Thompson & Peppercorn locomotives

A1 A1/1 A2 A2/2 A2/3 B1 B2 B3/3 B16/3 D
K1/1 K1 K5 L1 O1 Q1

See also biographical material on Thompson & Peppercorn

Left 60119 Patrick Stirling at Doncaster (taken when consulting Railway Gazette at Doncaster Public Library for Steam locomotive development)

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Armstrong, Jim. LNER locomotive development between 1911 and 1947, with a brief history of developments from 1850 to 1911. Beer (Seaton): Peco. 1974. 93pp. many illus and diagrs. (s. els)
Quite an attractive book at the time, but since overtaken by RCTS, Yeadon, etc.
Bonavia, Michael R. The birth of British Rail. London: Allen & Unwin, 1979,
Commenting on Riddles 'standard' designs for BR locomotives:. "I have put 'standard' in inverted commas, because so-called standardisation schemes often act in reverse – they merely add to the total number of types in service for which spares have to be kept and knowhow acquired – unless certain conditions are fulfilled. First, the inspirer of standardisation must be reasonably certain of a long period in office, and that his successor will not prematurely discard his policies. This, for instance, was not the case when Edward Thompson formulated his 'standardisation' plan for the LNER as he had only a short expectation of years in office."
Hughes, Geoffrey. Thompson's 1,000 engines. Steam Days, . (28) 18?-23.
Thompson's initial proposal to the Locomotive Committee was for "ten engines of two-cylinder type, entirely composed of standard parts which will be roughly equivalent to the 'K3' engines". The bold type has been added to the "standard parts" to show that Gresley's LNER was at least as standardized as Swindon and that the B1 could be produced from existing parts designed for other classes. The B1 class was far "more standard" than the LMS class 5, many of which members did not share common parts. Hughes also deals with designs which were not built, or were constructed in lesser numbers due to the purchase of the Austerity 2-8-0 and 0-6-0ST designs, and how the K1 design (attributed to Thompson, rather than Peppercorn) displaced the upgraded J11 class.
Nock, O.S. The locomotives of the L.N.E.R.: standardisation and renumbering. LNER, 1947.
Thompson standard types plus classes to be maintained. Also tabulated data on all locomotive types and lists of named locomotives.

01: 1944: Thompson
Thompson appears to have had a great admiration for GCR locomotives and in 1944 he commenced to rebuild some of the Robinson 04 class with B1 boilers and cylinders.

CONVERSION of L.N.E.R. "04" class locomotive. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1944, 50, 34-5. 2 illus.
CONVERSION of the "04" class L.N.E.R. 2-8-0 tender locomotives. Rly Gaz., 1944, 81, 212-13. 2 illus., 2 diagrs. (s. els.)
Cook, A.F. L.N.E.R. locomotive rebuilds. J. Stephenson Loco. Soc., 1944, 20, 149-50.
An INTERESTING L.N.E.R. locomotive conversion. Rly Gaz., 1944, 81, 203.
Editorial comment.
REBUILT 2-8-0 locomotive for the L.N.E.R. Engineering, 1944, 157, 230. 2 illus., diagr. (s. el.)
TWO L.N.E.R. locomotive conversions. Rly Mag., 1944, 90, 160-1. 4 illus., 2 diagrs. (s. els.), table.

Testing : 1948 locomotive exchanges

Allen, C.J. The locomotive exchanges, 1870-1948. London, [1950].
The 01 was tested against the WD 2-8-0s, the 28XX and 8F classes.

Retrospective and critical

Bond, R.C. Organisation and control of locomotive repairs on British Railways. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1953, 43, 175-216. Disc. : 217-65. (Paper No. 520).
Quotes average mileage achieved between repairs: 55,616.
The Eastern Region 2-8-0 O1 class engines. J. Stephenson Loco. Soc., 1951, 27, 308-9; 285. illus., table.
Includes a complete list of the rebuilt engines.
Pearce, J.H. L.N.E.R. class O1 rebuilds. J. Stephenson Loco. Soc., 1952, 28, 275.
Material additional to that contained in above.
Railway Correspondence and Travel Society. Locomotives of the LNER. Part 6B. Tender engines—classes O1 to P2. 1983.

4-6-2

A2: 1943- Thompson/Peppercorn :
The A2 class was in reality a number of small classes sharing one common feature, namely 6 ft 2 in diameter drivin wheels. They were mixed traffic locomotives.


A2/2:1943 Thompson:
This class was the product of rebuilding the Gresley P2 2-8-2s as Pacifics. This conversion was necessitated by heating trouble in the coupled axle boxes on the P2 mikados (see N. McKillop in the relevant section). The rebuilt locomotives incorporated three sets of Walschaerts valve gear in place of the former 2:1 arrangement and the outside cylinders were positioned behind the leading bogie.

CONVERSION of L.N.E.R. class P2 2-8-2 locomotive. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1943, 49, 169-70. illus.
CONVERSION of L.N.E.R. class P2 2-8-2 locomotive to Pacific wheel arrangement. Railways, 1944, 5, 14-15,7. diagr. (s. el.)
CONVERSION of L.N.E.R. 2-8-2 type engines. Rly Gaz., 1944, 80, 311 12. illus., 2 diagrs. (s. els.), table.
FROM eight to six-coupled wheels. Rly Gaz., 1944, 80, 303.
Editorial comment
LOCOMOTIVE conversion on the L.N.E.R. Engineering, 1943, 156, 427-8. illus., 2 diagrs. (s. els)
An L.N.E.R. "Cock o' the North" class locomotive rebuilt as a Pacific. Rly Mag., 1944, 90, 3. illus., diagr. (s. el.), table.
L.N.E.R. locomotive conversion. Engineer, 1943, 176, 410. 2 illus., table.

A2/1 1944 Thompson
The last four of an order for V2 class locomotives left Doncaster Works as 4-6-2s. Except for their smaller boilers and cylinders (which were similar to those fitted to the 2-6-2 type) these engines resembled the A2/2 class.

