Railway World
Volume 43 (1982)
Key file

Number 501 (January 1982)

C.P. Atkins. The National Railway Museum and its photographic collectiun. 6-10.
Introduction briefly describes the state of all the collections in 1982, including a set of The Railway Engineer from 1880 to 1935. Illustrations: Birmingham New Street in September 1885 with rebuilt Bloomer 2-2-2; Derby Works paint-shop in 1880 with five new 4-2-2 Spinners with varnish drying; LNWR Precedent class 2-4-0 No. 1480 Newton completed in April 1866; Horwich Works Band in 1908; beaver-tail observation cars under construction for streamlined Coronation streamliner in 1937 at Doncaster Works; No. 4082 Windsor Castle running-in at Bristol Stapleton Road with two-coach train (G.H. Soole); Grangemouth Docks; Stratford Works drawing office in 1899; Charles Roberts built coke wagon for Cleckheaton Gas Works.

Geoff Silcock. The last beasts of man. 11-13
National Coal Board in South Wales: 0-6-0ST from several builders at  work at Graig Merthyr,  Blaenavon, Maerdy, Brynlliw Colliery and Mountain Ash.

David Percival. Heyday of the 'Deltics'. 14-17.
When the Deltics were new and even worked The Elizabethan for one last summer (No. 9012 Crepello at Selby on 6 August 1962)

