company loco- motives and rolling stock to the same valu as the original purchase price. He was obliged to purchase locomotives built by Robert Fairlie's patent designs (Fairlie' association with Spooner on the Festiniog Railway will be recalled) and to pay to Fairlie the not inconsiderable royalty of £300 per locomotive. The sanguine state in which a trained legal mind would willingly enter such an agreement can only imagined, and it must have been with a sense of relief that Roberts was able to repudiate his lease once the initial enthusiasm wore 0 and the difficulties grew.
Roberts' avoidance of his obligations wa never tested by the Company in the Courts Legal opinion and the impoverished state of the North Wales company dictated caution but it was indisputable that matters were no proceeding well. McKie had fallen well behind his contracted completion date, an the Company was forced to take him to arbitration in an attempt to rectify the disputes that had arisen. Eventually, McKie was dismissed, and the task of construction was taken over by J. Boys, who progressed at a pace more satisfactory to the Board.
Eventually the railway feell into receivership: J.C. Russell being appointrd.

Michael Harris. Tyseley — cause for celebration. 302-5.

A tribute to Clun Castle. 305-7.

Bickershaw: Austerities in variety. Bob Avery. 308-9.

Malcolm Ravensdale. Over the Cumbraes Pass, and to Silverton —  remnants of the Narrow Gauge Circle. 310-16.

New books. 317

Rail Routes in Hampshire and East Dorset. David Fereday Glenn, Ian Allan, 128pp hardback
Second in a series which aims to look at a region's rail routes in the past and at present, this book seems a particularly successful attempt at 'cracking the nut'. Succinct text, good captions and well-chosen photographs (the majority from the author's camera).

Western Region in Wales . James McGregor, Ian Allan, 112pp hardback
The current scene in South Wales is full of interest, certainly when, as in this case, the compiler of an album is conversant with train workings and able to match his skill with the camera by providing useful and informative captions.

The last years of the 'Westerns'. A. Wyn Hobson, Ian Allan, 80pp,
An intelligent and wide- ranging collection of photographs of 'Western' class diesel hydraulics at work in the years from 1970 and as preserved. The author lives up to his promise 'to put on record a little more of the feel of the way it was, and the way they were'.

Historic railway disasters. O.S. Nock, Ian AIIan Ltd, 295pp, hardback,
This title was first published in 1966, and it is perhaps not tempting fate, nor doing a disservice to the author, to say that the new edition has not needed to be extended greatly, in view of the very good safety record of British railways in the last few years. However, the more remarkable accidents of the last decade: Moorgate, Bushey, Eltham, Northallerton and West Ealing all receive the author's customary careful attention, and the new edition is good value, too.

BR Steam Motive Power Depots: SR. Paul Bolger, Ian Allan Ltd, 108pp, hardback.
Latest in this series, dealing with Southern Region steam depots since nationalisation, including the Somerset & Dorset sheds which passed to the Western Region in 1958.

History of Trains de Luxe from the Orient Express to the HST. George Behrend, Transport Publishing Co. 232pp, hardback, plus UK supplement of 21 pages. Reviewed by Michael Bailiss
The book has been printed in Italy and, unfortunately, many black and white and colour photographs are, less than brilliantly reproduced; in this respect, the UK Supplement is highly satisfactory, Written in an easy-to-read fashion, Behrend points out that due to pressure of space your favourite train de luxe may not be included. But there is a chapter on the aeroplane, Motorail and Channel Tunnel. Space is given to the IC125: not a train de luxe at all, but a superior People-Mover. The IC125, French TGVs and Japanese bullet trains were certainly very impressive when first introduced, and indeed, attract new custom to the railways, but they are surely standard pooled stock, not trains de luxe.
Three trains have been chosen as representing the UK of which one, the Flying Scotsman, is not, as Behrend indeed admits, a Train de Luxe. In that connection, Britain may not have greatly contributed to the world's tally of de luxe trains, even allowing for the  Coronation introduced by the LNER in 1937.
More generally, the author takes us for most interesting journeys across Siberia, to Mexico, Egypt, and many other countries, showing examples of the stock used in most cases, but the style is disjointed and restless, often alighting on the incidental at the expense of more interesting developments.
The index is by no means large — just a page and a bit, and not sufficient enough in the circumstances. In conjunction with the text, a useful table of Pullman stock enables the reader to build up a picture of the historical development of Pullman and CIWL activities in Europe, This is certainly one of the book's great strengths.
There are errors, and indeed these are inevitable in a wide-ranging work of this nature. Many have been corrected in the Supplement which also gives additional information on UK Pullman operations, There is a page of photographs concerning the Manchester Pullman, yet despite this being the only remaining regular UK Pullman train, it has no place in the index. Also, the 1960/61 Metro-Cammell Pullmans (page 182) were in fact neither BR Mark 1 nor Mark 2 vehicles, but, to quote the builders, 'specially designed for the Pullman Car Company'. The underframe equipment is virtually that for some Mark 2s.