Cook, A.F. London & North Eastern Raliway: the "A2" class 3-cyl. 4-6-2 locomotives. J. Stephenson Loco. Soc., 1944, 20, 163-5. illus. (line drawing s. el.)
LOCOMOTIVE conversions on the L.N.E.R. Engineering, 1944, 157, 468; 470. 2 illus., diagr. (s. el.)
L.N.E.R. "Pacific" locomotive. Engineer, 1944, 177, 444. illus.
NEW Pacific locomotives for the L.N.E.R. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1944, 50, 99-100. illus., diagr. (s. el.)
NEW Pacific locomotives for the L.N.E.R. Rly Mag., 1944, 90, 286-7. illus., diagr. (s. el.), table.
NEW Pacific locomotives for the L.N.E.R.: changes made in engines originally planned as part of "Green Arrow" class. Rly Gaz., 1944, 80, 619, 622. illus., diagr. (s. el.)
NEW Pacific locomotives, L.N.E.R. Railways, 1944, 5, 109-11.

Electric lighting experiment.
The A2/1 class was experimentally equipped  with electric lighting. Later this equipment became standard for new construction.

Electric lighting equipment for locomotives, L.N.E.R.. Engineering, 1945, 159, 286. illus., diagr.
Electric lighting equipment equipment on L.N.E.R. locomotives: an axle-driven generator supplied power for head lamps and cab lighting. Rly Gaz., 1945, 82, 545-6. 3 illus., 3 diagrs. (mcI. s. & f. els.)
Experimental electric lighting equipment for locomotives. Engineer, 1945, 179, 198-9. 3 illus., 3 diagrs.
L.N.E.R. electric-lighting equipment for locomotives. Rly Gaz., 1945, 82,259.
L.N.E.R. electric lighting for locomotives. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1945, 51, 61-2. 2 illus.
L.N.E.R. experiment with electric lighting equipment for locomotives. Railways, 1945, 6, 62-3. 2 illus.

Accident at Goswick on 29 October 1953
No. 60509 Waverley derailed whilst working the 21.15 from Glasgow due to a broken eccentric strap on middle cylinder: see A.E. Nisbet. Backtrack, 2012, 26, 483 and accident report (Railway Archive)

A2/3 (originally A2) :1946: Thompson :
This was a development of the A2/2 new construction, but modified with 19 in x 26 in cylinders and 250 lb/in2 boiler pressure.

The L.N.E.R. "A2" class passenger locomotives. Engineering, 1946, 162, 175. illus., diagr. (s. el.)
The NEW L.N.E.R. class "A2" Pacific locomotive. Rly Gaz., 1946, 85, 95. illus., diagr. (s. el.), table.
2,000th loco. built at Doncaster. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1946, 52, 82. illus.
The 2,000th locomotive from Doncaster Works. Rly Gaz., 1946, 84, 609. 2 illus.

A2 :1947 : Peppercorn :
Peppercorn modified the A2/3 design by moving the outside cylinders forward to a position in line with the centre of the bogie. At first, most locomotives were fitted with single chimneys, which anticipated British Railways policy. Later, some A2 Pacifics were modified with double chimneys for use on long distance, high speed services. Dow in British steam horses describes the construction of No. 525.

EXPRESS mixed traffic locomotive, L.N.E.R. Engineering, 1948, 165, 151. illus., diagr. (s. el.) (REA 2439).
L.N.E.R. 4-6-2 "A2" locomotives. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1948, 54, 19-20. illus.
Erratum p.55
LONDON and North Eastern Railway: new 4-6-2 type locomotive. J. Stephenson Loco. Soc., 1948, 24, 17. illus.
NEW British steam locomotive designs. Trains ill., 1948, 1, (9), 3-7. 6 illus., table.
NEW Doncaster-built Pacific locomotive. Rly Gaz., 1948, 88, 48. illus. diagr. (s. el.)
A NEW pacific design from Doncaster. Rly Mag., 1948, 94,130. illus.

Retrospective and critical

Alcock, William. The unremarkables. Steam Wld, 2009 (268) 8-12.
Assessment of the performance of all types of A2 mainly via direct observations and via those of Peter Coster From Cock o' the North to Saint Johnstoun in Essays in steam by J,F, Clay (1970). Alcock's one really excellent run was made behind Peppercorn A2 No. 60539 Bronzino on 28 July 1950 on the down Aberdonian with a gross load of about 660 tons. The train was hindered by a V2-hyauled relief until it was overtaken aqt Peterborough and then climbed to Stoke Summit in fine style reaching 60 mile/h at Essendine with a minimum of 52 mile/h at Stoke Summit and 69 mile/h at Great Ponton, reaching Grantham 2.5 minutes early. He also cites a run on the up Aberdonian loaded to 575 tons when the 40.6 miles from Aberdeen to Montrose were run in 42 minutes with a top speed of 100 mile/h on the Esk viaduct. This was behind No. 60532 Blue Peter in about 1950. The Thompson Pacifics alo achieved high speeds but mainly with lightweight trains. Illus.: No. 60531 Bahram at Aberdeen Ferryhill in 1960; No. 60502 Earl Marischal at York on 17 March 1967, A1 No. 60149 Amadis running into Peterborough from the north; No. 60512 Steady Aim on express at Markham.
Allen, C.J. British Pacific locomotives. 1962.
The author describes each sub-class in detail. There is considerable criticism of the Thompson locomotives. In addition to notes on performance, Allen published data from comparative tests performed on the A2/2, A2/1 and A4 classes.
Bond, R.C. Organisation and control of locomotive repairs on British Railways. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1953, 43, 175-265. (Paper No. 520).
Includes mileages achieved between major repairs: 85,671..
Bulleid, O.V.S. Railway rolling stock and tendencies in design. Engineering, 1949, 167, 68-71, 94-5. 13 illus., 4 diagrs. (s. els.), 5 tables.
Includes a comparison of the A2, Ivatt 8P Duchess 4-6-2, Gresley Al 4-6-2 and lvatt 4-4-2 designs.
Cameron, K.R.M. Chapter 10 in Peter Townend. LNER Pacifics remembered.
Highly critical of uncomfortable Thompson Pacifics: KPJ wonder what he thought about Princess Royals!
Cameron, K.R.M.
via Rogers, H.C.B. Thompson & Peppercorn. 1979. p. 83.
The riding of the [Peppercorn] A1 and A2 locomotives did not strike me as in anyway dangerous, but I cannot say the same for those Thompson monstrosities, the A2/1, A2/2 and A2/3. These engines, with their longer wheelbase, developed quite an alarming "yawing" motion which at times could be quite disconcerting..
Carling, D.R. in Peter Towned. LNER Pacifics remembered. Chapter 8.
Only experienced one Pacific failure in many miles of travel between Darlington and King's Cross (1946-8) and King's Cross and Glasgow (1940-5). Involved in comparitive tests between A2 and V2 types; noting that A2 rode well, but minor problems caused by steam brake.  
Coster, P.J. From Cock o' the North to Saint Johnstoun. in Essays in steam by J,F, Clay (1970).
The Kylchap exhuast fitted Peppercorn A2 and the Peppercorn A1 Pacifics are well received, but the Thompson A2 are treated less kindly: "On their day particularly the A2/3s were a match for the Bulleid Pacifics, but was all too rare."
Evans, M.  Pacific steam : the British Pacific locomotive. 1961.
Clear and concise, with a foreword by R.A. Riddles.
Harrison, J.F.  via Rogers, H.C.B. Thompson & Peppercorn. 1979. pp. 120-1.
The yawing maotion was due to the flexing of the frames ahead of the outside cylinders and he also criticised the use of the B1 bogie which was inadequate for the much larger Pacifics. He compared this to Ford cars fitted with transverse front suspension.
[McKillop, N.] Toram Beg, pseud. The Aberdeen road. Trains ill. Ann, 1959, 5-12. 5 illus.
The V2 and A2 classes from the driver's viewpoint.
Nock, O.S. British locomotives of the 20th century. Volume 2. 1930-1960. 1984.
"the whole locomotive as rebuilt looked a thorough misfit. Everything about it looked wrong particularly the inordinate length between the bogie and the leading pair of coupled wheels. He called the P2 reconstruction as mutilation. On page 114 he stated that the A2/1 slipped at the slightest provocation and "On arrival at Aberdeen we found that some of the bolts securing the pipe to the main frame had worked loose, and the nuts were missing".
Somers, A.J. [Jack} in Peter Towned. LNER Pacifics remembered. Chapter 13.
Experience of all types of A2 at New England: all fitted with Kylchap double chimneys and very powerful and steamed well; capable of hauling Cliffe to Uddingston cement train. All very poor riders, especially No. 60505. Far more problems with valve gear than with Gresley locomotives. Loose weighbar shaft arms and overheating of middle eccentric.
Yeadon, Willie B. Yeadon's register of L.N.E.R. locomotives. Vol.3 : Raven, Thompson and Peppercorn Pacifics. Irwell Press, 1991.