Klaus Marx. Harry S. Wainwright: a reappraisal — 2. 18-21.
The seeds of Harry Wainwright's eventual resignation can be traced back to the very moment of his appointment. As previously indicated, he had been given too large a portfolio to administer. From being Carriage and Wagon Superintendent of the South Eastern Railway, his new post not only absorbed that of his opposite number on the London, Chatharn and Dover Railway, but also the locomotive departments of both companies. Not only did he have the task of moulding two entrenched work forces into one, but, far from any reduction in size that the elimination of duplication might have produced, the whole enterprise grew and expanded out of all proportion. The giant creeper of administration, far from remaining static, spread its tendrils into every corner of the system. Wainwright doubtless off-loaded much of his workload by delegation, but to keep track of the whole span of his administration was more than was humanly possible. Reading between the lines one senses that things had become too much for him and, in burning himself out, his health gave in the end.
The latter stages of Wainwright's superintendency were less auspicious than the beginning. Things had not been going too well from 1909 and the South Eastern & Chatham Railway was slowing up and con- gealing. In October 191 1, this was painfully apparent to the new General Manager, Francis H. Dent, well-known for his managerial efficiency on the London & North Western Railway and who had succeeded Vincent Hill that March. 'I think the time has arrived,' he told the committee, 'to make some alterations in the organisation of the Locomotive, Carriage and Wagon Department. The Locomotive Superintendent is in charge of the Carriage and Wagon as well as the Locomotive Works, and at the same time responsible for the running departments. The combined Department has grown considerably (and) labour questions will more frequently arise.' This was a reference to the previous July when an angry deputation of men employed at Longhedge had protested against the intended closure of the Works. 'There needs to be a responsible officer in charge of the running section, as distinct from the manufacturing section. 1 am satisfied that it is impossible for one officer to give personal attention to both sections. 1 propose to relieve him of direct responsibility for the Running Department.' Perhaps the thought came from the neighbouring LBSC, on the retirement of Earle Marsh earlier that year. There the Locomotive and Carriage Departments were separated, Laurie Billinton becoming Locomotive Superintendent and A. H. Panter, Carriage and Wagon Superintendent.
Dent went on to recommend the appointment of a new officer responsible over engineering matters to the Locomotive Superintendent, over train running to the Superintendent of the Line and over discipline to the General Manager. This would leave Wainwright with more freedom for technical matters in his department and for management of the Works. This was particularly desirable in view of the closure of Longhedge and expansion at Ashford. The new managerial set-up was confirmed in principle by the Committee, but not fully implemented until the appointment of R.E.L. Maunsell as Chief Mechanical Engineer at the end of 1913. It came too late to save Wainwright.
A second factor that mitigated against any continued success was the constant need for economy. That the finances of the two struggling companies in the 1890s were bent towards insolvency is common knowledge. There was inadequate capital available for the rapid improvement of facilities to a degree acceptable in an age of progress. Back in February 1903, the lean beast of economy first raised its head, the Chairman declaring that 'it is the Committee's aim to reduce expenses'. Wainwright's gargantuan department was naturally in the front line of fire. He stoutly defended his administration, explaining that alterations were being made in engine workings with a view to effecting economies. Part of the Locomotive and Carriage Shops at Ashford and at Longhedge were to be closed on Saturdays. Engine renewals were the same as in the pre- vious year, but a reduction of £3,000 had been effected in the wagon construction programme. Said Wainwright, 'I can assure the Chairman that 1 am taking every possible step to enforce rigid economy'.
But the financial squeeze became a stranglehold as the Edwardian era closed. A quick glance at the building dates of the Wainwright locomotives clearly reveals the fact that there was a nil renewal of locomotives in the years 1910-12. The last six of the P class 0-6-0Ts were ordered in 1909. In 1910 the allocation of money for loco- motive renewals was used to payoff a heavy deficit on the carriage programme. For three years during which other railway companies prodigously added to stock, the SECR had no new engines although it rebuilt about fifty B, F, 0, Q and R classes. Elsewhere it was a question of renewing and patching up a stud which included many ageing loco- motives expected to haul ever-increasing traffic loads.
Things came to a head in the summer of 1913. In April of the previous year, Arthur D. Jones had succeeded William Corner as Outdoor Locomotive Superintendent, and was directed to report on the difficulty experienced in working trains during the summer months in view of unsatisfactory motive power. His report was dynamite, for Jones commented that: 'I have had to work engines in a condition that I should not have done if there had been engines in a better state of repair available. There is a backlog of repairs at sheds, and failures in traffic show a serious increase. The present position is worse than that shown in a review made in December 1912. 138 locomotives are at work requiring a general overhaul'. The Committee noted that there was shortfall of 100 efficient engines and stipulated that 140 were to go through works and put into proper working order before 1 June 1914. Additional action taken included an expenditure of £5,000 on new machinery. Wainwright was to purchase extra boilers, 12 express engines of Class L were to be ordered immediately from Beyer Peacock, and the General Manager was to negotiate with the Midland Railway and with other companies for the loan of engines. From all this it is clearly apparent that the growth of traffic had exceeded the available motive power. As a temporary expedient, locomotives were borrowed from the Great Northern Railway and these fulfilled a useful role in the early part of the coming war, just a year away.
On two counts, those of an overstretched administration and financial stringency, one can only concur with O.S. Nock who writes: 'It was no secret that Ashford affairs had been gradually drifting into a rather unsatisfactory state. The stigma applied to the Locomotive Department generally, and was indirectly due to the personality and predilictions of Mr Wainwright himself. He was more of an artist than an engineer, and certainly not a strong administrator. Consequently it was not the merely detailed work, but much of the direct control of the Department which drifted into other hands'. The root of the problem was that the administration had come into the grasp of Hugh McColI, to quote Nock, 'the dour Scots Chief Clerk, who was wielding almost absolute power, and ruling the running department with a rod of iron'.
Wainwright often found himself on the defensive, at the hands of the Management Committee and its Locomotive, Carriage and Wagon sub-committee. Here things turned definitely sour at the end. In the chair on most occasions was H. Cosmo Bonsor MP, Director of the Bank of England, a capable, strong and forceful personality who did not mince his words if the occasion required it. His Committee usually comprised at least six members including three MPs, at least a couple of baronets, and, from the company's staff, the General Manager, Charles Heath, the Secretary, and Wainwright himself.
At each session there was a stereotyped agenda of business featuring the number of engines in stock (this remained in the 740s for most of the period); engines on the duplicate list; the highest number under steam on anyone day during the current half-year (a double-edged question, if economy was the watchword) — this total reached a peak of 603 in 1904; locomotives under or awaiting repairs (eg in March 1904, Ashford 82, Longhedge 37); and train mileage and cost per mile (eg in January 1905, 1,145,459 at 11.61d per train mile). Similar reports and returns were submitted for the carriage and wagon stock. Doubtless someone reached the necessary conclusions from taking the Department's temperature at half-yearly intervals.
Sometimes the Directors thought that they knew better than the railway officers. In 1906, Lord Burton queried the size of driving wheel in relation to the gradient, Wainwright replying that the 6ft 8in diameter of the D class driving wheels was satisfactory. On other occasions directors appeared to have vested interests in technical equipment. Wainwright was badgered to introduce the Vickers Hall system of electric carriage lighting, and eventually three coaches were so fitted as an experiment. No conclusion was reached and he was asked to fit the same coaches with Stone's system as well in order to afford a comparison. V In 1910, came the now legendary clash regarding the allegedly expensive painting of Wainwright's locomotives. The Chairman. announced that he had been considering whether a saving could not be effected by doing away with the brass domes of the engines and other brasswork, and coating all such with black varnish! Wainwright reported back at the next meeting: 'I am already painting the goods engines including the domes green with very plain lining up, which will save about £1 per engine painted. With regard to painting those engines black instead of green there does not appear to be any saving in either material or labour. With regard to the passenger engines, unless the Directors particularly wish it, I do not think we can improve upon our present style of painting these engines as an incentive to the men to keep their engines clean and tidy'. He won the day.
The passenger engine livery referred to was described in Wainwright's own words
as: 'Brunswick green relieved with broad bands of light green lined out with yellow and red. Frames are dark red, picked out with yellow and red lines'. When all is said and done, he was responsible for one of the most elaborate colour schemes ever applied to British locomotives. O.S. Nock sees in the D class 'the artistic hand of Wainwright ... and a first-rate mechanical design was clothed in a unity of outward style and "line" that made each of these engines a true objet d'art'.
Another component of Wainwright's debacle may be termed the expansion factor. The SECR was experiencing the critical stage in motive power provision where the operator cannot meet the demands of traffic merely by building bigger and heavier· engines. This happened on a small scale with the rail motors which proved inadequate for the traffic offering and so proved superfluous. Mistaken judgement in this case was compounded with the introduction of the 'P' class 0-6-0Ts. Their performance was a repeat of the experience with the rail motors. Starting off well on a number of SECR lines, by operating motor trains with the 'P' sandwiched between two auto- coaches, there was a growing demand to increase services to four coaches which were then beyond the ability of the small 0-6-0Ts. No more than five years after their introduc- tion, the mechanical auto-train gear had been removed from half the class.
The story was epeated on a larger scale with the main line services. By 1910, principal express trains often topped the 300- ton mark, and double heading made its appearance. In 1907, Wainwright had a design for an inside cylinder 4-6-0 on the Ashford drawing board, and in 1911 another 4-6-0 and an 0-8-0 goods engine, but the Civil Engineer would not have such weighty locomotives on the system.
The failure to renew the motive power fleet only exacerbated the locomotive crisis, and it was no wonder that on taking over Maunsell inveighed against the situation. 'The shops at Ashford are not adequate to keep the present stock. There is a multiplicity of different classes and their parts. The want of standardisation in the design of the Loco- motive, Carriage and Wagon stock and all details connected therewith will be a serious obstacle to economic maintenance for some years.' The last charge could surely not be laid at Wainwright's door since it was an unavoidable inheritance from the amalgama- tion of two consitituent companies building in small quantities. Wainwright had his own declared standardisation policy, as demon- trated in the extensive programme in which a standard boiler was designed for use in rebuilding the 'R' and 'RI' classes (LCDR design); the Stirling 'Q' class (ex-SER) and the new 'H' class. At one time there were 154 0-4-4Ts of three distinct classes carrying the same design of boiler.
But at the root of the unfortunate end to Wainwright's regime lay the reconstruction of Ashford Works and the closure of Longhedge. In the end, a whole host of factors came together to conspire against him. In the first place the move was far from popular with the men at Longhedge. This was especially the case with the team of draughtsmen responsible for the pre- domination of LCDR features in current locomotive designs. Indeed, so prejudiced was Robert Surtees against Ashford that, when the move came, he saw to it that all the crates of works equipment being transferred were labelled LCDR! The Chatham men, used to smart and workmanlike black loco- motives with simple red lining out, curled their lips and looked askance at the 'dressed- up' engines as embellished by Wainwright- a rather different reaction from today. Far more important was the unwillingness of the Board to provide sufficient money to equip Ashford Works fully so as to take the extra load transferred from Longhedge, which Works was allowed to run down gradually from mid-1910 but with no real increase in capacity at Ashford. A particular instance was the boiler shop. Longhedge lost more than 70 men in this period, but Ashford gained only 24. The move and reconstruction that ensued was the straw that broke the camel's back. The Board considered this process a logical part of a rationalisation programme to avoid duplication, save money and trim the workforce. However, it occurred at a period of expansion in Britain's railways. The money available to the SECR had many calls upon it other than Ashford, an obvious one being the reclamation work on the site of the new Dover Marine station. Nor was enough thought given to planning the move which was mishandled to the extent of closing down Longhedge before the creation of alter- native capacity at Ashford. As a result, the shortage of repair facilities meant that loco- motive shopping was protracted and the SECR soon ran short of serviceable motive power. In the end, the upheaval led to the disruption of the whole railway, not so much for lack of funds, but shortage of workshop capacity, and at a time when there were con- siderable delays in deliveries from con- tractors.
Another weakness, and one for which Wainwright alone can be held responsible, was the lack of direct supervision. He over-played delegation such that it was McColl who influenced affairs in the Locomotive Department and the latter's interference rather than mismanagement was at fault. There was, for instance, the question of the two missing boilers of 'H' class 0-4-4Ts Nos 16 and 184.
As it happened, Wainwright was asked to resign long before the facts of the case were brought into the open. In the tremendous upheaval at Ashford such a matter could perhaps be overlooked and in fact the boiler shop there could not handle the load and so the two boilers were directed elsewhere. In each of the years 1909/10/11 Wainwright was refused authority either to send boilers away to be repaired, or to order new ones from outside manufacturers!
A martinet of a new chairman arrived at a time of serious muddle, and held Wainwright responsible for the results of what were principally previous directorial errors. So it came about that, as described by Bradley, 'because of motive power inadequacies highlighted by the summer services. Wainwright's star was waining rapidly'. The Board instructed the Chairman to approach Wainwright privately and to suggest the latter's resignation on grounds of ill-health. This delicate task was concluded with the minimum of publicity and unpleasantness. Wainwright agreed to retire on 30 November 1913, the official reason being given as ill- health.
The end of Wainwright's story makes sad reading. With the resignation of both Kirtley and Stirling each was granted a pension of £600 a year for life, with the undertaking 'not to engage in matters detrimental to the interests of the Committee, and that he places his services at the disposal of the Committee or its officers for any information that may be required as to past matters'. But it appears that Wainwright first had to submit a letter to the Chairman and his former colleagues on the Management Com- mittee, applying for the directors' con- sideration on his retirement. Meeting on 12 November 1913, the Committee was, however, not unsympathetic. In view of Wainwright's state of health, it was decided that he should retire from the service at once and to mark the appreciation of his services it was agreed that his full salary would be paid up to the end of that year. From I January 1914, a retirement allowance of £1,200 a year would be granted him for life. In the next paragraph of the Committee minutes is recorded the appointment of R. E. L. Maunsell as CME at a salary of £2,000, rising to £2,500 in twelve months. The high remuneration was defended as follows: 'Had everything been in satisfactory order it might have been desirable to appoint a younger man at a lower salary. It has been necessary to approach one who has sufficient experience in reorganisation. Press and Chief Officers of Railway Companies to be notified'.
One may sympathise with Wainwright as he was made the scapegoat, and yet it was partly his own fault. In carrying the can, the pension granted him, large by 1914 standards, suggests that the Board had some sympathy. Thus did Harry Wainwright pass out of railway history. In retirement, he did what had not been possible previously, namely to take a considerable interest in local matters in Ashford. He became a JP for the County of Kent, a member of the County Association and an officer in the Territorial Army during World War 1. He died at Bexhill on Sea on 19 Septem ber 192 5, aged 60.
Wainwright will always be remembered for the overall design and finish of his beauti- ful engines. Today, seven still remain in existence, way behind the twelve of Stroudley design (largely 'Terriers'), but more numerous than any other pre- Grouping locomotive designer.
The National Railway Museum at York gives one a breathtaking glimpse of the splendour of 'D' class 'Coppertop', No 737 that will remind future generations of the high standards of our railways in Edwardian days. But to see Wainwright motive power active and at work more than seventy years after construction, and with next to no major alterations, the student of locomotives must go to the Bluebell Railway. Here are operated representatives of the 'C' class goods, No 592, the 'H' class 0-4-4T, No 263, and his diminutive 'P' class tanks. Seeing them in steam and hauling compatible SECR-pattern coaches is indeed a marvellous sight and one that would have doubtless gladdened their creator's heart in his years of retirement.
The commemoration of his name on a locomotive provides one final personal memorial. Though Wainwright failed to make the ranks of the Southern Railway's 'Remembrance' class, its successor made amends in August 1963, when the USA class 0-6-0T No 30070 which as DS 238 had appropriately shunted at Ashford Works in the mid-1960s was named Wainwright. It had the good fortune to be saved by a hot box at Tonbridge en route for the scrapyard. Purchased by the Kent and East Sussex Railway, Wainwright is now at Rolvenden, which happens to be about halfway between Ashford and Bexhill. Long may this well- chosen tribute remain to the memory of a man to whom less than justice was done.
Minutes of the Management Committee of the SER and LCD Railways.
Minutes of the Locomotive, Carriage and Wagon Committee of the SECR.
Interview with Mr Harry Wainwright: Railway Magazine, September 1901.
The Locomotive History of the South Eastern & Chatham Railway, D.L. Bradley (RCTS).
Railway Engineers - a Biographical Dictionary, John Marshall (David & Charles).
The South Eastern and Chatham Railway, O.S. Nock (Ian Allan Ltd), out of print.
The Locomotives of R.E.L. Maunsell, O.S. Nock (Edward Everard).
Locomotive Engineers of the Southern Railway, Ben Webb.
With special appreciation to the staff at the National Railway Museum, York, and the Public Record Office, Kew, for assistance given, and to Donald Bradley, Dick Riley and Peter Winding for many helpful and constructive comments during the writing of this article.
(Part 1 of this article appeared in the October 1981 issue. pp526-33)
Illustrations: Immaculate D 4-4-0 No 738, in original condition with tall chimney, passes St Mary Crayon the Chatham line with an up boat train. (Rixon Bucknall): An example of a Stirling locomotive rebuilt in the Wainwright period. Class O 0-4-4T No 180, built 1882, rebuilt as a O1 in 1903 and fitted with short chimney and condensing gear for operation via Snow Hill and Widened Lines on to the GNR. One of the original pair of GNR E1 2-4-0s loaned to the SE&CR, No 1067, which arrived in November 1913. The tender carries the SE&CR initials. The location is possibly Ramsgate Town; An unusual picture of a P 0-6-0T at work in SE&CR days. No 323, now preserved, on the Sevenoaks motor train leaving Otford. (Rixon Bucknall); Class L 4-4-0 No 773 on boat train, including Pullmans, c1914; the locomotive is painted in lined green SE&CR livery. Wainwright memorial. After restoration at Ashford Works in 1960; D 4-4-0 No 737 (Douglas Weaver} .