Locomotive boiler explosions. C.H. Hewison, David & Charles, 144pp, hardback. Reviewed by Jack Street, formerly BR Boiler Inspector, Crewe, 1953-70
The most striking aspect is the incompetence of the railway inspectors appointed to investigate boiler explosions, and also the failure of the Board of Trade to introduce legislation laying down strict rules regarding the inspection and maintenance of locomotive boilers. One wonders what would have happened had a boiler burst on a locomotive hauling the Royal Train.
From 1840 until 1854, the number of people killed — and the amount of damage caused —  was, to say the least, very serious. It would appear that railwaymen were considered expendable.
By 1854, the Manchester Steam User's Association had been formed, and its boiler inspectors soon proved that regular inspection by competent people resulted in fewer explosions. In the same year, the Railway Inspectorate realised at last that the pitting and corrosion that was seen to be taking place in locomotive boilers merited more frequent inspection. Even so, by 1856 the number of explosions and the number of fatalitites were still on the increase, and still no really effective measures were taken. In 1858, the Railway Inspectorate decided that the safe working pressure should be marked on every boiler — despite the fact that there was no legislation in existence to enforce the fitting of a suitable pressure gauge to every steam boiler! By 1860, proof testing after repair by means of an increased pressure hydraulic test was advised but not statutory.
William Kirtley in 1866 advised that all barrel joints should be made with double butt straps, and that the joints should be located above the working water level. His remarks — especially regarding the mounting of the boiler in the engine frames — constituted the best advice which had been produced in the first 26 years covered by Hewison's book. Unfortunately, his excellent advice was not taken, and the men of the Railway Inspectorate floundered on as before.
According to Hewison's book, after an explosion in 1870, one report stated that the copper firebox was wasted down to 1/32in thick, This I find hard to accept, as my experience tells me that a plate so thin would have bulged to such an extent that it would have been obvious to the most inexperienced eye. Indeed, if it was between the stays — as stated — there was an even chance of it being penetrated by the fire-irons.
During the decade 1890 to 1900 there was still no statutory ruling regarding the period of time allowed to elapse between internal inspections of boilers. The railway companies were continuing to allow commercial interests to have preference over safety. They had no fixed shed maintenance procedure, ie washing out at regular intervals, renewal of fusible plugs and the examination of fireboxes and water level gauges, etc.
Finally, in 1899, the Railway Inspectorate saw the error of its ways, and a boiler expert was called in to give assistance. Henceforward, there was a marked improvement, and the explosion reports which were issued were far more intelligible.
From the turn of the century onwards, there were several factors which vastly altered the position as regards boiler failures. Steel was used instead of iron, and more — and better — machines were available in boiler manufacture. For example, flanged plates were used in preference to angle-iron for the forming of boiler joints; rivet holes were drilled instead of punched and hydraulic riveting machines were used. All this made for much sounder boiler construction. By now, William Kirtlev's advice had been accepted, and increased pressure hydraulic testing of new and repaired boilers was standard practice,
Consequently, boiler explosions became a rarity, though a few did occur — the explosion at Buxton due to the incorrect assembly of safety valves being a particularly bad one. Low water failures were frequent enough, but the results were not so serious, due to much improved boiler design and construction. In addition, by the 1930s the major railway companies had evolved a standard practice of inspection and maintenance.
By 1935, Sir William Stanier's influence at Crewe had brought about the introduction of monel metal for firebox stays, This was adopted as standard for the majority of the boilers built to BR design. Monel metal is immune to corrosion. Though there were occasions when one of two monel metal stays were found broken, they were superior to copper or steel. The chance of an explosion due to failure of the stayed surfaces was negligible when monel stays were fitted.
In conclusion, I would like to echo Hewison's concern about the locomotives in preservation. I have had some experience with them, and have found that while some of the preservation organisations adopt the codes of practice of main line railways relating to examinations and documentary records for their locomotive boilers, there are other organisations whose practices leave a lot to be desired.
There are a great many 'experts' in the preservation movement, but the number of men left who can really make a thorough inspection of a locomotive boiler, and 'sound' the firebox stays with any confidence are becoming exceedingly scarce. Coupled with the knowledge that a large proportion of the locomotive boilers that are left are over 40 years old, this makes me wonder just how safe some of these are.
The Guidance Note Locomotive Boilers, available from the Health & Safety Executive, contains excellent advice, but it is only advice.
At present there is no law to enforce it. Surely this situation ought to be rectified without delay, as we have only to study the events of the past, as given in Hewison's book, to see the danger inherent in the failure to have statutory, enforceable rules regarding adequate maintenance, inspection and management. (This is particularly relevent to preservation societies.) We have still not learned from the experiences of the past, and to the best of my knowledge the Railway Inspectorate still does not have its own boiler inspectors.

Modern Railways Pictorial Profile: 1  318
The first of this new 40 pp quarterly magazine series, published by lan Allan Ltd, and edited by Colin Marsden, deals with the High Speed Trains, IC 125 units. Fully illustrated, Modern Railways Pictorial Profile No 1 surveys the history of the IC 125s, the construction, formation and allocation and deployment of the units today. Issue No 2 will feature the Southern Region diesel electric multiple-units.

Letters. 318

Steam at York and the success of the 'Scarborough Spa Express'. David Bailey
I was a regular traveller last summer on the Scarborough Spa Express and found the article in the March Railway World very enjoyable. However, I would like to point out that the locomotive holding the record, for 1982 at least, for the fastest time from Leeds up to Horsforth was not No 5305 but 777. The 'King Arthur' made the record on 2 September, the day you travelled on the train. We reached Horsforth in the unprecedented time of 11 min 14sec! Headingley was passed in 7min 05sec, at 41 mph, with 37mph at MP4, and 39mph before Horsforth and 37mph at the station. Presumably you had left the train at York. I'll bet you wish you hadn't! Leeds (Yes. to both points! Ed)

LNER laundry van No 30151. J.B. Dawson 
I was interested to see the photograph of the LNER laundry van on page 204 of the April issue. I cannot visualise any railway building special vans for the conveyance of its own laundry hampers. Normally, ·a suitable redundant vehicle would be converted. My suggestion, although I have no evidence, is that it was originally built for the conveyance of coffins with the compartment for the use of undertakers or relatives. Other railways, but not all, had vehicles for similar purposes, but their use declined with the coming of the motor hearse.
Officially the MS&L vehicles were known as 'dummy vans', but I do not know why such a name was used. A diagram of one appears in Vol.2 of Great Central by George Dow, and it shows a six-seater compartment with armrests. Apparently, there were four vans, numbered 51/57/58/59 but the numbers would change at, and after, Grouping. The photograph would appear to be one of those converted in the early years of Grouping for the conveyance of laundry hampers. The number 30151 must have been in a special series as it was too high for GCR coaching stock, and the suffix 'c' was only in use on ex-GCR coaching stock from about 1923 to 1925 when it was replaced with a '5' prefix to whatever number was allocated by the LNER. From the photograph it will be noted that the vehicle was equipped with both vacuum and Westinghouse brakes and/or pipes to enable it to travel to any station on those pre-Group systems with Westinghouse brakes.