Names

L.N.E.R. locomotive No. 500 named "Edward Thompson". Rly Gaz., 1946, 84, 666. illus.
L.N.E.R. Pacific named "A.H.Peppercorn". Rly Gaz., 1948, 88,31. illus.
No.525.

Al/1 :1945 Thompson
The first Gresley Pacific ("Great Northern") was rebuilt to act as the prototype for a proposed new passenger class. The design features incorporated may be regarded as an extension of the policy first promulgated in the A2/2 class. Cylinder layout and boiler pattern were similar in both designs. New features, incorporated to facilitate maintenance, included a hopper ashpan and rocking grate.
Barnes, Robin. Wartime service on Tyneside for SR Arthurs. Steam Wld, 1991 (51) 40.
Letter plus two reproductions of paintings: SR King Arthor No. 740 Merlin piloting C7 Atlantic passing through base of Cuxhoe signalbox with Q5 behind during WW2 and A1 No. 4470 Great Northern as rebuilt in dark blue livery with "N E" on the tender departing Grantham in October 1945.

LONDON & North Eastern Railway "Al" class three cylinder Pacific locomotives. J. Stephenson Loco. Soc., 1945, 21, 172-3.
The OLDEST L.N.E.R. Pacific is rebuilt. Rly Gaz., 1945, 83, 645; 646. 2 illus., 2 diagrs. (s. els.), table.
OLDEST L.N.E.R. Pacific No. 4470 is rebuilt. Rly Mag., 1946, 92, 34-5. 2 illus., diagr. (s. el.), table.
OLDEST L.N.E.R. Pacific rebuilt. Rly Gaz., 1945, 83, 634.
Editorial comment.
Rebuilt 4-6-2 locomotive; L.N.E.R. Engineering, 1945, 160, 326. illus., diaar. (s. el.)
Rebuilt "Pacific" No. 4470 "Great Northern", L.N.E.R. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1945, 51, 160. illus., diagr. (s. & f. els.)

Retospective and critical See Al (below)

A1: 1948 Peppercorn
Peppercorn did not pursue the prototype Al/1 type for new construction. Instead, he introduced a new design which was based on his own A2 class, more akin to Gresley practice.

CLASS Al Pacific locomotive. Engineer, 1948, 186, 192. illus., diagr. (s. el) (REA 3025)
NEW "Al" class locomotives for British Railways. Rly Gaz., 1948, 89, 246. illus., diagr. (s. & f. els.),table.
NEW "Al:' class Pacifics. Rly Mag., 1948, 94, 396-7+. illus. diagr. (s. & f. els.), table.
NEW British Pacifics: Eastern Region class A1. Trains ill., 1948, 1, (11), 3-5. 2 illus., table.
A NEW British Railways "Pacific" loco. Railways, 1948, 9, 160-1. illus., diagr. (s. & f. els.)
NEW British Railways Pacific locomotive. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1948, 54, 134. illus., diagr. (s. el.)

Roller bearings: 1951:
Five locomotives fitted with Timken roller bearings on all axles.

ROLLER bearings for Al Pacific locomotives. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1951, 57, 91. illus.