Eric J. Flavell. The new Great Central — 1. One man's dream — an ethusiast's reality. 22-4.

Peter Ostle. The new Great Central — 2. What the passengers want. 24-7.

Steam at large. 28-9.
Colour photo-feature of activity on preserved railways in 1981: Midland compound No. 1000 leaving York with preserved rolling stock heading towards Skelton Junction bound for Harrogate on 7 October (A.T. Matthews); Liverpool & Manchester Railway 0-4-2 Lion alongside broad gauge track at the t ransfer shed at the Didcot Railway Centre on 11 October (J.H. Cooper-Smith); Market Bosworth Light Railway Hawthorn Leslie 0-6-0ST No. 21 (WN 3931/1938) and Bagnall 0-6-0ST Lamport No. 3 9WN 2670/1942) doublehead Shackerstone to Market Bosworth train on 13 September (Graham Wignall) and 4F No. 4027 on passenger train passing No. 6203 at Swanwick on Midland Railway Trust on 31 August (Graham Wignall).

Michael Harris. At work with steam 3. 30-1
Jim Knowles  joined LMS on 3 March 1941 at former Midland shed at Carnforth and moved to LNWR shed at Christmas. Remembered the gauge glasses on  S160 2-8-0. Passed for driving in 1955 and was working steam specials from there. Alf Roberts joined LMS as signalbox lad in 1943, then became shunter and parcels clerk before moving to footplate work in 1950. Experienced firing A1 pacifics and Princess Royal class and the Duke of Gloucester over Shap (the last being the hardest) and was firing preserved locomotives from Steamtown including Lord Nelson.

Michael Harris. At work with steam 4. 32-5

Number 502 (February 1982)

Peter Brock. Firing fitted freights on the Waverley Route. 62-71. illustration
Alhoughh employed at Carlisle Kingmoor he opted to transfer to Canal to fire LNER Pacifics over the Southern section of the Waverley route,

Alfred Fisher. Narrow gauge to Leighton Buzzaed. Part 2 the narrow gauge railway. 73-8.
Adventures with Simplex locomotives at Pages Park; with Chaloner, the de Winton vertical boiler locomotive and the tiny steam locomotives belonging to Mike Satow, Sir Pet er Allen and the Reverend Awdry. Signalling had been installed on an elaborate scale and there was a quest for safety (most of the time).

M. Rutherford. Mechanical engineering drawings held by the National Railway Museum. 79-83.
Over 250,000 drawings are held by the NRM, in its library and this collection excludes those relating to Scottish-built locomotives which are held by the Scottish Record Office.

B.J. Staite and D.H. Ward. The SLOA Pullman train—the first year's experience. 86-90

Letters. 91

The 'Hielanmen' at work. Alex Rankin
Re article by A.G. Dunbar which states there has been much in the railway press in recent years of the goings on at Inverness and Perth about these locomotives and F.G. Smith. I thought you might be interested in another angle — the way in which the railway press dealt with the entry into service of these and associated types as recorded in The Locomotive for 1916/17. Regrettably, I don't have the volume for 1915.
On page 41 of the March 1916 issue, it is recorded that five new engines were then under construction for the Highland Railway, three of the 4-6-0 type, almost identical with the 'Castle' class, and two 4-4-0s 'Similar to the "Loch" 4-4-0 but heavier'. In the same issue on page 44 appears a Caledonian Railway note 'the 4-6-0 engines originally built for the Highland Railway are numbered 938 to 943 inclusive and are at work on passenger and fast goods trains. In the September 1916 issue appears on page 193, a note that Nos 938/40 were working between Glasgow and Carlisle on goods trains.
In January 1917 on page 1 is a description and photo of Snaigow where the design is credited to C. Cumming and as being his first design since he became Locomotive Superintendent of the Highland Railway. As A.G. Dunbar states, I suspect that Snaigow and Durn constituted a Smith design but he was in disgrace and so Cumming took the credit. The design wasn't repeated and intriguingly three new Jones Loch class engines were built in 1917, adding weight to the argument. One point which has certainly been overlooked is that Durn and Snaigow were the first Highland engines to have Walschaerts valve gear, as did the later Clan and Clan Goods classes.
Believe it or not, that but page 19 NOT 20 as stated on the February 1917 issue of Locomotive  Mag.is given over to a description which starts as follows — 'In previous issues we have mentioned a class of powerful outside cylinder 4-6-0 locomotives running on the Caledonian Railway and we are now able to illustrate one of these fine machines constructed in 1915 by Messr R. & W. Hawthorn Leslie of Newcastle upon Tyne'. The photo is allegedly of No 938, but unlettered and unnumbered. Notice, too, that there is no reference to the Highland Railway as previously.
The fact that they had Belpaire fireboxes was commented on, as they were the first Caledonian engines since Brittain's time to be so fitted. More interestingly the feedwater heater is described at length which A.G. Dunbar states was removed before the Caledonian took delivery! The article closes: 'There are six of these engines in service on the Caledonian Railway, No 938 to 943, and they are working passenger and fast goods trains between Glasgow and Carlisle'. So was Perth the only depot using them on passenger trains?
After that a silence descended and the Pickersgill 60 class were described in the March 1917 issue. No more was said of Nos 938-943 during 1917 but I understand the story came out in 1920 - a volume not in my collection.

The 'Hielanmen' at work. J.G. Wallace
Re A.G. Dunbar article: he was mistaken in stating (page 482) that they were 'unlined in livery' when painted black in 1928/29. In common with other HR passenger engines, the red LMS livery was followed by black with red lining on splashers, cabs ides and tender.
Some types of film did not show the red lines, but they can be clearly seen on River No 14759 and Clan Campbell on p35 of R.D. Stephen's Scottish Steam Miscellany. No 14759 was the first to arrive on the Highland and was already in black while at least three of the others were still red.
As the 'Rivers' could be seen daily working in pairs from 1928 until the Moguls arrived, I cannot understand the significance of Mr Dunbar's remark that one had been 'photographed piloting a "Castle" ', Many times during that period I saw them so deployed on the morning 'Mail' (06.40 ex-Perth) passing Kingswood Loop at about 06.55. Although they were sometimes paired with 'Clans' it was more usual to see two 'Rivers' or two 'Clans' in tandem.
In view of its everyday occurrence, it has always puzzled me why so very few photographs have ever been published of two of the class in tandem.

CLC — past and present. R.L. Preston. 93
Re article (September 1981 issue), there was a satisfying deal of succint information on several themes, filling gaps in one's personal knowledge or consolidating points of speculation, especially about current operations. However, comment on various points. What the article does not make clear is that the LNWR's Warrington and Stockport line never actually got past Timperley Junction in 1854 (ie into its own and the GC's MSJ&A line to Manchester), or past Broadheath (and on as stated in 1866), because of the CLC's development. It was the service to Manchester London Road from south Warrington via MS J&A that was eventually withdrawn in 1962 — latterly dmus Lime St-Ditton-Widnes (South)-Bank Quay LL & Oxford Road. The service withdrawn on 30 November 1969 (also on p 458) was Stockport (TD)-Warrington Central, not Arpley!
The map on the same page has Chester Northgate station misplaced — it should be shown to the west of General station, south-west of the Birkenhead Joint triangle, with the Northgate MPD and goods yard between, straddling the Holyhead/ Shrewsbury lines. The Mickle Trafford links are awry on the map while correctly described in the text. At Winsford the former shows a confusing proximity of the CLC goods spur (to the Salt Mire only, on the Over side) to the LNW branch and sidings on the Wharton side of the River Weaver Navigation. I'm sure there was never a rail connection between them despite our gaining such impressions from various publications. The two salt branches east and north of Northwich station are omitted by the map and the text, though they survived into BR days. I think the Mouldsworth-Helsby line has always been single (but for the extremities), while there was a truly goods only station at Manley. Helsby (CLC) was open for passengers 1870-75, summer only 1934-38, plus workmens' trains as surmised, and one train in the winter timetable 1963-64 westwards.
Scant Summers Steel works traffic reached the CLC from the LM via Sandbach-Northwich line (p 491), but was principally hauled from Godley by O4s, J39s, K3s and, lastly, Crabs (of Gorton MPD) before dieselisation, with a few LM trains via New Mills. The 1957 westward spur at Northwich was indeed put in to deal with the growth of block trains from and to Stanlow oil refineries, with only a little coking coal for Shotton. It was of course the Bidston Dock ore and Welsh coal that ran over 'purely GC metals' to Shotton, as hinted at in page 486. The 'guarantees' of heavy goods for the Skelton-Mouldsworth section would be better ordered (p487) as Northwich (&Winsford) salt, and alkali industry, from 1870; John Summers steel (after 1920); and then more latterly, oil. The Huskisson branch may have been kept on in 1973-75 (page 488) because of the Clarence power station being one more installation supplied with South Yorkshire solid fuel via the CLC.
I do feel it was regrettable, too, that there wasn't one photograph of steam working accompanying the substantial and otherwise largely successful article of a fascinating network. (The point regarding illustrations of steam working over CLC lines is appreciated, but regrettably the space available precluded adequate treatment. Ed).

