Furness  Railway: locomotive history
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The Furness Railway surved the Barrow area by connecting it with the LNWR and the Midland Railway to the east and with Whitehaven to the north. The area became heavily industrialised and this was based on local high quality haemetite iron ore. Shipbuilding was a key activity at Barrow. The railway was not unusual in having a major financial interest in docks, but was more unusual in having a major interest in steelworks. The line was small, but energetic, and encouraged tourism in the Southern Lake District and on Morecambe Bay. Rush is the key source. It both applies a useful classification to the diverse locomotive stock, but fails to link the various elements in the two volumes. Furthermore, the photographic illustrations fail to have any form of numbering. The line drawings in the Supplement are clearly numbered, however. James Ramsden was the first locomotive superintendent and later became the general manager and Mayor of Barrow.

Ahrons, E.L. Locomotive and train working in the latter part of the nineteenth century; edited by L.L. Asher. Cambridge: Heffer, 1951-4. Volum 2: pp. 152-63.
Originally published in Rly Mag., for 1921.
Andrews, Michael. The Furness Railway- a history. Barrai Books. 248pp .
Reviewed in Backtrack, 2012, 28, 126
Arman, Brian. The H.L. Hopwood Collection, 1901-1926. Part 2. The Furness Railway at Barrow in 1902. 44-51. Rly Arch., 2008 (19) 44.
Stunning photographs, superbly reproduced mainly of the Bury-type 0-4-0s which were still in service in 1902.
Cumbrian Railways Association. Furness Railway 150.
Reviewed in Backtrack (1996, 10, 572) by Mike Blakemore who commended it: includes a chapter on the locomotives.
McGowan Gradon, W. The Furness Railway. Trains ill., 1954, 7, 422-5; 462-5: 1955, 8, 9-12; 78-80.15 illus., table, map.
Includes locomotive development, butlightly sketched, although the illustrations are good..
Norman, K.J. The Furness Railway. Peterborough: Silver Link, 1994. 128pp.
Photographs from the Sankey Collection.
Peascod, Michael. Cumbrian engines in LMS ownership. 24-37.
Furness Railway; Maryport & Carlisle Railway and Cleator & Workington Junction Railway.
Pettigrew, W.F. History of the Furness Railway locomotives. Proc. Instn Mech. Engrs., 1901, 61, 727-38.
Illustrated with line drawings of virtually all locomotives which operated on the railway.
Rush, R.W. The Furness Railway, 1843-1923. Lingfield: Oakwood Press, 1973 (Oakwood Library of Railway History No, 35). 113pp.
Furness Railway locomotives and rolling stock. 1973. 64pp.
This was treated as a Supplement rather than as a second volume, but as the key textual information is contained within the main volume this makes consultation difficult. Furthermore, the small class of 2-4-2Ts rebuilt from Sharp 2-4-0s appeared to be forgotten in the main text. The notes on the locomotives are taken almost entirely from Rush.

Until 1896, the Furness Railway had no locomotives of its own design; all had been the standard productions of the various makers from whom they had been purchased. By far the largest number were built by Sharp, Stewart and in this the FR was closely analogous to the Cambrian Railways, both companies having a number of engines of the same design and dimensions. The Furness engines were of seven types, 0-4-0, 0-6-0, 2-4-0 and 4-4-0 tender, and 2-2-2, 0-4-0, and 0-6-0 tanks. Nevertheless, the first four locomotives were built by Bury, Curtis & Kennedy, of Liverpool, and were of the bar-framed 0-4-0 type: one of which, No.3, is preserved as part of the National Collection at the NRM.

From 1896, when R. Mason retired as Locomotive Superintendent, to be succeeded by W.F. Pettigrew, the company developed its own designs, culminating in the large Baltic express tank engines of 1920. By then Pettigrew had retired, and the Baltics were the sole design produced by his successor, D.L. Rutherford, or possibly by the Chief Draughtsman.

There was no official classification of locomotives. There is, however, a classification which is believed to have been introduced by A.C.W. Lowe, a historian of tne railway. A complication in the Furness stock list is the amount of renumbering which took place at various intervals, mainly to maintain similar locomotives in the same numerical sequence. There was, too, a spasmodic use of an "A" list for engines replaced but still retained in service. All this has needed a great deal of unravelling, but the version given by Rush was believed to be as near correct as it is possible to be. It dealt with the locomotives in type order, and this is retained. Details of some of the former Whitehaven & Furness Junction engines taken over in 1866 are very elusive, and even the wheel arrangement of some has been in dispute. The version of the list in the present publication is that of A. C.W. Lowe, modified in the light of some recent researches by Mr. E. Craven into the early locomotives of the Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway, for it had been established by Craven that certain L&YR engines were sold to the W&FJR. This book was not really concerned with the W&FJR locomotives which passed to the LNWR in the division of stock in 1866, but were included for completeness. The LNWR numbers allotted (though several of them never actually carried) have been the subject of no little controversy, and no two authorities seem to agree. The first series allotted was 1551-1560, altered within a few weeks to 1578-1587, though in what order is problematical.

The locomotives of the independent Cleator & Workington Railway were also covred by Rush.

Class A1 0-4-0 tender engines
The two engines forming this class, numbered 1 and 2, were delivered in 1844. They were used in the construction of the line. Built by Bury, Curtis & Kennedy, they had the typical bar frames and hemispherical "haystack" fireboxes, with domeless boilers, for which Bury's engines were famous. In fact, except for a small number of engines built to customers' own designs, all the firm's output of some 350 locomotives until they ceased production in 1850 were of this same basic design. Nos. 1 and 2 were smaller engines than the well-known "Coppernob" of two years later, and had a much shorter life. No.1 had her firebox badly burned at Carnforth in 1866 through the fire having been lighted with an empty boiler, and she was broken up shortly afterwards. Her sister was sold to a Northumberland colliery, and her subsequent history is unrecorded. The internal dimensions of these two engines were open to doubt. Their cylinders, inside, and hung low, were 13 in. x 24 in., wheels 4 ft. 9 in., wheelbase 7 ft. 5 in., and working pressure 90 lbs. The four-wheeled tender, of typical Bury pattern, carried 900 gallons of water and 2 tons of coal.

Class A2. 0-4-0 tender engines
This class comprised two engines (Figure 1 and Plate 12): Nos. 3 and 4, built by Bury, Curtis & Kennedy, but delivered in 1846, and were slightly larger than Class A1. Sekon's century-old Evolution of the steam locomotive (p. 123 and Fig. 47) noted that No. 3 Old Copper-Nob was the "oldest locomotive still at work" (that is in 1899!). These four locomotives sufficed for some six years and worked all traffic quite successfully over the two short lines making up the Furness Railway at that period. Frames were the usual bar pattern; the boiler was of Low Moor iron and domeless, working at 110 psi. The firebox; was of copper, with the upper part hemispherical, and was surmounted by a small dome carrying two spring balance safety valves. Originally the firebox crown plate was made in two halves, lap-jointed, but this proved somewhat troublesome and was replaced in 1853 by a single plate, which gave no more trouble. Cylinders were between the frames and were cast separately, the Stephenson link motion working above the leading axle. The tender had oak frames, with axleguards bolted on, and ran on four wheels of 3 ft. 1½ in. diameter, at 6 ft. 8 in. centres. Water capacity was 1,000 gallons and coal 1½ tons.

Latterly, the two engines were employed in shunting Barrow Docks and on short local goods trips. No.4 was taken out of service in 1898 and broken up soon afterwards, but No. 3, withdrawn in 1900, was at first stored in Barrow Works, but in 1907 was mounted on a pedestal at the Central station. Norman (pp. 78-9) shows No. 3 in its glass case at Barrow Central station and being removed in 1924 for conveyance to the International Exhibition at Wembley. Page 79 shows another line drawing.

Class A3 0-4-0 tender engines
As the Bury four-coupled engines had proved quite capable of dealing with the mineral and goods traffic, when further engines were required four more of the same general pattern were ordered from W. Fairbairn, of Manchester. Bury's had gone out of business by this time, but Fairbairn had built a number of Bury engines under sub-contract, and therefore had all the necessary patterns and specifications. Two were delivered in 1854, numbered 7 and 8, while numbers 9 and 10 followed in 1855. Figure 2. While of the same general design as the two previous classes, they were somewhat larger in dimensions, the chief external difference being that they had closed splashers over the wheels. All four engines put in more than 40 years' work, numbers 7 and 8 being withdrawn in 1899, number 10 in 1900, and 9 in 1901. The last two were renumbered into the duplicate list as 9A and l0A in 1899. Their tenders were of Fairbairn's own design, with a peculiar pattern of plate frame, in which the support for the brake gear was carried in a curved part of the main frame, centrally between the axles. The lower part of the frame was thus made up of two semi-circles. Springs were below the running plate, and the body of the tender was based on Bury's design. The tender ran on four wheels at 9 ft. centres; and carried 1,000 gallons of water and 2 tons of coal. The engines had larger cylinders than the Burys — 15 in. x 24 in. The wheels were 4 ft. 6 in. diameter. No. 9A as running in 1902: Rly Arch., 2008 (19) 44..

Class A4. 0-4-0 tender engines
Four further engines were ordered from Fairbairn and were similar to the previous class. The splashers were of a different pattern. Nos. 13 and 14 were delivered in 1858, followed by 15 and 16 in 1861. Dimensions were the same as Class A3, except that the weight was 24½ tons. Nos. 15 and 16 were taken out of stock in 1899, but 13 and 14 were put on the A list in the same year and were withdrawn in 1900. All the 0-4-0s were replaced in the stock list by Pettigrew 0-6-0 tender engines. Nos 14A and 13A as running in 1902 (Rly Arch., 2008 (19), 45-6). See also letter from Les Gilpin in Rly Arch., 2008, (20) 59 who corrects errors in captions and notes the significance of these photographs...