LNER laundry van No 30151. D.L. Franks
Further to my article, it is now thought that the three four-wheel vans were built for carrying mail. When so used they were on the Grimsby to Tamworth service. At Tamworth it is believed the mail was transferred to the London and North Western Railway's down Mail. When this service ceased is uncertain, but part of that postal service continued until recent years.

Can you help ?. Doris E. Dwight
We are at present researching for a tv documentary series called Householders. The aim is to find a house and family who have been with each other for two or three generations so that we can tell the story both of the family and of the house. We are thinking in terms of a stately home, miner's cottage, theatrical boarding- house, semi-detached — and possibly some sort of railway property like an old signalman's cottage. I realise, too, that some of the older railway property has been sold off, but perhaps a reader might know of someone. Our only stipulation is that someone of the family is still living in the house.

'Stroudley' 'D1' 0-4-2Ts in Scotland. J.F. Burrell
In connection with Alex Rankin's article (May), I would like to add the following:
No 2627: Recorded as on loan to Polmadie, 17 May 1943, to Hurlford 24 May 1943 for Beith branch. It was condemned at Kilmarnock in November 1943.
No 2229: Recorded as going to the LMS in April 1943 and was allocated to Perth. \
No 2285: Pretty certain that this is a confusion with No 2284 as 2285 (B285) was withdrawn in 1926.
No 2358: Almost certainly Britain's most travelled engine. In the early 1930s, it was used for auto-train trials on the Turnchapel branch. The branch terminus was then the SR's most southerly station. No 2358 also worked on all three sections of the SR.

An afternoon at Abergavenny Jn. E.H. Evans 
Regarding Mr Pernber's most interesting article (March), there are some maps around that show the line from Abergavenny Junction to Brecon Road station as either GWR/LNWR Joint, or that the GWR had running powers as far as Brecon Road, through a connection with a canal that used to lie in the area previously, which I presume that the GWR had bought out.

An afternoon at Abergavenny Jn. Harold Walkley.
As a former Abergavennyite and fitter at Brecon Rd until 1952, then foreman fitter at Aberbeeg and one of a rapidly declining number of those who worked in the Brecon Rd loco sheds under the LMS, may I offer a few words on Pernber's article?
The Junction itself was not triangular, but the south sidings coupled with the loop did form a triangle. There was talk after Nationalisation of connecting up the eastern end of the loop with the western main line to allow Merthyr trains to use Monmouth Rd, but this came to nothing. The loop itself was double track, except on the west side where it made a connection with the branch. This junction was controlled until 1931 by a signalbox called South Loop Junction, but was replaced by a ground frame interlocked with the Abergavenny Jn box.
There was a regular Saturdays only working in which the 7.30am Merthyr-Abergavenny Jn was extended to Hereford; this ran right through World War 2 and only stopped when the WR changed the loco working, c1954. the WR changed the locomotive working, c1954.
GWR locomotives visited Brecon Rd shed fairly regularly for coal and after the GWR closed its shed at Monmouth Road in 1932, an arrangement was reached with the LMS, with three sets of men booking on at Brecon Rd and using LMS locomotives.
Ivatt '2' 2-6-2Ts first came to Abergavenny in December 1946, with No 1200 rapidly followed by Nos 1201-03. No 1204 carne in 1948 and was allocated to Tredegar, although it had come to the area earlier on trials. 0-8-0 No 9242 was not allocated to Brecon Rd, but was a Crewe South engine, borrowed to run the former's workings. The 'Black Fives' could not turn on Brecon Rd's turntable; they had to use the loop at the junction. They returned at night with the 8.20pm passenger to Crewe. The maximum load on the branch for two 0-8-0s was 14 coaches.

Steam in the USSR  J.H. Price
It is not quite correct to say (Overseas Steam Scene, March) that the USSR claims to have no steam locomotives. The point is that the only statistics available are those for train- miles, which for some years have shown that diesel and electric traction account for more than 99%. No comparable figures are issued to show steam's proportion of the shunting and yard work, which is obviously higher, or for steam locomotives employed in industry, sorne of which are former main line machines still bearing SZD numbers. Hugh Le Fleming and I fell into this same trap when we wrote Russian Steam Locomotives.

No. 519 (July 1983)

Eric E. Forge. Eastleigh and locomotive design – 1. 342-7.
Assessment of the late Drummond designs, especially the brilliant D15 4-4-0s and sluggish 4-6-0s, and the Urie designs. Note4s chatting with Maunsell. One illustration shows Surrey Warner; Jock Urie (son of R.W.) and T.S. Finlayson alongside 473 series H15.

Adrian Jarvis. The LMS unit construction stations. 348-9.
Sir Alfred Egerton involved in design. Illustrations: Elm Park, Queens Park (never actually used by public) and Bootle New Strand

D.L. Franks. Victorian railwayman: Joshua Slowen. 350-1.
Photograph of South Yorkshire Railway 0-4-2 Fitzwilliam with Joshua Slowen on footplate taken at Barnsley in 1854. Article relates the colourful history of Slowen which began in Leeds in 1830 and ended in 1912 shortly after he appeared in a group photograph of old Great Central Railway staff at Marylebone in front of an Atlantic locomotive: others in the photograph were John Gott (aged 83); William Farrand (80); William Mawson (82); William Crossley (78); John Burkingshaw (78); John Simon and George Stocks (70). He contributed to several (cited) newspaper accounts of his railway career which included driving a SYR train to Doncaster Races.

No. 521 (September 1983)

Peter F. Winding. Bricklayers Arms. 454-60.
One of series on locomotive depots south of the Thames described by Winding: opened by South Eastern Railway in 1844.

