Journal Institution Locomotive Engineers
Volume 23 (1933)

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Journal No. 111

Jarvis, C.C. (Paper 297)
Dynamometer car working on the L.N.E.R. 2-33. Disc. 34-46. 4 illus., 12 diagrs.
Meeting held at Royal Technical College, Glasgow, on 11 February 1932; chaired by G.W. Phillips. Former NER car.
Locomotive performance could be subdivided:

Description of mechanism

Car could measure:

Figure 4 (page 11): Maximum drawbar pull tests:
Super Sentinel No. 44
3-cylinder mineral locomotive class O2

Figure 5 (page12): Drawbar pull recorded near Warkworth:
C6 No. 701 (2-cylinder)
C11 No. 878 (2-cylinder)
C7 No. 729 (3-cylinder)

A1 2555: effect of taking water on Werrington troughs entered at 73 mile/h and exited at 68 mile/h

Electric clock with standby mechanical clock; dynamic integrator; human intervention to record changes of gradient, mileposts, tunnels, speed restrictions, etc; also boiler pressure, steam chest pressure, cut-off, steam temperature, injector working, damper postion. 160 ft long record for Newcastle to York. Braking date automatically monitored. Water measurement - connection to tender tank. Coal (bagged).

Steam heating measured: 800 lb steam per hour to heat 12-14 LNER coaches.

Boiler performance:
feed water temperature: ordinary thermometer
steam temperature: pyrometer
smokebox temperature: pyrometer
smokebox vacuum: water gauge
Cambridge high frequency draught recorder
CO2 recorder: Cambridge instrument
Dr G.A. Shakespear of Birmingham University has developed micro-indicators

Car attendant's fascilities: could prepare simple meals, act as guard in North Eastern Area; sleeping accommodation.

Figure 15 Dynamometer record: Pacific 2580: Edinburgh to Carlisle in 1928 with 400 tons.

Notes further records made by car in Journals, Nos 78, 84 and 97.

Also reports work with electric locomotive No. 15 hauling passenger stock weighing 582 tons from Newport when 1500 hp was measured at the drawbar in 1922.

Discussion: G.W. Phillips (34-5) commented on work permormed by C11 Atlantic which he considered to be superior to that of 3-cylinder C7. In reply the author considered the C11 to be "very good engines" but criticised the driving technique employed. B.C. Bean (35) commented on the newer hydraulic mechanism noted by H.G. Gillvray in Journal 103. C.H. Robinson (37) noted that the spring was removed every twelve months, placed in oil and rebuilt; included notes of tests on D49 class of piston valves versus Lentz oscillating cam and rotary cam valves (the last having fixed cut-offs); Tyler (38) made observations on the amount of steam heating consumed in steam heating and the enrgy consumed in picking up water from troughs; the original spring plates were still being used; the steam heating pipes needed to be lagged under the tender to avoid condensation; Wylie (39) noted that the ACFI feed water heater could bring fuel savings of 8-10%, but was very complicated; C. Schlegel (42) queried the procedures for (i) stopping and (ii) coasting at high speed: in reply the author stated that 50% cut-off better than full gear for (i) and in (ii) a little steam but well notched up - full gear with steam off leads to ash and hot gaese being drawn into steam chest and cylinders; J.M. Roothwaite (Rounthwaite?) noted that Walter M. Smith had observed that 30% of power is absorbed in propelling the locomotive itself and the speaker wondered what effect roller bearings and streamlining might have. Lund (43) speed was calculated electrically off the measuring wheel. G.M. Wells (43) noted that the drawbar had broken due to the engine brake being released before the train came to rest.

Lee, A.J. (Paper 298)
Present-day designs of locomotives and rolling stock. 47-65. Disc.: 65-83.
Meeting held in Buenos Aires on 30 September 1932: E.C. Noble in chair. A survey of requirements for use under Argentinian conditions where the population was sparse. Lee advocated steel fireboxes, thermic syphons, mechanical stokers and possibly welding.Questions why feed-water heating had not been adopted. Need for standardization of boiler fittings. Smokeboxes and ash pans required heat resistant steels. Cites the results of the Bridge Stress Committee. Notes problems of wheel balancing and tyre wear, especially on two-cylinder designs where flange wear was excessive and there was unequal flange wear. The care of axleboxes and bearings was important. There was a need for flange lubricators. Minimum tyre thickness should be two inches. Roller bearings were under test. Mentioned poppet valves and piston rings. Suggested guaranteed fuel consumption figures, like cars. Of the Garratt type: "has solved in a very effective manner the problems of how to haul more tons per engine without increasing axleload or carrying out aletrations to the existing permanent way and bridges...". Refereed to Chapelon rebuilt PO Pacific noting the thermic syphons, large steam passages, high degree superheating, high boiler pressure, poppet valves, Kylchap exhaust, increased ashpan openings and feed water heaters. Three articulated Sentinel railcars were on test: one had run 130,000 km; the low running costs were noted. Steel bodies were required for coaching stock: noted advantages of rubber flooring but considered linoleum to be adequate for the Argentine. Did not favour articulation, but favoured roller bearings. Wagons were limited to low mileages and suffered from uneven flange wear, one-way traffics, dust and the carriage of cattle.
Discussion: E.C. Noble (65-6) noted the need for ease of maintenance and design to reduce maintenance. Need for standardization and ruggedness. F. Davis (66-8) noted the use of Caprotti valve gear on the Central Argentine Railway. The three-cylinder Pacifics had 225 psi boiler pressure, a tractive effort of 29,859 (at 66.6%) and were able to haul 650 ton trains between Buenos Aires and Córdoba. Subsequently found that Caprotti led to high shed maintenance due to damage, but had achieved 8000-11,000 km/month and achieved high haulage. A major problem was the sticking of the valve spindles in the guides. W. Heaton (68-70) noted the loss of paint finish on the steel-bodied rolling stock due to the high solar input. Alpax aluminium alloy was used on the Central Argentine Railway to reuce weight but there were possible fatigue problems. Advocated Decolite flooring. Articulation and roller bearings were more suited to electric suburban stock. P.L. Falconer (70-3) advocted steel fireboxes and tubes citing Deakin (the 1922 President). On the Central Argentine Railway 62% of locomotives were fitted with steel fireboxes and the seams were partially welded. This had reduced boiler repair costs by 24%. There were 178 boiler failures in 1924, but only 55 in 1932. Improvements included blow-down, top-feed, anti-priming boiler compound, hot water washing out, water treatment, elimination of unsuitable watering points using larger tenders, good wheel balancing, tyre wear was associated with slipping. F. Cleaver (73) made observations on the turning of tyres. T. Clayton (73-4) noted the lasting quality of timber bodies and advocated creosote treatment. He criticised the low quality of Argentinian passenger rolling stock, damage received to vehicles during shunting and advocated corrugated iron roofs for steel wagons. E.J. Beckwith (74-6) commented on internal combustion railcars on the Buenos Aires and Pacific Railway, including a two-axle unit with a Junis Leyland petrol engine. 42 wagons were in service with cast steel bogies. C. Case (76) advocated large tenders to reduce watering points (an to improve water quality at these) and called for the mechanical loading of coal. J. Campbell (76-7) made a plea for standardization as ahd taken place in India, a further plea for a locomotive testing station. J.G. Mayne (written 79-82) noted the Henschel condensing locomotive on the Argentine State Railways, was less eager for standardization, noted the importance of wheel balancing and the importance of good maintenance facilities for the Garratt type.