Class A5 0-4-0 tender engines
The last four-wheeled tender engines were supplied by Sharp, Stewart as Fairbairn's had gone out of business, and their stock and goodwill were purchased by Sharp, Stewart. Figure 3 shows No. 25. Nos. 17-20 were built in 1863, Nos. 25 and 26 in 1865, and in 1866, Nos. 27 and 28. The eight members of this class were of the builders' own design, and differed considerably from the earlier 0-4-0s. Plate frames were used; the boiler had a dome on the front ring, surmounted by Salter safety valves, and the firebox was the normal round-topped pattern with raised casing. Cylinders were 15½ in. x 24 in., with valves on top, actuated by Stephenson link motion. The footplating was raised over the wheels, with a very deep valance. The engines were fitted with standard Sharp four-wheeled tenders, of which the FR eventually had a considerable number, as a modified version was also fitted to the later 2-4-0 and 0-6-0 engines built by the same firm. The springs were above the running plate, which gave a rather narrow body, and there was a large toolbox on the rear framing above the buffer beam.

Six engines of this class were sold in 1870 and 1873 to the associated Barrow Haematite Steel Co., thus having a comparatively short career with the FR. This was not because they were not good engines; far from it, for they gave good service in the steelworks for many years, in fact some reached the ripe old age of 80 years. They were altered by Sharp's to saddle tanks before being handed over. Furness trains were rapidly becoming too heavy for these small engines, and their work could be performed better by the 0-6-0 type which were just coming into their own. For such light work as was within the capacity of the four-wheeled engines, the older Bury and Fairbairn classes were adequate, and it was considered better to sell the Sharp engines while they were comparatively new and could command a good price. Nos. 27 and 28 were retained by the railway, and after being renumbered 27A and 28A in 1914, were finally taken out of service in 1918. Sharp's works numbers were 1434/5, 1447/8 of 1863 (Nos. 17-20); 1585-6 of 1865 (Nos. 25-6); and 1663/4 of 1866 (Nos. 27-8). Norman illustrates Barrow Steelworks No. 7 on page 79 (middle). Hopgood photograph of No. 28 as running in 1902. Rly Arch., 2008 (19) 47

Class B1 2-2-2 well tank engines
Until 1850, the Furness Railway did not seek passenger traffic: only four passenger coaches had been ordered when the line was opened, but with the possible extension to Ulverston and beyond, more notice had to be taken of potential services. Two small 2-2-2 well tank engines were ordered from Sharp Brothers in 1851. They were delivered in the following year, numbered 5 and 6 in the Furness list, and 696/7 in the makers' books: Figure 4. They were very small locomotives, of Sharp's standard design, with outside sandwich frames, inside cylinders 14 in. x 18 in., and a small water tank under the bunker. The framing of this pair was straight, unlike the subsequent engines of the same type which had the framing curved over the driving axle. Driving wheels were 5 ft. 6 in., and the carrying wheels 3 ft. 6 in. No cab was fitted, but later a bent-over iron sheet, serving as both roof and spectacle plates, was fitted. The boiler was the usual Sharp pattern, with dome on the front ring and Salter safety valves on the raised firebox. Both engines were withdrawn in 1873.

Class B2 2-2-2 well tank engines
Two further small passenger engines were obtained from Sharp Bros. in 1857, their Nos. 1016/7, becoming 11 and 12 on the FR list. They were similar in most respects to the earlier pair, but differed in having the outside frames curved over the driving axle, and were slightly larger in general dimensions. Both had cabs of a sort-a single sheet of metal bent over to cover the footplate and strengthened by angle-iron. No. II was sold back to Sharp, Stewart in 1873 in part payment for a new engine, but No. 12 lasted considerably longer, being renumbered 12A in 1873, and was finally sold to the Weston, Clevedon & Portishead Railway in 1898. This engine worked for some time on the Coniston branch and was involved in a collision between Broughton and Foxfield while on this duty; this incident is mentioned later, in the appendix on accidents.

Class B3 2-2-2 well tank engines
This was the largest group, numerically of all the Furness engines of this type: the engines were also the largest 2-2-2T. There were six, Nos. 21 and 22 built in 1864, and 34-37 built in 1866, all by Sharp, Stewart & Co. Figure 5. The works numbers were 1500/1 and 1763/8/7/2. They were identical to the B2 class in appearance, but somewhat larger in dimensions, proving versatile and economical for light passenger duties. They had the same wheel diameters as the earlier engines, but their cylinders were enlarged to 15 in. x 18 in., and they had larger boilers. All had a fairly long lives; they were put on the A list in 1896 and withdrawn two years later. No. 35A was sold to the Weston, Clevedon & Portishead Railway, and 22A to the South Shields, Marsden & Whitburn Colliery Railway; Nos. 36/37 worked as stationary engines until 1918, the rest were scrapped.

Class B4. 2-2-2 well tank engine
This was an odd engine, No. 10, Queen Mab (Figure 6) of the Whitehaven & Furness Junction Railway, built by R. & W. Hawthorn (No. 1128) in 1860. It became No. 46 in the Furness list and did not last long, being sold to the Isle of Wight Central Railway in 1876, where it was renamed Newport, and ran until 1890. The engine was similar in dimensions to the Sharp engines but differed considerably in appearance. The plate frames were outside, and were straight; the boiler was domed and the safety valves were in a brass casing over the firebox. There was an all-over cab, without side-sheets, which embraced the bunker, and water was carried in tanks fitted between the main frames. For some time after the amalgamation, No. 46 remained on the Whitehaven section but was then transferred to Barrow, and worked for the rest of its career on the Coniston and Lakeside branches.

Class B5 2-2-2 well tank engines
These two engines were part of the W&FJR stock, in which they were number 4, Oberon (Figure 7) and 5, Titania, being renumbered into the Furness list as 47 and 48. Both were built by E.B. Wilson & Co. in 1850. They were small well tank engines, typical of the makers' design, and unlike the other 2-2-2 tanks had inside frames. Driving wheels were 5 ft. 3 in. diameter, and the inside cylinders were 12 in. x 18 in. Quite capable of pottering about on the almost level Whitehaven line, they were not so useful on the Furness Railway proper, and spent what little time they were on the FR books doing odd jobs on the smaller branch lines. Both engines were sold in 1870. Incidentally, all engines of the W. & F.J.R. carried names as well as numbers, but when the Furness Railway took over all names were removed.

Class Cl 0-4-0 saddle tank engines
For shunting in the docks area and work on mineral branches, Sharp, Stewart & Co. supplied two four-wheeled saddle tank engines (Figure 8) of their standard design in 1864. Numbered 23 and 24, they were 1543/4 in the makers' list. They had inside cylinders 14 in. x 20 in., inside frames, and 4 ft. wheels. The boilers were domeless, but a large dome surmounted by a pair of Salter valves was fitted over the raised firebox. The saddle tank covered the smokebox but stopped short at the firebox throat plate, and the usual primitive bent sheet of metal served for a cab. Four further engines of the same class, but having the dome on the first ring of the boiler instead of over the firebox, were delivered by Sharp's in 1874, numbered 94-97 in the FR list and carrying Sharp's works Nos. 2448-51. In 1898, 23 and 24 were renumbered 98 and 99 to make way for a batch of Pettigrew 0-6-0 goods engines, but did not last long after this, being withdrawn in 1904. One of the later batch, 97, actually lasted long enough to be taken over by the LMS, which scrapped it in 1924, under the number 11258, which was never actually carried. At some time, this engine acquired a pair of Ross pop valves on the dome, in place of the original Salter type, as also did 95. Of the others, 94 and 95 were put on the A list in 1912, the former being scrapped in 1914 and 95A two years later. No. 96 was on the A list in 1907 and was also scrapped in 1916. No. 94 (from photograph it appears to be "No. 4") is is illustrated in Rly Arch, 2008 (19) 49.

Class C2. 0-4-0 saddle tank engines
Little is known about these two locomotives: although classified together, they had little in common and came from different makers. Both were built for the Whitehaven & Furness Junction Railway, No. 15, Banshee, by Fletcher Jennings & Co. (works No. 29) in 1862, and No. 16, Bob Ridley, by Neilson & Co. (WN 571) in the same year. The Furness Railway renumbered them 49 and 50. Apart from knowing they had 10 in. x 16 in. cylinders and 4 ft. wheels, nothing has survived of their dimensions. Used for the transfer service through the streets of Whitehaven, between Preston Street goods station and the harbour, they were withdrawn from service in 1882, and were both sold to a local Whitehaven firm of contractors.

Class D1 0-6-0 tender engines
Largest class, numerically, totalling fifty-five, plus eight further ordered by company, but cancelled before delivery. In addition, this class was the most complicated, owing to subsequent rebuildings. Figures 9 to 12 show original and rebuilt versions. Plate 23 shows No. 32 in original state. The increasing weight of mineral trains was getting beyond the capacity of the Bury and Fairbairn four-wheeled engines, and Sharp, Stewart was requested to submit designs for a larger type: a medium-sized 0-6-0 tender locomotive was advised, of a type built in considerable numbers, both for home and overseas. The first example was built in 1866 and the last in 1884, during which time no modifications were made to the design and few to the dimensions. Sekon's Evolution of the steam locomotive (p. 314) mentions this class, but in this case the dimensions quoted are slightly at variance. See also Rly Arch., 2008 (19) 51 upper for No. 39 as in 1902..

They were small machines, but were very efficient and cheap to maintain and they were very popular with the crews. Their wheels were 4 ft. 6½ in. diameter and inside cylinders 16 in. x 24 in. The boiler was of average size for the period, and had the usual Sharp raised firebox with Salter valves in a neat brass casing on top of it. The dome was on the middle ring of the boiler. Those built before 1873 lacked a cab, but had a front weatherboard, but the later engines had rather a sketchy cab, similar to the Stirling pattern on the Great Northern Railway. The tenders were four-wheeled, of the same design as those of the contemporary 2-4-0s, holding 1,500 gallons of water and 3 tons of coal.

When W. F. Pettigrew took charge of the motive power in 1896, he commenced bringing them up to date, fitting automatic vacuum brakes and steam heating for use on passenger trains, also fitting larger steel boilers of his own pattern, standard with the LI class of 0-6-2 tanks but with a smaller firebox (type 2 in table). These boilers had flush fireboxes and Ramsbottom safety valves. At the same time new cabs were fitted, of more orthodox type, but retaining the large oblong rear splasher, with cut-out side sheets and a separate roof plate. Still later, between 1910 and 1912, several were rebuilt with boilers standard with Pettigrew's 0-6-0 side tanks, but without the extended smokeboxes (type 3 in table). Finally, around 1916, five members of the class received similar boilers, with extended smokeboxes, and completely new cabs, in which the oblong rear splasher was discarded (type 4 in table)..