No. 522 (October 1983)

Mike Christensen. The 1989 Act and the interlocking of points and signals. 510-13. 3 illustrations, 4 diagrams
The Regulation of Railways Act of 1889 followed the dreadful Armagh accident of 12 June 1889 (cites J.R.L. Currie The runaway train — Armagh 1889). The Act specifiied far more than forbidding time interval working and requiring trains to have efficient brakes, but required points and signals to be be interlocked. Cites Guest's British signalling Volume 42 page 189 and notes significance of the Board of Trade and Edmund Courtenay Boyle, the senior civil servant who engineered the Acts relting to the control of railway activity. Cites Doug Edwards in Volume 37 page 147 and Volume 38 page77

George Behrend. The Pullman restaurant cars of the LNER in Scotland. 514-15. 3 illustrations
Makes extensive use of Morel's book on Pullman car services. Scottish cars came from former Great Eastern services and lacked names. Used on Edinburgh to Perth services and to Carlisle. The Queen of Scots is only considered en passim. See also Rankin on Lothian Coast Express Illustrations: D11/2 No. 6394 Lord James of Douglas and D31 No. 9642 leave Leuchars Junction with 13.20 Glasgow to Aberdeen (Pullman car came off at Dundee) on 3 September 1938; Gresley A1 No. 2563 with Pullman car on 16.10 Edinburgh to Perth at Bridge of Earn on 6 September 1938 and D11/2 No. 6398 Laird of Balmawhapple also on 16.10 ex-Waverley at Mawcarse Junction on 1 July 1937 (locomotives on latter pair carry ordinary passenger train headlamps: No. 2563 had promiinent dust plates to protect bogie)

M.J. Cruttenden. The LB&SCR and the Paris International Exhibition of 1978. 516-19.
Stroudley A class 0-6-0T No. 40 Brighton was the main British locomotive exhibit and because of general chaos was used to run demonstration trains of the Westinghouse brake on railways in the Paris area. The locomotive has survived. John Peake Knight, the General Manager of the London, Brighton & South Coast was involved; as was George Aylwin, the locomotive driver who drove demonstration trains for the Westinghouse brake in the Paris area. On return from Paris E.J. Bedford took photographs of Brighton. Others mentioned included John Jeffery, Manager of Brighton Locomotive Works and Evan Cameron, Head of the Carriage Depa\rtment. Illustrations: William Stroudley alongside 0-6-0T Brighton; G class 2-2-2 No. 325 Abergavenny; LBSCR steamship Brighton at Newhaven Wharf; LBSCR cargo ship Hornfleur; A1 class Brighton photographed with Gold Medal Paris Exhibition 1878 inscription above name; cartoon of Knight from Brightonian; former Brighton as Isle of Wight Central Railway No. 11 on Sandown train probably at Horringford in June 1918

Farewell to the 4-SUBS. 520-1.
Black & white photo-feature: No. 4122 leaves Waterloo with a Hampton Court service on 14 November 1949 (C.C.B. Herbert); No. 4298 at Teddington on Loop train from/to Waterloo on 22 December 1982 (Peter Brown); No. 4743 at Coulsden North on 13 May 1981 (Peter Bennett); No. 4732 on 226 February 1983 on Seaside Sub rail tour passing Selsdon (John Scrace); and Nos. 4751 and 4754 with 4-CEP No. 7207 at Selhurst on 25 March 1983 (Richard Lyndsell)

New books. 522

BR Steam Motive Power Depots — WR. Paul Bolger, Ian Allan, 128pp, hardback
Latest in useful series and following the same format as the four previous titles — only the North Eastern Region remains to be dealt with.

East Anglian rails in the 1980s. Michael  J. Collins. Ian Allan. 112pp, hardback,
Good to see a book dealing with BR's operations in East Anglia which portrays a vital and still interesting scene; there is otherwise the temptation to pore over maps and gloat on just how much mileage has closed. Michael Collins has assembled a good selection of photographs, not only showing locomotives and rolling stock, but also the distinctive natural and railway scenery of the Eastern Counties.

Southern Electric multiple-units 1948- 1983. Colin J. Marsden, Ian Allan. 112pp, hardback.
This is the second volume in a largely pictorial history of the electric multiple-units used by the Southern Railway and its predecessors and BR (SR). Coverage of the developments of the last few years is noticeably stronger than of the 1950s and early 1960s.

London and its Railways. R. Davies and M.D. Grant, David & Charles, 200pp, hardback
To attempt to cover the history and current state of London's railways in one volume is no easy task, and this surprisingly lavish and visually attractive book generally succeeds in its task. However, this reviewer believes that it is nowhere as successful as H.P. White's excellent Regional History volume by the same publisher, nor comparable with Alan .Iackson's splendid specialised studies. Part of the fault lies with the writing, not only its style but the conclusions reached on historical or current developments which seem alternately anodyne and teleological.

The Railways of Hertfordshire. F.G. Cockman, Hertfordshire Publications, 122pp, paper-covered,
This is the second edition of a title first published in 1978, and then reviewed in these columns. As revised, the main improvement is in production, and the result is attractive and interesting with some noteworthy photographs. Of particular comment is what would appear to be as complete a list as is possible of unrealised railway schemes in the county, a valuable and intriguing contribution to railway history.

The Stoke to Market Drayton Line. C.R. Lester, 55pp,
The St Helens Railway. J.M. Tolson, 98pp. Oakwood Press.
The publisher must be commended for continuing to produce titles dealing with specific sections of railway, or centres. The first to be dealt with is, in fact, of wider interest than the title suggests and deals with an otherwise little recorded area of the railway system. Tolson's study unravels the story of the St Helens Railway, whose main line opened 150 years ago and similarly provides a wider view of the competing railways and the economic context of the area.

Venice Simplon Orient-Express. Shirley Sherwood. Weidenfield & Nicolson, 160pp, hardback
Lavish and attractive book is effectively a souvenir for passengers booked on Sea Container's remarkable enterprise. Shirley Sherwood (wife of the project's originator) was closely involved in much of the planning detail. The historical coverage is at times either ambiguous or not strictly accurate, but of course it is for the realisation of the two train sets that the book will be valued. This makes for an interesting story which reflects the justifiable enthusiasm for the project, and at the price asked the book is a handsome addition to the bookshelf.

The last days of steam in Gloucestershire. Ben Ashworth, Alan Sutton Publishing Ltd, 137pp, hardback
To those of us who saw steam and the traditional railway go out in the mid-1960s, the atmosphere will be recalled as long as the work of photographers such as Ben Ashworth can be enjoyed. This album is a splendid evocation of that era, and the studies of the rural lines of Gloucestershire, and of the Birmingham-Bristol main line and the ex-GW route over Sapperton are a sheer delight. Forest of Dean branch line scenes are also nicely observed.