Williams, W.C. (Paper No. 299)
Modern articulated steam locomotives. 85-132. Disc. 132-57. 51 illus., 7 diagrs., 4 tables.
Paper presented at Institution of Mechanical Enineers, London on 1 December 1932: W.A. Lelean in chair. Long abstract in Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1932, 38, 441-4. Global review mainly of Beyer-Garratt type. Pp 139-40 Cites the review of the articulated locomotive by Kitson Clark (Paper 87). Mentions the Klein-Lindner axle and the Krauss-Helmholtz forms of semi-articulation. The Semmering contest of 1851 was highly significant although some of the designs submitted were "weird and wonderful": the Weiner-Neustadt was in effect the prototype for the Meyer and Seraing for the Fairlie. Both were improved. The Kitson-Meyer was employed mainly on the Pacific Coast of South America. The Livesey-Meyer (Fig. 2) was developed by Sir Harry Livesey for the Bolivia Railway.. The Fairlie type was modified by Johnstone in 1888 by fitting two separate boilers. The Mexican Railway employed the 0-6-0 Fairtlie type on 1 in 25 gradients. In 1880 Lima Locomotive Works introduced the Shay type which gave extraordinary flexibility. The Mallet patent dates from the early 1880s and was combined with compounding. The American Mallet was described as being long and unwieldy, but 2000 were in service then. A 2-8-8-0 compound Mallet was built for the Java State Railways and was described by P. de Gruyter at the World Engineering Congress in Tokyo in 1929. The Mallet has no capacity for speed but the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railroad had Mallets with 6ft 1 in driving wheels. In 1909 a 4-4--6-2 built by Baldwin had a Jacobs-Shupert sectional firebox. Another Baldwin, a 2-6-6-2 for the Baltimore & Ohio Railraod had 5ft 10in driving wheels and could achieve 60 mile/h.
The first Garratt patent dated to 1907. Refers to early Garratt paper presented by Woodgate Dearberg in 1917. The boiler was a great steam-raiser. The paper includes a table of the locomotives manufactured; many of which are illustrated. The 4-8-2+2-8-4 type supplied to the Antofagasta (Chile) and Bolivia Railway had bar frames and were oil-fired and worked on 3.25% gradients. On the Guayaquil and Quito Railway the low-axle-load locomotives had to be able to cope with 1 in 18 gradients. They could be capable of high speeds as with the locomotives supplied to the Tasmanian Government Railways in 1912. and the 4-6-2+2-6-4 type supplied to the Sao Paulo Railway. The Société Franco Belge had constructed express Garratts with coupled wheels of nearly 6ft in diameter for the PLM in Algeria. On test between Laroche and Dijon they had hauled 625 tons at an average speed of 51.3 miles/h. Eleven miles were run at 67 miles/h.
Newer non-Garrattt articulated locomotives included Modified Fairlies built by NBL for the South African Railways in 1925/6; the Golwé Société Haine St Pierre in Belgium for the metre gauge lines in the Côte d' Ivoire. Maschineban AG of Hanover had combined the Mallet and Garratt concepts and the Franco Syndicat Belge des Locomotives of Tubize had produced an articulated locomotive with eight cylinders and dual fireboxes and barrels.
W.A. Lelean (132-3) noted the significance of "a Garratt engine having the running characteristics of the wheel arrangement of the motor bogies". The location of the pivots enables smooth running and there were no problems with the flexible joints. J. Clayton (133-4) opined that it was "something which should make all British engineers, and members of the Institution in particular, proud of the name of one of its members, the late Mr H.W. Garratt, and also of Beyer Peacock". He then questioned the performance of the flexible joints and the reason for the ecellent boiler and was informed that this was due to the large great area and large firebox heating surface, the good steam space, wide water legs, shorter tube length combined with a larger number of tubes. The gas area was increased by 35 to 50% and the gas velocity was reduced which led to less lifting of the fire. Flexible joints were not a  problem. A.C. Carr (134-6), CME of the Bengal Nagpur Railway noted that the use of Garratts got rid of double heading, banking, a certain amount of shunting and increased capacity on single lines. F.R. Collins (136) liked the simple boiler. F.R. Collins (136) liked the simple boilers. H. Greenley (136-7) commented on a logging client in British Columbia which had experienced failures with the Climax and Shay types and recorded the design for the Eskdale Railway which used Luttemôld gearbox trucks with fourteen driving wheels. W.A.J. Day (137-9) mentioned his experience with the NBL Mallets in South Africa which were "doing good work today, and always have done". Mallets without superheating experience excessive condensation in the low pressure cylinders. He noted that the Garratt problems with ball and expansion joints appeared to have been overcome and that the Garratts gave excellent ride. Repeated author's reasons for the excellence of the boiler and also noted the regular shape of the boiler plates (mainly straight). The newer South African Garratts had bar frames which were stronger. Notes that the two units tended to synchronise. Criticism of ashpan design. H. Chambers (139-40) gave details of the design of the revolving coal bunkers for the LMS Garratts. The earlier bunkers had led to dust enterinng the cab when running bunker-first. Appreciated the comfortable ride and there were few problems with joints. Care was needed when re-railing. M.D. Lowndes (140) recorded Argentinian experience: they were "not looked upon as a novelty... but is [are] classed in the same way as the rest of the motive power". C.E. Williams (141-2) noted the problem of insufficient traffic in East Africa. Commented that the CME of the Tanganyika metre gauge railways recorded the steady running, the soft blast, the ease with which the sharpest curves can be taken, the esae of firing: native firemen could maintain full steam pressure and an adequate water level in the boiler. He noted that the Maurtius Railway was anxious to dispose of its three Beyer Garratts as there was insufficient work for them.
Doncaster Meeting
J.S. Elliott (148-50) described the performance of the LMS locomotives in service. They were unsuited to variable traffic and repairs may only be needed to part of the locomotive. On the other he praised the large dimension boiler, its good steaming and deep firebox, its high tractive effort, its low axleload, the flexibility of the units and their ease on the track, but wanted a sharper blast and mechanical stokers. There were problems with tube cleaning, the location of the sand boxes and wear of the crosshead slippers and a wheel drop is essential. There was a good reduction in flange wear.Wagon design and siding limitations restricted  their use in Britain. In reply the author noted that on the Toton to Cricklewood run there is only one boiler and that higher speeds could be attained. E. Slaughter (151) described the performance of the LNER U1 on the Worsborough Incline, but noted thatthe engine was hardly warmed up by the time it had to come to a stand. T.A. Street (151-2) pondered on the "fluctuations in drawbar pull" due to "synchronisation" between the units. H. Beastall (152) mentioned the problems with steaming on the U1 at Mexborough and this had led to modifications being made to the blastpipe orifice. I. Andrews (152) asked whether the water tanks were coupled: author replied that there were valves on the footplate to enable crew to switch tanks. J. Bundell (152-3) noted the good flange wear; the reason for the very high superheat for the Garratt supplied to tthe USSR (Russia) was the very low ambient temperatures..