No engine was rebuilt more than once, and it is probable that those scrapped before 1915 retained their original boilers to the end. All engines which were taken over by the LMS in 1923 had been rebuilt, and those renumbered in the series 12000-12014 had the 1898 pattern boiler, while those in series 12065-12076 had the larger boilers with or without extended smokeboxes. The larger boilered engines did consistently good work on passenger and freight, but none lasted after 1930 on the LMS.

Ten engines were ordered from Sharp's by the Furness Railway, but cancelled, Two actually did run on FR metals; these were Nos. 120 and 121, delivered in 1884 and sold in 1887 to the Liverpool, Southport & Preston Junction Railway. They eventually passed to the Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway when that company took over the LS&PJR in 1897, but were scrapped without receiving the L&YR numbers allotted (1371/2). Of the other eight, two (Sharp Stewart 2339/47 of 1873) went to the Mid Wales Railway, eventually becoming Cambrian Railways 49 and 50 in 1888; two (Sharp 2342/6) became North Staffordshire Railway 69 and 70; two went direct to the Cambrian Railways (Nos. 14 and 15, Sharp 2511/3 of 1875); one to the Denbigh, Ruthin & Corwen Railway (Sharp 2510 of 1875), passing to the LNWR and finally to the Cambrian as No. 18; the last, Sharp 2512 of 1875, was sold by the makers to an unknown customer overseas.

One of this class, No. 115, (original condition) was lost in the Lindal subsidence of 1892. Several proposals for recovering the engine were considered, but abandoned due to the great depth to which it had sunk, possibly 200 feet below track level. The tender broke away from the engine and did not fall into the hole, though it was derailed, and was recovered.

No. 64 (possibly) alongside Ramsden Dock with submarine D1, post 16 May 1908: Norman page 80 lower

FR No. WN Built Rebuild date Boiler LMS No. Scrap Renumbered
29 1697 1866 1900 2 12001 1925 61 (1918)
30 1698 1866 1899 2 12007 1925 62 (1918)
38 1760 1866 1915
39 1761 1866 1915 See also Rly Arch., 2008 (19) 51 upper
31 1764 1866 1899 2 12000 1925 48 (1900)
32 1765 1866 1900 32A/96
33 1766 1866 1900 33A/96
40 1784 1866 1900 2 12008 1925 80 (1916)
41 1785 1866 1916
17 2064 1871 1899 2 12003 1925 23 (1900); 42 (1910); 66 (1916)
18 2065 1871 1910 24 (1900)
19 2095 1871 1910
20 2096 1871 1900 2 12002 1925 25 (1910) 25A (1913)
53 2097 1871 1916
54 2098 1871 1898 2 12005 1925 78 (1916)
55 2099 1871 1898 2 1918
56 2100 1871 1899 2 1918
59 2145 1871 1913
60 2146 1871 1900 2 1921 64 (1918)
61 2147 1871 1899 2 1916
62 2148 1871 1900 2 1916
63 2149 1871 1899 2 1918
64 2150 1871 1918
65 2151 1871 1918 4 12065 1930
66 2152 1871 1916
67 2153 1871 1914
43 2154 1871 1901 2 12004 1925 67 (1916)
25 2278 1873 1910
26 2279 1873 1916 4 12066 1930 59 (1913); 63 (1918)
76 2280 1873 1901 2 12006 1925
77 2283 1873 1914
78 2284 1873 1899 2 1915
79 2285 1873 1916 4 12067 1930
80 2316 1873 1916
81 2317 1873 1900 2 1921
84 2337 1873 1915
85 2338 1873 1900 2 12009 1925
2339 1873 sold by maker to Mid Wales Railway: No. 9
86 2340 1873 1898 2 12010 1925
87 2341 1873 1898 2 12011 1924
2342 1873 sold by maker to NSR: No. 69
2346 1873 sold by maker to NSR: No. 70
2347 1873 sold to Mid Wales Railway: No. 10
92 2422 1874 1897 2 12012 1924 75 (1914)
93 2423 1874 1899 2 12013 1925 77 (1914)
88 2506 1875 1911 3 12068 1926
89 2507 1875 1912 3 12069 1926
90 2508 1875 1918 4 12070 1930
91 2509 1875 1900 2 1924 Dept. No. 1 (1918)
2510 1875 sold by maker to Denbigh, Ruthin & Corwen R.
2511 1875 sold by maker to Cambrian Railways: No. 14
2512 1875 sold by maker to purchaser overseas
2513 1875 sold by maker to Cambrian Railways: No. 15
114 2945 1881 1910 3 12071 1926 115 (1898); 70 (1920)
115 2946 1881 1892 Lost in Lindal subsidence
116 2947 1881 1901 2 12014 1925 71 (1920)
117 2948 1881 1913 3 12072 1927 72 (1920)
118 2949 1881 1911 3 12073 1927 73 (1920)
119 2950 1881 1910 3 12074 1926 74 (1920)
49 3170 1883 1916 4 12075 1928
50 3171 1883 1912 3 12076 1928
120 3172 1883 1887 sold to Liverpool, Southport & Preston Junction R. (1)
121 3173 1883 1887 sold to Liverpool, Southport & Preston Junction R. (2)

Class D2 0-6-0 tender engines
Two engines, FR Nos. 42 and 43, were acquired from the Whitehaven & Furness Junction Railway, where they had been numbered 19 Lonsdale (Figure 13) and 18 Cedric. Both were built by R. & W. Hawthorn in 1864, the works numbers being 1269 and 1245. Designed by Mr. Meikle, the Locomotive Superintendent of the W. & F.J.R., they had a rather squashed appearance, owing to the unusually short front and rear overhang. This shortness in overall length had its effect on the boiler dimensions, which were only moderate, slightly less than the Sharp engines of Class D1. As originally built, they had domeless boilers and raised fireboxes on which the dome was mounted. Frames and cylinders (16 in. x 24 in.) were inside; wheels were 4 ft. 6 in. There was no cab, only a scanty front weatherboard. No. 42 had a longer life on the FR than any other W. & F.J.R. engine; it was rebuilt at Barrow in 1886 with a domed boiler-probably the old boiler retubed and fitted with a dome-and lasted until 1904. No. 43 was soon disposed of, being sold in 1873 to Fletcher, Jennings & Co., subsequently finding its way to the Wigan Coal & Iron Co., where it ended its days.

Class D3 0-6-0 tender engines
Pettigrew found that the small Sharp goods engines had insufficient power to cope with the increasing weight of iron ore trains, although they were still capable on the lighter freight trains: thus, he designed a much more powerful engine to take their place. He was a great believer in standardisation, and so as many parts as possible were made interchangeable with the 0-6-2 tanks he had already produced for the Cleator Moor district. The boiler, cylinders, wheels, and motion therefore were the same for both classes. Twelve of these engines were ordered, the delivery being shared equally by Sharp, Stewart & Co. and Nasmyth, Wilson & Co. Figure 14. The running numbers allotted were 7-12 for the Nasmyth batch and 13-18 for the Sharps, works numbers being 552-7 and 4563-8 respectively, all dated 1899. In the Furness list they replaced a motley collection of old engines, mainly 0-4-0, some of which were put on the A list and others scrapped, but 11 and 12 were of the Sharp 2-4-0 passenger class, and these were renumbered 3 and 4. All twelve of the new engines were put to work on the Tebay-Barrow coke trains, the Carnforth-Whitehaven express goods, and others of the heaviest trains, releasing the Sharp goods engines for secondary duties. Sekon's Evolution of the steam locomotive (p. 314) mentions this class.

Two of the class were fitted with Macallen's variable blast pipe, but this fitting was removed after a short trial, as it did not prove to have any appreciable effect on the steaming. Automatic vacuum brakes and steam heating were fitted for use on passenger trains; though they were not used regularly for passenger services, they were pressed into use for specials and excursion work on odd occasions, their 4 ft. 7½ in. wheels being on the small side for fast running. Some of their hardest work was done in the Whitehaven area, on the "Joint Lines" trains. The design was simple and straightforward, with short smokebox, round-topped firebox, and dome in the centre of the boiler; the Ramsbottom safety valves were surrounded by a neat casing, which became the standard for all FR engines. Cylinders, 18 in. x 26 in., were inside and operated by Stephenson link motion. All the class were in service at the Grouping, and were given LMS numbers 12468-12479, in order of FR numbers. Two, 12469 and 12479, were rebuilt at Horwich with LYR pattern saturated Belpaire boilers and extended smokeboxes. The first to be withdrawn was 12468 in 1928 and the last, 12479, in August 1936.

Class D4 0-6-0 tender engines
Following the success of his first class of mineral engines, Pettigrew introduced a mixed traffic version, with 5 ft. 1 in. coupled wheels (Fig. 15). Only four of these were built, by the North British Locomotive Co. (as successors to Sharp, Stewart & Co.) in 1907. They were Nos. 3-6 in the Furness list, and carried NBL works Nos. 17840-3. Actually, Pettigrew introduced this class in 1900, and six engines were ordered from Nasmyth Wilson in that year, but owing to a temporary falling-off in traffic the order was cancelled. The six engines were completed by the makers (works Nos. 588-593) and were sold to the North Staffordshire Railway, becoming NSR 159-164.

In dimensions they were similar to the D3 class, but were also standard as far as possible with the 0-6-2 tanks of Class L2. Two were stationed at Whitehaven, and the other pair at Carnforth, for fast goods work and also for occasional use on passenger services, for which they were fitted with vacuum brakes and steam heating apparatus.

Three, Nos. 3, 5, and 6, were rebuilt in 1926 with LYR saturated Belpaire boilers and extended smokeboxes, but apart from No.5, which was withdrawn in 1934, this did not extend their life, as the other three, including the unrebuilt No.4, were all withdrawn in 1930. The LMS gave them Nos. 12480-3, in order of FR numbers.