A Highland trilogy. P.N. James 
Re Don Rowland's third instalment (October 1981): in referring to a parcels waybill of 1911 found in the loft of Dalnaspidal station 1 would offer a little background to the C.B. Ismay mentioned, thus confirming Don Rowland's speculation.
The Ismay family were at that time residents of Hazelbeach Hall in Northamptonshire and each year spent six weeks in the Highlands for the shooting and fishing. This annual exodus involved most of the household staff, including chauffeurs and three motor cars, thus necessitating the weekly flow of hampers between Kelmarsh and Dalnaspidal station. Traffic in these hampers not only contained food but also a regular supply of laundry to and from Hazelbeach Hall. Charles B. Ismay and his twin brother Bruce were both directors of the White Star shipping lines and brother Bruce subsequently survived the maiden voyage of the Titanic. The regular excursion of the Ismay family to the Highlands ceased in 1923, shortly before the death of Charles B. Ismay.[KPJ cannot confirm this twin brother assertion: Ismay has a Titannic literature]

A Highland trilogy. John Laurie. 93
Re Don Rowland's reference in the third of the A Highland trilogy series to station masters at Dalnaspidal and Dava doubling up as postmasters and the remark that similar arrangements may have existed at other places. It may be of interest to readers that such arrangements still exist in various places, including Bridge of Orchy and Rannoch on the West Highland Line.

Minimum gauge pioneer. D.R. Webb. 93-4
I am sure that everybody connected with the Ravenglass and Eskdale Railway will have read the article on Sir Arthur Heywood (November 1981) with great interest. Mr Weaver, its author, is to be congratulated.
I would, however, like to point out that when Muriel was rebuilt into River 1rt in 1927, the new boiler fitted at that time was not the same type as carried by River Esk. It had a narrower firebox and the heating surface was 95sq ft as compared with that of 134.4sq ft in the boiler of River Esk.1t was planned to replace this with the same type as fitted to River Esk and the other steam locomotives of the RER during a complete overhaul in the summer of 1978, but in fact the 1927 boiler had to be condemned after an inspection late in 1976.
However, River Mite was scheduled for a complete overhaul necessitating her being out of service during 1978, so her boiler was accordingly lent to River Irt during that year. The modifications required to accommodate this boiler would in any case be required when the new boiler for River Irt was delivered to Ravenglass. Accordingly, when River Irt went in for overhaul in 1978, the boiler borrowed from River Mite was re-fitted to that locomotive and River Mite emerged from the overhaul with her new boiler, which is standard on the RER.
The photograph of River lrt on page 594 shows the engine in this form. Older illustrations can be compared by noting the narrower firebox and the round dome cover instead of the present one with a flat top.

Locomotive timing and performance. A.E. Durrant. 94 
I agree entirely with J.W. Knowles (May 1981 Letters) that the stop-watch fraternity place too much emphasis on speed rather than performance. Where high speeds are attained downhill, the degree of real locomotive performance, ie horsepower, can sometimes be doubtful indeed. If we take a famous example, Mallard's 126mph downhill, we find that, assuming about 2,500ihp to be the maximum sustainable by an A4 boiler, then the tractive effort in the cylinders at that speed will be:
          375xhp   or 375 x 2500  = 7440lb
                V                 126
The tractive force derived from the gradient (1 in 200) for 165 tons of locomotive plus 240 tons of train is:
(165 + 240) x 2,240_  = 45361b
This works out at 37.8% of the effort needed. Of course, we have no absolute figures for the power produced by the A4, nor of the train's actual resistance at that speed, but these figures are substantially correct, and work out to about 401b/ton total resistance, loco plus train, at 126mph.
Similar calculations for City of Truro's exploit down Wellington bank indicate that it may have been free-wheeling. With slide valves underneath the cylinders, which would drop off their seats with closed regulator, there would be almost zero compression in the cylinders, and the engine's higher mass/volume ratio would allow it a lower specific resistance than the coaching stock. Today, the engine could not possibly attain such speeds, as the cylinder design with piston valves under the cylinders would cause considerable resistance due to compression, acting effectively as a brake.
As a matter of interest, I have prepared a graph showing (straight horizontal lines) the accelerative effort of various gradients, with the Johansen resistance curve plotted against these. These show, for example, that a train whose resistance follows the Johansen curve will balance at 85mph down a 1 in 100 gradient. The Johansen curve applies, of course, to a specific train weight, length and period. Other curves can be superimposed on the same graph.
Any such figures are necessarily approximate, and I often wonder at the efforts made by the stop-watch fraternity in trying to calculate power, given nothing more than the speed of the train, and, where applicable, the gradient. Errors in train speed have already been mentioned - they depend upon the dexterity of the stop-watch manipulator, and due to the shorter time per distance covered, the higher the speed, the greater the possible error. Gradient resistance is easy to compute, but wind resistance, variable from vehicle to vehicle, compounded by the angle and velocity of any head-, tail-, or side-wind, cannot be determined within any close degree of accuracy. Again, the higher the speed, the greater the possible error.
What is needed is a set of tolerances which can be applied to calculated horsepower figures. At low speeds, up steep gradients, where gradient resistance forms a substantial, yet easily calculable portion of the whole, the tolerance could be, say ±2%. At high speeds, on level or downhill track, where unknown wind resistance forms much of that estimated, then ± 10, or even 15% would not seem unrealistic. This has been applied to the accompanying diagram, where the Johansen curve has been expanded into a more realistic resistance band.

New books. 94

British Rail Fleet Survey 2: WR diesel-hydraulics Brian Haresnape Ian Allan Ltd
One might have thought that all to be said about the Western Region's diesel hydraulic locomotives had been put on record. But Brian Haresnape has managed not only to produce a handsome and well-illustrated record of the breed, but in a thoroughly excellent introduction manages to put the introduction of the diesel hydraulic episode into perspective. Motive power policy, German ancestry and industrial design are all particularly well-documented, with a host of worthwhile and intelligent observations. It's a safe bet though that the unfulfilled lives of the diesel hydraulics cost BR dear and in today's straightened circumstances the waste of money is enough to make one despair. Each diesel hydraulic type is illustrated with a wide range of action and detail photographs and a drawing, particularly useful to modellers, and the overall result is thoroughly worthwhile.

Die Ara nach Golsdorf A. Giesl-Gieslingen. Vienna: Verlag Josef Otto Slezak 288pp. Reviewed by D.R. Carling 
This well-printed book is a worthy successor to the author's Lokomotiv-Athleten giving the inside story of the steam locomotive's progress in Austria from 1909, well before Golsdorf's death at the early age of 54 in 1916, until the end of steam locomotive design. Although the author's treatment is sufficiently technical to interest the professional engineer, the book remains readable by the railway and locomotive enthusiast with a modicum of technical German, the author having a better opinion of the latter than many others. In all, some 14 new types and six rebuilt ones are described and their recorded performances compared with the corresponding calculations. Feed water heaters and poppet valve gears receive special attention, as well as chimneys and blast pipes. The origins of the 2-8-4 express locomotives are thoroughly handled as the author not only was contemporary but played a responsible part by carrying out the design calculations on which the Floridsdorf Works based their original proposals; he corrects a number of inaccurate accounts and unsubstantiated claims made by various other writers. The change from the saturated or early superheated compounds of the early 1900s to simpler and more roadworthy locomotives initiated on the Austrian Southern Railway was basically due to changed economic circumstances and the gradual relaxation of the very severe limitation to a maximum axle load of 14½ tons. Golsdorf himself was well aware that his masterly lightweight locomotives were expensive in maintenance and repair and his designs were moving in the same direction. This book should be on the shelf of anyone with a genuine interest in what was an important school of steam locomotive design.

All stations. Thames & Hudson Ltd. 135pp
Based  on the exhibition 'Le Temps du Gare' which was first staged in Paris and subsequently at the Science Museum, London, All Stations is rather misleadingly subtitled' A journey through 150 years of railway history'. In fact, it is a highly stylised look at railway stations from the architectural and sociological viewpoint. The 381 illustrations, 152 of them in colour, include photographs, paintings and sketches covering the 150-year history of passenger railway stations throughout the world. There are some splendid, evocative examples from grandiose architectural extravagance to scenes depicting sleeping passengers in India and segregated platforms in South Africa. All in all, though, the selection and presentation of the material leaves one with the impression that the station is seen as an art form rather than as a place whose function is simply to enable passengers to board trains.

Other publications. 94

Diesels in the South Pennines (Big lim Publishing Ltd, 176 Drake Street, Rochdale, Lanes,)
Pleasant little album of 54 black and white halftones covering 20 years of diesel activity around Copy Pit, the Calder Valley, Standedge, Bury and Oldham.

Number 503 (March 1982)

E.W. Fellows. The Oxted lines—present and future. 118-22.

Geoff Silcock. Nantgarw: Les and his amazing Austerities. 123-6,
Black & white photo-feature of Nantgarw Colliery sunk in 1910 and where the coking ovens were reconstructed and enlarged in 1947. Les Hutchinson was in charge of the 0-6-0STs,

R.E. Rose. Manchester Central remembered. 127-30
Colour light and powered ponts signalling installed in 1935 between Manchester Central and Cornbrook West Junction. On 24 June, the day after the installation considerable delays were experience on the commuter trains due to driver innexperiience' Further serrious delay was caused by a 4P compound derailing on the approach to the turntable. Motive power seen included Stanier Class 5 4-6-0s which wer begnning to displace the Compounds, B17 class 4-6-0s on the Harwich boat train and some other trains and Ivatt Atlantics.

Paul Johnston. The other control trains. 131-3.

Peter B. Lemmey. French preservation progress. 134-9+

New books, 152
Motive power recognition: 2 -Emus. Colin J. Marsden Ian Allan Ltd .144pp
Second in this series neatly and efficiently takes the reader through the many types of 25kV ac and dc BR electric multiple-units. The various mechanical and electrical differences between vehicles in the same class are clearly explained, as are relevant operating characteristics.