Retrospective and critical

Allen, C.J. British Pacific locomotives. 1962.
In addition to an analysis of the design and general performance, C.J. Allen gives details of road trials with both the Al/1 and Al types.
Atkins, Philip. It had already been done!. Steam Wld, 1999, (143) 54-7.
Atkins considers that J.F. Harrison's claim made in 1961 that the A1 class achieved a mileage of 202 miles per day has not withstood close scrutiny and was probably nearer 184.9, as compared with 184.7 achieved by Duchess class. The class 91 electric locomotives achieve 740 miles per day. The NYR 4-8-4 Niagara class were designed for 800 miles per day, but failed to achieve that. The J class of the N&W Railway achieved 3 million miles.
Atkins, Philip. Odious comparisons. Steam Wld, 2015, (335), 8-14
Annual mileage: 286 miles per day during 1950-8
Bond, R.C. Organisation and control of locomotive repairs on British Railways. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1953, 43, 175-265. (Paper No. 520).
Includes mileages achieved between major repairs (93,363), but see also Harrison.
Bradley, D.L. Locomotives of the Southern Railway. Part 2. RCTS, 1975.
Quotes locomotive repair costs per mile (excluding boiler) 2.87p and boiler repair costs (0.39p) and coal consumption per train mile (44.2 lb) for 1954/5. Original source not quoted.
Bulleid, O.V.S. Railway rolling stock and tendencies in design. Engineering, 1949, 167, 68-71, 94-5. 13 illus., 4 diagrs. (s. els.), 5 tables.
Includes a comparison of the A2, Ivatt 8P Duchess 4-6-2, Gresley Al 4-6-2 and lvatt 4-4-2 designs.
Cameron, K.R.M. Chapter 10 in Peter Townend. LNER Pacifics remembered.
"Good hard working engines"
Cameron, K.R.M. via Rogers, H.C.B. Thompson & Peppercorn. 1979. pp. 83; 150.
"The riding of the [Peppercorn] A1 and A2 locomotives did not strike me as in anyway dangerous, but I cannot say the same for those Thompson monstrosities (page 83). Cameron (page 150) noted that as a former LMS man he might have been thought to have favoured the Duchess Pacifics, but he could perceive little difference between them and the A1 and A4 Pacifics..
Coster, P.J. Chapter 16 in Peter Townend. LNER Pacifics remembered.
Lineside observations of regular performance of class.
Evans, M.  Pacific steam : the British Pacific locomotive. 1961.
Clear and concise, with a foreword by R.A. Riddles.
Harrison, J.F. The gathering of the new crop. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1961/62, 51, 336-56. (Presidential Address).
Includes an appreciation of the Al design plus details of the exceptionally high annual mileage achieved by the class especially those fitted with roller bearings throughout. The data quoted in the Address must have contained an error (and it was Institution policy not to query the President's Address, but they have been queried subsequently: see for instance Mel Holley's "the Peppercorn 'A1' 4-6-2s were good, but not really that good" Steam Wld, 2008 (254), 6..
Johnson, Martin. An introduction to steam locomotive testing [letter]. Backtrack, 2009, 23, 702.
Response to series of articles on locomotive testing Notes that indicator diagrams taken at high speed suffer from overrun.. Considers that multiple sets of valve gear as fitted to A1 Tornado produce far more even exhaust beat than any form of derived gear whether as adopted at Swindon for Castles and Kings, by Stanier on the Duchess class, or by Gresley.
Rimmer, Alan. Testing times at Derby: a 'Privileged' view of steam. Usk: Oakwood, 2004. 120pp. (RS14)
Found the class to be very rough riding, especially in comparision with the Gresley Pacifics.
Townend, Peter (off Internet)
Generally the casualties which did occur were different to those of the Gresley engines apart from injectors which were a trouble for a time with both types. Two very serious delays come to mind, which occurred with A1s and injectors. One of these failed on the Flying Scotsman at New Barnet in the down direction and one again on the same train in the up direction at Hatfield, which was reported in the national press. Both required the fire to be thrown out. These failures were not due to the design of the A1 or A4 for that matter or the injectors themselves but to the fitting of a BR type strum box underneath the well of the tender in Doncaster Plant which King's Cross was unaware of . The water feed was through a single orifice to both injectors which was proved to be inadequate.
Although not a serious problem the inside valve gear fitted to the A1 did not prove to be as reliable in service as the Gresley conjugated fitted to the A3, A4 and V2 locomotives. Overheated driving axleboxes were virtually unknown on the A1 class whereas the Gresley engines occasionally ran the right driving axlebox hot. The most serious casualties which the A1s suffered were on at least two occasions in the Eastern Region when all the coupling and connecting rods were bent due to serious slipping.
A problem which was reported in correspondence with a member of Parliament who observed bolts missing from the smokebox saddle as he walked past the engine. at King's Cross. This had occurred on the Thompson Pacifics but was unknown on the Gresley Pacifics. It was thought to be due to expansion or perhaps flexing at the front end but it was decided to strengthen the smokebox by fitting a steel ring around the back of the smokebox and a thick steel plate to the inside of the smokebox saddle.
Despite the difficulties mentioned above the A1 class were light on maintenance and the most reliable of the Pacifics at the time at King's Cross. When a number of classes of locomotives were costed by British Railways in the early 1950's, the total maintenance cost in pence per mile for the A1s was considerably lower than that of any other class 8 locomotive. Higher mileages were generally achieved between classified repairs. One of the roller bearing engines at King's Cross No.60157 attained 197,000 miles, the highest of any King's Cross engines. The A1s were fitted with the Kylchap double exhaust system when built and with the short boiler barrel the engines steamed so freely that liberties could be taken by the fireman which would have caused serious difficulties with single blast-pipe locomotives. When tested the A1s showed their economy in coal and water consumption on heavy 500 to 600 ton trains for which they were designed to haul at speeds of 50 to 60 mph. respectively. The maximum power output was recorded at over 2000dhp. at around 40% cut off and speeds of 55-60 mph. Various performances and lost time recovery were reported in the railway press by C.J.Allen and perhaps the finest was when A1 No.60140 was substituted for a failed diesel locomotive at York and the King's Cross driver Dick Turner who was never late if he could help it, recovered the 26 minutes delay to London averaging 71.4 mph. with nine coaches 308 tons tare. The most important feature of the work of the A1 class was however recorded by another regular traveller between Leeds and London who timed every run and it was the A1 locomotives which were the most consistently on time."

Yeadon, Willie B. Yeadon's register of L.N.E.R. locomotives. Vol.3 : Raven, Thompson and Peppercorn Pacifics. Irwell Press, 1991.

Names

Doncaster engineers honoured. Rly Mag., 1950, 96, 577.
Nos. 60118 Archibald Sturrock, 60119 Patrick Stirling and 60123 H.A. Ivatt named by H.G. Ivatt.
LOCOMOTIVE named "W.P. Allen". Rly Gaz., 1948, 89, 531. illus.
[NAMING ceremony of Al Pacific: 60114 W.P. Allen]. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1948, 54,173. illus.
See also Bill Allen

Tornado
The Tornado Project is unique in that an entirely new Peppercorn Pacific has been constructed: earlier reconstructions have been restricted to small, relatively early locomotives. Tornado is on an utterly different scale.