Class D5 0-6-0 tender engines
The final development of the FR six-coupled goods engine came in 1913 when Pettigrew put into service four large-boilered mineral engines, with 4 ft. 7½ in. wheels and standard 18 in. x 26 in. cylinders. Figure 16. Boiler pressure was raised to 170 psi., and an extended smokebox, resting on a saddle, was fitted. As much as possible of the rest of the design was made standard with the earlier engines, though the frames were slightly thicker. There was also a tank version, Class L4. These were NBL 20073-6 of 1913 and 20865/6 of 1914 which received FR numbers 1, 2, and 25-8. All the 1913 engines were built with Phoenix smokebox superheaters (along with two 4-4-0 passenger engines). The apparatus was not a success and was removed in 1914. The appearance of the front end was considerably marred by the superheater, since an abnormally long smokebox was necessary, with the chimney placed right at the front, giving them a most ungainly look. When the apparatus was removed, normal extended smokeboxes were fitted.

During WW1 the class was multiplied: fifteen further being built between 1914 and 1920, mainly by NBL (21993-6 of 1918 and 22572-6 of 1920) although four built in 1918 came from Kitson.

The largest and most powerful of the mineral engines, this class did sterling work over the main line with the heavy iron-ore and coke trains, and later were often used for special excursion work, like all the other 0-6-0s being fitted with vacuum brakes and steam heating. In spite of their small wheels, they were capable of a good turn of speed when required. Some of the class had a very long life, surviving well into Nationalisation; the last to be withdrawn was 12510 (FR 33) in August 1957. On the other hand, four were scrapped as early as 1930, being then only twelve years old.

The later fifteen had boilers six inches longer than the first four, and in consequence had slightly larger heating surface, also they weighed two tons heavier; There was a corresponding difference between the two pairs of 0-6-2 tanks which constituted Class L4. Tenders were the largest hitherto employed and' were standard with the large 4-4-0 passenger engines of Class K4, built about the same time. These tenders held 3,300 gallons of water and 5 tons of coal, and in working order weighed slightly under 37½ tons.

The LMS renumbered the class 12494-12512, in order of building date. An interesting detail was that when 12509 was scrapped at Horwich Works in 1956, its tender, standing in the yard, bore distinctly discernable traces of all the liveries it had carried throughout its career. Unfortunately, these details would not show on a photograph and could only be seen when the light was caught in a certain direction across the side panel, but they were distinctly there: the British Railways lion and wheel, underneath this the letters LMS; then the large figures 12509, and lastly, very faint under the layers of paint, the letters FR could just be distinguished. Number 24 is illustrated by Norman (page 82 upper) during 1919 railway strike..

FR No. Manufacturer WN Built LMS Withdrawn
1 NBL 20073 1913 12494 1956
2 NBL 20074 1913 1932
25 NBL 20075 1913 1932
26 NBL 20076 1913
27 NBL 20865 1914 12498 1932
28 NBL 20866 1914 12499 1957
19 Kitson 5195 1918 12500 1932
20 Kitson 5196 1918 12501 1957
21 Kitson 5197 1918 12502 1930
22 Kitson 5198 1918 12503 1930
23 NBL 21993 1918 12504 1932
24 NBL 21994 1918 12505 1930
29 NBL 21995 1918 12506 1930
30 NBL 21996 1918 12507 1935
31 NBL 22572 1920 12508 1950
32 NBL 22573 1920 12509 1956
33 NBL 22574 1920 12510 1957
34 NBL 22575 1920 12511 1932
35 NBL 22576 1920 12512 1932

Class E1 2-4-0 tender engines
The increased weight of main line passenger trains was getting beyond the capacity of the little single-driver well-tanks, and a new class of 2-4-0 tender engines was ordered from Sharp, Stewart & Co. to replace them. The first pair, numbered 1 and 2, were delivered in 1870, and in the next three years Fifteen further examples of the class were added to stock. After a gap of nine years, the final pair were delivered, and one of these survived to become LMS property. Figure 17. [Plate 19]. Sekon's century-old Evolution of the steam locomotive (They were a very simple design, and though small by modern standards they could achieve any amount of hard work. A number of exactly similar engines ran the passenger services of the Cambrian Railways, over a much more difficult terrain than the Furness, well into the present century. All the FR engines were later fitted with the automatic vacuum brake, and some of them were rebuilt with new boilers, having flush fireboxes, during the latter 1890s. In 1891, seven of them were given a new lease of life by being converted to 2-4-2 side tanks for branch line service (class J1). The rear frames were lengthened and supported by a radial axle, a bunker, and side tanks holding 1,000 gallons were added. Most of them survived WW1, and two became LMS stock, though not for long, one being withdrawn in 1923 and the other in the following year. Neither actually carried the LMS numbers allotted. On rebuilding to tank engines, these seven were reclassified J1 and given a new diagram.

Much of their time as tank engines was spent in working the Lakeside branch and the through local services between Grange and Morecambe or Kendal. Two of them gravitated to Cleator Moor and worked the Joint Lines passenger services for several years. The tender engines began to be withdrawn in 1907, when two of the 1873 batch disappeared, but seven years elapsed before any more went to the scrap yard. The last two to be built, 44 and 45, were reboilered in 1898 and 1891 respectively, and survived the longest. Six, Nos. 1-4, 44, and 45 were put on the A list at various intervals, and 4A had the distinction of lasting no less than 13 years on the duplicate list. No. 44A was allotted 10002 in the LMS list, but never carried the number, being withdrawn in 1924.

The tenders attached to the 2-4-0s were of the same four-wheeled design as those of the D1 0-6-0 goods engines, holding 1,200 gallons of water and 2 tons of coal, weighing in working order 20 tons. Springs were above the running plate and the toolbox was placed at the rear, over the buffer beam. There were minor differences in the shape of the plate frames in different batches and also in the layout of the brake gear.

No. 58 illustrated in superb Hopgood photograph. Rly Arch., 2008 (19) 50

FR No. WN Built Rebuilt LMS No. Withdrawn Renumbered
1 2057 1870 1895 1916 1A (1913)
2 2058 1870 1896 1918 2A (1913)
57 2093 1871 1918
58 2094 1871 1918
46 2256 1872 1920
47 2258 1872 1891 to J1 1919
48 2259 1872 1891 to J1 1920
70 2245 1872 1891 to J1 10619 1924 70A (1920)
71 2246 1872 1891 to J1 10620 1923 71A (1920)
72 2247 1872 1891 to J1 1919
73 2248 1872 1891 to J1 1919
74 2249 1872 1891 to J1 1921 74A (1920)
75 2257 1872 1914
5 2364 1873 1907
6 2365 1873 1907
11 2366 1873 1916 3 (1899)/3A (1907)
12 2367 1873 1920 4 (1899)/4A (1907)
44 3086 1882 1898 10002 1924 44A (1920)
45 3087 1882 1891 1921 45A (1920)

Class F1 0-4-2 tender engines
Two engines of this class were taken over from the Whitehaven & Furness Junction Railway in 1866, on which line they were Nos. 3 Mars and 13 Sirius. Built by R. & W. Hawthorn & Co. in 1857, they carried makers' Nos. 997/8, and were outside-framed engines with small fourwheeled tenders. They had peculiar dome casings, reminiscent of a large stew-pot with separate lid, even to the knob on the top; this feature was perpetuated by Hawthorn's from the middle 1840S for some 15 years on engines of their own design. Sometimes the knob on the top was omitted. Figure 18. [Plate 17].

Two very similar engines were built by the same firm in 1856, works Nos. 975/6; these were 1 Excelsior and 2 Hecla which passed to the LNWR on the split-up of the W. & F.J. stock. The Furness pair were renumbered 44 and 45, and continued to work in their old haunts until 1882, when they were both scrapped. They were sqJ.all engines, built primarily for mixed traffic work, on passenger trains, and the lighter goods trains-of ,which latter there were never very many. They had typical bell-mouthed chimneys, raised fireboxes, and Salter valves. The inside cylinders, 14 in. x 20 in., were under the smokebox and low slung, driving upwards on to the second axle. Coupled wheels were 5 ft. diameter and the trailing wheels 3 ft. 6 in. Axle guards were separate from the sandwich frames and were bolted on outside; the outside cranks were of the slab type. No cab was fitted, only a small front weatherboard. owing to their limited capacity, it is surprising that the FR kept them in service for sixteen years. The tenders were very small and had wooden frames, with axleguards bolted on outside. The wheelbase was 8 ft. 6 in., and they had a capacity of 1,500 gallons of water and 2½ tons of coal, the weight in working order being 17 tons 7 cwt.

Class G1 0-6-0 side tank locomotives: Neddies
Both sides of Lindal Bank caused trouble to the Furness motive power department in the mid-1860s with heavy iron ore trains destined for Lindal sidings. Something more powerful than the Bury 0-4-0s was necessary. Sharp, Stewart & Co. submitted designs for a heavy 0-6-0 side tank engine with 4 ft. 6 in. wheels and inside cylinders 18 in. x 24 in. This design was accepted and the first two engines (WN 1842/3, FR 51/2) were delivered in 1867. They quickly proved they could tackle the work with success, but a falling off of ore traffic, due to one of the periodic recessions in the iron trade, did not make it necessary to order any further engines immediately. However, trade improving in the early 1870s, four more of the same class were ordered, two in 1872 (WN 2204/5, FR 68/9) and two in 1873 (WN 2300/1, FR 82/3). On the Furness system they were known as Neddies. Figure 19. [Plate 23]. They were ungainly looking machines, with very long side tanks which reached almost to the front of the smokebox, and had a flared coping. For attention to the motion, there was an oblong hole cut out of the bottom of each side tank, centrally between the leading and driving axles. The dome was on the centre ring of the boiler and safety valves in a brass casing over the raised firebox. The cab was Sharpe's usual bent sheet of iron, strengthened with T -strapping. In later years, one or two engines had crude side sheets fitted to the cab, being merely pieces of wood planking bolted on with angle brackets. It is thought that this was an unofficial product of Moor Row shed, for those cabs must have been extremely uncomfortable out on the wind-swept mountains of the Joint Lines around Lamplugh. No attempt was made to fit the engines with proper side sheets, so in all probability these home-made efforts had to be removed before the engines were sent in to Barrow for their periodic shopping. As the Neddies spent much time standing out in the open at Plumpton and Park South, waiting for trains to assist up Lindal Bank, it seems strange that no thought was given to the comfort of the enginemen in these horribly draughty cabs, but perhaps there was a handy shunters' hut.