Railways through the Thames Valley. C.R.L. Coles. Ian Allan Ltd. 124pp
Readers of the author's Railways through the Chilterns doubtless welcomed his eclectic approach, such that a wide variety of railway photographs, past and present, steam, diesel and electric, train and station was gathered together. Inevitably, this present album is concerned principally with those main lines nearest the Thames Valley and also as far west as Cricklade and Kemble, near to the source of the river. Again, the choice seems beyond complaint, with a good eye for the less usual and for the working railway with its passengers. One or two photographs make a particular impression such as the close-up of an LSWR lower quadrant bracket signal and an evocative interior shot of Paddington in the 1930s.

Rail routes in Devon and Cornwall. Chris Leigh Ian Allan Ltd.. 112pp.
The idea behind this book is that it should be a traveller's companion, both to remind him of what has gone before in the railway scene and what is in action today. Nearly half this volume is taken up with historic routes, ones that are no more, and maps showing the peninsula's rail routes as at 1947 and 1981 underline the erosion of the railway network. The remainder of the book covers the routes at work today and mixes old and new in a way that makes for interest and indicates to the reader the change in traffic and methods of operation. Perhaps it might have been useful to summarise present train services in a short section within the introduction to each route.

Locomotives of the LNER
Part 3B Classes 'D l' to 'D12'.
Part 3C Classes 'D13' to 'D24'. 119pp.
Railway Correspondence and Travel Society
These two volumes of Locomotives of the LNER have been eagerly awaited and it is a safe bet that no one will be disappointed with the results. The usual pattern of an introduction and class by class descriptions is followed, backed up by relevant and, in the main, well-reproduced photographs. As previously, the exhaustive description of designs, alterations, allocation and work inter alia provides some good nuggets for reflection, such as the work of the 'D9s' on the GE section, an observation that the 'D11s' spent only about 15 years on first-class work and appeared somewhat under-used and, not least, a masterly coverage of the 'Clauds' and of the 'D20s'. In the case of the last-named, there are some interesting details of work into the London area in the 1920s. Excellent value — should be laid down like good vintage wine.

The Weston, Clevedon and Portishead Railway. Christopher Redwood. Sequoia Publishing/Avon-Anglia 183pp.
Detailed histories of small railways all too rarely feature in publishers' lists these days which is a pity. One can only hope that despite this someone is collecting source material and taking the trouble to research thoroughly. This book is to be greatly welcomed as the author has a happy knack of evoking atmosphere and colour, at the same time giving us a solid history which adds to the fairly well-known material already in print. In particular, he has examined the archives of the Excess Insurance Co, the receiver who thus controlled the Railway's destiny for well over half its history and so presents some valu- able material regarding the last decade of the WC&P. Conceived late in the railway day, beset by bad luck and poor management, the Railway nearly expired in 1911, but staff and machinery (and the Excess Insurance Co) somehow saved the show. Apart from the interest in dealing with the WC&P, Redwood's book gives probably the best description of a Col Stephens' railway at work. Warmly recommended.

Great Western Adventure. Brian Hollingsworth. David & Charles. 174pp
There are some, like this reviewer, who know that it is no accident that the GWR spirit is unquenchable, even to the extent of ensuring that Woodham's, Barry should contain so many GWR-design locomotives. It is all part of a greater scheme of things. It would be a pity to reveal the plot just now. One suspects that Brian Hollingsworth is also in on our secret and his book is a happy survey of what survives of GWR origin and inspiration, not forgetting that BR is still the biggest repository of GWR-ana. There is some useful and interesting background to the foundation of the Great Western Society and of the foundation of Didcot Railway Centre. A few quibbles, perhaps. It would have been appropirate to have included more on the sweat and toil of restoring GWR artefacts and worth listing details of GWR official records available for public inspection.

A Regional History of the Railways of Great Britain Vo113: Thames & Severn Rex Christiansen David & Charles 205pp incl 16pp il/us plus map
Latest volume in this series is very largely confined to former GWR territory, working to the boundaries of Leamington, Shrewsbury, the North to West route, Bristol and Winchester. Bristol, indeed, is taken as the hub of the region. The cross-country lines, in particular, get a fair deal from the author, who manages to combine an easy style with both adequate coverage of detail and a review of past and present. In that connection, what he has to say about the Cotswold Line, or Worcester, to take a couple of examples, is relevant and thoughtful. A good effort, with some helpfully clear maps.

Ireland's first railway.  K.A. Murray. Irish Railway Record Society. 236pp
It has taken anniversaries such as Rail 150 and Rocket 150 to make railway people realise just what was involved in making railways a practicable form of public transport. Unfortunately, there are relatively few detailed studies of pioneer lines, so this history of the Dublin & Kingstown Railway, the first in Ireland to use steam power, is of great value, particularly as it is a scholarly and readable volume. As to other distinctions, the D&KR was also the first complete railway in Ireland, operated at 4ft 8½in gauge from 1834 until leased by the Dublin, Wicklow &Wexford Rly from the 1850s and worked the Kingstown-Dalkey section as an atmospheric railway from 1844-54. Much that was an improvement on or variant of early English lines is also explained. The story is taken forward to the present day with its overdue electrification scheme through to Bray. A professional, intelligent and well-written history which deserves success.

Letters. 153

The National Railway Museum and its photographic collection . David Palmer
Re upper photograph on page 10 (January). How can the photograph be dated 1899, when on the window wall there is a photograph of James Holden's 0-10-0T, No 20? For the record, No 20 was built in 1902, rebuilt into an 0-8-0 tender engine in 1906 and scrapped in 1913.
(We have referred Mr Palmer's letter to the NRM who concede his point, but point out that the mistake originated in the Stratford negative register, which clearly gives the date as 1899. - Ed.)

The National Railway Museum and its photographic collection. K.V. Welch 
Atkins' article (January) seems to highlight a point which I feel should be resolved as soon as possible — that is, the various different locations of all the official railway material and records. Surely, now that the National Railway Museum exists, all official railway records should be housed in that building. The same applies to historical photographs, plans and the like. I feel that the majority of interested parties (researchers, modellers etc) would approve of such a scheme as nobody knows exactly what is at the Public Record Office, Kew, York, Edinburgh and with BR at present. Perhaps there is an opportunity to sort it out once and for all.

Testing with the counter-pressure locomotive. Alex Rankin
I have just been browsing through the 1938 volume of the Locomotive where, on pp313/14, L. Derens included an account of a counter-pressure locomotive used as a resistance car in the Netherlands and which utilised compressed air only. The boiler of the 4-4-2 was filled with sand and the cab plated over. The valve gear was modified to increase resistance. The method of test was to couple the engine backwards behind the dynamometer car and to place it in full forward gear. The interest is that these engines had been unsuccessful in express work due to a swinging motion but this one ran beautifully backwards!

The new Great Central Railway. George Dow
For the record, an error in Flavell's article (January) calls for correction. Sir Edward Watkin was never chairman of the Great Central. He relinquished the chairmanship of the Manchester, Sheffield &Lincolnshire in 1894, three years before the change of name, in favour of Lord Wharncliffe (third Baron). Wharncliffe was in turn succeeded in 1899 by Alexander Henderson (later Lord Faringdon), who remained in office until the LNER came into being.

Not a fair trial? Geoff Pember
This article brought back memories of an unforgettable day in 1925, when I was on holiday in Devon. Having heard that Caerphilly Castle and Flying Scotsman were to be matched against each other (I had seen them at Wembley the previous year) I made up my mind to see them in action and travelled to Newton Abbot station on 29 April, then in the process of being rebuilt. At that time, there were speed restrictions at Newton Abbot and the rebuilding work made it more likely that these would be observed.
A few minutes before the up Cornish Riviera was due, a train from Exeter ran in and blocked my view of the up road. Before I could get to the far end of this train there was a tremendous roar under the overall station roof and the up Riviera came rushing through behind a 'Castle' several minutes early at about 50mph.
There was no risk of this happening with the down train as it had to take the platform road beside which I stood. There were hardly any spectators to get in the way, either, and I was rather surprised to find how little interest there was locally in the Exchange. Punctually to the minute the Pacific came in sight and, as if to make sure that Pibworth didn't pick up a few seconds by rushing through the station as Rowe had done, the GW signalman didn't pull off the distant signal so that the LNER driver had to crawl through the station ready to stop if the platform starter was at danger. I was a little disappointed to find instead of the named 4472 I 'had seen at Wembley that the Pacific was the un-named No 4474. In retrospect, one wonders if more effort might not have been made by the staffs concerned if the actual Wembley rivals had been matched against each other.

Not a fair trial? John F. Clay
G. J. Hughes (December 1981) gives a very fair reappraisal of the 1925 LNER v GWR locomotive exchange. There is no doubt that the 'Castle' made a very favourable impression on the LNER main line. During the 1948 Exchanges it was clear that the events of 1925 had not been forgotten by Grantham enginemen. One driver recalled, in accurate detail, a run he had made in 1925 as a fireman 'returning passenger' behind the GWR engine. As No 6018 King Henry VI stood at the down platform on 20 May 1948, an 80-year old former Grantham Pacific driver watched from the up side. He said 'Now I remember when Pendennis Castle was here, that Bill Young was a fine engineman'. Here was an authentic and well-deserved tribute from 'The ranks of Tuscany' but local pride still had the last word when he said, 'You know, our Pacifies would have done better with Grantham men'.
Mr Hughes suggest that in comparison with the smaller 4-6-0 the Pacifies might have done better had longer runs been required. The same retired Grantham driver said that when he was told that Kings Cross Pacifies were regularly working the down 10.00 'Scotsman' to York and after a very quick turn round were returning with the corresponding up train, Driver Young reputedly said 'That will never do for Pendennis Castle'.
The 'disappointing' 'A1' No 2545 was transferred to Grantham in June 1928, and although it was not given long-lap valves until May 1931, it appears to have been well thought of at Grantham, especially by the late Driver J. Ledger. This gentleman proudly displayed over the mantelpiece of his house in Harlaxton Road a framed H. Gordon Tidey photograph of the engine at work in his charge.
However, if history is viewed in perspective, it is arguable that the poor running of No 2545 in 1925 was probably the best thing that could have happened for the LNER. Had the margin between 'Castle' and Pacific been narrower on LNER metals, it might have been even more difficult to persuade Gresley to convert the Pacifies to long-lap valves. As things were, it was not until March 1927 that No 2555 was given the fully modified gear and not until mid-193l that the whole class had received this highly desirable and relatively cheap modification.