Journal No. 112

McDermid, W.F. (Paper No. 300)
The locomotive blast-pipe and chimney. Part 2. 162-204. Disc. 204-24
Considers exhaust steam behaviour and the influence of valve gear. Page 168 diagram illustrates valve displecment with Stephenson link motion. Surveys blast arrangements: the Adams vortex of 1885 (Figure 14 page 175); Macallan's variable blast-pipe (Fig. 15 page 176): in the discussion on page 206-7 A.M. Bell noted that he had produced the drawings for the Macallan blast-pipe: a problem with the device was that carbon deposits prevented the cap from reseating properly and that the device was mechanically unsound: McDermid noted that he had visited the inventor, but that the device was always troublesome; the GWR jumper blast-pipe; the European variable blast orifice (Fig. 17 p. 179); the Kylala blast-pipe (Fig. 18 page 180 which shows the multiple petticoats in a single chimney)); the Belgian twin blast-pipe where he cited Sanford's observations on this device in discussion of a paper by Poole Vol. 22) as well as Webb's double chimney which had different aims. Notes similarity of Belgian and Kylala types.; blast-pipes with fixed cones. Good drawings of most of these types.
W.A. Lelean (204); Major Williams (204-5); J.R. Bazin (205-6): Notes on device fitted to GNR 0-8-0s: the blast-pipe was of special construction and had what was really a conical plunger fitted centrally into the orifice which could be moved up and down by a vertical rod. It worked off a spindle and bell-crank at the base of the blast-pipe and was onnected to the reversing lever so that when the engine was in full gear the conical plunger was dropped, increasing the area of the blast pipe orifice and as the engine was noteched up it was raised and formed a sort of central choke. It worked very well in controlling the exhaust jet but the heat in the smokebox damaged the linkage (On page 213 it is mentioned by McDermid that this device had been invented by Whitelegg. H. Chambers (page 206) mentioned his favoured position for the blast pipe: namely 4 to five inches below the centre line of the boiler and favoured a slight taper for the chimney with 1 to 3 ratio for the blast-pipe orifice to the chimney: these were presumably the dimensions adopted for the Royal Scot class (Fig. 20: 1?). J. Clayton (209-10) queried the use of an oil jet as a model for steam as oil had a far greater mass and cited Goss (but not precisely). His experience on the SR suggested that the blast-pipe orifice should be lowered in relation to the chimney and that a large diameter chimney should be used. In terms of exhaust chambers he cited tramway engines built for Java where the device was used to reduce noise and sparks. He also mentions the effect of three-cylinders on draughting). H. Holcroft (210-12) noted damper dimensions and returning to Bazin's comments noted that three-cylinder locomotives should steam better than those with two cylinders (these comments are particularly interesting in view of what was about to happen on the LMS). Three-cylinder engines gave a more continuous exhaust, reduced back-pressure and lowered fuel consumption. The kick in the exhaust at long cut-offs was absent Exhaust receivers had been fitted to the Armstrong singles; Churchward had experimented with a sem-chamber, but the value disappeared once a certain speed was reaxched. He also made observations on the accurate alignment of chimneys.
J.G.H. Warren (pp. 219-24) contributed an appendix which examined the early development of the blast pipe, especially that fitted to the Rocket at the time of the Rainhill trials..

