Great Southern & Western Railway/
Great Southern Railways

Other Irish railways
Plate from Rly Mag., 1901, 8, facing page 481

Steamindex homepage
Updated: 2014-07-12

This page still reflects the structure adopted in Steam locomotive development (which was not very good), but is being modified to accommodate the extra information provided via Clements and McMahon's Locomotives of the GSR. After the 1925 amalgamation this, the largest Irish company, was comparable in size with some of the English pre-grouping railways. Its main-lines ran from Dublin to the South and West. With the exception of the line to Cork, traffic on most of the system was sparse and trains were infrequent. In consequence, the locomotive stock was relatively small and the replacement rate was low.
E.E. Joynt's "Reminiscences of an Irish locomotive works" provide an "inside view" of activity at the well equipped Inchicore Works, but mainly surveys the period which preceded 1923. In its way it is a precursor of Holcroft and Cox. .J. Watson's book consists of tabulated data and brief notes on the locomotive stock. See also Locomotives of the GSR, Ireland published in 2008: see latter from Jeremy Clements and Michael McMahon (Steam Wld, 2008 (248) 19 with this vital news).
Lowe notes that the railway was incorporated in 1844; the works at Inchicore were established in 1846, but that the first locomotive was not constructed there until 1852; reliance being placed on Bury and Sharp products until then. .

McDonnell Aspinall Coey Maunsell Harty
Waterford & Limerick Railway

Ahrons, E.L. Locomotive and train working in the latter part of the nineteenth century; edited by L.L. Asher. Cambridge: Heffer, 1951-4. Volume 6
Originally published in Railway Magazine 1925/6: Pp. 1-27 cover Great Southern & Western Railway
Clements, Jeremy and McMahon, Michael. Locomotives of the GSR. Newtownards: Colourpoint, 2008. 384pp.
Includes a very large amount of information in Appendices.
Appendix A (pp.  341-4) Traffic trends and revenues and this includes Table 3 (on page 344) showing locomotive mileages broken down by type of traffic and year;
Appendix B: Motive power fleet totals. (pp.345-50) 
During the 20 year life of the Great Southern Railways, the company continued to submit Annual Reports in the standard format that had previously accorded with the First Schedule to the Railway Companies (Accounts and Returns) Act, 1911. These documents included statistical data on the financial condition of the company and also on the numbers of locomotives, carriages and wagons in service at each year end.
Previous commentators have had difficulty in reconciling the reported locomotive totals with the actual . numbers known to have comprised the fleet at specific times. These differences might have occurred through clerical recording errors but it is likely that ambiguity in the operational status of certain locomotives also contributed to discrepancies. As was concluded in the Milne Report, the GSR's fleet size was significantly larger than average traffic levels actually demanded. With comparatively low utilisation, there must always have been plenty of locomotives on hand at depots for the work available, and it is reasonable to assume that some must have stood out of service for considerable periods. Equally there would have been a number of locomotives standing at Inchicore for long periods awaiting a decision on withdrawal, or refurbishment and return to duty. In such circumstances, uncertainty over the precise status of some locomotives would have complicated the count.
The existence of certain locomotives in this form of limbo is well known. For example, ex-CBSCR 4-6-0T No 471 stood at Inchicore awaiting its fate for around six years before withdrawal. The four ex-Cork Blackrock & Passage Railway 2-4-2Ts were-officially withdrawn in 1933, then refurbished and reinstated for further work on the Cavan & Leitrim section the following year. On the other hand, ex-Cork & Muskerry Light Railway 0-4-4T No 5 was withdrawn in 1935 and several reports claim that it was then transferred to the Tralee & Dingle section, when in fact it was cannibalised to keep CMLR No 6 serviceable for use on the Schull & Skibbereen section.
Other formally recorded withdrawal and later reinstatements were comparatively few. Ex-MGWR 4-4-0 No 545 was withdrawn and reinstated during 1933, working for another 22 years. Ex-GSWR 2-6-0 No 357 stopped work in 1931 but returned to service four years later. It is reasonable to assume that others went through this cycle but were not formally recorded as such in the annual returns.
The physical count might also have been distorted by the status of locomotives on departmental duties. There was no renumbering or special type of identification for locomotives in this category and counting errors could easily have resulted. Uncertainty over departmental status is usually attributed to the otherwise inexplicable addition to the fleet of one 0-6-0 in 1944.
Table 1 below shows the figures as recorded in the annual returns. Table 2 summarises the withdrawals and additions to the fleet in the period 1925-1944.
These figures are based on locomotives that were allocated GSR numbers, ie recorded as such in the company's asset registers. Thus, the DSER locomotives which had already been withdrawn (or were about to be) but nevertheless came into the GSR's possession in 1925, have been excluded. Also in this category is the curiosity of DSER No 44, which was never given a GSR number but actually worked on normal duties until 1927.
Table 1 Steam locomotive fleet by wheel arrangement 1924-1944
Table 2 Steam locomotive withdrawals and additions 1925-1944
Table 3 Railcar and inspection vehicle totals 19251944
Table 4 Annual steam locomotive totals by originating company 1925-1944 plus Coras Iompair Eireann 1945-1965
Appendix C1: Locomotive boilers (pp. 351-61);
This material has been used to form part of a section on boilers.
Appendix C2: Boilers & locomotive maintenance. 362-3.
Verbatim reproduction of Report by J.H. Dudley Locomotive Maintenance position, May 1948. 13 May 1948. pp. 362-3.
At that tiime 15% of the broad gauge locomotive stock was either under repair or awaiting repair. Noted that only five of the 372/393 class were in good condition out of the fifteen in service (total class size 26). These were the largest engines permitted to work to Waterford, Limerick, Galway and Sligo.
Appendix D: Annual boiler mileages.pp. 364-5
Appendix E: Passenger routes and locomotive usage. pp. 366-9
Includes a map.
Appendix F: 1925-1940 Comparison Great Southern Railways V Great Northern Railway (Ireland). pp. 370-2.
Appendix G: Valve layouts and superheating. pp. 373-7.
Includes diagram of piston valve events on page 377.
Appenndix H: Locomotive allocations 1938 and 1945. page 378
Appendix J: Class 800 names and nameplates. page 379.
Appendix K: GSR locomotives in miniature. pp. 380-1
Includes those in the Donaldson Collection

Clements, R.N.
Great Southern and Western locomotives from 1900 to 1924. Rly Mag., 1936, 78, 333-7+. 6 illus.
Additional notes from the author and the G.S.R. Rly Mag., 1936, 79, 70.
Joynt, E.E. Reminiscences of an Irish locomotive works. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1932, 38, 104-6; 138-40; 171-3; 202-3; 257-8; 285-6; 316-17; 367-8; 395-7; 426-8: 1933, 39, 52-3; 96-7; 127-8; 151-2; 180-1; 212-13; 274-6; 312-14; 340-2: 1934, 40, 24-6; 90. illus.
New loco. shops at Inchicore, Great Southern Railways. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1935, 41,152-3. 2 illus.
An erecting shop.
Nock, O.S. Irish steam. a twenty year survey 1920-1939. 1982.

Recent developments at Inchicore Locomotive Works, Great Southern Railways, Ireland a new locomotive repair shop, designed and equipped on the most modern lines. Rly Gaz., 1935, 63, 823-4. 4 illus., diagr. plan.
Reed, K.H. and Fayle, H. Recent developments of Irish locomotive practice, Great Southern Railways. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1937, 43, 138-40; 181-2; 226-8; 283-4; 309-11; 360-1: 1938, 44, 9-11; 83-6. 29 illus. Erratum: 1938, 44, 55.
Rolling stock renumbering, Irish Railways. Rly Mag., 1926, 58, 84.
A prefix system.
Rowledge, J.W.P. The Irish steam loco. register.
Stockport: Irish Traction Group, 1993.
This book is extremely short of navigational aids: thus the Dublin & Kingstown Railway (a British and Irish landmark) is treated on page 86, but the contents listing (there is no index) places the user no nearer than somewhere between page 57 and 115.
W[atson] , S.J. Locomotives of the Great Southern Railways of Ireland. London Arthur H. Stockwell, 1937. viii, 77 p. 34 illus., table.
Review Loco. Carr. Wagon Rev., 1937, 43, 335.

Chief Mechanical Engineers

Early locomotives
KPJ has had to depend upon Rowledge for the period between the formation of the Great Southern & Western Railway and the arrival of McDonnell. As usual for this period the railway was served by a mixture of Bury and Sharp locomotives.

Bury, Curtis & Kennedy
Both 0-4-2 and 2-2-2 types obtained from 1845

2-2-2
Running numbers 21-2: 1845
Running numbers 23-9: 1846
Running numbers 30-6: 1847
Running numbers 37-40: 1848

Bury No. 36 illustrated in Bulleid, H.A.V. Aspinall era. p. 45
Photograph ordered by H.A. Ivatt when No. 36 was cut up at Inchicore in 1886, having been withdrawn from service in 1872.

0-4-2
Running numbers 41-2: 1845
Running numbers 43-7: 1847
Running numbers 48-50: 1848

Grendon of Drogheda supplied two 0-4-2 in 1849 and these were numbered 51-2: these were similar to Grendon products supplied to other Irish railways. (Lowe).

Sharp Stewart 2-2-2: 1846-8: 20 constructed (Rowledge)
WN 330-3/339/340/357-8/361-2/393/395/459/460/465/466/490-3

No. 19 illustrated (from Engineer) Bulleid: Aspinall era Fig. 7 p. 27:5ft 6in driving wheels; 15 x 20in cylinders and 80 psi boiler pressure.