A tale of two Inter-Cities. H. I. Quayle
I enjoyed reading Stephen Chapman's most interesting article (December 1981). Diesel multiple- units have always tended to take second place to diesel and electric locomotives, even though dmus must be regarded as one of the greatest successes of the 1955 Modernisation Plan. One hopes we shall see more articles like this.
I would draw readers' attention to page 35 of the January 1959 Trains Illustrated, where there is a photograph of a six-car train of three Cravens two-car units on the Leeds- Manchester route with the caption that all vehicles were powered, thus producing 10hp/ton power/weight ratio - very close to the production Trans-Pennine units. This made me wonder if such a configuration was ever used by BR to arrive at a suitable power/weight ratio for the Trans-Pennine sets.
Mention of the use of Trans- Pennine units on Blackpool South- anchester workings brings to mind an amusing story. In 1971, I was surprised to see a Trans-Pennine set running into Preston station from Blackpool and, on making enquiries, was told by railway enthusiasts that this was known locally as the 'Ena Sharples' train, so called because it was regularly used by Violet Carson, who played Ena Sharples in Granada TV's Coronation Street. Apparently Miss Carson, who lived on the Fylde Coast, had complained to BR management about the poor quality of Blackpool-Manchester rolling stock. Presumably, her voice carried more 'clout' than the anonymous regular commuters. Before anyone dismisses this as a tall story, they should remember Sir Laurence Olivier's success in getting kippers reinstated on the breakfast menu of the 'Brighton Belle' in the late 1960!s

The SLOA Pullman trains. Gordon B. Goldthorp 
I would like to express my praise and admiration of the SLOA Pullman trains through your magazine. I have travelled on several of them and am most impressed by the comfort and efficiency. They give very good value for money and a most enjoyable day out. I am particularly pleased by the Pullman cars themselves. They afford a high standard of comfort and no longer is one's vision marred by people perpetually standing by open windows. Similarly, there are no longer the severe draughts which used to blow the length of the carriage when end door droplights were left open. SLOA and BR are to be congratulated on this new package for enthusiasts and one trusts the Pullmans will receive the support which they deserve.

Number 504 (April 1982)

R.R. Mester. Recollections of the Furness Railway. 1

Number 505 (May 1982)

Adrian Jarvis. The Mersey Railway. 1. The first decade of operation. 240-1

R.S. McNaught. The Mersey Railway. 2. Bob Roberts' greyhounds. 241-3.
Bob Roberts was the chief lineman who had to rectify signalling problems during the period of early electric traction. McNaught could also remember steam traction

G.J. Hughes. A Great Eastern locomotive emergency. 259-61.
Gresley was faced with a difficult situation on the Great Eastern Section. A 2-6-4T was being developed for the Southend services, but work ceased on this partly due to the Sevenoaks accident and partly through the need for mainline motive power. The immediate need was met by ordering ten (rather than the twenty initially envisaged) of the B12 class from outsde builders. Robert Stephenson submitted the lowest tender at £5943 per locomotive, but Beyer Peacock was successful at £5975 as faster delivery was promised. Meanwhile negotiations were taking place with North British Locomotive Co for the development of a three-cylnder 4-6-0 costing £7280 each with a maximum axle load of 18 tons per axle. The boiler became one of the major standard designs (being used for the B1) but Hughes argues that it stemmed from that used on the J39 and D49. NBL was aggrieved that further orders went to Darlington, and there was a further major confrontation with Beyer Peacock concerning the B12 order which had been modified to incorporate Lentz valve gear. At that time Beyer Peacock was run by Sir Sam Fay and R.H. Whitelegg, and legal action was nearly taken against the LNER (Hughes failed to stress the dire economic climate at that time which prompted cost-cutting by the suppliers and financial caution by the railway companies). Relationships between the two suppliers ultimately improved and led to orders for J39s from Beyer Peacock in 1936 and NBL for K3s delivered in 1935. The Lentz B12 were unsuccessful and had to be rebuilt with piston valves. Bridge restrictions on the GE Section were gradually eased.

Number 508 (August 1982)

Mike Christensen. Single line control. 398-402.
Very useful article as gives fairly complete information on British patents back to 1878 (Tyer) and other citations. Horse tramways had been able to operate on the on-sight principle but steam working demanded something better. Train staff and block telegraph were two of the options. One engine in staff was ample for short dead-end branches. The Board of Trade Regulation of Railways Act of 1889 demanded more. Serious head-on collisions near Norwich on 10 September 1874 and Radstock on 7 August 1876 prompted action and the development of electric signalling enabled Tyer to develop electric tablet instruments. The original simple instruments remained in use for a long time — on the Midland & Great Northern until its closure (although tyhe instruments had been modified to allow tablets to be retuned to the issuing instrument. McKenzie & Holland designed a competitor instrument. Mechanisms for the exchange of tokens were developed on the Somerset & Dorset and Midland & Great Northern systems and were exploited elesewhere. During the 1920s and 1930s some main lines were singled and provided with modern signalling. Tokenless single line working gradually became the norm

Adrian N. Curtis. Preservation–Western style. 403-8.
Western Locomotive Asssociation: Class 52 diesel hydraulic locomotives D1013 Western Ranger and D1062 Western Courier who appear to like the blue livery rather than the maroon or desert sand. Problems with Prestolith coatings. Graham Howell and Phil Harper are mentioned for their engineering skill (including electrical) and Richard Holdsworth for financial assistance  

R.R. Mester. Recollections of the Furness Railway. 2. Branches and steamers. 403-11.

Michael Harris. The National Railway Museum – towards seven years and 10 million visitors. 412-19.

D. Benn. Steyrtalbahn d ecline. 422-5
Austria Garsten

Meic Batten. Cadoxton-Pontypool Road—a rail safari in the summer of 1956. 426-9

Letters. 429-30

The Oxted lines. Julian Morel.
See letter from Oakley (May): halt between Groombridge and Tunbridge Wells was High Rocks not Great Rocks.

Not a fair trail. D.J.W. Brough
Re Hughes article questionned whether No. 4472 Flying Scotsman was accompanied by a six-wheel tender at the 1924 Wembley British Empire Exhibition. June 1924 Railway Magazine shows it with an eight wheel tender and from personal recollection he was fairly sure that this was the case. Is there conclusive evidence on this point?
Hughes replies: On re-reading article, I find that I did not refer to the actual year in which No 4472 had its six-wheeled tender — the BEE was open at Wembley in both 1924 and 1925. In checking sources, I find that it was 1925. As Mr Brough believes, the tender attached to No 4472 in 1924 was the usual eight-wheeled type. However, the layout of the stands changed in 1925, and for reasons of space a shorter six-wheeled tender of newly introduced Group Standard type being provided for K3s was substituted.

Midland anniversary. J.W. Walker
As one who first travelled on this line 70 years ago I was naturally deeply interested in the article on the Leicester-Bedford line by Clay and Smith. Concerning their lament for the decline of freight and mineral traffic; it is worth recalling that in 1913 the Midland worked 13,052 coal trains to London and by 191 7 this total had risen to 22,348 yearly, with a maximum in one day of 80 trains. This is an astonishing figure when one considers that these were not block trains each serving one destination, but had to be remarshalled at Brent to serve scores of destinations all over Southern England. The virtual disappearance of this traffic is due of course to the effect of the various Clean Air Acts and the spread of domestic central heating.

Railway World Annual 1983 (ed Michael Harris, lan Allan Ltd, 128pp illus
In inflationary times, it is good going to be able to hold the price of a hard-backed book, even though the colour pages have had to be forfeited. The 1983 Annual features the usual balance between steam in BR service, preservation, overseas practice, current BR developments and the less usual in the railway world. The last encompasses the last (one hopes) major boiler explosion.on British railways, the story of Moss Bay iron and steelworks and its railway products, the Euston station hotel and a history of BR Mark I stock. All told, an eclectic offering in the usual style of Railway World Annual, and not forgetting the Class 56s or BR's recent essays with railbuses.

The Eastern yesterday and today. G. Freeman Allan, Ian Allan Ltd, 64pp
Conceived as an album to contrast the present-day Eastern Region of BR with the pre-Beeching Regional scene, Mr Freeman Alien has managed to point to the variety of changes over 35 years in motive power, services and infrastrucutre. This is the old, pre-1967 Eastern Region in extent with the tangerine-coloured York- administered territory kept out of the picture. Illuminating counterpoint and pithy captions.

A History of the LNER - 1: The first years, 1923-33. Michael R. Bonavia, George Allen & Unwin, 90pp
To attempt to cover all aspects of the establishment and con- solidation of the LNER within the constraints of less than 100 pages is an exacting task, but Michael Bonavia has skilfully succeeded in bringing out all aspects of the Company's management and its commercial and 'political' policies. Not that mechanical engineering is neglected, but the picture is nicely balanced. There are one or two interesting in sights such as a reconsideration of Sir Henry Thornton's place in matters after Grouping and a thoughtful chapter on the LNER's accident record. Good photographs, too

Miniature railways past and present. Anthony J. Lambert, David & Charles, 96pp illus (hardback)
This volume effectively completes the publisher's review of the British narrow gauge (in its fullest sense) and provides a well-informed and excellently illustrated coverage of gauges from 7¼ins to 15ins. A thoughtful introduction is complemented by sensible captions imparting useful and copious information. There is full and up to date detail on recent developments on miniature railways.