The Neddies never went far away from Lindal, except for two which put in a considerable spell in the Cleator Moor area, and consequently none of them achieved a very great mileage. In 1915, No. 52, then the only survivor of the first pair, was renumbered 84, but this was the only case of renumbering carried out on this class. The last four, of 1872-3, all survived into LMS days, but the class was extinct by 1925, and it is doubtful if any of them ever carried the LMS numbers allotted.

Class G2 0-6-0 saddle tank engines
Most of the Whitehaven, Cleator & Egremont engines were classified together, though they varied in details, makers, and age. In the main, they were all outside-framed engines, with 17 in. x 24 in. cylinders and 4 ft. 6 in. wheels, with short saddle tanks which covered the boiler only. No.6, Parkside, was a distinct oddity in that as built she had a large all-over cab with side windows, of distinctly American flavour, and also had the bottom row of tubes extended right through the front of the smokebox. This was said to "improve the draught", but whether it did so is a debatable point. [Plate 18] shows the locomotive with American cab and Fig. 20 shows with "British" cab as FR No. 102.

Nos. 1, 2, 4, and 5 were domeless when built, but were fitted with domes at Moor Row when they came in for their first major overhaul. Newton Manor (No. 11) was an unlucky engine from the start; she had something not quite right with her trailing axleboxes and was continually coming off the road, in consequence spending a considerable amount of time in Moor Row shops. However, in 1880 Mr. Rose rebuilt her rear axle entirely, and thereafter she had no more trouble. This was after the engine had really distinguished herself with a boiler explosion at Seaton. The crew had left the engine, the driver to obtain the staff for the single-line section, and the fireman to couple up the train. There was a loud report and the boiler burst, sending clouds of steam and boiling water all over the place and blowing out most of the ballast. Luckily, the main blast seems to have been downwards. When the saddle tank was lifted off in the works, it was found that the middle ring of the boiler had fractured just below the clack box.

The engine was given a new steel boiler with 150 lbs. pressure (the original pressure was 125 lbs.) and was entirely rebuilt. The design was the basis of the rebuilding of all the engines of the class between 1880 and 1895.

No. Name Maker/No. Built FR No. A list Withdrawn
1 Ennerdale RS 1008 1855 98 1895
2 Carlisle RS 1009 1855 99 1886
4 Keekle FJ 21 1858 100 1904 1918
5 Hercules RS 1310 1860 101 1890
6 Parkside RS 1437 1862 102 1900
7 Egremont RS 1487 1863 103 1887
8 Cleator RS 1488 1863 104 1904 1914
9 Lowes Water RS 1798 1867 105 1904 1921
10 Crummock RS 1804 1869 106 1904 1918
11 Newton Manor RS 1960 1870 107 1904 1918
13 Springfield RS 1997 1871 109 1907 1925
14 Derwentwater RS 2109 1873 110 1907 1920
15 Buttermere RS 2110 1873 111 1907 1920

Nos. 1, 2, and 4 were slightly smaller than the rest, having 16 in. cylinders. On rebuilding they were brought into line with the others, receiving new 17 in. cylinders and the 150 psi boiler. The re-building was mainly the same for all engines, but there were minor differences. The general pattern was for a flat-sided saddle tank with semi-circular top (this was the original design), an all-over cab, in which the roof was continuous with side sheets, and had a rain gutter sloping downwards on each side, from front to back, and a bunker with curved-up side panels and straight backplate, rather like the old standard GWR design. On most engines the saddle tank covered the boiler only, but one or two engines had tanks which extended to the front of the smokebox. Nos. 5 and 10 varied in having completely semi-circular tanks, and the latter was also rebuilt without a cab, though it received one later. There were also variations in the shape of the bunkers. On the FR diagram they were all credited with the same tank capacity of 1000 gallons, but this probably varied between 900 and 1,100 gallons.

Little definite information is available about the actual dates of rebuilding, but No. 11 was the first, in 1880, and No.4 was rebuilt in 1882 and again in 1895. When the engines came into Furness ownership in 1878, they were allotted numbers 98-107, 110, and 111. Most of them were put on the A list when. they were displaced by new 0-6-2 tanks, but several remained doing useful work in their old haunts through WW1. All except No.4, which came from Fletcher, Jennings & Co., of Whitehaven, were built by Robert Stephenson & Co. between 1855 and 1873. No. 109A was still in service at the Grouping, and was allotted LMS No. 11547, which it never carried, the engine being broken up in 1925, still in Furness livery.

Furness Ry. tank engine No. 100A. Locomotive Mag., 1916, 22, 241.
Photograph of No. 100A and line drawing of No. 4 Keekle

Class G3 0-6-0 saddle tank engine
One of four "odd" engines in the W.C. & E. stock. Though similar in most respects to the foregoing class, this engine, No. 112 in the FR list, differed in having inside frames. It was built by Andrew Barclay, Sons & Co., of Kilmarnock, in 1875, and carried their works No. 154. Figure 21. The heating surface was a little less than the Stephenson engines, but most other dimensions were the same. On the W.C. & E.R., it carried No. 17, and was named Wastwater. In 1904 it was renumbered 108, and became 108A in 1907 when replaced in the capital list by a new 0-6-2 tank. It was rebuilt in 1896 and again in 1915, and on coming into the possession of the LMS was allotted 11548. In 1925 it was withdrawn and scrapped, the last survivor of the W.C. & E.R. stock.

Class G4 0-6-0 side tank engine
No.3 Victoria was the other odd six-coupled tank engine, differing completely from the remainder. Built by R. & W. Hawthorn in 1857, works No. 989, it was a side tank with typical features of the makers' designs. Figure 22. The FR renumbered her 113, and she was never on the A list, being sold in 1898. The side tanks were long and had a narrow slot cut out of each side to allow access to the motion-in fact, a very similar arrangement to the Neddies. As built, there was a stovepipe chimney and a dome of the stew-pot type, so typical of Hawthorn's. Only a front weatherboard was fitted, the footplate being entirely open. When rebuilt at Moor Row in the early 1880s, a normal dome, with Salter valves, was fitted, and a primitive all-over cab which had a semi-circular top to the cut-out. The stovepipe chimney was retained. The new boiler fitted at the same time was of similar dimensions to the original, but had a flush firebox. This engine had 14 in. x 22 in. inside cylinders and 4 ft. 6 in. wheels; the side tanks held 800 gallons.

Class G5 0-6-0 side tank engines
To replace the out-dated Neddies, and for shunting and minor goods duties, Pettigrew evolved his own design of 0-6-0 tank engines. The first batch of six were built by the Vulcan Foundry (Works Nos. 2523-8) in 1910, running Nos. 19-24. In 1918 they were renumbered 55-60 to bring them into the same sequence as the later batch. Figure 23. For a time they were used for shunting in Barrow Docks and also did a turn on the banking duties around Lindal, but latterly a couple were shedded at Moor Row for passenger duties on the Joint Lines. During WW1, when locomotive power was at a premium and some of the older stock was worn out but still doing useful work, four more of the class were ordered. These were Nos. 51-54, of which the first pair were built by Kitson & Co. (Works Nos. 5121/2 of 1915) and the second pair delivered in the following year by the Vulcan Foundry (3174/5). These last four differed in minor respects from the original batch and were recorded on a separate FR diagram. The boiler was pitched two inches higher; the bunker backplate was a different shape, and the cab cut-out had a straight top edge. Water capacity was increased by 20 gallons and coal by 5 cwt.; and thus 13 cwt. heavier.

All ten engines were equipped for passenger working, though apart from the W.C. & E. line and occasional trips on the Coniston and Lakeside branches, they were not called upon much for such services. They were neat engines, and had Pettigrew's standard extended smokebox, supported on a saddle, and the typical Sharp Stewart design of cab, with curved top edge, which he also adopted as standard.

In 1923 the LMS. renumbered them in date order 11553-62. The drastic reduction in trade caused by the great slump of the early 1930s took its toll of this class, for between 1930 and 1932 six of them were withdrawn, though far from worn out. One each went in 1934, 1935, and 1936, leaving 11553 as the sole survivor, which was withdrawn in 1942 and cut up at Horwich in the following year.

Class H1. 2-4-0 side tank engine
No. 12 Marron was the third odd engine in the W.C. & E.R. list. Figure 24. It was purchased second-hand in 1870 from the North London Railway, for whom it was built as No. 3 in 1850 by Stothert & Slaughter, of Bristol. It was disliked by most of the W.C. & E.R. crews as an ungainly brute, and its 5 ft. 6 in. coupled wheels hardly made it suitable for the mountainous gradients of the Joint Lines, even with the light trains of that period, and in 1872 it was sent to Fletcher, Jennings & Co. to be fitted with new 5 ft. wheels and 15 in. cylinders in place of the original 14 in. x 20 in. At the same time, a cab of hideous design was fitted. For a long time after its acquisition by the W.C. & E.R. it retained the old NLR brass number 3 on the front of the chimney. The outside cylinders were placed in front of the leading axle, giving the engine a distinct and uncomfortable nosing action except at very low speeds. Her career after the Furness Railway took over was not very long; she was renumbered 108 and was scrapped in 1898, unwept, unhonoured, and unsung, and, it must be said, to the great relief of the crews who had to put up with her.

The fourth odd engine in the Cleator list was No. 16, and this did not come into Furness ownership, being handed over to the LNWR, who used it for some considerable time as a shunting engine at Crewe Works, and it was not given a number in LNWR. stock. Eventually, in 1916, it turned up in the yards of the Whitehaven Iron & Steel Co., and three years later had gone to the scrap heap. Ullswater as the engine was named, was an 0-4-0ST of Andrew Barclay's standard type, works No. 153 of 1875, with 4 ft. wheels and outside cylinders 14 in. x 22 in. Beyond this nothing is known of its dimensions.