McDonnell locomotives
McDonnell biography

Chacksfield, J.E. The Coey/Cowie brothers. all railwaymen. Usk (Mon.): Oakwood, 2003. 176pp.
Also includes some material on Alexander McDonnell and his locomotives built whilst he was in charge at Inchicore.

0-6-0: 1866: 101 class (Class 3)
The lucid Norman Johnston (Locomotives of the GNRI) makes it clear that the design originated at Beyer Peacock in 1867: two were built for the Dublin & Belfast Junction Railway and became part of GNRI stock. Bulleid: Aspinall era Text and Table p. 40 notes that design had 5ft 1¼in coupled wheels; 17 (later 18) x 24in cylinders, a grate area of 17½ft2 and a total heating surface of 957 ft2. Clements and McMahon  (page 76 et seq) succinctly state "Their robust simple construction made them great favourites with locomotive crews band shed staff, while their reliability and economy in operation pleased the financial managers." Notes that class had a superficial similarity to the LNWR DX Goods, but consider that the design was developed by Beyer Peacock at McDonnell's instigation. Some locomotives were in service for over ninety years. The average working life was 75 years. The 1948 assessment was generous and noted that they could work over most lines. An English postscript suggests that NER 59 class (LNER J22) was an enlarged version of the 101 class and included GSWR features including cab and sloping front smokebox with double doors. Clements and McMahon page. 83.

Clements, R.N. The "101" class, Great Southern and Western Railway. J. Stephenson Loco. Soc., 1949, 25, 120-2. 5 illus., (line drawings : s. el.)
Includes post 1923 modifications.
Flanagan, PJ., editor. The 101 class locomotives of the G.S. & W.R., 1866-1966. [Dublin], Irish Railway Record Society, 1966. 44 p. + folding plate. 13 illus., (incl.. 3 line drawings s. els.), diagr. (s. & f. els.), table, plan.
Contributions from the Editor, K.A. Murray, R.N. Clements, J. O'Neill and J.J. Johnston survey all aspects of its long history; appropriately 101 out of the 119 locomotives are illustrated and several photographs are Victorian marvels. The text of the book is effectively a number of essays, some from the original 1966 publication, the remainder written to add to and bring the story up to date. The 'historical' essays, outlining the development of the type are by R.N.. Clements, there is a driver's appreciation by the gentlemanly Jack O'Neill from Waterford and, presumably from the original edition, an essay entitled 'A Valuable Asset' gives an appreciation of the merits of the class from the point of view of the CIE's mechanical engineering department. The story is brought up to date through the travels and exploits - mainly cinematographic - of the preserved locomotives, Nos.184 and 186, and appropriately the final essay, by one of the named authors, details the recent restoration ofNo.186 to full working order in the RPS) workshops at Whitehead
Price, Irwin and Leslie McAllister. Steaming in three centuries - the story of the 101 Class locomotives of the Great Southern and Western Railway. . Irish Railway Record Society (London Area).
Based on above and reviewed in Backtrack, 2007, 21, 384
McMahon, Michael. Ballyvoile additions & corrections. Rly Arch, 2013 (40) 38.
Letter putting an Englishman to right! No. 189 destroyed by IRA activity was not built at the GS& WR 's works at Inchicore, but was one of a pair built by Beyer, Peacock, Manchester, Works No. 2029, and delivered to Inchicore on 18th April 1881. It was withdrawn in 1923 but it is not strictly true that it was the first of the 10I Class 0-6-0s to be scrapped There were eight of the class scrapped between 1885 and 1890, No's 103/105/110/111/114/118/147/149 and all were replaced with new locomotives of the same type carrying the same number. No. 189. was the first to be an unplanned scrapping.

Experimental modification by Ivatt as Worsdell Von Borries two cylinder compound

Ivatt, H.A. discussion on Sauvage, Edouard. Recent locomotive practice in France. Proc. Instn Mech. Engrs, 1900, 59, 412-13.
Described experimental fitting of GS&WR Class 101 0-6-0 with Worsdell Von Borries compounding system.

4-4-0
Kerry bogies: Class 2; Class D19: 1877-80
Clements pp. 59-60. only covers what was still extant at formation of GSR (not withstanding that some locomotives still retained raised firebox, but some had been rebuilt with flush type and others with Belpaire fireboxes), No. 2 in original state illustrated (from Engineer) in Bulleid: Aspinall era Fig. 15 p.39: notes swing link bogie. Table p. 40 notes that design had 5ft 8in coupled wheels; 16 x 20in cylinders, a grate area of 16ft2 and a total heating surface of 862 ft2.

Rutherford, Michael. A Brief Survey of the Irish 4-4-0. Part 1: Genesis — or how the Irish designed a "Crewe" 4-4-0 and exported it back to England. Two (Railway Reflections No.121). Backtrack, 2006, 20, 360-9.
Centres on Alexander McDonnell and how a series of standard locomotives were evolved for the major Irish railway (the Great Southern & Western Railway at its Inchicore Works, including the dominant 101 class of 0-6-0 (designed at Beyer Peacock), and eventually the Kerry bogies (4-4-0) which evolved from McDonnell's light 2-4-0 design. An 0-4-4BT (a sort of Fairlie) and an 0-6-4T are also considered. McDonnell was an inspired head hunter: the brilliant engineer John Aspinall was recruited from Webb to be Works Manager at Inchicore and later Ivatt was attracted across the water in the same manner. Thus it is shown how the Kerry bogie concept was to re-emerge on the LYR and GNR.

2-4-0
Class 1: 1869
No. 64 is illustrated (from Engineer) in Bulleid: Aspinall era Fig. 8 p. 29: notes similarity to Ramsbottom's Newton class. Table p. 40 notes that design had 6ft 6in coupled wheels; 17 x 22in cylinders, a grate area of 17½ft2 and a total heating surface of 931 ft2.

Class 2/Class 21: Class G4: 1869-76
Clements and McMahon pp. 59-60. only covers what was still extant at formation of GSR when survivors were stil at work between Portarlington and Athlone and on Ballybrophy to Nenagh and Limerick lines. but all withdrawn in 1928. Bulleid: Aspinall era Light passenger locomotive Table p. 40 notes that design had 5ft 8in coupled wheels; 16 x 20in cylinders, a grate area of 16ft2 and a total heating surface of 862 ft2.

0-6-4T
Class 203 H1:
1879-80
No. 202 illustrated (from Engineer) Bulleid: Aspinall era Fig. 13 p. 35. Table p. 40 notes that design had 4ft 6½in coupled wheels; 18 x 24in cylinders, a grate area of 17½ft2 and a total heating surface of 957 ft2.: No. 205 was rebuilt with a Class 60 boiler in 1914. Clements and McMahon page 86. Rowledge notes that both were armoured for military use during 1922-3. See also Class 204.

Six-coupled bogie tank locomotive, Great Southern and Western Ry. Locomotive Mag., 1907, 13, 204. illus.
No. 206 illustrated: McDonnell design for North Wall line in Dublin introduced in 1879. 4ft 6½in. coupled wheels; 18in x 24in cylinders, 1003.5ft2 total heating surface and 18.8ft2 grate area.

Class 92 (originally Class 90) H2: 1881
Combined engine (0-6-0T) and carriage known as The Cab for ferrying officials from Kingsbridge station to Inchicore.Clements and McMahon page 75..

0-6-0ST
Class 91 J29:
McDonnell design originally built as combined engine (0-6-0T) and carriage and rebuilt in 1924 or 1925 Grate area 10 ft2 Coupled wheels 3ft 8½. Clements and McMahon page 74.

0-6-0T
Class 90 J30: 1875
Originally built as a combined locomotive & carriage for Gortatleea & Castleisland Light Railway in 1875, but rebuilt as 0-6-0T in 1915. Following the amalgamation used on Timoleague & Courtmacsherry section. Very small: 3ft 8½in coupled wheels; 10 x 18in cylinders and 10ft2 grate area. Preserved. Clements and McMahon page 73. Diagram: Bulleid: Aspinall era Fig. 14 p. 36 and illus. p. 46: usual difficulty of classification: 0-6-0T or 0-6-4T:

0-4-4T

Class 33: 1869; Single Fairlie
Nos. 33-4. (Rowledge) constructed at Inchicore. Withdrawn in 1889.

Class 27: 1870-1
Nos. 31-2; 27 and 30: all withdrawn by 1899. (Rowledge)

Class 35: 1875
Nos. 35-8 (Rowledge): No. 35 illustrated (from Engineer) Bulleid: Aspinall era Fig. 11 p. 31: swing link bogie. Table p. 40 notes that design had 5ft 8in coupled wheels; 15 x 20in cylinders, a grate area of 16ft2 and a total heating surface of 862 ft2..

Class 28 : 1879-87
Clements and McMahon (pp. 65-6) call them back tanks (0-4-4BT): Nos. 28-9 and 39-40. First three withdrawn by 1916: survivor reclassified as Class 47. No. 40 was the 100th locomotive to be built at Inchicore and there is a photograph in Clements and McMahon (page 65) of it with Number 100.

Class 47: E3: 1883-7
Clements and McMahon (pp. 65-6) call them back tanks (0-4-4BT). Shorter wheelbase than Class 28. Total originally 20 locomotives. 5ft 8½'in coupled wheels; 16 x 20in cylinders; 15.25ft2 grate area. Last withdrawn in 1945..