Steam locomotives in action. David Eatwell. B.T. Batsford , 64pp, softback
A happy celebration, illustrated entirely in colour, of the steam scene in Britain, on the main line and on the restored railways since 1971 — a date chosen because of KG V's return to steam in that year. Some good atmosphere at an attractive price, including an all-too-brief glance at what's abroad, limited principally to Austria.

Greyhound 120. Peter Cooper, Urie S15 Preservation Group, 31 pp, paper covered
A well-produced booklet commemorating the return to active use of the T9 based on the Mid-Hants Railway. It includes a general history of the class, and deals with the 'first' restoration of No 120 and its use on BR from 1962-64. The carefully chosen illustrations include four attractive colour shots and a colour cover; in 'all, excellent value,

Southern Region unusual train services 1983-84. Southern Electric Group, 27pp, paper covered
A reminder which may be needed north of Watford that the SR's train workings are far from standardised and include a fascinating variety of motive power and multiple-units. Diversity indeed seems to have increased in recent years. The booklet (sixth edition of this series) refers to the current May 1983-May 1984 timetable, and went to press during June.

Dawn of the diesel age. John F. Kirkland, Interurban Press, 240pp, Reviewed by Chris Leigh
This is the inside story of the change from steam to diesel motive power in the USA, as seen by an engineer who started on the New York Central and subsequently became manager of Baldwin's diesel locomotive production when that Company took the plunge in switching to diesel locomotive manufacture. .
The book traces early applications of the internal combustion engine to rail motive power and shows how the major locomotive manufacturers, Baldwin, Alco and Lima, both watched and worked on diesel locomotive development through the 1920s/30s, despite the fact that some of their manufacturing plants were daily turning out as many as 10 steam locomotives.
The breakthrough came with the distinctive and widely-used 'box-cabs', followed by a variety of switching types before the mid-1930s saw the marriage of streamlined mechanical parts to successful diesel power plants. The book concludes with coverage of these charismatic early passenger diesel designs, Union Pacific's City of San Francisco and Santa Fe's Chief, and takes the story to the brink of the diesel age.
An interesting and concise text covers the development of the designs, with plenty of technical background and insight into the reasons behind their success or failure. Just as they did with steam, the Americans took the diesel locomotive and developed it to give its best in difficult railroading country. It is pleasing to see the early stages of that development covered in an attractive and well-illustrated publication

Railways of the Western Region. Geoffrey Body, Patrick Stephens, 280pp, hardback
A praiseworthy initiative in railway publishing which includes a short history of the GWR, a gazetteer of stations (and their localities) and branch lines with clear maps and relevant illustrations, route summaries, operations, Civil engineering, closed lines and preservation projects.

A History of the LMS — 3 (1939-48). O.S. Nock, 95pp,
A History of the LNER — 3 (1939-48). Michael R. Bonavia . 103pp
George Allen & Unwin, hardback,
Each volume brings the particular Big Four history to a conclusion. LMS is principally concerned with mechanical developments and operations, and is weak on management and company history. In truth, it does not present a rounded history of the railway as a commercial undertaking, but is merely a collection of essays on subjects of interest to the author. LNER is more successful in its aim to review the last period of the com- pany's history, and is of particular interest in giving full details from the archives of the LNER's East Coast main line dieselisation plans of 1947. All told, though, the idea of presenting the history of the respective com- panies each in three volumes must be pro- nounced something of a failure, and still we await definitive studies of each undertaking.

London Underground Railway Society. 522
Published two thoroughly worthwhile booklets:
The 'R' stock story. Piers Connor, 74pp.
Underground No 13 — Walter Atkinson, builder of the Harrow and Uxbridge Railway. Dennis Edwards, 30pp,
The first is self- explanatory and commemorates the recently withdrawn 'R' surface stock, tracing the complicated story carefully and well. The second publication deals with the genesis and construction of what is now the Uxbridge section of LT's Metropolitan Line. Both booklets are recommended