Origin and Development of the Blast-Pipe,
Contributed by Mr. J. G. H. Warren (Member).
The following notes are to call attention to original sources of information not generally known, but having an important bearing on two points which have been the subject of considerable controversy.
The first concerns the question-it might almost be called a debating point-When did the "exhaust" pipe become a " blast" pipe?
The second is on a very definite question of fact: What form of exhaust or blast-pipe was on the " Rocket" when she won at Rainhill?
I. When did the "Exhaust" Pipe become a "Blast" Pipe? In spite of Trevithick's well-known discovery in 1804, no use was made of the exhaust to stimulate combustion in the Blenkinsop-Murray locomotives of 1812, though built under Trevithick's patent. Their exhaust was turned directly into the air,. as shown by a contemporary drawing. (See Journal No. 72, p. 527.)
Of the treatment of the exhaust on the first Wylam engines many statements were made in later years, but no contemporary evidence in document or drawing has yet come to light. It is hoped that some may eventually be found among a mass of original correspondence, between mining and other engineers of the period, now preserved at the Mining Institute at Newcastle-on-Tyne. Meanwhile, it is impossible to reach any satisfactory conclusion. But there is a definite statement by Hedley, in 1836, that the first engine" went badly, the obvious defect being want of steam. "
In 1814 John Buddle, of Wallsend Colliery, an eminent mining engineer, published a report on means for preventing accidents in mines due to bad ventilation; among others, he suggested the use of a steam jet in the upcast, and recommended a low position for the jet as most effective. Buddle had already used this method at Hebburn Colliery in 181l. The idea of a steam draught producer was therefore literally in the air, and no doubt well known among the mining engineers of the district. But this fact (so far as the present writer is aware) has not been recorded in connection with the evolution of the blast-pipe. It may well have had some influence on it. (The writer is indebted to Mr. R. N. Appleby Miller, of the Newcastle Public Library, for calling his attention to these facts.)
In 1814 George Stephenson produced his first locomotive, shortly followed by another. Of his earliest engines no drawing had been known until the recent discovery of a sketch on an early mining plan. There is every reason to suppose that the sketch represents an actual engine, and that it probably shows Stephenson's second one. The exhaust is shown taken to the chimney (see The Engineer, September r jth, 1931, pages 298-9, for illustration and analysis of the evidence).
The next well authenticated contemporary drawing of a Stephenson locomotive of about 1815 was handed down in the family of Willam Howe as having been made by Stephenson himself, with whom Howe in his later years was closely connected. This drawing now in the Science Museum, shows the exhaust pipe taken to the chimney. (See Journal No. 72, p. 530, also The Locomotive, Vo!. XXX, p. 224, and The Railway Centenary (L.N.E.R . . 1925) for a coloured reproduction.)
Stephenson's engines of this type, but improved in detail, as shown in the second edition of Wood's" Treatise" rail roads, continued to be built until 1825, when it was definitely stated by Wood, in his first edition, that in order to increase combustion Stephenson had previously" caused the steam to escape into the chimney through a pipe with its end turned upwards ... the steam thrown in this manner into the chimney acts as a trumpet and certainly makes a very disagreeable noise. (See Journal No. 72, p. 533, for reprint of page from Wood's" Treatise.") This evidence shows beyond dispute that sometime before 1825 the exhaust steam had been consciously applied to promote combustion, being directed upwards through a single pipe, and that it made a noise like a trumpet. This fact in itself suggests the effect of a " blast," though the word was not applied to the exhaust jet till after it had been contracted at the nozzle.
Round the nice question when the "exhaust" pipe became a " blast" pipe a fierce controversy raged in 1857 in the columns of The Engineer. It was led by John Hackworth, obviously inspired by personal animus against the Stephensons and all their works. Whatever the cause of his own feelings in these later years, there is no evidence of ill-feeling- between his father, Timothy Hackworth, and the two Stephensons in their earlier collaboration. Such of their correspondence up to 1829 as has been preserved and published shows a frank exchange of ideas and experiences in friendly terms.'
In the controversy of 1857 Hackworth maintained that before 1827 the exhaust had never been used by the Stephensons with either intention or effect as a " blast." But he failed to produce the original evidence for which The Engineer asked in a caustic comment on the tone of the controversy. Some of his statements on matters other than the" blast" have been definitely confirmed, but many have been refuted by original contemporary eviden~e brought to light during the past ten years. Much of this evidence will be found in Robert Stephenson and Co. 's "Century of Locomotive Building," 1923, but one im- portant point has not been noticed with reg.ard to John Hackworth's statements. He was not born till IS20, and was therefore between five and nine years old during the happenings of which he afterwards wrote so positively. This fact has escaped the notice of subsequent writers who have given to all his statements indiscriminately the weight of contemporary evidence.
2. What form at " Exhaust" or " Blast:" Pipe was on the " Rocket" when she won at Rainhill?
The story of the midnight manceuvre which " stole the blast-pipe "-or the idea of it-from the " Sans Pareil " and applied it to the " Rocket," has. had wide currency. If its object was to ensure good steaming for the purposes of the trials it would appear to have been an unnecessary manceuvre, as Robert Stephenson had previously tried the engine out at Killing worth, and with full knowledge of what would be expected of it, wrote to Henry Booth that there was "abundance" of steam (see "A Century of Locomotive Building," p. ISO). Also it would appear from the same correspondence that he was well acquainted with the general principle of the " Sans Pareil " and the design of its details before the trials.
That there was ill-feeling during the preparation at Rainhill, and accusations of unfair play, is evident from John Dixon's racy letter (see. Journal No. 7,2, .pp. 542, 543) written just after the tr~al~. But he dismisses the accusations as unfounded, and incidentally shows that there was a good deal of "midnight" .work on the :' Sans Pareil." The notebook of John Rastnck, one of the Judges, records that this engine was actually disqualified for one performance because it had been " at work all night ,. and was consequently hot, while the conditions stipulated a start from told. All this was no doubt due to the fact that Hackworth had not been able to make such a previous test as the "Rocket" had after completion at Newcastle: (See" Centenary History of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway," p. 176.)
The story of the midnight alterations to the" Rocket" had wide circulation, and in later years received support from various reminiscences, including those of John Melling, quoted by Edward Wood. Melling had been on the Liverpool and Manchester Railway at the time, and a very probable explanation of his ;,~ory is to be found in the fact that during experiments made after the official trials the blast-pipes of the "Rocket" were altered and its steaming improved. The fact is recorded by Nicholas Wood, one of the judges, in the second edition of his book (see" Treatise on Rail Roads," IS31, pp. 397, 399). It is more than likely that such alteration would be made in a hurry-coppersmiths often have to work at midnight without necessarily fraudulent intent-and Melling may have confused his dates by a few days.
It is a remarkable fact that whie many historians of the locomotive have accepted without question second-hand statements in this and other matters, they have ignored the testimony of the man who built the " Rocket" and was throughout responsible for it.. But Robert Stephenson himself in later years made a categorical statement on this and the other controversial question referred to in these notes. Robert Stephenson had the reputation of a generous minded man, cautious in statement, and his testimony on matters in which he was directly concerned is at least as valuable as that of any other witness. It will be found reprinted in " A Century of Locomotive Building," p. 226, and the main object of these notes has been to call attention to it.
Below is given a bibliography of the original con- temporary evidence which supports it.
1.-" Plan of the Coal District on the Rivers Tyne and Wear " (undated) showing sketch of an early locomotive with Stephenson details. This plan is discussed in " The Engineer," September 18th, 1931.
2.-0riginal Coloured Drawing of a Stephenson Locomotive (about 1815). (This drawing was brought to light in 1923, and is now in the Science Museum.) Journal, Locomotive Engineer, No. 72, p. 530; also" The Locomotive," Vol. XXX., p. 224.
3.-" Treatise on Rail-Roads," Wood, First Edition, 1825, pages 147, 292, 293, for a detailed account of the effects of exhaust into chimney. Journal No. 72, p. 533.
4.-" Treatise on Rail-Roads," Second Edition, 1831, pages 372-382, for account of the exhaust arrangements of the " Rocket" at the trials; pages 397, 399 for subsequent alteration.
5.-0riginal letters from Robert Stephenson to Henry Booth, for account of trials of the " Rocket" before Rainhil!. "A Century of Locomotive Building," p. ]80.
6.-Note Book of John Rastrick, one of the judges at Rainhil!. (This was brought to light in 1929, and is now in possession of Mr. Dendy Marshall.) "Centenary History of the Liverpool and Man- chester Railway."
7.-0riginal letter from John Dixon describing the RainhiII Trials. (This letter, then in the possession of the late Yaynman Dixon, was first published in 1923. There is a photograph in the Science 1\1 useum.) Journal I o. 72, p. 542, 543; also " A Century of Loco- motive Building," p. 205 et seq.

Byrne, B.R. (Paper No. 301)
Note on the possibilities of the electric furnace in the foundry. 227-62. Disc.: 262-9.
The Heroult furnace; Girod furnace; Rennerfelt indirect arc system; Ajax-Wyatt induction furnaces; metalurgy of cast iron; operating costs; economics of power supply.
The electric furnace industry is making headway, and new installations are being effected in this country, despite severe economic restriction. Objection may be raised that the average locomotive foundry does not require a furnace designed primarily for large scale production, or that the service requirements of a locomotivc, even under the heaviest duty, do not call for the use of the highly-refined cast iron for which the electric furnace is noted. But there are signs railways will avail themselves of any process which promises a reduction in manufacturing costs. The electric furnace is becoming increasingly capable of showing a substantial profit when operated under the internal economic conditions peculiar to large railway works, and meets the objections mentioned.
The author gave a series of short descriptions of successful types of furnaces, forming an outline review of the steady development of electrical smelting during the present century. The second section of the paper was devoted to the general features of recent advances in the metallurgy of cast iron. Cupola iron is melted at a comparatively low temperature in contact with fuel and the products of its combustion, The electric furnace melts its charge under conditions of extreme superheat and freedom from adulterant gases. The inclusion of steel in the charge, resorted in cupola melting, has been extended to electric furnace practice with excellent results. The carbon content of the finished iron is here under closer control, and a new type of low total carbon iron has been developed. It has a finer in structure and unusually high tensile strength. The superheating of cast iron is accurately controllable the electric furnace. When combined with the refining process outlined by the author, a high-grade iron is produced with mechanical properties of an order hitherto unattainable. The process is referred to by some as the synthetic process, and the iron frequently called "synthetic" The greatest expansion in the use of this class of iron occurred in America and Germany, but it is steadily gaining favour in Britain. Its greatest commercial possibility lies probably in its use for castings of a type hitherto made in steel. There are definite possibilities for this product in some directions, although there appears to be little scope for its extension to castings for locomotive and rolling stock. Instead of using expensive brands of pig iron for the revivification of foundry scrap, it has been proved by the use of the electric furnace that it is a metallurgical possibility to produce from scrap materials pig iron quality high enough to be used as a diluent in those dry mixtures which would normally incorporate high percentages of more expensive proprietary brands. The lecturer then gave an approximate analysis of the costs of the processes, with particulars of melting practice, methods of using the electric furnace, planning of melts, comparative operating costs with cupola induction furnace, arc furnace, and pulverised coal furnace. In conclusion, the author claimed that even at the present time, with power costs in all but a few districts unfavourable to the electric furnace, the balance of practical and metallurgical possibilities is definitely on the side of the electric furnace. For speed of melting, control of furnace atmosphere and of slag conditions, it is. and will probably remain impossible to equal the performance of the electric furnace. (from abstract in Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev, 1933, 39, 67.)
W.A. Lelean (262) asked how the non-magnetic shields inserted to prevent the exterior of the furnace getting hot. A.G. Robiette (262-4) noted that Ford at Dagenham had installed two electric arc furnaces. J.E.O. Little (264-5) noted that electric smelting of scrap cast iron could be very economic. C.E. Williams (265) commented on the excellent cylinders cast at Darlington as an experiment from an electric furnace: the quality was superb, but the cost was unsustainable. E. Kitson Clark (267)..