Smith, Geoff and A1 Steam Locomotive Trust. Tornado: new Peppercorn class A1, 2008 onwards: owners' workshop manual. Sparkford: Haynes, 2011. 154pp.
Haynes Publishing made their somewhat mixed reputation on do-it-yourself car servicing. The series were good for changing the oil or the plugs, but replacing a cylinder head gasket was a different matter. But it is highly improbable that the owners of Tornado will permit the owners of this manual to set to work on this remarkable locomotive which in many aspects is more advanced than the original design. The history of the original A1 class is only sketched very lightly: for instance, there is no mention of several members working on the West Coast main line. There is only the barest summary of the somewhat controversial claims made fror their excellence in terms of maintenance and low running costs. The bulk of the book is a lovingly compiled record of building the locomotive which had to proceed in carefully planned stages which were dependent upon acquiring funding. The boiler had to be manufactured in Germany and a copper firebox was an impossibility and steel had to be used. Although electric lighting was employed on the original locomotives this was crude and did not demand a circuit diagram like that provided for Tornado. Sanding is by compressed air which is far more effective than steam. For those who have enjoyed a trip behind the new locomotive or been baffled by its wonderful chime whistle this book provides a wonderful memento, but I bet the owners would not permit anyone less qualified than a Chartered Engineer to empty the ash pan.

4-6-2: modifications to earlier Pacific designs

A4: 1942-: Thompson:
To ease maintenance and reduce the risk of overheated bearings, Thompson removed the side valences from the streamlining.

L.N.E.R. class "A4" Pacific locomotive "Charles H. Newton". Rly Gaz., 1942, 77, 376. 2 illus.
L.N.E.R. class A4 Pacific locomotive – No. 4901 "Charles H. Newton". Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1942, 48, 184.

4-6-0

B1: 1942: Thompson:
With the exception of the newly designed bogie and cylinder arrangement, this mixed-traffic design was based on standard parts. The boiler was a slightly modified version of that fitted to the Gresley B17 class and the cylinders came from the K2 class. The bogie came from the B17 class and the drivinng wheels from the V2. When tested it proved to be as efficient and as powerful as the LMS class 5.

4-6-0 mixed-traffic locomotive for the L.N.E.R. Engineering, 1943, 155, 47-8. illus., diagr. (s. el.)
L.N.E.R. general purposes locomotive. Railways, 1943, 4, 28-9. illus., 2 diagrs., (s. & f. els.)
L.N.E.R. locomotive built by North British Locomotive Co. Ltd.. Rly Gaz., 1946, 84, 518. illus.
Slight modifications, mainly in the greater use of castings instead of fabrication.
L.N.E.R. mixed traffic engine. Engineer, 1943, 175, 59. illus.
L.N.E.R. new mixed-traffic 4-6-0 locomotive. Rly Mag., 1943, 89, 104-5. illus., diagr. (s. el.), table.
NEW 4-6-0 mixed traffic engines, London & North Eastern Railway. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1943, 49, 3-4. illus., diagr. (s. el.)
NEW 4-6-0 mixed traffic tender engines for the L.N.E.R. Rly Gaz., 1943, 78, 66-7. illus., diagr. (s. el.)

Performance and testing

1948 exchange trials.

Allen, C.J. The locomotive exchanges, 1870-1948. [1950].

British Railways exhaustive scientific tests.

British Railways Eastern and North Eastern Regions "B1" class 2 cyl. 4-6-0 mixed traffic locomotive. London, British Transport Commission, 1951. 55 sheets, 2 illus., 40 diagrs., 4 tables. (Performance & efficiency tests with exhaust steam injector. Bulletin No. 2).
Rugby test plant and road tests.

Retrospective and critical

Atkins, Philip. Odious comparisons. Steam Wld, 2015, (335), 8-14
Annual mileage; availability, and average engine miles per working day in 1958:
LMR (26 locos): 36,606; 64%; 185
ER (303 locos): 35,347; 78%; 146
ScR (75 locos): 34,645; 78%; 143

Beavor, E.S. Steam was my calling. 1974).
Claimed that those built by NBL rode badly due to the lack of a wheel-balancing machine at the manufacturers. Also Darlington-built locomotives had their valves set without any allowance for expansion of the valve spindles..
Bond, R.C. Organisation and control of locomotive repairs on British Railways. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1953, 43, 175-216. Disc. : 217-65. (Paper No. 520).
Quotes average mileage achieved between repairs: 78,396..
Clay, John F. and Cliffe. The LNER 4-6-0 classes. London: Ian Allan, 1975.
Follows most commentators in accepting that B1 class was just as good as Stanier class 5 and shared similar faults such as harsh riding.
Evans, Martin. Inverness to Crewe: the British 4-6-0 locomotive. 1966. Chapter 12.
Very brief details of B1 class.
Fareham, Ron. First impressions: a personal view of the Thomson B1s. Br. Rlys ill., 1994, 3, 172-83.
Writer was a Great Central man. With the exception of the NBL-built locomotives, which suffered from inferior grates and self-cleaning smokeboxes, the B1s were well-received.
Hardy, R.H.N. "Balmore", pseud. Locomotive on shed. Trains Ann., 1956, 58-66.10 illus.
Some B1 locomotives were lent to the Southern Region. The engine-drivers' reactions to this design are noted.
Hardy, R.H.N. Memories of Thompson. Steam Wld, 1992 (59), 6-12.
Motive power man considered that the B1 could match the LMS class 5 "any day of the week" and "were lighter on coal and fast and free for steam. Futhermore, the injectors were infinitely better. Both classes were rough, but Hardy considered that the class 5 was more rugged.
Harvey, D.W. Bill Harvey's 60 years of steam. 1986.
In 1948 both types began to be replaced by Edward Thompson's Bl class mixed-traffic 4-6-0s designed to have as wide a route availability as possible. These had an excellent front end arrangement and soon proved themselves capable of running the fast express trains in East Anglia without the slightest difficulty. Unfortunately they lacked robustness and due to the need to pare weight down to a minimum their coupled axleboxes were made smaller than was desirable; the reciprocating balance was cut down to 36% in order to reduce rail hammerblow. These factors combined with an absence of axle box wedges to take up wear resulted in an early deterioration of their riding qualities.
After running anything from 40,000 to 70,000 miles on express work, drivers began to complain that their locomotives were no longer fit to ride upon, due to the vibration set up by coupled axleboxes knocking like a steam hammer. No 1041 was practicularly bad in this respect, producing when running at speed with steam shut off a sickening vibration of high frequency.
For that reason it was never regularly manned like the other Bls, but was kept as the spare engine – by contrast No 1045 was considered to ride better than the rest. The trouble peculiar to No 1041 was eventually traced to an over-balance of 60 lb in each of the driving wheels when these were put in the wheel balancing machine in Doncaster Works after the Works Mechanical Inspector had been persuaded to ride on the locomotive.
Pp 142-3: Nos. 1270-2 experienced problems (when new) with valve ring breakage due to soft iron being used. In the summer of 1948 several of the earlier B1s suffered from piston rod breakage at the crosshead cone end due either to poor workmanship or faulty material. Pp. 144-7 reproduce a report of 17 June 1957 on the work involved at Norwich mpd of the time and cost involved in maintaining coupled axleboxes and hornblocks.
Mitchell, Alan. A spare turn's surprise. Steam Wld, 2008 (48) 42-5.
Whilst a fireman at Doncaster in the Banbury link, which worked freight onto the Great Central to Leicester he was asked to travel up to King's Cross on the cushions with Driver Harry Jesson to fire a return working from King's Cross to Mexborough. He had expected a typical ECML "big engine", but it was B1 No. 61166. He was warned not to let the locomotive produce dark smoke or blow off in the terminus, but he had an excellent fire ready to tackle the climb out of London. The locomotive was fitted with a speedometer and beyond Biggleswade they were doing 90 mile/h and the vibration was great. He had no difficulty in picking up water in spite of not knowing the route. They arrived back at Doncaster somewhat early.
Nock, O.S. British locomotives of the 20th century. Volume 2. 1930-1960. 1984.
On page 112 Nock stated that "the 'B1s' were rough and uncomfortable at the best of times". Also stated Gresley origins of components for design.
Railway Correspondence and Travel Society. Locomotives of the LNER. Part 2B. Tender engines—classes B1 to B19. 1975.
Yeadon, Willie B. Yeadon's Register of L.N.E.R. locomotives. Vol.6.: Thompson B1 Class. Irwell Press, 1994..