New books. 523

The North Wales Narrow Gauge Railway. Gwynfor Pierce Jones 
In the June Railway World, P. Deegan gave an account of the North Wales Narrow Gauge Railways, and commented on the lack of evidence explaining why the Dinas Junction-Bryngwyn (Moel Tryfan) line was the first priority of the Company, in preference to the Porthmadog-Bettws-y-Coed General Undertaking. He suggested that several of the railway directors were involved in slate quarrying enterprises on the Crown lands at Moel Tryfan and also commented upon the apparently onerous conditions imposed on one of the directors, namely Hugh Beaver Roberts, who was granted a lease of the line in 1872. In the light of evidence abstracted from the Public Records Office by J.S. Wilkinson, it is possible to clarify the background to this issue, and to raise several new questions.
A list of Crown mineral leases indicates that, before 1877, only one of the NWNGR directors was directly involved in the Moel Tryfan area. That person was Hugh Beaver Roberts (proprietor of the Croesor Quarry and Tramway) who was granted a lease of the Braich Quarry in 1868, several years before the inception of the NWNGR scheme. A contemporary source commented on the lack of a rail outlet for the Crown quarries (with the exception of Cilgwyn Quarry) which had stunted their development. However, in the previous year, 1867, one of those quarry companies had deposited plans for a standard gauge branch from Caernarfon to its quarry. The next year, this scheme was abandoned in favour of a horse tramway to connect that quarry with the Nantlle Railway, in the valley below.
The Braich Quarry lay adjacent to the new tramway, and H.B. Roberts obtained access to this outlet by means of a gravity incline, the site of which is still visible. Although an improvement on transport by horse and cart, Roberts was subject to a toll of 10d (4p) per ton in excess of the Nantlle Railway toll in using the Fron Tramway. It is not surprising then that he availed himself of the opportunity of obtaining an alternative outlet. An additional consideration was the delay in the carriage of slate to Caernarfon, caused by the regauging of a section of the Nantlle Railway, as part of T. Savin's Carnarvonshire Railways scheme. Incidentally, Savin and T. Brassey (both railway contractors) were directors of a small quarry adjacent to Roberts' quarry in the period 1865-77. Their presence at Moel Tryfan may have been significant in the development of rail transport in the area, but their company had gone into liquidation by the date of completion of the NWNGR's Bryngwyn branch. Despite the fact that Sir Llewelyn Turner, a NWNGR director, was the subsequent lessee of that quarry, from 1882, it was never connected directly to the railway; it is thought that its meagre output was carted to either the Braich, or Moel Tryfan Quarries, for transhipment. Yet another factor which must have had a bearing on the building of the Bryngwyn line was the excessive surcharge levied on slate shipped from Nantlle, after the takeover of the Nantlle Railway by the LNWR in 1870. This placed the area at a distinct disadvantage compared to other slate-producing areas served by that company. Sending slate from Dinas Junction, rather than from Nantlle, represented a saving of about 8d (3½p) per ton.
It is highly unlikely that H. B. Roberts would have been able to finance the building of the 5t-mile line to Dinas. On the other hand, this line was remote from the NWNGR General Undertaking, and was unlikely to have been included in C. E. Spooner's original proposals. It is tempting then to speculate that Roberts induced Spooner to adopt the Bryngwyn scheme as a prerequisite to the inclusion of Roberts' Croesor Tramway into Spooner's General Undertaking. Included in the deal was a lease of the Moel Tryfan Undertaking to Roberts, whereby he operated the line and collected the carriage tolls from two moderately-sized quarries which were immediately linked to the line (ie, Alexandra and Moel Trvfan). In addition, there were at least four other quarries which could have been persuaded to join the system, rather than ship via Nantlle. The potential traffic for the railway can be gauged from output figures for 1882, when 9,800 tons of slates were pro- duced in the Moel Tryfan area, with an additional 15,000 tons had the Cilgwyn and Penyrorsedd Quarries output been tapped. In the same year, the Gwyrfai Valley quarries (on the Rhyd-ddu branch) only produced 1,072 tons. When viewed in the light of this information, the conditions of Roberts' lease do not appear as onerous as at first sight.
It is my hope that proposing these hypotheses will stimulate railvyay historians to attempt to solve one of the major mysteries in the development of the rail network in North Wales. The answer lies in the private papers of H.B. Roberts, if they still exist. Perhaps someone might be able to trace their fate. Roberts was last heard of residing at Plas Llanddoget, Llanrwst, Gwynedd, and at Leamington.

Railway postcards. S. Micklewright 
Webster's letter (July) is most interesting, as from 1919-26 it was my joy to work for the Locomotive Publishing Co at 3 Amen Corner, St Paul's. The name of the oil painter was Mr Rudd. For a few years he worked at his home off North Side, Clapham Common. He then came to work at Amen Corner, and occupied a small corner in the general office. His paintings were very accurate as the base was a photograph. He could never be hurried and many of his paintings appeared in the Locomotive magazine, apart from many he prepared for customers' orders. The only time I can recollect another person producing colour pictures was someone by the name of Murray Secretan, who worked for the LMS at Euston; this was about the time when I left, in 1925/26.
LPC was a family concern headed by Messrs A. Robert Bell, Waiter Bell and Mortorn Bell, who was CME of the Great Indian Peninsular Railway. The Company was for many years official photographer to the Great Eastern Railway. I can recollect on a number of occasions joining the photographer, Mr White, to help carry the 15in x 12in camera and six wooden slides for plates up Brentwood bank! During my service with LPC, I was able to persuade Mr (later Sir) John Eliot to publish a booklet, Locomotives of the Southern Railway. A total of 30,000 copies were ordered and, about the same time, a number of sets of SR trains, many by the late F. E. Mackay and others. I went to work for a commercial photographer in 1927, and for a long time took photographs for the SR Publicity Department. I was also given the job of photographer by the LNER, when French Railways officials visited the Big Four companies.

Wiltshire triangle. P. Dauncey 
Further to the correspondence concerning the Thingley Junction-Bradford Junction line in recent issues, its reprieve from closure seems to have been justified as the number of trains using this section has recently increased. Principally these are the Yeoman stone trains from Merehead Quarry, usually in the hands of Class 37/47/56s. The line has also seen the 09.20 Swindon-Weymouth and 17.14 return which commenced operation on 4 July, and ran Mondays-Thursdays until 8 September. It was named the Weymouth Wizard, and during its first week of service the nine-coach set was headed by Class 47 No 47.148, complete with headboard.

Victorian engineman: Joshua Slowen. George Dow
Joshua Slowen's memory (July) was certainly unreliable. He could have hardly have taken the first train over Keadby bridge in 1863. On 30 March 1864, The Hon W.G. Eden, Chairman of the South Yorkshire Railway, told his shareholders that the bridge was sufficiently advanced for him to have crossed it on foot the previous day. In fact, the first train to cross the bridge did so on 1 July 1864, on the occasion of the Board of Trade inspection. Some of the works were reported as defective and the bridge was not opened for public traffic until 1866, on 1 May for goods traffic and on 1 October for passenger traffic.

'Austerities' and '3F' 0-6-0Ts . C.B. Golding
From the article on Bickershaw (June), I noted that parts from 'Austerities' Spitfire and Rodney were used in the restoration of LMS 3F 0-6-0T No 47298, latterly at Steamport, Southport and currently based at Llangollen. In 1957, an earlier 'Austerity' at Bickershaw, Fred (now on the Keighley & Worth Valley Railway), was damaged in an accident and had to be sent to the Wigan Area, NCB Central Workshops at Kirkless for repair. To replace Fred, '3F' No 47298 was loaned by BR to work at Bickershaw Colliery.