As a general note, all W.C. & E.R. and W. & F.J.R. locomotives had a second pair of buffers at each end, placed inside and slightly below the normal set, for dealing with the small colliery chaldron wagons which were in general use in West Cumberland at that time.

Class J1 2-4-2Ts
Rebuilt from class E1 2-4-0 tender locomotives in 1891 and mentioned in table on page 77 of Rush (main text), but not elsewhere. But diagram as Figure 25 in Supplement. [Plate 3] shows one of these engines on the Kendal Tommy leaving Arnside. Also Plate 20. Norman (p. 80 upper) shows No. 74 at Lakeside station..

Class K1 4-4-0 tender locomotives: Seagulls
The arrangements made with the Midland Railway for the Irish boat trains demanded more powerful locomotives than the E1 2-4-0s. In 1890, Sharp, Stewart were requested to tender for four passenger engines, and they submitted a design which had already been supplied to the Cambrian Railways: a 4-4-0 of moderate size. Accepted by the Furness Board of Directors, the four engines were delivered in 1891, numbered 120-123 and 3618-21 in the makers' books. Figure 26. Basically they were the 2-4-0s enlarged and fitted with a leading bogie; the coupled wheels were the same diameter, 5 ft. 6 in., but the cylinders were enlarged to 17 in. x 24 in. The boiler was the same diameter but slightly longer, and the usual Sharp firebox was fitted. When delivered, the bogie wheels were fitted with small independent splashers, but these were subsequently removed, having caused some slight trouble on sharp curves, particularly in shed yards.

Though a considerable advance on the 2-4-0s, the Seagulls, as they were nicknamed, were soon themselves outclassed and were relegated to secondary duties. All were still in service in 1923, and were renumbered 10131-4, in original order, by the LMS. All four were repainted in LMS red livery, with large figures on the tender, and they were withdrawn in 1927, 1928, 1927, and 1925 respectively.

The tenders fitted were the only ones of this particular type. They were virtually an enlarged version of the standard four-wheeled tenders but running on six wheels with an equally divided wheelbase of 11ft. 6 in. They had the same plate framing, with springs above the running plate, and a narrow body. Their capacity was 2,500 gallons of water and 4 tons of coal, weighing in working order 28¼ tons. They were the first tenders to be built with iron brake blocks.

Class K2 4-4-0 tender engines
To supersede the  Seagulls on the heavier and more important trains, Sharp, Stewart supplied a class of 4-4-0 which was derived (according to Rush) from "an anonymous design by James Manson, of the Great North of Scotland Railway". KPJ: it may be noted that Sharp did not supply the GNSR with locomotives, but may have submitted an unsuccessful tender and based the FR class on that. Six were built in 1896, (WN 4174-9, FR 21/22/34-7) and they were considerably larger than the previous locomotives of the type, with 6 ft. coupled wheels, the largest hitherto used on the line, and 18 in. x 24 in. cylinders. The boilers had flush fireboxes, and again were the largest so far used. Two further engines were added in 1900,  (WN 4651/2, FR 124-5) though in this case urgency of delivery was the main consideration, and the order for six engines of the next class (K3) was amended to four K3s and two K2s in order to get them into service as soon as possible. In 1913, two of the class, 37 and 34, were fitted experimentally with Phoenix smokebox superheaters, along with four 0-6-0s of Class D5 (then under construction). This apparatus, with its greatly extended smokebox and chimney perched right forward, completely spoilt the neat appearance of the engines. Moreover, it did not prove much advantage either to the running or steaming qualities and was removed from all six engines in 1914. Thereafter the Furness never had any superheated engines. Sekon's Evolution of the steam locomotive (p. 314) mentions this class, but in this case the dimensions quoted are slightly at variance. Norman shows No. 33 (former No. 22) probably in 1915..

All eight were still in service in 1923, and were renumbered in the LMS series 10135-42. Figure 27 shows No. 46 (ex-No. 34 as renumbered in 1920). They lasted until the late 1920s, on secondary duties on their home ground. A considerable amount of renumbering took place in Furness days, making the numbering of this class somewhat complicated.

The tenders fitted to this class were the first of the modern design to be built, and were also fitted to the 0-6-0 goods engines of Class D3. Straight side panels with flared tops were used, and there were no coal rails, though some tenders had them fitted later. Springs were below the running plate, with splayed anchor links, thus for the first time allowing a full-widtli body to be used. They ran on six wheels with an equally divided wheelbase of 12 ft., and carried 2,500 gallons and 3½ tons of coal, weight being 28¼ tons. Twenty of these tenders were built, eight for the 4-4-0s and the rest for the D3 goods engines.

Christensen, Mike and H.J. Stretton-Ward. Barrow Central. Br. Rly J., 1993, 5 (46) 284-5.
Two views of ex-Furness Railway 4-4-0 No. 37 as LMS No. 10136 (early LMS livery) at Barrow Central in 1931

Class K3 4-4-0 tender engines
The General Manager, Aslett was determined to improve the passenger services and this increased traffic quicker than anticipated. In 1900 the company again found itself short of passenger motive power. Having already designed a new 0-6-0 for goods service, Pettigrew designed an enlarged 4-4-0. Six were ordered from Sharp, Stewart, but such was the urgency for more power that the first two were changed to the K2 class, since this being a repeat order, for which all patterns and drawings were already available, delivery could be expedited. The four engines of Class K3 were delivered in 1901 and became the premier express engines on the line until, in their turn, they were displaced by Pettigrew's ultimate design of 1913. The K3s were based on the previous class and had a number of their characteristics in deference to a degree of standardisation. Figure 28. Their coupled wheels were increased to 6 ft. 6 in. and cylinder stroke was increased to 26 in., the 18 in. diameter being unchanged. A much larger boiler was employed and the separate coupling rod splashers of the previous two classes were dispensed with. Handsome and efficient engines, two of them were stationed at either end of the main line, Carnforth and Whitehaven, from whence they worked all main line express traffic for over twelve years. Even when displaced by the very large K4 engines in 1913, they still took an odd turn or so on the fastest traffic and dealt with most of the excursion trains. Had the great slump of the 1929-1935 period not upset traffic all over the country, it is quite likely they would have lasted much longer, but, becoming redundant by the reduction of passenger services, they were withdrawn in 1930-1.

On delivery, they came into the Furness list as Nos. 126-129, Sharp's works Nos. being 4716-9 of 1901. In 1923 they became LMS 10143-6, in original order, the last three being withdrawn in 1930 while 10143 lasted a year longer. Norman (page 81 middle and bottom) shows No. 128 in Ramsden Dock station and a drawing of same locomotive..

The tenders fitted to this class were also used for the four 0-6-0s of Class D4. They were similar to the previous design, but were fitted with coal rails from the beginning, and the wheelbase was one foot longer, 13ft. The springs were below the running plate but, unlike the K2 tenders, had vertical anchor links. The capacity was increased to 3,000 gallons of water and st tons of coal, and weight in working order was 32 tons 14 cwt.

Class K4 4-4-0 tender engines
Pettigrew's last passenger engines were contemporary with his large goods class, two of each being built as part of the same order in 1913. Though very large machines, they were not superheated. The boiler was standard with that of the goods engines (D5), the coupled wheels were reduced to 6 ft. 0 in., but the cylinders remained at 18 in. x 26 in. With an increase of boiler pressure of 10 psi over the K3s, they were nominally only slightly more powerful, but their much larger boilers could cope with faster and heavier running with ease. Owing to their weight, these engines were not often used beyond Barrow, where two of them were shedded, the other pair being at Carnforth. Their chief duties were on the through Barrow to Euston trains, which they worked as far as Lancaster. The 1913 and 1914 pairs differed slightly in dimensions, corresponding with the D5 0-6-0s built contemporaneously. Figure 29. The K4s were handsome and imposing engines, even larger than the contemporary LNWR designs, thus adding to the prestige of the small company. A comparison of a photograph of these locomotives with one of an Adams T6 of the London & South Western Railway betrays the fact that apart from the T6 being outside cylindered, there was a close resemblance between the two. In the same way, Pettigrew's D5 goods engines were very similar to Adams's "main line goods" class. Pettigrew was Adams's assistant on the LSWR before joining the Furness Railway.

These useful engines succumbed to the ravages of the great slump, aided by the LMS policy of getting rid of small classes (numerically) which were not standard, and all four were withdrawn in 1932.  The four K4 4-4-0s were Furness Nos. 130-133. The first two carried North British Locomotive Co. works Nos. 20071/2 of 1913 and the other pair 20867/8 of 1914. Their LMS Nos. were 10185-8, coming between the 7 ft. 3 in. LYR 4-4-0s and the superheated version of the same class.

Class L1 0-6-2 side tank engines
Although the WC & ER saddle tanks had done good work in West Cumberland, something larger was necessary as the traffic was getting too heavy for them to handle singly. Pettigrew therefore designed an 0-6-2T to take over the heaviest duties. It is probable that much of the detail was left to the builders, for the engines bore a remarkable similarity to those built contemporaneously by Sharp, Stewart  for the coal traffic on the Barry Railway. Figure 30. Three engines were ordered and were delivered in 1898, numbered 112-114. They had 4 ft. 7½ in. coupled wheels and 18 in. x 26 in. cylinders, and as much as possible was made standard with the tender engines of Class D3, which were ordered a few months later. The 0-6-2 tanks proved capable of the duties required of them, and remained in the Cleator Moor area for most of their life. The class was not repeated: there were four distinct classes of 0-6-2 tanks, this being the smallest. The makers' Nos. were 4364-6, and on coming into LMS stock, Nos. 112-114 became 11622-4. The first (11622) was broken up in 1927 and the other two in 1928.