Blundell, J.
Some notes on fractures. 270-85. 45 figs.
Encountered in a running shed on the LNER over 18 months: steel boiler tubes; copper stays; firebox door plate flanges; fused lead plugs; cast iron elbow of main steam pipe; superheater elements; main frames; springs (plate and coil); hangers, brake rigging; drawbars; valve motion; slide valves; small end straps; piston rods; cast steel crossheads; large end brasses; axleboxes; snifting valve. Effect of material and of shape.

Institution of Locomotive Engineers' Dinner. 291-9.
W.A. Lelean, president of the Institution, occupied the chair at the annual dinner held at the Trocadero Restaurant, Shaftesbury Avenue, on Friday, 3 March 3 1933. There was a distinguished company of over two hundred guests, and after the toast of "The King" had been duly honoured, the toast of "The Guests" was proposed by William Whitelaw, to which H. Leslie Boyce, M.P., responded. In proposing the toast of the "Institution," Sir Clement Hindley referred to his railway reminiscences in India when acting as Chief Commissioner of the Railway Board, and paid tribute to the cordial co-operation given by locomotive men. He expressed admiration for the enterprise shown by the British railways, especially in the present time of depression, and especially the Brighton electrification of the Southern Ry., the G.W.R. 20-ton wagon scheme, and the fine express services on the lines running from London to the north.

Lelean, W.A.
Unusual fracture of axleboxes. 311-14. 2 figs.
Flow of the whitemetal into the crown of brass box when it ran hot.

Journal No. 113

Atkinson, T.G. (Paper No. 302)
Feed-water heating on locomotives. 325-73. Disc: 373-402.
Presented 16 February 1933 at Institution of Mecanical Engineers; W.A. Lelean in Chair: extensive abstract Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon, 1933, 39, 87. Fig. 3 shows a composite diagram of the Gaille, Potone, Knorr or Weir types of circuit feed circuits. Mentions the experiments by Trevithick on the Egyptian State Railway. The Knorr system was used on the German State Railway. Also mentions the Elesco, Coffin and Worthington systems. Cites J.C. Metcalfe's paper on the exhaust steam injector (1927, 17 Paper 215).
1. The feed-water heater suitably designed to comply with operating conditions is a useful adjunct to locomo- tives and that its application should be extended; vide also Report of Madrid Conference. Exception is made of those engines habitually on shunting duties and those whose work is consistently extremely light, variable and intermittent.
2. Provided the engine crews are fully instructed in its principles and functions and are thus familiar with its advantages and enabled to make full use of the heat returned to the boiler, a feed-water heater will show consistently 10 per cent. saving in fuel and frequently 15 per cent. or more.
3. From general experience it is found that the pump type of heater equipment wiIJ show a greater saving per annum than the steam jet heater on locomotives operating normally at over 50 or 60 per cent. of their maximum i.h.p. it follows, therefore, that even taking into account the higher initial cost of the pump heater the over-all economy is greater than that of the exhaust injector. Since also it is found that the savings of the former are usually double or more than those of the latter, the higher cost will be repaid in much the same time as the cost of the jet instrument, and once repaid the benefits will be correspondingly double.
4. The direct contact or mixture heater is superior to the surface; tubular or closed heater, in so far as concerns maintenance costs, due to the ability of the former to function satisfactorily over a longer period when dealing with hard water.
5. Horizontal feed pumps are superior to vertical pumps by virtue of the absence of shock at the ends of the stroke, when by the unyielding nature of the engine frame, wheels and rails the jarring effects inherent in the vertical type are unabsorbed and wear and tear on valves, seats and pistons are thus increased.
6. Steam operated pumps are superior to the mechanically driven pattern by reason of their greater independence, flexibility, lighter weight and lower maintenance costs.
7. A combined horizontal steam driven pump and open or mixture heater form the ideal type of locomotive pre- heating equipment, since it can function under arduous circumstances with but little expenditure on maintenance. This fact especially holds good in countries where fuel is expensive and of poor quality and where water is scarce, costly to supply and also perhaps of bad quality.
8. Such apparatus is now available and is capable of:-
(a) Reducing fuel costs per d.b.h.p. by 10 to 15 per cent. and also fuel handling charges.
(b) Increasling d. b.h. p. for equal consumption of fuel.
(c) Reducing boiler maintenance.
(d) Reducing water consumption and thereby shortening stops for filling tenders, and at the same time lowering pumping costs.
(e) Increasing boiler efficiency by lowering the firing rate.
(I) Reducing the back pressure on the cylinders.
(g) Llghtening the duties of engine crews and improvlng time keeping of trains.
9· The broad effects and benefits of feed-water heaters are unquestionable, but the amount of benefit and the amount of fuel saved are to a certain extent dependent upon such. cIrcumstances as weight and speed of trains, type of service and weather, profile of track, condition of engine, quality of fuel and largely upon the human element, especially .where variables are encountered to excess.
10. FinaIIy, the question of the feed heater is an irnportant one to the economical working of the steam locomotive and that in view of the great advances made in the deslgn. of the apparatus in the last few years more consideration should be grven to the principle. The effect of the heater on reducing boiler weight should also be consldered and that in new locomotives the boiler, the superheater and the feed .heater should be considered together.

Other systems included the Dabeg pump and heater which operatd on the Willans Luard system. Figure 24 shows the ACFI system used on some LNER locomotives. On page 402 in response to Dobbie it was noted that a Weir feedwater heater had been fitted to CR No. 136 and was tested between Carlisle and Glasgow, but the results were inconclusive. .

Squire, C.E. (Paper No. 303)
Some points in the design and application of carriage and wagon springs. 403-21. Disc.: 421-9. 14 figs.
Presented on 21 December 1932 at Queen's Hotel, Birmingham: G.S. Bellamy in chair. Comparison of English and American bogie designs. The former could have helical bolsters and auxiliary bearing springs (Fig. 1), or elliptical bolsters and rubber auxiliary bearings (Fig. 2). Volute springs were used in the Sheffield Twinberrow bogies and the Gibbons bogie used the laminated side springs as part of the bogie structure. Instruments to monitor ride ranged from the glass of water, the Hallade recorder and the Crocker instrument. The Wimperis accelerometer and the accelerometer manufactured by the Cambridge Scientific Instrument Company. The latter is considered in comparison with the Hallade and Crocker instruments. The Tapley instrument, designed for brake tests is also noted. Rubber and steel buffer springs are also considered: the former were considered to be less effective (but the data were provided by a manufacturer of steel springs!). The fatigue limit of steel springs is mentioned. Crocker spoke in the discussion (pp. 422-4).