A. Bennett. Fish traffic from Cornwall. 524-7. 7 illustrations
The d evelopment of Newlyn into a major shipping port during the ninettenth century was delayed by the change of gauge in Truro; the relatively late opening of the Tamar Bridge and the arrival of the broad gauge in Penzance. Mackerel was the main catch. East Coast trawlers from places like Lowestoft joined the local, mainly sailing,  boats, but a steamer the Rover assisted in conveying catches from the Isles of Scilly. St. Ives was also involved. Illustrations: No. 6826 Nannerth Grange hauls 12.00 Penzance to Manchester and Glasgow onto Royal Albert Bridge on 13 October 1954 (Donald Kelk); loading flowers in Penzance yard c1946; six-wheel Tadpole A with guard's cabin built in 1888 No. 42800; bogie Tadpole A with guard's cabin built in 1889 No. 42803; Penzance station c1920; Hall class leaving Gwinear Road with freight including fish vans in May 1959; trawler being loaded with coal in Newlyn

'Norfolkman'. Last train to Lenwade: a weedkilling special. 528-31.
On 16 May 1983 a weed killing train ran from Wroxham to Lenwade as a prelude to track lifting as the traffic in concrete building panels manufactured by Anglian Building Products at Lenwade had ceased in 1981. Illustrations; map of lines from Wroxham to Lenwade including spur at Themelthorpe and dicey track to Worstead from Hoveton & Wroxham and A140 road, but not new Norwich Northern Bypass which makes sighting at two adjacent railway level crossings worse (such is the genius of the so-called Ministry of Transport).; FBC (Fisons) weedkilling train being propelled into Westbury on 5 August 1977 worked by Class 31 No. 31 129 (colour); Aylsham station in 1960s; Class 31 with train of concrete panels at Lenwade bound for Charlton; spray coach leading FBC train bound for Ipswich from Felixstowe on 13 May 1983; and viewed from No. 31 124 end (Derby Road); and No. 47 381 with the other weedkilling train passing Littlebury in April 1983.

Stations in view. 532-3. (centre spread)
Colour photo-feature: Highley station (Severn Vall ey Railway) on 4 April 1982 (W.A. Sharman); No. 777 Sir Lamiel departing Hull with Yorkshire Pullman charter train on 18 September 1083 (J..H. Cooper-Smith); No. 47 414 on 11.05 to York on 20 June 1981 (H. Nightingale); and London Transaport No. 12 Sarah Siddons at Woking with 4 SUB No. 4732 on 27 May 1983 en route to/from Eastleigh (Philip Cotterill)

Peter Johnson. Little Giant in Snowdonia withg the FR in thec 1980s. 534-40. 11 illustrations
Previous general account. Big achievement was opening station at Blaenau Ffestiniog with interchange with British Rail. Mountaineer had received a new all-welded boiler in 1982. Illustrations; Linda leaves Tanygrisiau with 13.15 Portmadog to Blaenau Ffestiniog on 31 August 1982 (Brian C. Harris); Headboard carried by Merredin Emrys for formal reopening of Blaenau Ffestiniog station on 30 April 1983; Blaenau Ffestiniog station viewed from above; Linda leaves Tanygrisiau with 09.50 Portmadog to Blaenau Ffestiniog on 16 July 1983 (Hugh Ballantyne: colour); tracklaying in severe winter of 1981/82; Prince near former power station (Norman Gurley); Merredin Emrys at Rhiw Goch loop (Norman Gurley); Earl of Merioneth ascends Ddeuallt spiral with 15.00 Portmadog to Blaenau Ffestiniog on 30 May 1983 (John Scrace); Boston Lodge Works in March 1983; Prince and Blanch at Tan-y-Bwlch on 11 April 1983 (Robert W. Miller)

No. 523 (November 1983)

Alan A. Jackson. Piccadilly Line Golden Jubilee. 566-71.
Extension to Cockfosters with personal memories of new Turnpike Lane station in September 1932 and of the general highlevel of the line's architecture due to Holden and C.H. James.

Roger Griffiths. Longsight motive power depot — 140 years of history. 572-5.
Includes plans from 1842 and for each significant period until 1982

Letters. 576.

Bricklayers Arms — and Eastleigh. P.F. Winding
Concerning my article on Bricklayers Arms (September). the list of Stirling 'Q' 0-4-4Ts sent to the shed as new should begin with No 115 and not 118. The latter was, of course, the prototype of 127 Cudworth  class 118 2-4-0s, one of which (No 13) was illustrated on page 457. The other point that needs clarification concerns the S 0-6-0ST No 1685 which is shown as one of the transfers to Hither Green. Although observed there in 1934, it remained based at Bricklayers Arms. During the same period it was also noted at Stewarts Lane, where it was probably sent for repairs, but apart from these excursions and a visit to Tonbridge it rarely left its home ground until 1951 when its work was taken over by diesels. It was then sent to St Leonards and Dover before being withdrawn from service later the same year.

Bricklayers Arms — and Eastleigh. Arthur Ll Lambert
Correction to P.F. Winding's excellent article about The Brick'? The five J 0-6-4Ts were completed in the autumn of 1913 and sent to Bricklayers Arms, as stated, but the first L 4-4-0 did not appear until June 1914 (No 772 - Borsig) and this was a B'Arrns engine.
Recognising that he has been a professional operator, while I am only an amateur delver into matters involving R. E. L. Maunsell, I hesitate to take issue with Eric L. Forge, Eastleigh and locomotive design - 1 (July). but feel compelled to do so. He says that after the first modernised N 15s were produced, the results were sufficiently encouraging for the Company to order 30 more from NB Loco Co. This was not so. The decision to replace the Drummond 4-6-0s, Nos E448-E457, by new locomotives was taken during 1924 and the 10 were completed between 2/25 and 7/25, though not in numerical order of construction. The order for the 30 'Scotch Arthurs' (Nos E763-E792) was placed in 1/25, before any of the Eastleigh engines were running, and delivered between 5/25 and 10/25. The first deliveries, for service on the Eastern Section from the beginning of the summer timetable on 13/7/25, actually overlapped at least four of the Eastleigh engines, for service on the Western Section that summer.
Regarding the 'Nelsons'. I feel that Mr Forge overplays the role of the 'tortuous' passages in the cylinders of the locomotives as built; after all, they were similar to those of the 'Schools', which were never replaced by a new design, while a set of the original design continued in use on one engine, No 30863, until it went to the scrapheap, without showing any inferiority compared to the rest of the class, with their redesigned cylinders and many with larger piston valves. The problem with the 'Nelsons' was surely a combination of draughting and a low brick arch over the flat and sloping parts of the grate, making them very difficult to fire, the technique of throwing coal over the high point, to keep sufficient firebed over the whole of the sloping portion being beyond the ability of many men. There was insufficient room to build the Great Western-type of 'haystack' fire. There was also a suggestion that, perhaps because of the poor draughting, sufficient air was not being drawn evenly through the firebars. I have written evidence that with No E850, before the rest of the class was built, the engine was run with the firedoor normally open to permit the ingress of top air to the fire, something not normally considered good practice as it lowers the temperature of the rear of the inner firebox, with resultant problems of maintenance caused by the differentials in expansion of the copper.