0-4-2T
Sprite combined locomotive and carriage Class L4
Separated in 1889, after which locomotive ran close-coupled to a four-wheel coach. Fairy built in this latter form in 1894. Both used as paymaster's train. 5ft 0in coupled wheels, 8 x 15in cylinders, 10.5ft2 grate area and 273.5ft2 total heating surface. Clements and McMahon page.128.

Locomotive with pay carriage Great Southern Railways of Ireland. Loco. Rly. Carr. Wagon Rev, 1926, 32, 121-2. illus., diagr. (s. el.)
0-4-2T: originated as 0-4-4T with combined pay carriage in 1873, but separate vehicles from 1889. Sprite had run 1,221,257 miles. Also gives dimensions of Fairy.

Aspinall locomotives

4-4-0

52 Class D17: 1883-90
Clements and McMahon pp. 66-8. 6ft 7in coupled wheels; 17 x 22in cylinders, grate area 17.5ft2. Most were rebuilt with Belpaire Type X boilers from the 1930s onwards, but two were withdrawn earlier (No. 53 in 1925 and No. 97 in 1930). No. 11 remained in its original state until withdrawn in 1949. Ahrons (Locomotive & train working) stated that design based on McDonnell's larger 2-4-0 but with his swing link bogie. They were intended for the Dublin to Cork mail trains.

60 Class: 1885-95
Clements and McMahon pp. 69-70. Enlargement of Class 52  sharing 6ft 7in coupled wheels, but with larger cylinders (18 x 24in) and larger boiler (grate area 18.8ft2). Nos. 62 and 88 were rebuilt with raised running plates and canopy cabs in 1925. With exception of Nos. 63 and 65 (latter fitted with 700 type saturated boiler and canopy cab in 1930) all were reboilered with Belpaire boilers and lasted into the 1950s: two were not withdrawn until 1960. No. 61 was painted in lined green in 1949, but later reverted to black. No. 93 illustrated (from Engineer) in Bulleid: Aspinall era Figs.26 and 27 (pp. 70/1) :second picture: cab view.Also Fig. 25 page 68 Inchicore standard diagram: grate area 18¾ft2; total heating surface 1051 ft2. The boiler pressure was increased to 150 psi with the ability to withstand 160 psi.

Ivatt designs (1882-95)
Ivatt biography

0-6-0T

Nos. 99-100: 1890-1
Originally built for Mitchelstown & Fermoy Railway where the axle load limit was 8 tons. Following the amalgamation they were employed on the Timoleague & Courtmacsherry section. Latterly worked on Cork Quays and at Albert Quay station. 3ft 8½in coupled wheels; 10 x 18in cylinders; grate area 10 ft2 Clements and McMahon page 73..

201 class J11: 1887-1901
Powerful shunting locomotives for Kingsbridge and Cork yards. No. 202 was modified as an 0-4-2T for shunting at Incicore in 1938-9. The earlier locomotives (1887) had different boilers to the 1895 series: with a tube heating surface of 938 ft2 as against5 823 ft2 and a grate area of 18.8 ft2 increased to 19.3 ft2. The earlier series bhad 150 psi boilers, whereas the later ones had 160 psi, although this was subsequently reduced. Clements and McMahon pp. 84-5.

Six-coupled side tank engines, G.S. & W.R. Locomotive Mag., 1908, 14, 25. illus
0-6-0T for shunting at Cork and Dublin. Nearly identical to Nos. 207-210 of 1887.

4-4-2T
Class 37: C7: 1894-1901
5ft 8½in coupled wheels; 16 x 20in cylinders; tube area 757 ft2; grate area 16 ft2. Clements and McMahon (page 64) noted that in GSR pariod worked services from Grand Canal Street to Bray, and from Cork to Youghal and Queensborough.

2-4-2T
Class 33 F2: 1892-4
5ft 8½in coupled wheels; 16 x 20in cylinders; tube area 770 ft2; grate area 16 ft2. Built for Kerry branch lines. In 1930s Nos. 33 and 42 fitted with bells for working Cork City Railway. Clements and McMahon page 63.

Coey designs
Coey biography

4-6-0

362 Class B3: 1905-7
Freight locomotives: Nos. 362-7. First Irish 4-6-0 and one was exhibited at the Dublin Exhibition in 1907. Clements and McMahon pp.121-2 note that may have been known as Long Toms, but there is doubt about this nickname. They had 5ft 1¾in coupled wheels, 19¼ x 26in cylinders, a grate area of 24.8ft2 and a total heating surface of 1600ft2. They were unpopular due to their rough riding and proneness to derailment due to the lightness of the front end. Withdrawal started in 1928 and the last (No. 366) was withdrawn in 1931.

Locomotive Mag., 1906, 12, 2  in a paragraph called them express locomotives
Ernest E. Joynt. The modern locomotives of the Great Southern and Western Railway. Locomotive Mag., 1918, 24, 44-7. 5 diagrams (side elevations)
Both original type and with extended smokebox

2-6-0 (originally 0-6-0)

Class 355 K3:1903/1907
In 1903 Coey introduced the 355 0-6-0 class for freight working (supplied by NBL WN 15943-9), but the class was rebuilt as 2-6-0s to achieve a lower axle-loading between 1906 and 1908.

Contemporary
2-6-0 goods locomotive, GS&WRy. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1910, 16, 10.
Ernest E. Joynt. The modern locomotives of the Great Southern and Western Railway. Locomotive Mag., 1918, 24, 44-7. 5 diagrams (side elevations)
No. 356 as modified  with extended smokebox; also drawuing of No. 356 as an 0-6-0

Rebuildings
Contemporary reference
REBUILT goods engines, Great Southern and Western Ry. of Ireland. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1923, 29, 353. illus., diagr. (s. el.)

Retrospective
Clements and McMahon pp. 119-21. The basic dimensions were: 5ft 1¾in coupled wheels, 19 x 26in cylinders and 24.8ft2 grate area. All were originally fitted with round-top boilers with 1316ft2 tube and 132ft2 firebox heating surfaces. They were rebuilt with Belpaire boilers of three types: Class 368-type (1446ft2 tube and 138.5ft2 firebox heating surfaces); another saturated Belpaire type with 1498ft2 tube and 139ft2 firebox heating surfaces, and superheated Belpaire boilers: 1i80.5ft2 tube and 139ft2 firebox heating surfaces and 290ft2 superheater. Nos. 355 and 360 received the 368t type in 1914 and 1921 respectively: No. 355 was withdrawn in 1928. All were fitted with radial pony trucks, but No. 356 received a superheated boiler and was fitted with a Bissel truck in 1925. Nos. 357 to 361 were fitted with saturated Belpaire boilers which were later replaced by the superheated type which operated at 180psi. No. 357 was withdrawn in 1931 and reinstated in 1935. With the exception of No. 355 (as noted withdrawn in 1928) all were withdrawn between 1955 and 1960. The Bissel truck fitted locomotive was used on Dublin to Cork Night Mails. Nos. 356 and 357 weere fitted with automatic ash ejector systems in 1949. No. 356 was converted to turf (peat) burning in 1952. The 1948 assessment was that it was a very useful heavy goods engine, powerful and with a low axle load....

368 Class K4: 1909
Nos. 368-71 Similar to 355 Class, but with a greater gap between truck and leading coupled wheels. The basic dimensions were: 5ft 1¾in coupled wheels, 19 x 26in cylinders and 24.8ft2 grate area. All were originally fitted with round-top boilers with 1316ft2 tube and 132ft2 firebox heating surfaces. No. 371 was fitted with a saturated Belpaire boiler in 1923: this operated at 180 psi and had heating surfaces of 1416.5ft2 tubes and 138.5 firebox. Nos. 368 and 371 withdrawn in 1928; other two remained in service until 1957. They were fitted with superheaters and piston valves in 1934 and 1935: the dimensions of the Q-type boilers were: 1068ft2 tubes, 136.7ft2 firebox and 250ft2 superheater.. Clements and McMahon pp. 123.. .

0-6-0

351 Class J9
Nos. 351-4 1903
Nos. 249-52 1912 (originally Class 249)
18 x 26in cylinders 5ft 1¾in coupled wheels The orriginal tube heating surface was 1129ft2, later reduced to 1040ft2. The firebox and grate dimensions remained unchanged. 118ft2firebox 20.4ft2 grate area
Maunsell improvements included raised running plates, larger cabs and extended smokeboxes
No. 353 was withdrawn in 1930 following the Monasterevan collision. In November 1942 No. 354 was fitted with McAllister experimental firebars, but they were not a success. The 1948 assessment was that the valve gear was badly designed and the locomotives were sluggish. All rebuilt with superheated Belpaire boilers from 1930. 708ft2 tubes 120ft2 firebox 168ft2 superheater 19.5ft2 grate area
Nos. 250, 252 and 352 fitted with round-top superheated boilers ex-257 Class: No. 250 in 1949 No. 252 in 1954 No. 352 in 1938, but reboilered with Belpaire superheated boiler in 1951. The dimensions of the round-top boilers were: 884ft2 tubes 118ft2 firebox 224 ft2superheater 20.4ft2 grate area Withdrawn between 1955 and 1964, Clements and McMahon pp 117-18..