The final link. Dermis F. Edwards and Ron Pigram, Midas Books, 144pp
This is by way of being a pictorial history of the Great Western & Great Central Joint, as well as encompassing the GWR main line beyond and into Birmingham Snow Hill. The construction of the Joint Line, and the GCR approach into London, the impact of both on the local communities and services provided initially and in later days, receive excellent and atmospheric coverage. The juxtaposition of 'local history' scenes and conventional railway photographs is particularly effective.

Underground No 10 - The 1935 Experimental Tube Stock. Brian Hardy and Piers Connor, London Underground Railway Society,33pp
This must be commended as one of the most interesting pieces of railway engineering research to have been published in recent months. It deals with the evolution of London Transport's 1935 tube stock prototypes, their unhappy life and subsequent disposal. This is revealing enough in its own right, but much valuable insight is given into LT's relationship with the manufacturers, in-service problems and resultant knowledge embodied in the 1938 tube stock KPJ this throws up yet anoth steamindex sin of omission: The London Und erground Railway Society has been absent from its place in the sun..

British locomotive catalogue 1825-1923. Volume 3A Midland Railway and its constituent companies. compiled Bertram Baxter, ed David Baxter, Moorland Publishing Company, 239pp,
This valuable reference work is quite simply a comprehensive record of the details, running numbers, building dates and disposals of locomotives inherited by and added to stock by the Midland Railway from 1844 to 1923.

Scotland's lost railways 1. The Borders; edited Iain R. Smith, Moorfoot Publishing, 36pp .
Photographic record of the Waverley Route, lines to Selkirk, Peebles, Duns and Tweedrnouth, with an emphasis on the last 30 years of services.

Number 510 (October 1982)

Frank W. Goudie. Railways to Uxbridge. 510-16.
Concentrates on the Metropolitan Railway branch from Harrow on the Hill, and modification to services by the London Passenger Transport Board to accommodate Piccadilly Line services and the reconstruction of the Uxbridge terminus. The Great Western Railway services to Vine Street and High Street are barely mentioned. Pictures of Metropolitan Railway and London Transport termini.

No. 1863. What's next Sir Nigel. 516-18.
Account by one of the volunteers (probably female) who worked hard to ensure that the preserved No. 4498 Sir Nigel Gresley remains in first class condition: this was when the locomotive was based at Steamtown, Carnforth, but other locations are mentioned.

Barrie Walker. Preston Docks recalled. 519-20.
Bagnall 0-6-0ST Energy (WN 2838/1946), Enterprise (WN 2840/1946), Progress (WN 2891/1948), Princess (WN 2682/1942) and Courageous (WN 2892/1948). The last two show banana vans being shunted and a ship berthed in harbour.

G. Fell. The Wisbech & Upwell Sentinels. . 521-3.
Ordered by the LNER in November 1929 the two Y10 class locomotives were intended for use on the Wisbech & Upwell Tramway where the former GER tram locomotives of LNER classes Y6 and J70 were the normal motive power. The 200hp locomotives were similar to two locomotives deleivered to the Somerset & Dorset Railway at about the same time but the LNER locomotives were fitted with skirts and cowcatchers for tramway operation (A works photograph shows one un-numbered locomotive with "Wisbech & Upwell Tramways" applied to the side skirts. One, or both locomotives were tested on the line between 11 June 1930 and  30 May 1931. Thereafter, the locomotives spent most of their time on the quays at Yarmouth, although 8404 was sent to Scotland in February 1934 and  was tested on the lines in Aberdeen docks and briefly at St Leonard's Yard in Edinburgh, but was back at Yarmouth in May. Reasons for the failure of the locomotives on the Wisbech & Upwell Tramway are discussed with reference to the appropriate volume of the RCTS History of locomotives of the LNER Part 9B and The Wisbech and Upwell Tramway by Gadsden, Whetmath and Stafford-Baker. There appear to be no photographs of the locomotives working at Wisbech, but are relatively common of working on the street lines in Yarmouth, although this article only includes view of them on shed at Vauxhall.

Michael Harris. Putting on the style: the 55 Club on the main line. 524-6.
Preserved railway catering based on the use of the National Railway Museum's No. 46229 Duchess of Hamilton and two 1960-built Pullman cars Emerald and Eagle. The catering was provided by Friends of the National Railway Musuem plus one professional member of the Museum's staff. The article noted that one of the Pullman's provided smoking accommodation! David Jenkinson is featured in one of the photographs

Hugh Ballantyne. Mallets to the mountains. 527-31.
Photographs, including colour, and text on the Indonesian State Railways (PJKA)  CC50 Class 2-6-6-0 Mallets built by Werkspoor in Amsterdam and the Swiss Locomotive Works in 1928 working between Cibatu to Garut via Cikajang in Java relatively near Bandung. See also letter from A.E. Durrant

J.N. Faulkner. Motorail  1955-82. 534-41.
The maps show the remarkably large number of routes on which service operated: from St Austell in the west. Ely in the east, Inverness in the north and to Dover for the Continent. Gradually the services were limited to a few hubs, notably Kensington Olympia for London. Services began in the days of steam and were uktimately hauled by electric and diesel electric traction. Some conveyed sleeping cars. Great effort was required to ensure that the trains terminated in the correct direction for off-loading the cars. See also letter from I.C. Macpherson.

New books. 541.

The Central Wales Line. Tom Clift. Ian Allan Ltd, 96pp.
The main part of this fine section of railway still clings to life, despite attempts to dismiss it as the unremunerative line par excellence. It is appropriate therefore to show something of its history and wealth of train working and it is difficult to see that Mr Clift's use of an album format could have been bettered in this endeavour. The main trunk and its several branches are featured in an excellent range of photographs, principally of latter- day steam working and diesel operation; earlier pictures always seem to be rare, in this reviewer's experience. The stations and way and works also receive due attention and the captions are particularly informative. Appendices include selected track plans, a useful series of extracts from the working timetable of 1952/53 (including train loads) and a complete reproduction of the actual timetable of train working.

Beyer, Peacock—locomotive builders to the world. R.L. Hills and D. Patrick. Transport Publishing Company, 302pp. Reviewed D.R. Carling.
It is fortunate indeed that so many of the firm's archives and of their photographs should have survived and are still accessible and that Dr Hills should be effectively in charge of them. For otherwise, this splendid book would not have been written, nor would it have had over 600 illustrations, though some are from other sources.
This book can be strongly recommended to all who have an interest in locomotives, in their manufacture and in the people who were mainly responsible for their design, pro- duction and sale. Besides the locomotives the book covers the more important personalities involved, the workshops and their machinery, finance, profit and loss, business methods and more besides. It is well-printed on good paper, solidly bound and its coloured and half-tone illustrations nicely reproduced. It is a pleasure to read and to look at. Misprints are commendably few, occurring in foreign place names in captions to illustrations.

On and off the rails. Sir John Elliot, George Allen and Unwin, 123pp.
It is impertinence — and the excuse must be lack of space — to accord this important book so short a notice. Sir John Elliot is a significant figure in the history of British railways in the twentieth century. From a position as assistant editor of the Evening Standard, he was appointed Public Relations Assistant to Sir Herbert Walker, General Manager of the Southern Railway. His account of his career in this post is illuminating, lively and human. To quote Sir John, 'The picture of Walker's SR in its early years was an old-fashioned style of management functioning strongly and effectively in a new railway age'. And, later, 'When it started, the Southern had everything to achieve. When its last day came ... it had achieved much'. At 35 years of age Elliot became a real railwayman — assistant for Development under the Traffic Manager. By 1938, he was the SR's Assistant General Manager, on the eve of war. He relates with sympathy his part in the appointment of Eustace Missenden in succession to Gilbert Szlumper. Of particular value is Sir John's clear summary of the problems facing British railways in war and during the uneasy prelude to nationalisation. Even more illuminating, although inevitably depressing, is the view of the early years of the Railway Executive and its curiously confused and bureaucratic relationship with the British Transport Commission and Government. 'In spite of it all', Sir John reflects, 'much good and important work was done to lay the foundations of an amalgamated railway system for the future'. Then came the period as Chairman of London Transport and, 'off the rails', there is a fascinating description of the handling of the 1958 bus strike. Sir John concludes with a chapter on railway safety, including an insight into the SR's decision-making following the Sevenoaks accident of 1927. Through all of this fascinating review of transport management, Sir John Elliot's essential character of liveliness and humanity shines through.

Industrial Locomotives 1982. Industrial Railway Society. 305pp,
As the sub-title explains, this excellent volume includes all the preserved and minor railway locomotives. There can be no better recommendation, nor one in all honesty, that the earlier edition of this book has been at the elbow of the editorial staff. The book is comprehensive, clearly laid out and accurate. Also useful is the section on BR departmental stock.

Letters. 542-3

Single line control. Mike Christensen
Addenda to his article (August)? It has often been stated that James Manson did not patent the tablet exchanger that he devised, so that it could be freely taken up by as many companies as possible. However, it was not widely taken up, but it was in fact patented, not by Manson, but by Walter and George William Drummond under the style of the Glasgow Railway Engineering Co of Helen Street, Govan. The patent was taken out in 1901 (No 10,665).
The photograph on page 401 of the August issue showing the exchanging apparatus at Crossmichael, depicts not the Manson catcher, but Bryson 's apparatus.