'Green Arrow'  — the versatile 'V2'. Eric Neve
Re Charles Meacher spoiled his otherwise entertaining article (August) by some obvious errors. In March 1935, the Gresley 'A4' was still only at drawing board stage, the frames for the first engine being laid at Doncaster on 26 June. The first visit of an 'A4' to Haymarket took place on 19 November 1935, but the first one to be allocated there did not come until a year later. 'A3' Pacific Spion Kop did not become St Margarefs only Pacific until February 1938 and stayed for only a short time before being replaced by No 2502 Hyperion that March. It is open to question that No 4771 Green Arrow arrived at St Margarets in 1936. It think it far more likely that the first member of the class seen there was No 4775, allocated to Dundee in November 1936 and known to have worked regularly into Edinburgh. Lastly, the grate area of the 'V2' at 41.25sq ft was exactly the same as that of the 'A3s' and not 'roughly 10 sq ft less'.

'Green Arrow'  — the versatile 'V2'. Eric Bannister
Re Meacher's comments regarding the vee-shaped front cab windows of the 'V2s'. I was present in Doncaster Works drawing office when the cab used for the 'A4s' was designed by E. Windle and T. Street (the Chief Draughtsman). Its shape had nothing to do with streamlining. The 'A3s' were fitted with hinged screens in front of the driver's window which were altered by me to drop into a slot so that the screen was at a 45° angle. The reason for these screens was that if an engine's tender overfilled when picking up from the water troughs, the water broke the front cab window. I was present on the footplate when it happened on one occasion, having been sent out to investigate by the Doncaster Chief Draughtsman. The vee-front to the cab of the 'A4s' was the result of my report and cured the problem; the design was perpetuated on the 'V2s' for the same reason.

'Green Arrow'  — the versatile 'V2'. Alex Rankin
Re colour photograph of No 60926 at Prestonpans on a goods train (page 417) is of a down train; the location is at Meadowmill bridge. The fields behind the train are now occupied by the Blindwells opencast coal mine.

East Anglian tales of the unexpected. W. Tuddenham
Re 'Norfolkrnan's' account (August) concerning the 'Haughley Mail', having been a relief signalman stationed at Ipswich, I can throw some light on operations at Haughley in steam days. The station cornprised an up main platform and down main, the latter being an island platform, the bay being accessible from the London end by motor-operated points off the up main; the country end had direct access from the up and down Bury line. As far as I can remember, the up Mail from Norwich would arrive at the up main platform and then be escorted by the night station porter over the motor points and back into the down bay. The engine would come off and run round to the country end of the train. Then the down Peterborough mail would arrive and was split, to leave the Norwich portion, and the front section would depart. The engine off the up Norwich Mail would be let out to back on to the down portion, and that train would leave. The up Peterborough Mail would come off the Bury line, and run over the motor points, to back on to the Norwich portion, and then the up train would leave for Ipswich and London. The Norwich engine was usually an L1 2-6-4T and both up and down Peterborough workings would be headed by a 'D16/3 4-4-0.

By LMS to Oxford. Gordon Biddle
Re article (September). Stanley C. Jenkins rightly expresses scepticism that Sir Joseph (not Christopher) Paxton designed the overall roof of Oxford Rewley Road station using parts left over from the Crystal Palace. The reason why Rewley Road is historically important, and why the remains are now a listed structure, is that the principles of prefabrication used by Paxton in the Crystal Palace were adopted by the same contractors, Fox Henderson & Co, when they erected the station. Sir Charles Fox was a principal in the firm, which undertook the design and erection of ironwork for many stations and other large iron structures in the last century. The centre part of the overall roof at Bletchley lasted until the station was reconstructed for West Coast main line electrification, and, in fact, the iron columns and brackets which supported the old awnings still serve for the new. Launton was an interesting station by virtue of its 'upside down' building, in which the station offices, such as they were, occupied the first-floor at platform level, which was on a low embankment, with living quarters below, There were several others like this around the country, among them Penkridge, Walcot and Heighington. I was at Launton one evening in 1962 watching the departure of the last train of the day. After carrying out the station duties, it drew forward to the starting signal, which was off, in order to clear the crossing gates. The porter-signalman then belled 'train entering section' to Marsh Gibbon, 'train out of section' to the box in rear, closed the gates, set the starter at danger, locked up the office con- taining the instruments and joined the train, which set off towards Bletchley against the signal. Evidently, it was the only means by which the signalman could get home.

Eric E. Forge. Eastleigh and locomotive design – Drummond and Urie as managers. 580-2.
The pen vignettes about Drummond are well known: how he could be very kind if one of "his" drivers was in personal difficulties, and of the operation of the "Bug". Less well known is the story of his workmen refusing to lift a locomotive as it was beyond the capacity of the cranes (at Nine Elms), and then Drummond and his entourage walking right under the lifted locomotive. The material about Urie is incorporated with this biographical material. Illus.Drummond alongside one of his 4-6-0s (No. 448) at Eastleigh, erecting shop at Eastleigh in October 1910, the "Bug" (4-2-4T  No. 733), Urie (portrait), Drummond 4-6-0 No. 335 as rebuilt by Urie. Urie is portrayed as severe in both his human relationships and in locomotive design (as typified by his stovepipe chimneys)

No. 524 (December 1983)

W.T. Scott. The GNR(I) Vs class 4-4-0s. 622-6.

Eric Neve. LNER enterprise — GN section excursion trains 1923-39. 627-31

Derek Cross. The 'St. Trinian's Belle'. 636-7

Stephen Chapman. Keeping the mail on the rails. 638-43

Peter Swinger. No. 70000 Britannia — back to the main line? 646-50