Ernest E. Joynt. The modern locomotives of the Great Southern and Western Railway. Locomotive Mag., 1918, 24, 44-7. 5 diagrams (side elevations)

4-4-0
Class 301 D11: 1900
Originally 301 Victoria, 302 Lord Roberts, 303 Saint Patrick, 304 Princess Ena. 6ft 7in coupled wheels; 18 x 26in cylinders; grate area 20.4ft2. Heating surfaces as built: 1100ft2 tubes and 120ft2 firebox. Prior to 1925 changed to 1011.75ft2 tubes 116ft2 firebox. Rebuilt with N-type Belpaire boilers between 1931 and 1933: 708ft2 tubes, 120ft2 firebox, 168ft2 superheater 19.5ft2 grate area. No. 301 pre-1925 may have been fittted with a boiler with the following dimensions: 175 psi 1278 ft2tubes 131ft2 firebox Piston valves had been fitted earlier. Withdrawn 1957-1960. No. 301, the last survivor, actually worked in the Ennis area in early 1961 following major flooding. Clements and McMahon pp. 102-3.

Class 305 D12: 1902
6ft 7in coupled wheels; 18 x 26in cylinders; grate area 21ft2. Similar to Class 301, but with a slightly larger boiler. .Initially used for express work, but  relegated to secondary work from about 1910. No. 308 was fitted with a tapered boiler in 1904, but this was over-weight and led to the  lightening of frames, running plates and dragboxes. The remaining locomotives were rebuilt in 1906. Boiler dimensions: 1283.9ft2 tubes 128.1ft2 firebox 21ft2 grate area . No. 308 was withdrawn in 1933, but the remainder were rebuilt with Belpaire boilers of the O type (1084ft2 tubes, 136.7ft2 firebox, 224ft2, superheater, 21ft2 grate area ), although No. 306 was rebuilt with a large diameter N-type Belpaire boiler between 1931 and 1935 (Dimensions: 708ft2 tubes,120ft2  firebox, 168ft2 superheater, 19.5ft2 grate area ). Clements and McMahon pp. 104-5.
See also E.E. Joynt. The modern locomotives of the Great Southern & Western Ry. Locomotive Mag., 1917, 23, 205.

Class 309 D10: 1903
Neilson Reid WN 6313-18/1903: RN 309-14. 6ft 7in coupled wheels; 18½in x 26in cylinders; grate area 23 ft2, and total heating surface of 1245.25ft2. Nos. 309 and 312 were rebuilt with saturated tapered boilers (total heating surface of 1428.9ft2) in 1913 and 1920 respectively and became Class 321: the remainder were redesignated as Class 310 (D10). All were rebuilt with N-type Belpaire superheated boilers from 1930 (grate area 19.5ft2, 828ft2 total heating surface plus 168ft2 of superheater and Nos. 309 and 312 were redesignated  yet again. Clements and McMahon pp.106-7.

Class 321 D2: 1904-6
Running numbers: 321-32. Clements and McMahon pp. 108-12 admit that this class, originally of twelve locomotives, had a complex career. As built they had saturated tapered boilers (total heating surface of 1428.9ft2), 6ft 7in coupled wheels; 18½in x 26in cylinders; grate area 23 ft2. Between 1919 and 1922 Nos. 327-32 were rebuilt with thicker, deeper frames and extended smokeboxes and the boiler pressure was increased to 170 psi from 160 psi. Nos. 321-3 received similarly modified frames between 1924 and 1930. All these modified locomotives (except No. 332) received saturated Belpaire W-type Belpaire boilers with 1355ft2 tubes 148ft2 firebox 22.5ft2 grate area operating at 180 psi from 1924.and most were superheated from 1930. Canopy cabs were fitted to most locomotives. Nos. 324 to 326 were withdrawn in 1927-8 (Clements and McMahon speculate this may have been shortage of frames). No. 332 was fitted with 8 inch piston valves and superheated Belpair boiler (W-type boiler with superheater 1060ft2 tubes 148ft2 firebox 250ft2 superheater 22.5ft2 grate area ) in 1927 and reclassified as Class 332. The modifed locomotives lasted until 1955 or later (two lasted until 1960). The class had a reputation for fast running: in September 1917 No. 328 hauling four bogies and two six-wheelers weighing 137 tons on a Cork to Dublin train ran from passing Limerick Junction to Thurles at an average speed of 74 mile/h from whence the 85.25 miles to passing Islandbridge were run in 79 minutes. In 1928 No. 329 hauling a special ran the 107 miles from Limerick Junction to Kingsbridge in 104 minutes.
In 1928-9 Nos. 328-31 rebuilt with heavier frames and parallel Belpaire boiler
From 1932 Nos. 321-3 and 328-33 fitted with superheaters
Did well on express work and continued into late period. Banned from DSER section beyond Dun Laoghaire as Sandycove curve was too tight for the long coupled wheelbase
See also E.E. Joynt. The modern locomotives of the Great Southern & Western Ry. Locomotive Mag., 1917, 23, 205.

Locomotive exchange
Johnston, Norman. Locomotives of the GNR(I).
Newtownards: Colourpoint, pp. 93-5 cites R.N. Clements Irish Rly Rec. Soc. J., 1976 (71) for details of an exchange of GNR(I) No. 113 with GS&WR No. 322 in 1911

Class 333 D2: 1907-8
Running numbers: 333-40. Clements and McMahon pp. 113-15 do not use the term "intermediate" to describe this class with its 5ft 8½in coupled wheels and 18 x 26in cylinders. They had saturated tapered boilers :total heating surface of 1412ft2 and a grate area of 21.ft2 pressed to 160 psi. They were intended for the Cork to Rosslare service. Nos. 333-6 had conventional bogies, but Nos. 337-40 were fitted with bogies with outside frames and outside bearings to reduce the problem of overheating. but a change of lubricant in 1909 obviated this overheating. All were rebuilt with Belpaire parallel boilers from 1927. The first No. 338 was rebuilt with piston valves and a superheated boiler and redesignated Class 338 1927, and in 1945 was fitted with 17in diameter cylinders. Most received superheaters. Withdrawn between 1955 and 1959..

Coupled bogie express locomotive, Great Southern & Western Ry. Loco. Mag., 1909, 15, 43. illus.
Coey design which differed from 333-337 series in having outside bearings to the bogie wheels. No. 340 illustrated.

D2:1924: Bazin
Bazin rebuild of Coey's 1904 design.

NEW and rebuilt locomotives, Great Southern & Western Railway. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1924, 30, 232-4. 3 illus., 2 diagrs. (s. els.)

0-6-0T
Jumbo No. 841 (not carried) Class J13: assembled from 0-6-4Ts Nos. 201 and 202 constructed in 1876.
Jumbo 4ft 6½in coupled wheels, 18 x 24in cylinders, 18.8ft2 grate area and 984.5ft2 total heating surface. Worked as pilot at Waterford goods yard. Withdrawn in 1957. CM suggest that Jumbo may have received a slightly larger boiler. Clements and McMahon page 126
The other 0-6-4BT (i.e. No. 202) also lost its number in 1897 and reeceived the name Negro. It was withdrawn in 1910.

4-4-2T
Class 27: C4: 1900-1
5ft 8½in coupled wheels; 17 x 22in cylinders; tube area 753.9 ft2; grate area 17.5 ft2. Clements and McMahon (page 62) noted that from mid-1930s worked Cork to Bandon and Cork to Cobh lines.


Waterford & Limerick Railway

Absorbed by the Great Southern in 1901. Prior to that had strong ties with GWR. Had a long cross country railway which extended from Waterford to Limerick and then headed north enabling its trains to reach Sligo. Its mainline was long (over 200 miles), but trains were very few in number. Its best known locomotive engineer was Robinson, who later acquired fame on the Great Central, but he had been invited to Ireland by Henry Appleby. Hamilton Ellis Midland Railway p. 79 noted: There was once an Irish railway, the Waterford and Limerick, which was noteworthy for its numerous succession of locomotive engineers, and for the infallible frequency with which they were dismissed, asked to resign, or induced to tender resignation. The last Locomotive Superintendent was J.G. Robinson.. Subsequent modifications made by GSWR/GSR are included here.

Ahrons, E.L. Locomotive and train working. Vol. 6. p. 28-37
Fryer, Charles. Waterford and Limerick Railway.

Henry Appleby locomotives

Ahrons mentions two 4-4-0s (each different) and an 0-6-0

wheel No. Name Builder Coupled wheel diam Cylinder dim
4-4-0 12 Earl of Bessborough Vulcan 5ft 6in 17½ x 26
4-4-0 9 Garryowen Dübs 5ft 3in 16½ x 24
0-6-0 24 Sarsfield Dübs 4ft 6in 16½ x 24

2-2-2
The only "single" engine on the Waterford, Limerick and Western Railway. Rly Mag., 1900, 7, 547.
Kitson 2-2-2 which had been exhibited at the Dublin International Exhibition in 1865. It had 6ft driving wheels and 15 x 22in cylinders.

0-4-0ST
Class 228.
Sharp Stewart WN 1653/1865. No. 228 (formerly 29).
Withdrawn in 1925, but still working at Limerick in early 1930s. Clements and McMahon page 91. Inside cylinders (12 x 17in). Grate area only 8.7ft2.

Robinson locomotives
Six locomotives built at Limerick (Lowe): 0-6-0; 0-4-2T and 0-4-4T. J.G. Robinson, locomotive engineer. Lowe Fig. 569: 0-4-4T No. 15 Roxborough (1894)

0-6-0
Class 235 J22
Dubs: WN 3222-3/1895
Rebuilt 1924-5. Slightly larger cylinders than 222 Class (17½ by 24). Rebuilds increased the grate area to 19.8ft2. Clements and McMahon page 92

Class 211 J3: rebuilt from 0-6-2T
NBL (WN 16021-2/1903) rebuilt in 1907 as 0-6-0. Known as Scotch engines. 4ft 6½in coupled wheels, 18 x 26in cylinders, grate area 20.4ft2, tube area 1129ft2. 160 psi. boiler pressure. Clements and McMahon page 88.