Cadoxton-Pontypool Road. J.F. Burrell
I greatly enjoyed Meic Batten's article (August). There was one exception to the rail level halts between Pontypool and Caerphilly. Rhydyfelin had platforms and a GWR-type 'pagoda' shelter.

All of a summer evening. J.F. Burrell
I think Keith A. Ladbury is in error in his interesting article (July) when he claims to have seen D l 0-4-2T No 608 at Tonbridge in 1924. No 608 was an 'El'. The most likely locomotive was No B605. It had about this time been used on Servis Movement Recorder tests and may have been on its way to, or from, such tests on the Eastern Section.

The return of a 'Saint' . W. Crosbie-Hill
As a life-long admirer of these classic locomotives, I was very pleased to read the two articles (July). While saving up to buy a share in this marvellous project, I shall join the many who will, no doubt, be thinking of the most suitable name for No 2956. I suggest that had a batch of 'Saints', Nos 2945 et seq been constructed, then, in accordance with the practice usually adopted, these would have been named alphabetically. How about Saint Agnes for No 2956? The nameplates St Agnes were removed from 'Duke' 4-4-0 No 3276 in August 1930.

Churchward and preservation . E. R. Mountford
In his spirited article on the 'Saint' class (July), Nock repeats the oft-quoted remark that Churchward was responsible for the scrapping of North Star and Lord of the Isles as he had little sympathy for their preservation. In fact, Churchward endeavoured without success, for two and a half years, to get both locomotives placed in a major museum. A brief outline of the facts is revealed in the GWR Directors, Locomotive, Carriage and Stores Committee Minutes, held at the Public Record Office, Kew. The first Minute, dated 22 July 1903, reads: 'Mr Churchward reported that the old broad gauge engines Lord of the Isles and North Star had, for many years, been stored in a shed at Swindon, and that the space occupied by them is much needed. Having regard to the interest attaching to the two engines, the Committee consider that they might, with advantage, be offered to the South Kensington Museum, and they agreed to recommend that an endeavour be made to dispose of them in this manner'.
A further Minute dated 20 December 1905 reveals that considerable efforts were made: 'Referring to Minute 19 of the 22 July 1903, the Locomotive Superintendent reported that the old broad gauge engines North Star and Lord of the Isles, which occupy much valuable space in the shops at Swindon, had been offered to several Institu- tions without success and, upon his recommendation, the Committee approved of the same being broken up'
The Committee that day consisted of Frank Bibby, Alexander Hubbard, Robins Bolitho, Sir N. Kingscote, Sir H. Robertson and Sir William Henry Wills. It is felt that the record should be set straight, as the impression has always been given that Churchward thought so little of the two engines' historical importance that he, alone, ordered their destruction.

Milk traffic on rail. A.S.B. Balkyn-Rainbow
As one whose work revolved around this subject for six years, I should like to comment on Mr Hosegood's article (June). Regarding the decline of milk traffic on rail in the mid-1960s described by Mr Hosegood, the decline of the longer distance northern traffic had its origins at a much earlier date. The Milk Marketing Board was formed before World War 2, with its main aim to achieve a reduction in transport costs and a good deal was done by rearranging distribution patterns. But the north-west remained an area with a surplus of milk, because there was insufficient factory capacity there to turn it into dairy products. In the 1950s, new factories were built in this area, and supply and demand were balanced. Traffic continued, however, to go to the London area until the BRB attempted to conclude an agreement with the milk industry on minimum use of the service, similar to the Western Agreement. No agree- ment was forthcoming, so the 4.30pm Carlisle-Willesden was withdrawn in 1964. The residual agreement allowed for special trains to be run at an agreed rate per train, or for up to three tanks to be worked south on the 3.10pm freight from Carlisle- Willesden. After about two years, these arrangements were withdrawn. The Western Agreement came into force in October 1964, and covered six trains. Originally, the two trains from West Wales were to have been the 15.50 and the 20.30. However, the agreement quoted London arrival times for the 13.45 Whitland in error, and the earlier path was substituted before the service became operational. The remaining services were from the West of England. Two started from St Erth, at a variety of times between 12.45 and 14.00, and 16.40 and 18.35 in different years. All of these trains ran to Kensington. The fifth service, at 17.38 from Seaton Jn, also ran to Kensington if required, but generally terminated at Westbury, where its traffic was attached to the 18.40 Tiverton Jn to Morden South, the sixth train. Although trains were shown to run in the summer working timetables for 1980, the service was withdrawn on 31 March
Outside the Western Agreement other traffic was still conveyed after 1964. On the Western Region, non-contract servicing of Wootton Bassett and occasionally Moreton- in-Marsh continued. Traffic from Bailey Gate was regularly forwarded by a Poole- Clapham parcels train. The main area, however, still lay in the north-west, around Shrewsbury. The train from there continued to run for a number of years, with traffic from Dorrington, Whitchurch and Gobowen. Crewe continued to attach tanks from Calverley and Uttoxeter to Willesden- bound parcels trains for a year or two, as well. Attempts were also made to develop new rail facilities. Proposals to take milk to Headcorn, Kent were not as successful as an experimental service, run for 10 days in 1966, which took two daily tanks from Camborne to Chichester. Even Job's Didcot dairy was considered, but mention should be made of the Swindon facility which saw considerable use in the 1970s, sending milk to West Wales, Cornwall and Carlisle according to the availability of factory capacity. The railways never ignored road competition, in the 1920s or later. Under the Western Agreement the operation of securing traffic was tackled in a most aggressive manner. The Agreement stipulated a minimum of 26,000 tanks annually.
The Transport Officers of the MMB doubted whether the figure could be reached. It was. In the second year 33,000 tanks were conveyed, with about 4,000 on services not covered by the Agreement.
It will be interesting to see how often the refurbished tanks are used. So far, 32 of the six-axle tanks have entered service, numbered MMB 42800-39. Thirty-one four-axle tanks are numbered MMB42840-70. 42871-76 were shown to join them, but there are now indications that these may not be put into service. They have been used on a number of occasions since the Chard Jn-Stowmarket operation finished, including a train from Lostwithiel to Gloucester this January and some local movements in West Wales. Rail News has reported that the tanks are to be used for whey traffic from Carmarthen to Crewe, and 19 of the four-wheelers are allocated to this traffic. A number of MMB plants, including Lostwithiel, Whitland, Llanstephan (Carmarthen) and Chard Jn still retain rail facilities, and do not require road tanker transfer.
Eric Neve has given some very interesting and detailed information on the GN traffic. Page 295 of the LNER Magazine for 1933 contains a most interesting article about the Ingestre operation, and includes two photographs. These show that the dairy there was owned by United Dairies, not by Express as stated in the article. During 1928- 30, 11 tanks, 4301-11, were built on four-wheeled chassis for this traffic; all were reconstructed as six-wheelers in 1936-38. Three new six-wheelers were built in 1931 (4312-14), and three more in 1934 (4315-17). Not mentioned by Neve were the arrangements for traffic from the GN & LNWR Joint Line. Tanks were forwarded from John O' Gaunt for some time, and were probably attached to the Stafford train at Grantham. Traffic was also sent to London by the LMS route, via Northampton on weekdays, and Rugby on Sundays. The decline of milk traffic on the GN was largely due to the siting of new bottling plants on other railways into London. The GN suffers from poor cross-London connections, and so the trunk haul went to the competing routes. Wensleydale milk, loaded at the Express Dairy Leyburn Creamery, continued to go to Cricklewood until the early 1960s, when the rail siding was closed for reconstruction. Diversion to Wood Lane led to late arrivals, and loss of the traffic to road. Shortly afterwards, when a Northallerton tank was offered to rail for a few months, it was decided to try the ex-Great Central route, and to send the tank to Marylebone's Rossmore Road depot. This was successful, and Leyburn tanks could also be seen from time to time, being detached from the 22.22 York-Swindon at Leicester Central, for forwarding on the 22.50 Manchester-Marylebone. Thirteen tanks were built for North Eastern area traffic - 2415-23 in 1936, and 2444-47 in 1943. They were also used at Appleby, where the dairy was situated on LMS lines; LNER locomotives and men working them from Darlington to Appleby (LNER) where an LMS engine took over.

Number 511 (November 1982)

John Farmer. I helped to build Mons Meg. 593-6.
Winner of LNER Railway Scholarship, with Alan Reid,  in 1935. He was a Stratford apprentice and was awarded the scholarship at Queen Mary College with the vacations spent at Doncaster Works where he encountered Eggleshaw and was involved in the construction of the P2 which used an experimental boiler lagging made from metal foil. He encountered militant closed shop techniques with the boilermakers.

Letters. 598-

Single line control. J.J. R. Snell.
Staff and ticket system with paper tickets in conjunctiion with railway telephone in use on Bere Alston to Callington section until August 1968

Single line control. Brian Wilkinson
Describes difficulties in use of tablet catchers on Highland main line once diesel locomotives introduced as catchers could not cope with use of both steam and diesel locomotives.

Number 512 (December 1982)

W.T. Scott. The Lough Swilly's eight coupled engines. 626-8.
Hudswell Clarke 4-8-0s (WN 746-7/1905) and 4-8-4Ts (WN 985-6/1912) were supplied for the Letterkenny & Burtonport Extension Railway (and 4-8-4T No. 5 is shown with this lettering). The 4-8-4Ts were very powerful locomotives and tended to work to Buncrana, handling heavy traffic during WW1. The Londonderry & Lough Swilly Railway when the Burtonport Extension was opened had a long mainline and this required large locomotives: 4-8-4Ts and 4-8-0 tender locomotives. According to the writer these very large locomotives rode well and were liked by their crews..