Names

McNaught, R.S. Another link. Rly Wld, 1952, 13, 227. illus.
No. 61379 Mayflower
Naming of locomotive "Mayflower". Rly Gaz., 1951, 95, 111. illus.
Plaque for "Mayflower" locomotive. Rly Gaz., 1952, 97, 166-7.

Duplicated names

'B1' 4-6-0s had other duplicated names too. John Rowley. Steam Wld, 2006 (227) 31 (letter)
Oribi=Ourebi; Inyala=Nyala; Reitbok=Reedbuck; Stembok=Steinbok; Chiru=Jairou.

Preserved locomotives

Boden, Gerald. The overhaul of Mayflower. Rly Wld, 1993, 54 (634), 50-2

4-6-0: modifications to earlier designs

Gresley designs

B2: 1945 : Thompson:
Two-cylinder rebuild of the Gresley B17 class. Martin Evans Inverness to Crewe appears to have forgotten B2 rebuilds!

B2 class locomotive: London and North Eastern Railway. Engineering, 1945, 160, 524.
CONVERSION of L.N.E.R. class "B17" locomotive. Rly Gaz., 1946, 84, 570. illus., diagr. (s. el.), table.
L.N.E.R. class B2 locomotive. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1946, 52, 3. illus., diagr. (s. & f. els.)
LONDON & North Eastern Railway rebuilt B17 4-6-0 and K4 2-6-0 locomotives. J. Stephenson Loco. Soc., 1946, 22, 33-4. 2 illus.
RECENT L.N.E.R. locomotive developments. Trains ill., 1946, 1 (1), 7. illus.,

Retrospective & critical

Railway Correspondence and Travel Society. Locomotives of the LNER. Part 2B. Tender engines—classes B1 to B19. 1975.

Great Central Railway

B3/3: 1943: Thompson:
The Robinson "Lord Faringdon" class was a problematic design. Gresley had attempted to improve performance by installing Caprotti valve gear on same locomotives, and in 1943, Thompson rebuilt one engine with two outside cylinders and a B1 boiler.

ANOTHER L.N.E.R. conversion. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1943, 49, 185. illus.
ANOTHER L.N.E.R. locomotive conversion. Railways, 1944, 5, 15. illus.
Cook, A.F. L.N.E.R. locomotive rebuilds. J. Stephenson Loco. Soc., 1944, 20, 149-50.
FROM four cylinders to two. Rly Gaz., 1944, 80, 219. illus., diagr. (s. el.), table.
TWO L.N.E.R. locomotive conversions. Rly Mag., 1944, 90, 160-1. 4 illus., 2 diagrs. (5. els.), table.

Retrospective and critical

Railway Correspondence and Travel Society. Locomotives of the LNER. Part 2B. Tender engines—classes B1 to B19. 1975.

Tuplin, W.A. The Robinson 4-6-0s of the G.C.R. Trains ill., 1951, 4, 56-60. 9 illus., 2 tables.

Great Eastern Raliway

B12/4:1943: Thompson:
Most of the B12 class were rebuilt with larger boilers by Gresley (see B12/3), but a number of the original locomotives were retained for work on the Scottish G.N.o.S. Section, due to their limited axle-loading. When new boilers were required, Thompson introduced the No. 25A round-top type (see also J20 below) to replace the worn-out Belpaire boilers.

McNaught, R.S. The Great Eastern "1500s". Rly Mag., 1957, 103, 680-5.5 illus.
Proud, P. The "1500" class. Rly Obsr, 1954, 24, 260-1; 313-16+ 3 plates. 8 illus., 2 tables.
Railway Correspondence and Travel Society. Locomotives of the LNER. Part 2B. Tender engines—classes B1 to B19. 1975.

North Eastern Railway

B16/3: 1944: Thompson:
In 1937 Gresley replaced the three sets of Stephenson with his derived motion on some locomotives of the Raven B16/1 (S3) class. 1944 Thompson rebuilt some of the original type with three sets of Walschaerts gear. Some references to this latter rebuilding infer that Thompson altered the Gresley modified engines: this is incorrect (see RCTS which makes it clear that the further modification had been planned but was not implemented).