Norrish, L.B. (Paper No. 304)
Locomotive repair policies. 430-41. Disc.: 441-9.
Presented at Fourth Quarterly Meeting of South American Centre in Montevideo, Uruguay on 2 December 1932: J.G. Mayne in chair. Sets out two types of repair policy: the Belt system adopted by the LMS (which demanded an extensive stock of replacement parts) and a more ad hoc policy in which components were repaired, and if necessary manufactured for replacement. The paper related to South American conditions rather than those at Crewe or Derby. Cited H. Fowler's paper on Locomotive repairs presented to the Institute of Transport in 1929 in which it was claimed that the 300 types inherited at the Grouping had been reduced to 129.
Policy 1 had a limited locomotive stock but an efficient maintenance system with rapid access to spare parts and Policy 2 was to have a large locomotive stock with a high proportion undder or awaiting repair.
Participants in the discussion included P.C. Dewhurst (444-5) thought the position can be summed up by the statement that the repair policy of any railway should fall into its proper position between the extremes of Policy No. I and Policy No. 2; the smallest lines, having so few locomotives (and other stock to correspond) as three or four, obviously come in at the extreme of Policy No. 2; whilst the largest railways, with some thousands of loco- motives should obtain the advantages procurable by Policy No. I. I am not one of those who believe that one must be entirely Policy I or entirely Policy 2.
Of course the exact position of any railway between these limits is additionally influenced by its location and other particular conditions, but I consider unquestionablv that upon the accuracy, between Policies I and 2  is approached in the methods applied to its repairs, depends its efficiency and economic success.
I am additionally of the opinion that of even more importance than time in shops is the mileage accomplished between shoppings-and when I say mileage I mean effiCIent mileage, not attained by grading a run-down engine to lesser duty, nor having a "fuel-eater" in service—of course do not mean that time under general repairs in shops should not be brought to its minimum, no matter what repair policy is adopted; what I do maintain, however, is that the two factors, time out of shops and time in shops, should both be attacked for the purpose of lengthening and shortening respectively.
In this connection it is to be noted that until very recently no figures of the proportion of time out of service for light and similar shop repairs, as also running repairs in sheds, have been available in respect to the railways who have so considerably cut down the time spent under general repairs in shops by means of the wholesale adoption of Policy I, and the few such figures as are recently available indicate but a very slight improvement in this respect, and I believe I am correct in saying that in the early days of the adoption of Policy I the proportion of stock out of service for these lighter kinds of repairs, as also the mileage between general repairs, were not of that satisfactory kind conducive to publication. This is an important point, as, quite apart from time out of service, repairs carried out at sheds anJ outstations are much more costly than when done at headquarters.
The Author's reference to the proportionate value of locomotive spares (and carriage and wagon repairs in similar cases) pertaining to the two policies and his desire for definite figures in relation thereto are very apposite, and it would be exceedingly valuable information to obtain, as although such matters may be preconsidered and worked out in any proposal to advance along the path from Policy 2 towards Policy I, yet there is nothing like figures derived from practical results as a guide.
There is no doubt, as the Author mentions, that one of the most important, if not the most important, factor is the number of locomotives to a given class, as otherwise the proportionate value of spare parts becomes higher than can be justified by the advantages which might be obtainable by the movement towards Policy I.
In dealing with overhead charges, reference is made to the necessity of adequate overheads being included; with this I am particularly in agreement, and it will be seen from the figures he gives that of a 55 per cent. overhead, as based upon the initiating charges, only some 19.5 per cent. would be considered overheads according to the systems in force on some railways with which the speaker has been connected; I consider, however, that everything should go into the overhead charges which can reasonably be-considered as belonging thereto.
and E.J. Beckwith (446-7)..

Windle, E. (Paper No. 305)
Locomotive valves and valve gears. 450-73. Disc,: 473-7.
Presented on 21 December 1932 at Royal Station Hotel, Necastle-on-Tyne: J.W. Hobson in chair. Mainly concerned with the design of Walschaerts valve gear, but also includes the design of piston valves. The advantages of Walschaerts gear over Stephenson motion were listed as lighter (approximately half the weight); simple to standardize; inside of the frame is kept free from pipe lines and subsidiary fittings; the elimination of straps and eccentrics and simpler manufacture (drop stampings) and assembly outside the frames; simple to inspect when in service; simpler to reverse and power reversers not required. Notes on the suspension of the combination lever and setting the gear. Also noted that Gresley had fitted ball bearings to the eccentric rods in 1916.
Discussion: C.C. Jarvis asked about exhaust steam temperatures and cut-offs. Hobson (474) considered the power absorbed in overcoming compression pressures due to pre-admission. He asked for comparitive maintenance costs of Walschaerts versus Stephenson gears and was informed that the cost of lining eccentrics was high.  R.J. Robson (474-5) observed that vallve lead and preadmission are very important factors. He introduced statistics relating to eight of the Gresley Pacifics which had been modified with long travel valves: these had each run over 500,000 miles and Royal Lancer had achieved 613,366 miles. G.M. Wells (476) noted that in India the fitting of long travel valves on Stephenson link equipped locomotives led to truly remarkable running...

Journal No. 114

Cardew, C.A. (Paper No. 306)
Some observations on the practice of providing lead with the piston or slide valves of modern locomotives. 486-497. Disc.: 497-34.
Paper was presented by H. Holcroft at Institution of Mechanical Engineers on 27 October 1932: W.A. Lelean in Chair. Author was in New South Wales. who opened the discussion. Considers that lead was introduced on the Stephenson Patent type 2-2-2 in 1837 (citing Ahrons. The British steam railway locomotive, 1825-1925). The Authors conclusions are.

  1. There is no need to provide lead to bring the reciprocating parts to rest at the end of the stroke. The compression of the exhaust is a more satisfactory method of doing this, even if it is necessary, which the Author does not consider is the case.

  2. Under modern conditions there is little necessity to have lead to obtain a high initial pressure in the cylinders, which can be better secured by means of.long valve travel and ample part areas.

  3. Lead is detrimental to the performance af the engine at starting and low speeds; and under these conditions it also lowers machine efficiency, causing unnecessary wear and friction.

  4. The introduction of lead results in undesirable changes in other valve events, causing early release and compression. In consequence there is loss af power and the steam consumption is rather higher, especially if the lead is considerable or increases at early cut-offs

Holcroft ended his observations with "Although the Author seems to condemn lead generally; I do not think that is quite so bad as he makes out; there are some points in its favour". (p. 501). H. Chambers (504-5) refered to his early firing days when he experienced locomotives with Stephenson link motion and short travel which were extremely uncomfortable to travel on at high speed due to the severe compression. Miss V. Holmes (508-9) noted that she had attempted to survey locomotive valve events and found a lack of agreement as to whether lead should be constant, or should vary with cut off. Paper awarded Alfred Rosslin Bennett Prize  

Adams, C.F. (Paper No. 308)
Electrical equipment on steam trains for cooking and heating. 535-59. Disc.: 559-66.
Presented at meeting of North Eastern Centre at Hotel Metropole in Leeds on 21 October 1932: J. Blundell in chair. Gresley introduced electric cooking on the quintriple articulated set for the GNR in 1921. A very wide range of electrical equipment was fitted and this extended to one carriage which featured electric heating in the compartments and in the corridor as well as water heating in the toilets and even in showers in sleeping cars.