Class L2 0-6-2 side tank engines
A further batch of ten 0-6-2 tanks were built in 1904: five by Nasmyth, Wilson (WN 689-93, FR 98-102) and five by the North British Locomotive Co. (as successors to Sharp, Stewart) WN 16113-17, FR 103-7). Figure 31. These were very similar to the L1 class but had 5 ft. 1 in. wheels and were rated as mixed traffic engines. They were intended originally for banking duties, but their larger wheels made them suitable for passenger service if so required, and they were fitted with vacuum brakes and steam heating apparatus. In most particulars they were standard with the 0-6-0 tender engines of Class D4. Being the largest class, numerically, of the 0-6-2s, they could be found all over the system, but their main spheres of operation were in the Barrow and Cleator districts. In 1923 they became 11625-34 in the LMS list. One, 11628, outlasted the bulk of the Furness stock, not being withdrawn until 1946. By 1936 there were only three 0-6-2 tanks left out of a total of 23; two engines of Class L3 were withdrawn in 1938 and 1941, but all the rest had gone by 1936. Nos. 11630 and 11633 received LYR saturated Belpaire boilers in 1927. Robinson, Peter. The Wartime crisis on the Furness Railway. Part Two. Backtrack, 2005, 19, 758-63 suggests that this class was liable to derailments and led to friction between Pettigrew and Rutherford. Norman (page 82 lower) shows No. 102 on passenger train.

Class L3 0-6-2 side tank engines
Six further examples of the type were added to stock in 1907, being built by NBL. In all main dimensions they were identical with Class L2, but had shorter side tanks and longer bunkers; the tanks stopped short over the centre of the driving axle, and to provide the same water capacity the bunker tank was enlarged. In fact the only real difference between the two classes was the weight distribution. Figure 32. These six engines became LMS 11635-40 in 1923, and lasted rather longer than the L2s, probably on account of their different weight distribution, which made them rather more universally available. No. 11635, and possibly one other, was fitted with a LYR Belpaire boiler in 1927.

NBL works Nos. were 17808-13 of 1907; the Furness Nos. were 96, 97, and 108-111 respectively, becoming LMS 11635-40, in that order. Two, 11638-40, were withdrawn in 1933; 11637 in 1935; 11639 was the first to go, in 1931, but 11635-6 remained in use until 1938 and 1941 respectively.

New locomotives, Furness Ry. Locomotive Mag., 1907, 13, 89. illus.
Six 0-6-2T designed by Pettigrew and manufactured by North British Locomotive Co. for mixed traffic work. 5ft 1in coupled wheels, 18in x 26in cylinders, 1134ft2 total heating surface and 20.5ft2  grate area.

Class L4. 0-6-2 side tank engines
The final class of 0-6-2 tanks, four in number, was delivered as two pairs, with some differences in dimensions. All were built by Kitson, the first two (WN 4855-6, FR 94-5) in 1912 and the others in (WN 5042-3, FR 92-3) 1914. Figure 33. The latter pair had boilers standard with the D5 0-6-0s; the 1912 engines had boilers which were not standard with any other class, though five further boilers were built subsequently with the same dimensions, for fitting to the Sharp goods engines of Class D1. These boilers were 1 ft. 3 in. shorter, the difference being made up by extending the smokebox backwards, which gave the chimney the appearance of being in the centre of the smokebox, while in the longer boilers the chimney appeared to be further back. The shorter boiler, together with only 208 tubes instead of 230, gave a smaller heating surface. The four engines of Class L4 were known as "Improved Cleator Tanks" and spent most of their lifetime in that area. Like all the other 0-6-2s, except Class L1, they were fitted for passenger service. They were the most powerful of the L classes, but were also the shortest in overall length and had the least water capacity. In 1923 they became LMS 11641-4, and though by far the youngest in point of age, they were the first to be scrapped, 11642 in 1929, 11644 in 1932, and the remaining pair in 1934. Their coupled wheels were 4 ft. 7½ in. diameter, cylinders 18 in. x 26 in., and the boilers were pressed to 170 psi. The LMS numbers were allotted in date order.

Class M1 4-4-2 side tank engines
Pettigrew designed a 4-4-T for working the branches to Coniston, Lakeside, Kendal, and Morecambe:six were built, the first two, 38-9, by Kitson (WN 5119-20) in 1915, two more by the Vulcan Foundry in 1916 (WN 3176/7, FR 40-1), and the final pair (WN 5172/3, FR 42-3) by Kitson, also in 1916. Cylinders and boilers were standard with the G5 0-6-0 tanks, for Nos. 38-9, but the other four had boilers with 220 tubes instead of 208, the heating surface being 1,039 ft2. Figure 34. These handy little engines could perform without fuss, both on the long 1 in 49 gradient of the Coniston branch and the almost level LNWR line into Lancaster, on which they produced a good turn of speed. When first put introduced they worked the heavy and intensive workmen's services around Barrow, and it was not until 1919 that they were put to work on the branches for which they were intended. The LMS renumbered them 11080-5, and they were withdrawn from service between 1930 and 1932.

Class N1 4-6-4 side tank locomotives: Jumbos 
Pettigrew retired in 1919 and his successor, D.L. Rutherford, brought out the last design of express locomotive to be built for the Furness Railway. Having regard to the comparatively short time which elapsed between Pettigrew's retirement and the building of these locomotives, doubt has arisen about who actually designed them. It is possible that the original concept was Pettigrew's, but that Rutherford actually got the project under way. To complicate matters still further, one authority (not cited by Rush) states that the main details were worked out by the chief draughtsman at Barrow (Sharples). Figure 35. They were highly successful, in spite of the FR not having anything like them before. They were built to the extreme limits of the loading gauge; when one had to stand overnight at Whitehaven, it had to be stabled in the open, as the shed doors could not cope with a chimney top 13 ft. 6 in. above the rails. The only inside-cylindered 4-6-4 tanks ever to run in Great Britain, they were also the only unsuperheated ones. The Jumbos as the staff promptly named them were very good engines, and after the initial teething troubles had been ironed out were extremely popular with the crews. During her initial trials, No. 115 easily negotiated curves of five chains radius. Coal and water capacity was sufficient for the through run between Carnforth and Whitehaven. They were, however, prohibited from working north of Whitehaven, on either the Joint Lines or the C. & W.R., on account of their weight—not that there was any necessity for this prohibition really as they were far beyond anything in the motive power field required for these lines. Their chief duties were the up and down mail trains between Carnforth and Whitehaven and the up morning express from Whitehaven. They also took over the through Midland trains from Barrow, handing over to the MR at Carnforth East, as was the usual practice. They also appeared occasionally at Lancaster and Kendal, though not regularly.

Kitson (WN 5292-6) built Nos. 115-119, the first four being delivered late in 1920, and No. 119 in January 1921. The design was clean and comparatively simple and produced one of the most handsome express tank engines of the period. They were the only Furness engines to be built with Belpaire fireboxes. There is one curious difference between the official FR diagram and the engines as built; the diagram shows the running plate level from the buffer beam to the rear of the smokebox before being raised over the coupled wheels, while in the engines the rise was at the front of the smokebox. Owing to the size and pitch of the boiler, the tanks had to be made rather narrow, holding only 1,475 gallons, and the balance of 1,325 gallons was held in a tank under the bunker. The absence of outside cylinders and valve gear enhanced rather than detracted from the appearance of the engines. In the LMS list they were numbered 11100-4. One, 11102, was withdrawn in 1934; 11100-1-4 in 1935, but 11103 lasted until 1940. Coupled wheels were 5 ft. 8 in. diameter and bogie wheels 3 ft. 2 in. The wheelbase was symmetrical, totalling 40 ft. 9 in., of which the rigid wheelbase was 13 ft. 6 in. The inside cylinders were 19½ in. x 26 in. and the boiler pressure 170 psi Robinson, Peter. The Wartime crisis on the Furness Railway. Part Two. Backtrack, 2005, 19, 758-63 stronly implies that these locomotives were indeed Rutherford's and implies that Aslett, the previous General Manager, would have vetoed their introduction. Norman (page 83) illustrates No. 119, and on page 61 No. 115 at St Bees...

Norman includes some excellent illustrations of the class: No. 112 (p. 30) at Barrow Central and No. 115 at St. Bees (p. 61)

Middlemass, Tom. The 'Baltic' tanks. Backtrack, 1991, 5, 281-7.

Unclassified: 0-4-0 rail motors (railcars)
In 1905 Pettigrew designed and built at Barrow Works (the only engines to be actually built there) two four-coupled rail motor cars for use on the Coniston and Lakeside branches. The engine was enclosed within the car body, which was of metal construction for the engine compartment but of normal wood framing and panelling for the passenger portion, which seated 12 first class passengers in the rear and 36 third class in the main saloon. Entrance to the car was by an open vestibule between the first and third class saloons; while running, a Bostwick steel gate closed the entrance on either side. At the extreme rear was a guard's compartment, which was fitted with control gear for reverse running. Figure 36.

The engine consisted of a small locomotive boiler, placed with firebox leading, supplying steam to a pair of 11 in. x 14 in. outside cylinders operated by Walschaerts valve gear. The cylinders were at the extreme front and drove on to the rear coupled axle. The engine compartment had an elliptical steel roof, but the passenger portion had a clerestory-again an almost unique feature on the line. Two four-wheeled trailer cars, seating 28 third class passengers, were also constructed to run with the motors, and these also were fitted with control gear at one end. Both were later partitioned to give a small first class compartment 9 ft. long.

On trial on the Coniston branch, the unit successfully negotiated the 1 in 49 gradient, fully loaded, and with trailer. It also successfully started again after being stopped on the same gradient. No.2 was written off at an early date in a hushed-up encounter with a buffer-stop; the other was withdrawn after some nine or ten years' service on account of excessive vibration, a complaint which seemed prevalent amongst vehicles of this type. The motors were numbered 1and 2 in a separate series, but the two trailers were numbered 123 and 193 in the ordinary passenger stock.

Cleator & Workington Railway locomotives

This line was backed by local iundustrialists (Lord Lonsdale, the Earl of Leconfield and H.F. Curwen) who considered that the FR and LNWR required competition in West Cumberland. The line remained independent until the Grouping, but was partly worked by the FR. The mainline from Cleator Moor to Workington opened on 18 October 1879.