Class 222 J25
Robinson orders from Kitson for WLWR, WN 3691-3/1897 and 3908/1900.
They received: RN 56 Thunderer; 57 Cyclops and 58 Goliath; and 2 Shannon. The last was the first Irish locomotive to nreceive a Belpaire firebox. Following the amalgamation they received Nos. 237-9 and 222. They were all rebuiltt in 1924-6. All had 5ft 2in coupled wheels, 17 x 24in cylinders and 150 psi boiler pressure. But the earlier locomotives had 19.8 ft2 grate areas, and 991ft2 tube heating surfaces, but No. 2 (222) had a 17.8ft2 grate area and 873ft2 tube area. Worked between Limerick, Tuam and Waterford. Were considered about eight wagons weaker than 101 class. Clements and McMahon pp 90-1.

0-6-0 Nos. 50 & 51: Vulcan Foundry WN 1310-11
No. 50 Arklow, 0-6-0 goods engine, had been rebuilt at the Grand Canal Street Works with a large boiler having a Belpaire firebox. The engine has been altered in several minor details, and a new cab of the improved design supplied to No. 18 Enniscorthy had been fitted. No. 50 was one of two engines, Nos. 50 and 51, named respectively Arklow and New Ross, built in 1891 to the designs of John G. Robinson by the Vulcan Foundry (WN 1310-1311). They were constructed to the order of the Waterford, Limerick and Western Ry., but were purchased when built by the then Dublin, Wicklow and Wexford Ry.  Locomotive Mag., 1913, 19, 28'

4-4-0
GSR 296 Class D15
Robinson: Kitson 3618-19/94: RN 53-5: GSR 296-8.
Originally intended to be a class of ten for working expresses between Waterford and Limerick, especially boat trains connecting with GWR sailimgs to Waterford.. Main dimensions: 6ft coupled wheels, 17 x 24in cylinders, grate area 19.8ft2 and total heating surface of 994.4ft2 Survivors rebuilt in 1923 and 1927 with boilers with 1017ft2 total heating surface. Nos. 296 fritted with new 16½in diameter cylinders in 1939: No. 297 withdrawn in 1928. Other two survived until 1949. One had latterly worked from Limerick, the other on the Birr branch.Clements & McMahon page 100.

2-4-0
Class 276 G3: Robinson: Dubs: ?1892-4?
Originally eight locomotives, but only 4 absorbed by GSR.
23 276 2881 1892
43 290 3025 1893
44 291 3026 1893
48 293 3110 1894
Coupled wheels 6ft; 17 x 24in cylinders; grate varea 18ft2. First four (Nos. 263, 273, 275 and 292) withdrawn between 1906 and 1913. Remainder rebuilt in 1925 and 1926 with increased grate areas (19.8 as against 18 ft2). Worked Loughrea branch, but later found at Claremorris and Limerick. Last survivor not withdrawn until 1959. Clements and McMahon page 97.

0-6-2T
Class 213 I1
Originally NBL WN 16021-4/1903
Built for Drumcondra linl line, but too heavy and two rebuilt as 0-6-0 and the others modified with reduced water capacity. Same dimensions as 0-6-0 except tube area less: 1040ft2. Following withdrawal of 900 Class 4-8-0T used to bank freights to Clondalkin. Clements and McMahon page 89.

4-4-2T
Class 269 C5: Robinson: Kitson: 1896-7
WN 3616-17/1896: RN 16-17 (GSR 269-70); WN 3689-90/1897 RN 18 and 21 (GSR 271 and 274) Coupled wheels 5ft 6in; 16 x 24in cylinders and 15ft2 grate area and 868ft2 total heating surface. Built for Sligo extension. Later worked at Wexford, Rocksavage and on Dublin South Eastern suburban services. Rebuilt in 1925/6 with larger boilers: 15.8ft2 grate area and 894ft2 total heating surface. Withdrawn in 1949 (No. 270) and 1957 (No. 269). Clements and McMahon (page 96) see link with Robinson's later 4-4-2Ts for GCR.

Contemporary
Passenger tank engine for the Waterford, Limerick & Western Railway. Locomotive Mag., 1897, 2, 11. illustration.
No. 16 Rocklands illustrated: supplied by Kitson to J.G. Robinson design

2-4-2T
Class 267 F4: Robinson: Vulcan Foundry: 1891
WN 1361/1891. Built for passenger work between Limerick and TraleeLeading dimensions: 5ft 6in coupled wheels, 16 x 24in cylinders, 15ft2.grate area and a total heating surface of 862ft2. Withdrawn in 1935. No. 266 was sold to the Cork & Macroom Direct Railway and becasme its No. 6.  Clements and McMahon p. 95.

Class 491 F5: Robinson: Vulcan Foundry: 1891
WN 1315/1891V Identical to above, but sold to Cork & Macroom Direct Railway in 1914. 16 x 24in cylinders; 5ft 6in coupled wheels;; 15 ft2 grate are. Suggests that design related to Aspinall L&YR 2-4-2T, but dimensions not similar. Clements and McMahon p. 176.

0-4-4T
GSR 279 E1
Rebuilt from Avonside 0-4-2T: Robinson: 1899
WLWR No. 27 (originally Avonside 1127/1876)built as 0-4-2T and rebuilt as a 0-4-4T in 1899 and originally one of four locomotives. Coupled wheels 5ft 4in; cylinders 16 x 24in; grate area 15.8ft2 and a total heating surface of 896ft2  Further rebuilt in 1927 with 17 x 24in cylinders and boiler with a. total heating surface of 945ft2. Withdrawn 1953. Clements & McMahon page 98 question why rebuilt: KPJ to act as a reserve for WLWR No. 52??.

GSR 295 E2
WLWR No. 52: Kitson 3588/1895
Built for Athenry and Tuam Extension to Claremorris Light Railway (ATECLRC) which had sharp curves. Originally one of two. Coupled wheels 5ft 6in; cylinders 16 x 24in; grate area 15.8ft2 with a. total heating surface of 868ft2. rebuilt in 1926 with a. new boiler: total heating surface of 1018ft2.Withdrawn in 1954. Clements & McMahon page 99.

Other locomotives acquired with WLWR

0-6-0ST
GSR Class 299 J28
Hunslet 557/1892 Shamrock. 3ft 2in coupled wheels, 12 x 18in cylinders, 7.4ft2 grate area, 402 ft2 total heating surface, boiler operated at 120 psi. Supplied to T.H. Falkiner for construction of Kenmare line and sold to Tralee Pier & Harbour Company. acquired with WLWR stock. Continued to work at Fenit Pier until 1941. Latterly worked sugar beet trains on the Courtmacsherry branch. Withdrawn in 1957. Clements & McMahon page 101.

0-6-0ST
GSR Class 300 J27
Hunslet 610/1894 Erin
3ft 6in coupled wheels, 14 x 18in cylinders, 8.25ft2 grate area, 574ft2 total heating surface, boiler operated at 130 psi. Supplied to Rowland & Cartland for use in construction of Wexford & Rosslare Railway and acquired by GSWR in 1898 with Waterford & Wexford Railway. Clements & McMahon page 101.


Maunsell designs
Maunsell was responsible for only two designs whilst in charge at Inchicore: the sole member of the 341 classs of 4-4-0 and the 257 class of 0-6-0. See letter from Jeremy Clements and Michael McMahon in Steam Wld, 2008 (248), 19 which corrects information provided in article by Clarke in Issue 246 page 30. Both classes are covered in J.E. Chacksfield's Richard Maunsell: an engineering biography. It should be noted that the 4-4-0 incorporated a Belpaire firebox (this was a marked change from Coey's designs) and 9 inch piston valves from which it is not difficult to see how "Inchicore features" were translated to Ashford. Chacksfield notes that the 341 design was fully covered in Rly Engr, 1913, October.There were also plans for a three-cylinder 0-8-2T and a 4-4-2T. Maunsell was also responsible indirectly for the "Woolwich" (i.e. Woolwich Arsenal partially constructed) 2-6-0s acquired by the Midland Great Western and Great Southern Railways. As none of Maunsell's successors were responsible for this design it is considered below...

4-4-0
341 Class D1: 1913
Large express 4-4-0 locomotive design for which originated with Coey, but usually credited to Maunsell. It had 6ft 7in coupled wheels; 20 x 26in cylinders; a grate area of 24.8 ft2 and a total heating surface of 1520.8ft2 plus 335.1 ft2 of superheat. It was fitted with Walschaerts valve gear and named Sir William Goulding. It was restricted to the Dublin to Cork route by the Civil Engineer who was concerned about the high axle load of 19 tons 2 cwt. Although there were press reports which credited as being the first of a class it remained a single locomotive and was withdrawn in 1928. At some time the clinders were reduced in diameter to 19in. Clements and McMahon page 116..