Loach, J.C. (Paper No. 309)
The locomotive and the track: aspects of their relationship. 567-85. Disc. 585-95. 13 diagrs.
Presented at Sixth Ordinary Meeting of the Birmingham Centre at the Queen's Hotel on 29 March 1933 at 18.45; chaired G.S. Bellamy. Figure 1 superimposition of tyre profiles from Caledonian, Great Northern, Great Western, LBSCR, LYR and Midland Railways. Fig. 2 shows cotact between tyre and rail. Contact at two points: tread with surface of rail and flange with side of rail. Wear of tread depends upon work performed. Wear of tread leads to hunting and oscillation. Discussion of rolling contact. Sliiping increased tread wera and wear was greater at point adjacent to balznce weights. Check rails caused wear. Play had to be provided if more than four wheels: thus the wheelbase is significant. Two wheel types received particular attention: the 2-4-2 which led to oscillation and front-coupled. Diamond crossings were difficult to negotiate. The work of Prof. C.F. Uebelacker was cited and that of Dymond for the GWR in the discussion. 0-8-0, even with flangeless third axle had a greater haulage capacity than an 0-6-0. Rolling and nosing. Bogies and pony trucks. Fig. 9 shows redistribution of weight on a 2-6-2T with pony trucks: load on trucks increases as deflection increases. Wear due to chemical corrosion was severe at Soho Road in Birmingham.. Discussion: R.G. McLaughlin (586) wondered if braking increased the severity of the derailment at Leighton Buzzard; H. Chambers (586-7) noted that the Great Western had increased the flange depth from 11/8im ti 1 5/16in and "would not take any action unless there was a reason for it"; S.R.M. Porter (587-9) commented on the coefficient of friction on wet and dry rails and on the importance of side play in the axles on curving characteristics which he considered to be more important than flangeless inetrmediate wheels. Also introduced a Dr Ing Verelacker (Uebelacker?) J.T. Jones (589) noted that GWR axleboxes were designed for a neat fit into the horn plates.

Journal No. 115

Williams, Charles. (Presidential Address)
Colonial railways. 607-40 + 3 folding plates. 30 figures (mainly illus., some diagrs and some maps)
Meeting held at Institution of Mechanical Engineers on 28 September 1933. Vote of thanks moved by Sir Heny Fowler. Several maps show the location of railways in the British Colonial Empire many of which have long ceased to exist. There are further maps for Africa.. At that time Palestine was one of the many Colonies and the difficulties of working therein with its many holy days was noted. In part the paper reflects the activities of the Crown Agents in the supply of locomotives and rolling stock (both freight and passenger), many items of which are illustrated. The lines were constructed on several gauges. Sir Henry Fowler gave the vote of thanks.

Hanna, C.D. (Paper No. 307)
Oil electric traction. 642-84. Disc.: 684-713.
Meeting held at Institution of Mechanical Engineers on 23 March 1933 chaired by W.A. Lelean. Lady Hamilton and company: diesel electric railcars manufactured by Armstrong Whitworth and evaluated on the LNER. Dretails of test running of Tyneside Venturer in the Newcastle and Middlesbrough areas including some work on severe gradients of 1 in 44. Claimed to be highly reliable. Details of operating costs. Maintenance. Lady Hamilton worked in the London area for a time and returned to Newcastle at an average speed of 47.6 mile/h. The Tyneside Venturer was re-equipped by the LMS as a luxury vehicle to provide a service between Euston and Castle Bromwich for the British Industries Fair. Average speeds in excess of 50 mile/h were achieved. A 250hp diesel electric shunter was also developed and tested against a small steam shunting locomotive (probably J71). The railbus is also described. At no point is the manufacturer (Armstrong) mentioned, but both the LNER and LMS are thanked for their cooperation: presumably Hanna was an independent assessor. Discussion: C.E. Williams (684-6) noted that the Royal State Railways of Siam (Thailand) operated diesel-electric locomotives and these were capable of being evaluated on the Federated Malay States Railways (Malaysia). J.S. Tritton (686-8) noted that Richards had produced an excellent paper on the comparison of various forms of motive power (Proc. Instn Civ. Engrs., 1933, 236 Paper 4908): he noted that the steam shunter was an antique and that a Sentinel should have been used for comparison. J.W. Beaumont (688-90) argued that a Sentinel would have been more economical than the diesel electric shunter; he also noted that a Sentnel railcar had run from Birmingham to Willesden and suggested that the 200hp Sentinel locomotive produced that value at the wheels. H. Chambers (690-1) noted the heavy depreciation with diesel locomotives. D.R. Carling (692-3) described the performance of the diesel electric railcars as being quite moderate feats. N.A. Shore (700-1) argued in favour of mechanical transmissions. Mercer noted the superiority of diesel engines in merchant ships: had the advantage of low speed. Abstract in Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1933, 39, 133.. 

Belfiore, Pedro A. (Paper No. 311)
The condensing locomotive on the Argentine State Railways. 715-30. Disc.: 730-45.
‘Sistema Argentino’ of Argentine State Railways

Beatty, J.W.  (Paper No. 312)
The Manchester and Altringham electrification. 746-69. Disc.: 769-79. map, 5 illus., diagr.
Presented at Queen's Hotel, Birmingham on 16 November 1932; chaired by G.S. Bellamy. 8¾ miles of LMS/LNER Joint railway with twelve stations. Electricity supplied through Longford Bridge sub-station from the Stretfoard Electricity Board to railway sub-stations at Old Trafford and Timperley. Overhead: 1500V DC. Power cars weighed 57 tons. Axle mounted motors. Pantographs. Circuit breakers. Electro pneumatic control.