The first locomotives which worked on the line appear to have been the property of the contractors and were never taken into stock. These were two 0-6-0 saddle tanks of Manning Wardle standard design, with 3 ft. 6 in. wheels and inside cylinders 12 in. x 17 in. They were named Derwent and Keekle, makers' numbers 679 of 1877 and 684 of 1878. These were followed by two small 0-4-0 side tanks, Brigham Hill and Flosh (Figure 38), built by Fletcher Jennings & Co. at the Lowca Engine Works, their numbers 187 and 152, built in 1882 and 1876 respectively. Flosh was possibly sold in 1878, but Brigham Hill remained in stock until 1898.

The stock proper began with No.3 Rothersyke, an 0-6-0ST of Robert Stephenson & Co.'s standard design, delivered in 1884 (WN 2553). In dimensions it was almost exactly like the WC&ER saddle tanks of twenty years earlier, but rather more modern in appearance. Wheels were 4 ft. 6 in. diameter, and inside cylinders 17 in. x 24 in., and the boiler worked at 140 psi. The saddle tank extended over the firebox but left the smokebox uncovered, and the cab was open backed. This engine worked until 1920, when it was withdrawn. A further odd engine followed in the next year, similar in general appearance, but differing slightly in dimensions, which were 4 ft. 3 in. for the wheels and 16t in. x 24 in. cylinders, with working pressure 160 lbs. This engine, No. 4 Harecroft, was built by the Lowca Engine Co. (successors to Fletcher, Jennings) in 1885, their No. 196. It was handed over to the Moss Bay Iron & Steel Co. in 1913, it is often said "for debt", but in view of the good financial position of the C&WR throughout its career, this seems unlikely. It seems more credible that there was a direct sale, by mutual arrangement.

Three further Stephenson 0-6-0STs were added to stock, all identical with No. 3, but their working pressure was 160 psi and that they had overall cabs. These were respectively 5 Moresby Hall (WN 2692/ 1892); 6 Brigham Hill, (WN 2813/ 1894 Figure 39) and 7 Ponsonby Hall (WN 2846/ 1896). (The original Brigham Hill had been renamed Rothersyke in 1893). No further stock changes took place until 1897, when the company departed from their long association with Stephenson's and ordered a similar engine from Peckett: 8 Hutton Hall (WN 1134/ 1907). This was somewhat larger in dimensions, with 18 in. x 24 in. cylinders and 180 psi although the wheel diameter remained the same. This engine, and an exactly similar one ordered in 1917 (9 Skiddaw Lodge WN 1340/ 1917: Figure 40) had full-length saddle tanks. The final addition came in 1920 from Hudswell Clarke generally identical, but having a 200 psi boiler: 10 Millgrove, WN 1400/ 1920.

Nos. 6 to 10 came into LMS stock in 1923 and were renumbered 11564 to 11568. The only alteration their new owners made was to promptly reduce the working pressure of No. 10 to 160 psi. No. 11564 was withdrawn in 1926, 11565/6 in 1927, 11567 in 1928, while 11569 lasted until June 1932, when it was sold to the Lambton, Hetton & Joicey Collieries.


All engines were painted a middle green, with black bands edged with fine red lining. The name and number plates were polished brass with raised lettering, the names being fixed to the centre of the saddle tanks and number plates on the bunker. No. 10 was delivered with "Cleator & Workington Railway" painted on the tanks, but Mr. Murray, the Locomotive Superintendent, promptly had it painted out. All engines from No.7 onwards were fitted with the automatic vacuum brake for working passenger turns, and all were fitted with a second, lower set of buffers for use with the small local colliery wagons.

Peascod, Michael. Cumbrian engines in LMS ownership. 24-37.
List of locomotives taken over by LMS (Table 12) and illustration of 11566 Hutton Hall presumably at Workington former LNWR shed.

Whitehaven & Furness Junction Railway locomotives

Several W&FJR locomotives did not become Furness Railway property, but passed to the LNWR in the general share-out. There is some doubt about certain engines, as most did not last long on the LNWR where they were given capital list Nos. 1551-1560. Within a few months these numbers were altered to 1578-1587, and thereafter some of them had a variety of numbers in the duplicate list. As the LNWR list, particularly in the 1100 and 1200 series of duplicate locomotives is often at variance with itself, the various engines concerned are difficult to trace with accuracy.

The first two engines on the W&FJR were Nos. 1 Lowther and 2 Whitehaven, built by Tulk & Ley (forerunners of Fletcher, Jennings & Co.) in 1847, being Nos. 6 and 7 in the builders' list. They were outside-framed 0-4-2s with 4 ft. 6 in. coupled wheels and 14 in. x 18 in. inside cylinders. No other dimensions are known. Whitehaven became 2A in 1856 (the only known use of a duplicate list on the W&FJR) and was scrapped in 1859, while Lowther was broken up in 1856. No.3 Lonsdale was a 2-4-0 of R. & W. Hawthorn's build (No. 600) also in 1847, and was provided for passenger duties. This was also an outside-framed engine, with 5 ft. 6 in. coupled wheels and 15 in. x 21 in. inside cylinders. It was withdrawn in 1857.

Pearce page 101, in his seminal study on Stockton & Darlington locomotives states that Kitching supplied two 2-2-2s, similar to Wolsingham (supplied to the SDR in 1847) to the Whitehaven & Furness Junction Railway; a similar locomotive may also have been supplied to Cockermouth & Workington Railway.

No further engines were added to stock until 1850, when two small 2-2-2 well tanks, 4 Oberon and 5 Titania were bought from E.B. Wilson & Co. These became FR 47 and 48, and are considered under Class B5. In the same year, two further 2-4-0s were obtained, very similar to No.3. There is some doubt as to the builders of No.6 Phoenix: it is given in A.C.W. Lowe's list as Hawthorn, but without a works number, and it cannot be traced in Hawthorn's list. There is a possibility that it was obtained second-hand. An old F. Moore photograph (and Figure 37) depict it as a typical Hawthorn product of the late 1840s, and also shows it with outside coupling rods and cranks removed, so that at some period in its W&FJR career it ran as a 2-2-2. The coupled wheels were 5 ft. 6 in. and inside cylinders 15 in. x 21 in. It passed to the LNWR as No. 1559 (later 1586) and with withdrawn in 1867. No.7 Petrel was very similar to Phoenix, except that the cylinders were 15 in. x 22 in. and was built by Stephenson's (No. 701) in 1850. It became LNWR 1556 and after various renumberings was withdrawn in 1883.

Two six-coupled goods engines were purchased second-hand from the Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway in 1854. Built by Hawthorn in 1846, works Nos. 466 and 465, for the Blackburn, Darwen & Bolton Railway, they became 217 and 218 in the LYR list in 1849, and finally W&FJR 8 Tubal Cain and 9 King Lear. Both were outside-framed engines with 4 ft. 8 in. wheels and 16 in. x 24 in. inside cylinders; the boiler was 4 ft. diameter and 10 ft. long, with a total heating surface of 605 ft2. The wheelbase was 14 ft. 6 in., equally divided, and weight 23½ tons in working order. They passed to the LNWR and were renumbered 1558 and 1551, both being scrapped in 1872.

Two further engines were obtained from the L&YR in November 1854: 10 Maryport and 11 Kelpie. They were inside-framed 0-4-2s, with outside cylinders 16 in. x 18 in., coupled wheels 4 ft. 9 in., and were altogether a most peculiar design. The Vulcan Foundry built them in 1'848 as part of an order for the Scottish Central Railway, but the order was reduced, and three of them (works Nos. 318-320) were sold to the Liverpool, Crosby & Southport Railway. Thus these engines were twice in and out of LYR stock within six years, and finally came to work in West Cumberland. No. 10 of the W&FJR was Vulcan No. 319, and this engine did not last long enough to see the split-up of the stock, being withdrawn in 1860, but No. 11 (Vulcan 318) passed over to the LNWR as No. 1560 and was scrapped shortly afterwards. In LYR stock, the two engines had been Nos. 224 and 223.

Tulk & Ley built the next engine in 1855 No. 12 Big Ben, which was an 0-6-0 goods engine with 4 ft. 9 in. wheels and 16½ in. x 24 in. cylinders, beyond which nothing is known of its dimensions. It was No. 18 in the makers' list and became LNWR 1557. It was scrapped before 1870.

In 1856-7 four engines were added to stock, three of which were replacements of older engines withdrawn. These were Nos. 1, Excelsior, 2, Hecla, 3, Mars, and 13, Sirius, all built by R. & W. Hawthorn, works Nos. 975-6 of 1856, and 997-8 of 1857, in order. Of all the W&FJR locomotive stock, these were the only ones which could by any stretch of imagination be called a class, and their details will be found in the Furness Railway chapter under Class F1. Two, Nos. 1 and 2, went to the LNWR as 1553-4 and were scrapped in 1874 and 1877 respectively while the other pair became FR 44 and 45 and were withdrawn in 1882. All were outside; framed 0-4-2s with 5 ft. coupled wheels and cylinders 14 in. x 20 in.

Two 0-4-0STs 15 Bob Ridley and 16 Banshee are treated under FR Class C2 (FR 49 and 50) and were both sold in 1882. Next in the list came an 0-6-0 tender engine 17 Garth, which according to Rush is "a bit of a mystery": it was ascribed by A.C.W. Lowe to Hawthorn's, with a date either 1863 or 1864. However, it cannot be traced in that firm's list, and was possibly another second-hand engine. It became LNWR 1552, and after several renumberings was scrapped in 1886. Wheels were 4 ft. 6 in. and inside cylinders 16 in. x 24 in., and it may have been similar to the next three engines, which were of the 0-6-0 type, and had the same wheel and cylinder dimensions. These three: 14 Vulcan, 18 Cedric, and 19 Lonsdale, were designed by Mr. Meikle, the Locomotive Superintendent of the company. Nos. 18 and 19, which became FR 43 and 42, are dealt with under Class D2. According to James Lowe (p. 662) one of these may have been constructed by the railway. No. 14 went to the LNWR as No. 1555 and was withdrawn at the early date of July 1867. It was built in 1860 by Hawthorn, works No. 1104.

Only one engine remains, and this too has already been mentioned under Class B4 in the FR section. It replaced the original No. 10, which was scrapped in 1860, and was a 2-2-2 WT named Queen Mab. Its details and subsequent history will be found under Class B4.