K1: 1925
These 2-6-0s were very similar to the N class of the Southern Railway, as they were built from N-type parts supplied by Woolwich Arsenal. They were originally intended for the Midland Great Western Railway. Clements and McMahon arre highly enthussiastic about the Class and consider the purchase to have been excellent value. Nock Irish steam page 146 observes that when new the locomotives were "the most powerful in Ireland surpassing Mr Bazin's 500 class mixed-traffic 4-6-0s.".
To accommodate the 5' 3" gauge, it was necessary to provide new frame stays, smokebox saddles, axles and exhaust pipe distance pieces. The footplate was widened by 6½in to 8ft 10½in and the distance between the cylinder centres was increased by a similar amount to 7ft 2½in. The cab dimensions remained unchanged, a feature that was to lead to criticism from footplate crews who found the interior cramped by Irish standards, and who also disliked the unfamiliar right-hand drive (except for those used to ex-MGWR locomotives).
Another shortcoming was rough riding as mileages built up after repairs, a characteristic that was not unusual with outside-cylindered moguls. However, this trait seems to have been more extreme with the Irish version than with the Southern Railway version and is attributed to the greater distance between the cylinders which exacerbated lateral movement, and whereas the mainland British locomotives had a very stiff frame construction resulting from stays consisting of horizontal flanged plates fitted top and bottom, a short-sighted economy was introduced into the Irish version through reliance on a single new horizontal flanged plate (obviously longer to accommodate the wider gauge) fitted approximately midway between top and bottom of the frames. Locomotives introduced to service as Classes N & U with the Southern Railway, at the same time as their Irish counterparts, increasingly suffered from fractured frames. Because they were expected to continue at work into the 1960s, a number were reframed and extensively rebuilt in the period 1955 to 1961 by British Railways..
The amount of power that these modestly-sized locomotives could generate was a pleasant surprise to footplatemen.
There was contention among locomotive crews about the competence of the type. They do not seem to have been overly popular on the ex-GSWR section, in the early years at least, but ex-MGWR crews were fulsome in their praise, stating that services over their section could not be maintained without them. These varying views might be attributed to pre-amalgamation rivalry as the Woolwich was considered an MGWR inspired type, and because of its 'foreign' origins. Other sources disputed that there had been any significant criticism, alleging that they were vital in helping meet the GSR's motive power demands.
The brake system followed the Ashford layout with a steam brake on the locomotive powered by two 7½in diameter steam cylinders below the footplate. The tender was equipped with vacuum brake, powered by a single cylinder mounted below the running plate at the front end. Concern was expressed about deficiency in brake power when working non-fitted goods trains and several runaways occurred including that of No 390 at Cork in 1939 and of No 394 (Class KIa) near Inchicore on an up goods in 1954. The worst runaway involved No 375 working a Bridgetown-Thurles beet train at Cahir in December 1955 which ended up on the bank of the River Suir, killing the driver and fireman. Braking problems were identified early on with the British locomotives leading to the fitting of an additional brake cylinder on the tender; similar modifications were never instituted in Ireland.
One definite operating disadvantage stemmed from the chimney top being lower than the cab, so that exhaust often obscured forward visibility. As a result, smoke could swirl around the footplate making them dirty engines to work and leaving footplate crews looking like chimney sweeps. On the Southern Railway, this was overcome by fitting smoke deflectors; despite several recommendations, this useful modification was never applied in Ireland. A further cause of discomfort was that while the original design had included lagging and clothing of the firebox backplate, this feature was not fitted (in common with Inchicore's standard practice) leading to very hot footplate conditions.
It should be remembered that the type was originally intended for freight work in the southeast of England so their continued employment on express passenger services was stretching their riding and steaming capacities. There are reports that they had to be thrashed to keep time with heavier express passenger trains. Apart from the problems with riding discussed above, steaming suffered as fuel quality deteriorated. The Swindon-inspired firebox did not take kindly to ovoids, slack and duff. in the CLE oilburning programme, all but four (and all the 6' 0" version described below) were converted, although not all actually worked in this condition.
The potential offered by fitting larger boilers (parallel in this case) was recognised by inclusion of several in the new boiler order that was cancelled as a result of the Milne Report (see Chapter 14). A substantial increase would have been achieved:

Existing Proposed
Boiler pressure 180 psi 200 psi
Heating surfaces:
tubes 1390.5ft2 1255 ft2
firebox 135ft2 144ft2
superheater 285 ft2 340 ft2
grate 25 ft2 27.5 ft2

In view of the stresses imparted to the existing structure, frame renewal or strengthening would have seemed inevitable with a significant weight increase and concomitant reduction in route availability.
A further option allegedly proposed around this time was that the moguls should be rebuilt as 3-cylinder 4-6-0s with larger boilers, or with a smaller version to keep down overall weight. It is unclear whether this was a serious exercise or merely a flight of fancy but the idea seems to have had little merit. Rebuilding as a 4-6-0 would have involved creation of a virtually new locomotive with perhaps limited route availability,

MOGUL locomotives, Great Southern Rys., Ireland (Midland, Great Western Section). Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1925, 31. 167. illus.
RECONSTRUCTED 2-6-0 locomotive, Great Southern Railways, Ireland. Rly Mag., 1925, 56, 495 + plate f.p. 423. illus.

1929: Experimental installation of Wood's device aimed at improving cylinder lubrication whilst coasting.
Wood's patent vacuum braking device for locomotives. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1929, 35, 119-20. 2 diagrs. (incl. s. el.)

1930: Dabeg pump fitted to No. 389 and No. 359 fitted with 6ft coupled wheels
Great Southern Rys of Ireland.   Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1930, 36, 323.
Paragraph: No. 389 (Woolwich 2-6-0) fitted with Dabeg pump. No. 359 (Woolwich 2-6-0) fitted with 6ft coupled wheels.

K1a :1930 The last six Maunsell 2-6-0s were built with 6 ft diameter driving wheels. Un-titled reference: Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1933, 39, 54.

Retrospective and critical
Kirkland, R.K. The Woolwich moguls a locomotive family. Trains ill., 1951, 4, 134-7. 2 illus.
Maunsell moguls in Ireland. Rly Mag., 1944, 90, 186-7. Corrections to W.J. Reynold's article (below).
Reynolds, W.J. The Maunsell moguls, S.R.. Rly Mag., 1943, 89, 155-8; 199-202; 279-82. 17 illus., 3 tables.
Rowledge, J.W.P.  The Maunsell Moguls. Oakwood, 1976. (Locomotion Papers No. 99). 64pp.
This is now the key source.

0-6-0
Class 257 J4: 1913-14
Nos. 257-64 (Total 8)
First locomotives on GSWR with superheaters and piston valves. Development of Class 351 (J9). Nos. 257-61 were fitted with Schmidt superheaters whilst remainder fitted with Inchicore modified superheaters. They had 19 x 26in cylinders; 5ft 1¾in coupled wheels, and 20.4ft2 grate areas. Those constructed in 1914 (under Watson) were fitted with snifting valves. The class was highly regarded being effective on freight and secondary passenger services. Locomotives had a staccato exhaust and were in demand for seasonal beet trains overr the difficult Rosslare route. Most rebuilt with Belpaire boilers with a slightly reduced grate area (19.5 ft2). Clements and McMahon pp. 93-4.

Superheater goods engine, Great Southern & Western Ry. of Ireland. Locomotive Mag., 1914, 20, 95-6. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
0-6-0 designed by R.E.L. Maunsell: Nos. 257-260

0-6-0T
Class 204 J12
Rebuilt from Class 203 by Maunsell and fitted with a Class 60 boiler in 1914. Leading dimensions: 4ft 6½in coupled wheels, 18 x 24in cylinders, 18.8ft2 grate area and a totalheating surface of 935.5ft2. Clements and McMahon page 87. 1948 assessment was that it was a poweful shunting locomotive. Not withdrawn until 1952.

Watson designs
Watson biography

4-6-0

B2 (400):
E.A. Watson introduced this class of ten locomotives soon after his arrival from Swindon in 1913. They were constructed as four-cylinder engines and, therefore, reflected Churchward practice to some extent. Four were built at Inchicore: No. 400 in 1916; Nos 402, 403 and 406 in 1921; and the remainder at Armstrong Whitworth in 1923: WN 185-190, but the running numbers did not mirror the works numbers. They were not successful, however, and Watson's successors inherited the task of improving them. Shortage of capital did not permit the locomotives to be rebuilt as a unit and modifications, of several kinds, took place over many years. Clements and McMahon pp. 233-44 cover this troubled design at length, including the many modifications made by Watson's successors. The table is a modified version of that provided in Clements and McMahon and may assist in diambiguating some of the contemporary references listed.

built date WN superheated reb 2-cyl K boiler withdrawn
400 I 1916 as built 1929
401 I 1921 as built 1930 1939 1961 Caprotti valve gear (Walschaerts 1949)
402 I 1921 as built 1927 1946 1961 Maunsell/Holcroft influenced rebuild
403 AW 1923 188 as built 1934 1936 1957
404 AW 1923 189 as built 1930 exchanged identity with No. 409
405 AW 1923 190 as built 1933 1937 1955
406 I 1921 as built 1930 1957 Caprotti valve gear
407 AW 1923 185 1925 1938 1949 1955
408 AW 1923 186 1924 1930
409 AW 1923 187 1924 1935 1952 1958 ¶ exchanged identity with No. 404

All had 6ft 7in coupled wheels and (until rebuilt) four 14 x 26in cylinders with 8in diameter piston valves. All retained 28ft2 grates. The tube areas varied, mainly in association with superheating.
¶ ordered as saturated engines

Clements and McMahon make several statements about this controvertial class, notably that the frame thickness of No. 400 was 1/8in less than that used at Swindon for the Star class, but suggest that later Inchicore built locomotives had stronger frames. The Watson design suffered from short travel valves and Schmidt wide-type single piston rings (the cause of trouible on the LMS Royal Scot class). The steam pipes were badly designed, and an attempt to improve the layout with external pipes on No. 407 must have led to considerable heat loss (page 238: illustrated page 237). There is a suggestion that the Armstrong Whitworth locomotives may have been badly built: "on 3 June 1927, the Board had authorised investigation of legal action in respect of the failure of driving wheel tyres on all the Armstrong Whitworth built engines.". They also include at least one modification which did not appear to be reported at the time.