Journal No. 116

Baker, John (Paper No. 310)
Railway breakdown cranes. 785-810. Disc.: 810-34.
Subsequenty cited by Lund in his Paper 493. Presented at Eighth Ordinary Meeting Institution of Mecanical Engineers at 18.00 on 7 April 1933 chaired by W.A. Lelean. Considered loading gauge, axle load, stability, springing (coil in America; leaf in United Kingdom), travelling gear, jibs, tail, hoisting gear, derrick gear, slewing, Spencer Hopwood boilers.
Reproduction of abstract in Loco. Mag., 1933, 39, 163. In discussing the features bearing on the types of crane to be adopted as part of the equipment of a railway, the author considered the following points.
Firstly, the breakdown crane must be capable of reaching quickly any part of the line on which it is stationed. In some cases one or more large cranes are provided at a central point and capable of dealing with any load likely to be met with, whilst smaller cranes are stationed at other points for dealing with minor breakdowns. The breakdown gang must be ready to attend to any call without delay, and must be reliable and capable of travelling at high speed.
When a gang reaches a wreck it must be fully equipped to deal with it quickly and efficiently. It is of the utmost importance that the line should be cleared and normal working re-established as soon as possible.
From the financial side the breakdown crane can never earn money, although by efficiently clearing away a wreck it may save its own value in revenue losses many times over. As a crane is only in part time use it is not likely, in a few years' time, that a new design will come along and show sufficient economy in working to make it worth while scrapping the former design. Accordingly, the crane must be built to last. A crane must be self-contained and supply its own motive power. Therefore there are four opposite considerations combining to balance the financial considerations. The result may be summed up as follows:
(1)The cranes are extremely well made.
(2) To keep down first cost the crane is equipped with bare necessities, and as a general rule modern time and labour-saving devices are not a financial proposition. Thus, hand cranes, except for the larger sizes, are often invested in. in preference to power-driven cranes.
(3) Design tends to lag behind present-day practice for similar machinery. Improvements are mostly in methods of manufacture to cheapen selling cost, and increase the "capacity of the crane, rather than improvements that will make it more efficient in use. Some engineers regard a crane as a necessarv evil rather than an asset to a breakdown gang. They comnlain that the cranes give endless hot box trouble. and when they do reach a wreck so much time is taken in getting them prepared to lift that they should only be used when re-railing by other methods is out of the question. The author mentioned watching a crane dealing with three any case, whatever the rated full load may be, in practice when dealing with a wreck the limit to lift is the tipping point. Dealing with the details of a breakdown crane, the author pointed out that the carriage frame should be sprung and flexible to carry the superstructure, and as a base for the crane it should be as rigid as possible. The number of axles is fixed by the total weight, and in order to get the best use from the crane the carriage must be kept as short as the axle loading limitations will allow. It is not always possible to distribute the load and still keep the carriage short enough to allow the crane to lift over the end. Then relieving bogies are used to take part of the load. The objection to them lies in the extra time taken to prepare the crane for lifting. Wheel arrangements take a variety of forms. From a running point of view two pairs of four- or six-wheel bogies make the nicest arrangement. Axle journals are usually outside the wheels, as this facilitates changing brasses, adjustment to springs, and blocking them when the crane is lifting. Some railways use their wagon axleboxes; these are not really heavy enough, and locomotive tender type boxes are much better. Leaf springs following locomotive practice deflection are usually worked to. Jack screws or wedges must be provided over the springs in order to relieve them from excessive load when lifting. There should also be similar screws under the axleboxes to prevent the off side of the carriage from lifting off the springs as the load on them is relieved. A locking device is fitted to prevent the jack screws jarring down when the crane is running. The travel gear is led by means of a vertical shaft through the centre pin and by a train of spurs and bevels to the axles; two axles are usually driven; if the axles are on bogies it is necessary to make provision for float. The travelling gear must be made to disconnect, and this is done by sliding the final pinion out of gear from the spur on the axle. A Stone's boosting engine would make an ideal unit for travelling a steam crane. It is not practicable to brake more than four or six wheels on a carriage, as the brake-operating rods tend to foul the blocking girder boxes. When steam brakes are fitted it is necessary to take the steam down the centre pin; this is not as difficult as it might appear at first sight, as only a small supply is needed. A curved jib is a characteristic of this class of crane. The original idea of curving the jib was to enable the crane to lift a bulky piece, such as a coach or a locomotive, up to a reasonable height without fouling. If one looks at some of the modern large cranes one wonders what the jib is curved for as the main hook leads off a straight portion of the jib. and yet who would dare to design a breakdown crane with a straight jib? On hand cranes the method of operating the tail as a counter-balance usuallv consists of fixing the weight on rol1ers which run in guides. the movement being obtained by means of a hand wheel and screw.
On steam cranes the position of the boiler prevents the use of the sliding tail weight. An adjustable weight is sometimes arranged by a loose block, which clips on the underside of the tail. When the crane is being run in train this weight is carried on the opposite end of the carriage underneath the jib foot. To pick it up the crane is slewed round so that the tail is plumb over the weight. Then by means of the attachment screws it is lifted up ann fastened to the tail.
The longer the tail the less will be the weight of the tail ballast required. From a user's point of view. it is highly desirable to keep the tail as short as possihle: if too long. it is liable to foul vehicles standing on adjaccnt lines and prohibit the use of the crane in a cutting. Hoisting gear is usually spur driven from the engine shaft by means of a double reduction spur gearing. It is engaged by means of a sliding pinion, and all cranes above ten tons capacity should have two speeds of operation; this is necessary even if the crane has an auxiliary hoist. as hoisting or lowering an empty block with only one speed is a very slow job. The brakes are usually band type, Ferodo lined, operating on the second shaft. Sometimes two brakes are supplied, one foot-operated and the other screw-operated, but one brake is sufficient, provided it is arranged to give plenty of purchase. For derrick gear the barrel is either fitted with a worm wheel or the worm and wheel is incorporated in an earlier reduction, the final reduction being by spur. The worm-gear is self-sustaining, and to obtain this feature it must hare an efficiency of less than 50 per cent., so the speed at which this motion operates is slow. It is necessary to fit an automatic or hand brake which can be put on when the operating clutch is disengaged.
Slewing gear motion is nearly always made to operate at too high a speed. Most cranes would stand double the amount of reduction in gearing and operate better for it. A breakdown crane calls for a boiler with two opposite characteristics: (1) Quick steaming from cold; (2) plenty of storage capacity to cope with the intermittent demand for steam. The first requirement calls for a boiler with as much heating surface as possible and small water space. Quick steaming gets prior consideration, as the amount of room available limits the second requirement. The best place for the steam outlet is the crown of the boiler. There is not always head room for it here, so it has to be taken out at the side; in either case a dry pipe is essential to limit priming.
The size of the engine cylinders is largely settled by the torque required to start the various motions from rest. Comparatively large clearances should be used in order to prevent water hammer. The sacrifice in efficiency, due to clearances, does not matter much, as the work is so intermittent. Various types of valves and valve gear have been used, but the plain "D" valve with Stephenson motion is very satisfactory. The author favours inclined engines with a piston valve, the valve chest being on top of the cylinders. This ensures that water does not accumulate in the valve chest and it is easy to get the water away. The correct place for a driver is the front of a crane; in this position he gets a good view, which is very essential. Unfortunately, the restrictions of loading gauges make it difficult to house the driver in front; in fact, for cranes for use in this country it is almost impossible. By elevating the driver slightly quite a reasonable view can be obtained from the rear.
The author is of opinion that there is an opening for a crane built on hand-crane lines, but with a small petrol or Diesel engine. The speeds would be slower than those of a steam crane, but the first cost would not be much more than that of a hand-crane.

Griffiths, S. (Paper No. 315)
Anti-vacuum or snifting valves. 835-56. Disc.: 856-77.
Paper presented at Midland Junction, Western Australia on 31 May 1933: J.W.R. Broadfoot in Chair. Cites (without giving Patent Numbers): Raven's patent bye-pass valve (24,561/1912?); J.W.D. Wrench's blast pipe valve; Trofinoff valves; Wood's patent vacuum braking device; Hendrie bye-pass valve

Hubbard, R.K.  (Paper No. 314)
Standardisation from the point of view of the enginer and of the storekeeper. 880-904. Disc.: 904-21.
Practice in the Argentine, but also quotes from Paper by W.K. Wallace of the LMS entitled Railway purchases and stores.:

Macbeth, Colin. (Paper No. 313)
The application of rubber in railway engineering. 929-66. Disc.: 966-72. 32 figures (illus. and diagrs.)
Presented at Manchester Literary & Philosophical Society on 10 February 1933 at 19.00: J.N. Gresham in chair. LMS coach used over 300 rubber components: 34% in buffing and draw-gear and 24% in suspension. Bogie suspension was limited at that time to experiments on the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad and by Goodyear. Resilient wheels were beginning to be developed. Applications on locomotives were illustrated by auxiliary suspension sptings on a Pacific locomotive and on a 4-6-0. Hairlok, rubberized horsehair and rubber diaphragms are mentioned for seating in coaches. Load deflection and stress strain curves. Gresham (968) complained about variable properties.