Conversion of L.N.E.R. "B16" class 4-6-0 locomotives. Rly Mag., 1944, 90, 349-50. illus.
Conversion of L.N.E.R. "B16" locos. Railways, 1944, 5, 110-11. illus.
Conversion of L.N.E.R. class "B16" locomotives. Rly Gaz., 1944, 81, 111. illus.
Independent versus conjugate valve gears. Rly Gaz., 1944, 81, 103.
Editorial comment.
Locomotive conversions on the L.N.E.R. Engineering, 1944,157, 458; 470. 2 illus., diagr. (s. el.)

Retrospective and critical

Bertram, D. The "B16" 4-6-0s of the N.E.R. Trains ill., 1953, 6, 139-41.
Sphere of activity in 1953, rather than history.
Hoole, K. The 4-6-0 locomotives of the N.E.R. Rly Wld, 1958, 19, 181-3; 204-6. 9 illus.
Railway Correspondence and Travel Society. Locomotives of the LNER. Part 2B. Tender engines—classes B1 to B19. 1975.
Webster, V.R. The B16 class 4-6-0's of the North Eastern Region. J. Stephenson Loco. Soc., 1958, 34, 124-6. 2 illus.

2-6-0

K1 :1945- : Thompson/Peppercorn.

K1/l :1945 : Thompson:
One of the Gresley K4 class was rebuilt with two cylinders. It acted as the prototype for the K1 class.

CONVERTED K4 type loco., L.N.E.R. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1946, 52, 2. illus.
LONDON & North Eastern Railway: rebuilt B17 4-6-0 and K4 2-6-0 locomotives. J. Stephenson Loco. Soc., 1946, 22, 33-4. 2 illus.
REBUILT "K4" class 2-6-0 locomotive, L.N.E.R. Rly Gaz., 1946, 84, 516-17.2 illus., 2diagrs. (s.els.), table.
REBUILT "K4" class 2-6-0 locomotive, L.N.E.R. Rly Mag., 1946, 92, 249; 236-7. 2 illus., 2 diagrs. (s. els.)
RECENT L.N.E.R. locomotive developments. Trains ill., 1946, 1 (1), 7. illus.

K1 :1949 : Peppercorn K1/1 design modified for new construction.

BRITISH Railways, E. & N.E. Regions "K1" class. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1951, 57, 13. illus.

Retrospective and critical

Paterson, A.J.S. West Highland "Moguls", 1937-1957. J. Stephenson Loco. Soc., 1958, 34,167-71.
K1/l type only.

K5: 1945 : Thompson :
2-cylinder rebuild of one of the Gresley 3-cylinder K3 class.

ANOTHER L.N.E.R. locomotive conversion. Rly Gaz., 1945, 83, 317. illus.,diagr. (5. el.),table.
CONVERTED K3 class locomotive; L.N.E.R. Engineering, 1945, 160, 166. illus.
An L.N.E.R. locomotive conversion. Engineer, 1945, 180, 135. illus.
L.N.E.R. locomotive conversion. Rly Gaz., 1945, 83, 178.
LONDON & North-Eastern Railway: rebuild "K3" 2-6-0 locomotive. J.Stephenson Loco. Soc., 1945, 21,137.
MODIFIED class K3 2-6-0 L.N.E.R. locomotive. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1945, 51, 134. illus., diagr. (s. & f. els.)

Hardy, R.H.N. Stratford forever! Part 16. Steamworld, 2006, (226)  40-5.
61815 between Brandon and Thetford (travelling wrong road) on stopping passenger. Caption observes that K5 No. 1863 was an excellent engine except for her rough riding.

Colour photograph taken by Bruce Chapman at Stratford in 1955. Backtrack, 2013, 27, 751 (bottom)

0-6-0: modifications to earlier designs

Great Central Railway

J11/3:1942: Thompson:
The J11 class was originally introduced by Robinson in 1901. After a number of modifications, including the fitting of piston valves, it was designated as a standard LNER design.

The L.N.E.R  J11 class rebuilds. Rly Obsr, 1947, 17, 86-7.diagr. (s.el.)
Nock, O.S. The locomotives of the L.N.E.R.: standardisation and renumbering. 1947.
Surprisingly, the J11 class was included as one of nine standard designs.
Railway Correspondence and Travel Society. Locomotives of the L.N.E.R. Part 5. Tender engines-classes J1 to J37. 1966.

Great Eastern Railway

J20/1 :1943 Thompson :
This Hill (1920) class was re-boilered with No. 25A round-top boilers.

Cook, A.F. L.N.E.R. locomotive rebuilds. J. Stephenson Loco. Soc., 1944, 20, 149-50. Railway Correspondence and Travel Society. Locomotives of the L.N.E.R. Part 5. Tender engines-classes J1 to J37. 1966.

North British Railway

J35: 1948 : Peppercorn:
Supply of new superheater boilers from Hunslet.

NEW boilers for ex-N.B.R. freight locomotives. Rly Gaz., 1948, 88, 193. illus.

4-4-0

D49/4: 1942: Thompson:
One D49/2 locomotive was rebuilt with two "Director" type inside cylinders and Stephenson motion. For a time it was known as the "D class": the RCTS history argues that its official description was always class D.

L.N.E.R. rebuilt "Hunt" class locomotive. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1948. 54, 186. illus.
Railway Correspondence and Travel Society. Locomotives of the L.N.E.R. Part 4. Tender engines-classes D25 to E7. 1968.

Tank engines

0-8-0T

Q1:1942 : Thompson:
Thompson rebuilt thirteen Robinson O4 0-8-0s as tank engines for shunting duties.

Converted 0-8-0 tank, London and North Eastern Railway. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1942, 48, 118-19. 3 illus.
Illustrations: Q1: No. 5058 and Q4 No. 5059 0-8-0 (then converted to 0-8-0T and O2 No. 3834 fitted with tender from Q4 converted to shunter
An INTERESTING locomotive conversion. Rly Gaz., 1942, 77, 10-11. 3 illus.
An INTERESTING locomotive conversion. Rly Mag., 1942, 88, 298-9. 3 illus.
L.N.E.R. locomotive conversion : some additional particulars. Rly Gaz., 1942, 77, 345. 2 diagrs. (s. & f. els.), 2 tables.
L.N.E.R. locomotive conversions. Engineer, 1942, 174,18. 3 illus.
A NEW 0-8-0 tank locomotive: the L.N.E.R. saves steel to assist the War effort. Railways, 1942, 3, 143. 3 illus.
RECONSTRUCTED locomotives on the L.N.E.R. Engineering, 1942, 154, 7. 3 illus.