Original

New locomotives, Great Southern & Western Ry. of Ireland. Locomotive Mag., 1914, 20, 258-9. 2 diagrams (side elevations)
Also mentions Sambo and 4-8-0T

1922: Watson: Original design constructed with slight modifications.
Not clear whether thie following inspired by later Inchicore locomotives, or those supplied by Armstrong Whitworth, but see note which ascribes them to Bazin!...

Four-cylinder express locomotives, Great Southern & Western Ry.. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1923, 29, 286. illus.
Actually relates to Armstrong, Whitworth series: three of which were superheated and three saturated (No. 404 illustrated)
Four-cylinder 4-6-0 locomotives, Great Southern and Western Railway of Ireland. Rly Mag., 1923, 53, 428-31 + plate f.p. 421. 4 illus.

1924: Bazin modifications:
Nos. 408 and 409 were equipped with superheaters. Un-titled reference: Loco. Rly Carr Wagon Rev., 1924, 30, 231.

1928: Bazin: (Class B2a)
No. 402 was rebuilt as a 2-cylinder engine with Walschaerts valve gear. Clements and McMahon (page 238 et seq) state that a full set of drawings was passed to Maunsell with a plea for advice who requested Holcroft to investigate. He advocated rebuilding with two cylinders (19½ x 28in) with 10in long lap piston valves. This led to a successful, faster and more economical locomotive...

REBUILT express locomotive, Great Southern Rys., Ireland. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1928, 34, 343-4. illus., 2 diagrs. (s. els.)
REBUILT 4-6-0 locomotive, Great Southern Railways, Ireland. Rly Mag., 1929, 64, 143. illus.

1930 Morton: Beardmore-Caprotti valve gear
Nos. 401 and 406 were rebuilt as 2-cylinder engines similar to No. 402, but with Caprotti valve gear. Clements and McMahon pp. 241-2 observe that the rebuilt locomotives were competent and economical and that the valve gear proved remarkably durable, retaining most of its original parts. Note the performance of No. 401 when it hauled a load of 375 tons from Portlaoise to Dublin at an average speed of 58.7 mile/h. They do, however, question the capital economics: £14,000 (or the equivalent of seven Mogul kits), but suggest that Beardmore may have offset some of the cost (and KPJ Woolwich sets may not have been available). ..

IRISH locomotive with Caprotti gear, Great Southern Raliways, Ireland. Rly Mag., 1930, 67, 384. illus.
LOCOMOTIVE with Beardmore-Caprotti valve gear, Great Southern Rys.. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1930, 36, 306-7. illus., diagr.

1935: Harty:
Nos. 403, 405 and 409 were rebuilt as 2-cylinder engines, but the changes did not involve the construction of new frames. The cylinders were shorter (26in stroke as against 28in).

GREAT Southern Railways. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1935, 41, 403.

1937: Bredin:
K-type boiler was first fitted to one locomotive.

NEW rolling stock, G.S.R. Rly Mag., 1937, 80, 335-7. 3 illus.
Reed, K.H. and Fayle, H. Recent developments of Irish locomotive practice, Great Southern Railways. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1937, 43, 309-11. Illus.
Nos. 403 and 405 as rebuilt with K type boiler, Latter illustrated.

1939: Bredin: Lemaitre blastpipe and smoke deflectors fitted to No. 409
Clements and McMahon pp. 242-3: stated that greatly enhanced performance. They also state that smoke deflectors were added in 1941, and yet elsewhere state that both the blast pipe and smoke deflectors were removed in 1941 The smoke deflectors were of the type fitted to the LMS unrebuilt Royal Scot and Patriot classes

1941: Bredin :
The two Caprotti locomotives (Nos. 401 and 406) received the K-type boiler and modified valve gears.

CAPROTTI valve gear on 4-6-0 locomotives, G.S.R.. Rly Gaz., 1941, 75, 415. 3 illus.

Retrospective and critical
Clements, Jeremy and McMahon, Michael. Locomotives of the GSR.
It is realised that this remarkable work is cited throughout this web page, but in the case of the 400 Class the section relating to this Class almost becomes a monograph, There are so many puzzles: why order saturated locomotives so late in the day. The Armstrong Whitworth lcomotives had laminated springs on all axles connected by compnsaating levers whereas the Inchicore-built locomotives had helical springs on the centre coupled axle. They were generally sluggish and had a fercious appetite for coal. The two-cylinder 500 Class completely outperformed them. Steam pipe fractures were a major problem. Bazin sent a set of drawings to Maunsell for his assistance and thse were passed to Holcroft who recommended the two-cylinder layout.
Cliffe, Joseph. Just add more cylinders. Backtrack, 2013, 27, 381.
R.N. Clements, the doyen of Irish railway writers, opined to Cliffe that perhaps all the '400s' really needed was thicker frames like the GW 'Stars'. The three saturated examples were built by Bazin because after the troublesome Watson superheater there was no suitable replacement then available. Bazin returned to the Maunsell-type superheater on the '500s', which the initial '400' also did have. In truth the GSR did not really need ten express 4-6-0s and three were scrapped early.
Probert, W.A. The history of the Irish 4-6-0s. Trains ill., 1953, 6, 149-52+. 6 illus., table.
A detailed, evaluative account.
Rebuilt 4-6-0 engines, G.S.R. Rly Mag., 1936, 78, 381-2.
Notes on the varieties existing in 1936.
Reed, K.H. The "400" class, Great Southern Railways. Rly Mag., 1938, 82, 347-51. 6 illus., diagr. (s. el.)
Scott, W.T.. Caprotti in Ireland. Backtrack, 2006, 20, 702 (letter)
See Backtrack feature beginning page 148
: two GSR 400 class 4-6-0s fitted with Caprotti valve gear in 1930. Letter also notes that Watson 400 class were utter failure; J.R. Bazin's attempts to improve them; and (under Morton) fitting Caprotti gear to Nos. 401 and 406: also cites article by R.N. Clements in J. Irish Rly Rec. Soc. (October 1968). Letter also mentions 500 class.
Summers, L.A. Mr. Watson's not so bright 'Stars' and other Irish 4-6-0s. Backtrack, 2009, 23, 664-9.
This article was published, but not written, after the major study by Clements and McMahon had been published. Furthermore, it was reviewed in Backtrack shortly earlier. Phil Atkins (e-mail to KPJ) has noted several errors in this article and KPJ considers that it adds little. Most of the photographs are interesting, although there is a lack of colour (which is normally one of Backtrack's "strengths")

Illustrations
Baker, Michael H.C. Taking the train - a tribute to Britain's greatest railway photographers. Sparkford: Patrick Stephens. 1993.
Locomotives in original condition: see Rex Murphy photographs on page 115 upper (No. 404 on Up Day Mail climbing 1 in 60 at Rathpeacon) and page 116 upper: No. 408 between Cork and Mallow with Pullman car express c1928, and rebuilt engines by John Kennedy: No. 403 at Amiens Street on Radio Train c1953 and No. 406 with Caprotti valve gear also at Amiens Street on train of GNR stock.

4-8-0T

900 Class A1: Watson design
No. 900 was built in 1915 and withdrawn in 1928. No. 901 was built in 1924 and withdrawn in 1931.
Maunsell had schemed a three-cylinder 0-8-2T shunting locomotive for Kingsbridge, but there were problems with design of a derived gear for the inside cylinder. Notes that in 1919 Maunsell had planned a three-cylinder 2-8-0T with 4ft 8in coupled wheels and Holcroft valve gear for the SECR and this design received Board approval, but was not constructed.
The 900 Class employed the bogie and cylinders of vthe 362 Class and the cylinders drove the leading coupled axle. They were prone to derailment and latterly No. 900 ran as a 4-6-2T. they were used to bank goods trains from Kingsbridge to Inchicore. Clements and McMahon pp. 124-5

New locomotives, Great Southern & Western Ry. of Ireland. Locomotive Mag., 1914, 20, 258-9. 2 diagrams (side elevations)
Also mentions Sambo below and 4-cylinder 4-6-0

0-4-2ST
Sambo Number 842 (not carried) Class L2: 1914
Constructed from spare parts and used as Inchicore pilot. 4ft 6½in coupled wheels, 16 x 20in cylinders, 16ft2 grate area and 768.8ft2 total heating surface. Clements and McMahon page.127.

Bazin designs

B1 (500):1924: Bazin:
This was a mixed-traffic 4-6-0 design with 5 ft 8½ in driving wheels. They were successful in service and capable of working express trains. Clements and McMahon (pp. 255-6) make several statements about influences on the design including those from Maunsell via the Urie/Maunsell designs of the Southern Railway and from Gresley at Doncaster. Bazin was a member of the ARLE and was active in the Institution of Locomotive Engineers. They rightly state that this was the first manifestation of the simple two cylinder 4-6-0 with external Walschaerts valve geart outside of the Southern Railway in the British Isles. The leading dimensions were 5ft 8½in coupled wheels; 19½ x 28in cylinders; a 28ft2 grate; 1590ft2 tubes, 158ft2 firebox and 350ft2 superheater. The valve travel was 63/16 with 1½in ;ap. They were fitted with Schmidt wide-type single piston rings. The 1948 assessment was critical of the small diameter driving wheels which made them unsuitable for passenger work. One was constructed in 1924 and two in 1926. They were withdrawn between 1955 and 1957...