Retrospective & critical

Railway Correspondence and Travel Society. Locomotives of the LNER. Part 9B. Tank engines—classes Q1 to Z5. 1977. 116pp.

A7 (NER Class Y): 1909: Wilson Worsdell/Raven

Hill, Neville. Memories of the 'Humpies'. Steam Wld., 1997  (125) 28-32.
Similar to the NER X class (LNER T1) 4-8-0T, both in overall design, and in operation. From 1943 an improved boiler was fitted and this sub-class was known as A7/1. This work continued after the formation of British Railways. One locomotive spent some time at Northwich prior to WW2. Latterly many of the class worked from Hull Springhead mpd. \ther author workerd with the class which tended to have leaking tanks which caused slipping which aggravated the problem...

L1 1945 Thompson:
This design was intended for surburban and secondary services. There seems to be fairly general agreement that the design was not entirely successful

CLASS L1 2 cylinder 2-6-4T. J. Stephenson Loco. Soc., 1945, 21, 84-6. illus.
L.N.E.R. 2-6-4 locomotive the first new locomotive since VE-Day. Rly Gaz., 1945, 83, 89-90. illus., diagr. (s. & f. els.)
L.N.E.R. tank engine. Engineer, 1945, 179, 469. illus.
L.N.E.R. 2-6-4 tank locomotive. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1945, 51, 88; 104. illus., diagr. (s. & f. els.)
NEW post-war locomotives on the L.M.S. and L.N.E.Rs. Railways, 1945, 6, 124-6. 3 illus., diagr. (s. & f. els.)
2-6-4 tank locomotive, L.N.E.R. Engineering, 1945,159, 466. illus., diagr. (s. el.)

Retrospective and critical

Beavor, E.S. Steam was my calling. 1974).
Claimed (p. 139) that L1s steamed better than LMS 2-6-4Ts (at Neasden), but that did not ride as well, partly due to the lack of axlebox wedges which had been eliminated by Thompson as they savoured of Gresley practice.
The Class L1 2-6-4 tanks were among the most powerful passenger tanks in the United Kingdom, and this largely accounted for their frightful tendency to batter themselves loose after a few months of running. One could hear their high-speed knocking over half-a- mile away; in at least one district they were commonly referred to as 'Concrete Mixers'. Thompson, in his eagerness to eliminate many of Gresley's practices, had dispensed with axle-box wedges on many of his new engines, so that when wear developed between the boxes and the horn-plates it was impossible to do anything about it, except to remove all the axle-boxes for re-lining – a task far beyond the limited capacities of most depots. At Neasden, once I had been able to get the allocation pruned, we were knocking up over 7,000 miles a month with our L1s (considered a respectable mileage even for main line locomotives). They were, therefore, being accepted for general overhaul after only 10 months of running. After I left Neasden many of them had the axle-boxes fitted with manganese- steel liners, and this enabled a greater total mileage between over hauls to be obtained. .

Bond, R.C. Organisation and control of locomotive repairs on British Railways. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1953, 43, 175-216. Disc. : 217-65. (Paper No. 520).
Quotes average mileage achieved between repairs: 67,213..
Bridges, R. Recent British 2-6-4 tank locomotives. J. Stephenson Loco. Soc., 1948, 24, 68-9. + plate (IX). 2 illus., table.
Comparison of the L1 and Fairburn 2-6-4 designs.
Campling, Nick. The Thompson class L1 2-6-4T. Modellers Backtrack, 1993, 3, 116-19.
"The L1 was a good all-round passenger tank locomotive" concludes the author: they were certainly very good looking in the original apple green and there is an H.N. James colour illus. of No. 9000 at Stratford in snow in early 1947 alongside a green K2. There is also a colour illus. of No. 67708 (BR lined black) at Westerfield Junction with a train for Felixstowe on 22 May 1957. There are model makers drawings (side/front and rear elevations) and notes on differences between the prototype and batches supplied by contractors.
Hardy, R.H.N. Stratford forever! Part 14. Steam Wld, 2005 (224) 36-41.
Describes a trial with L1 No. 7740 on a Tottenham to Cambriadge partially fitted freight which completed the journey without refilling the tank. Noted that the L1 was really a tank engine version of the K1 class.
Hardy, R.H.N. Stratford forever! Part 30. Steam Wld, 2007 (240) 36-41.
R.C. Riley photograph of L1 No. 67729 at Liverpool Street on 12 February 1957: caption states that very good engines on outer sububurban work"
Harvey, D.W. Bill Harvey's 60 years of steam. 1986.
Pp. 155-61: experiences of L1 class at Neasden in 1950 which includes an extract from a report by W.G. Thorley to Col. H. Rudgard: "Certain features of the working at Neasden described above lead to a consideration of some of the factors which are responsible for the "uneasy" power position, and paramount among these factors appears to be the heavy incidence of running repairs among the L1 2-6-4 tank locomotives, of which 35 are now allocated to this depot, many of them new engines. The principal difficulty in maintaining these locomotives in good mechanical condition arises from the poor performance of the coupled axleboxes, which is the worst for a recent design seen on any Region." (bold emphasis KPJ). Harvey also noted the problems derived from the small coupled wheels and leaking tanks. Consideration was given to using the Westinghouuse brake fitted locomotives to haul London Transport stock with sliding doors, but it was fouind that there was insufficient air available to close the doors: the test was a fiasco!.
Hawkins, Chris. 9000: trials of the century. Br. Rlys ill., 1991, 1, 4-15.
Tests, described in considerable detail, on L1 locomotive numbered at that time No. 9000 mainly on the Great Eastern Section, and also in Scotland.
Railway Correspondence and Travel Society. Locomotives of the LNER. Part 9A. Tank engines—classes L1 to N19. 1977. 116pp.
Riemsdijk, John van. The London suburban tank engine. Rlys SouthEast. 1988, 1, 81-93.
Cites run behind L1 when delayed train of five coaches was run from Wood Green to Hertford North in 21 minutes calling at all stations.
Wilson, Andrew. Thompson 'L1' 2-6-4Ts. Steam Days, 1997 (92) 212-26.
Includes a short bibliography

Updated: 2016-03-12