4-6-0 mixed traffic locomotives, Great Southern and Western Railway (Ireland). Rly Mag., 1924, 55, 192-3. illus.
New and rebuilt locomotives, Great Southern & Western Railway. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1924, 30, 232-4. 3 illus., 2 diagrs. (s. els.)
New mixed-traffic locomotives for the Great Southern & Western Railway, Ireland. Rly Engr. 1924, 45, 345-8. 3 illus., 4 diagrs. (incl. s. el.), plan.
Includes sectionalized diagrams.

1928 : Bazin
No. 500 was equipped with the "Bredin-Burnell" feed-water heater, which was designed at Inchicore by the Works Manager and Chief Chemist. Clements and McMahon give a succinct description of this apparatus..

FEED-WATER heating apparatus, Gt. Southern Rys. (Ireland). Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1928, 34, 384-5. illus., diagr.
LOCOMOTIVE feed-water heating on the Great Southern Railways of Ireland. Rly Engr. 1928, 49, 45. illus., diagr. (s. & f. els.)

Retrospective and critical
Probert, W.A. The history of the Irish 4-6-0s. Trains ill., 1953, 6, 149-52+. 6 illus., table.
A detailed, evaluative account.

Illustrations
Baker, Michael H.C. Taking the train - a tribute to Britain's greatest railway photographers. Sparkford: Patrick Stephens. 1993.
see Rex Murphy photographs on page 117 upper (No. 500 on Up Day Mail near Killbarry in late 1920s

2-6-2T

P1: (850 Class): 1928: Bazin :
This was a solitary locomotive (No. 850). Clements and McMahon (pp. 259-62) note that the lightweight motion was the Achilles heel of the design (it tended to run hot), and the problem was mitigated by its replacement by heavier components. The locomotive tended to roll at speed. They also note that parts may have come the Woolwich moguls, notably the pony truck and driving wheels. The main dimensions were: 5ft 6in coupled wheels, 17½in x 26in cylinders with 8in piston valves, 19.75ft 2 grate area; and heating surfaces of 697 tubes, 119 firebox and 240 superheater. It carried 3 tons of coal and 1700 gallons of water. Clements and McMahon suggest that the design may have influenced that of the Gresley 2-6-2T (V1 class), but KPJ considers that the Inchicore locomotive was highly Doncaster-influenced. No. 850 was used on the Dublin to Bray route, but was also tested between Dublin and Thurles and between Waterford and Limerick. The dust jacket includes a reproduction of a  painting of this magnificent-looking locomotive. Nock's Irish steam (page 147) notes that the type might have been intended to work on the Cork, Bandon and South Coast section.  ..

NEW 2-6-2 tank engine, Great Southern Railways, Ireland. Rly Mag., 1929, 64, 142. illus.
2-6-2 tank locomotive, Great Southern Rys. of Ireland. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1928, 34, 341-3 + folding plate.. illus., 4 diagrs. (incl. s. el.), plan. .
Includes sectionalized diagrams.

Alternative designs considered (inside cylinder 2-6-2T and outside cylinder 4-4-2T)
Notes in the prefatory paragraphs in Clements and McMahon (page. 259) that initially the GSR had hoped to withdraw the entire DSER fleet and considered a 2-6-2T design (with 5ft 1¾in coupled wheels, 17 x 26in cylinders, probably inside, and 18.8ft2 grate areaa , 938ft2 tube and 112.5ft2 firebox heating surfaces). On 20 February 1925 the Locomotive, Permanent Way & Works Committee were shown the proposed Class 380 4-4-2T planned for the Dublin suburban services. This had outside cylinders and Walschaerts valve gear and employed the standard N-type Belpaire boiler: the main dimensions were: 5ft 8½in coupled wheels,. 17½in x 28in cylinders, 19.5ft2 grate areaa, 708ft2 tube, 120ft2 firebox and 168ft2 superheater heating surfaces.  

0-6-0
Class 700 J15A: 1929
Five highly conservative (saturated boilers and slide valves) were constructed possibly to exploit Clements and McMahon (pp. 263-4) eight new Type 60/101 boilers built in 1924/5. Their leading dimensions were 5ft 1¾in coupled wheels, 18 x 24in cylinders, 19.1ft2 grate areaa , 887ft2 tube and 126ft2 firebox heating surfaces. They were never superheated and according to Clements and McMahon were unpopular with footplate cres, suffered from high coal consumption and were inferior to the superheated 101 Class 0-6-0s. Withdrawn bewteen 1955 and 1963.. .

Sentinel purchases
Sentinel locomotives and railcars were purchased during Bazin's tenure, and probably reflect his close ties with Gresley and with the Institution of Locomotive Engineers where the designs were discussed.

GSR Class 280 M1
WN 6846-7/1927. RN 280-1. 2ft 6in driving wheels (chain coupled). 6¾ x 9in cylinders; 5.1ft2 grate area and 71ft2 total heating surface. They had several braking systems: steam, hand, counter pressure and vacuum and were very similar to the Sentinel railcars. Clements and McMahon (pp. 257-8). They were sent initially to Cork and Tralee, and one was tried on the Castleisland branch. They both were then sent to Limerick where they worked the Market siding until in closed in 1940. They then remained out of use until withdrawn in 1948

Steam railcars
Policy was very similar to that on the LNER. Both the moderately successful Sentinel Waggon and disastrous Clayton products were acquired. Clements and McMahon (page 299 et  seq

Sentinel
These received Nos. 354-7 in the coaching stock list and were WN 6844-5 and 6912-13, but there was probably no correspondence between the two numerical series. The engine units were similar, but the boilers were larger, than those on the shunting units: 2ft 6in driving wheels (chain coupled). 6¾ x 9in cylinders; 18ft2 grate area stated to give 100hp. They were articulated, like the earlier LNER units, and the bodies were supplied by Metro-Cammell of Nottingham and conveyed 55 passengers. Vacuum pipes were not fitted, and trailers could not be hauled. They were withdrawn in 1941-2. They were tried on the Goold's Cross to Cashel branch where the unsuccessful GSWR No.1 steam railcar had been tried in 1904, the Foynes and Newmarket branches and between Limerick and Nenagh and Ballybrophy.An unusual working was the attachment of a railcar, Sentinel or Clayton to the 11.10 departure from Mullingar to Cavan as far as Inny Junction whre it was detached and worked on to Sligo. There was a return working on the following day. The livery was a dark purple brown. They lay out of use for two to three years at Waterford before being scrapped  The withdrawal date is given as 1941/2. .Clements and McMahon pp. 300-1. See also Sentinel railcars page.

Clayton Wagons cars
Clayton Wagons of Lincoln entered the railcar business after Sentinel and competed on price (£1800 per car). Cars Nos. 358-63 (coaching stock numbers) were acquired in 1928 and had been withdrawn by 1932. The seating included nine seats for first class passengers and accommodation for 55 third class. Firemen found the stoking tube to be very awkward. Some were evaluated on Dublin Westland Row to Dalkey services and on Harcourt Streeet to Foxrock services. They were also tried between Mullingar and Sligo and on the Cork to Macroom and Clonakilty services. Steaming was bad and the cars were unreliable mechanically. Clayton had claimed a coal consumption of 11 lbs per mile, but this extended to 19 to 25 in practice. Liquidation of Clayton in 1929 aggravated the problems. The carriage units were converted into articulated pairs and were exploited, presumably as a form of penance, during the Dublin Eucharistic Congress. They then formed the carriage stock on the Waterford & Tramore section until displaced by diesel railcars in 1955. . .Clements and McMahon pp. 301-3. See also Clayton  railcars page.

[SIX Clayton steam railcars for the Great Southern Railways (Ireland)]. Rly Mag., 1928, 63, 499.

0-4-0ST
Class 495 M3
Peckett WN 1556/1926
Standard Beaufort type. Acquired from Allman & Co., Distillers of Bandon. Based at Rocksavage where it worked on Anderson's Quay, although was seldom used latterly. It was withdrawn in 1949. It had 2ft 9in coupled wheels, 10 x 15in cylinders, 314ft2 total heating surface, and 5.6ft2 grate area. Clements and McMahon (page 265)  .

Harty designs
See also Harty biography

0-6-0

710 class J15b: 1934-5 Harty:
Locomotives of this type were first built by McDonnell in 1866. The design evolved with time and in 1934 a final 15 engines were constructed. These were fitted with superheaters and piston valves.

New rolling stock, GS.R.. Rly Mag., 1937,80, 335-7. 3 illus.
Six coupled goods locomotive, class 710, Gt. Southern Rlys.. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1935, 41, 138. illus., diagr. (s. el.)

Retrospective and critical
Clements and McMahon (page 268)  Survived until withdrawn 1959 to 1962 5ft 1¾in coupled wheels; 18 x 24in cylinders (8in piston valves); 18ft2 grate; heating surfaces: 662 tubes; 112 firebox and 112ft2 superheater. They had a reputation of being poor steamers. Some were fitted with very old DSER tenders for DSER suburban services. Withdrawn between 1959 and 1962...

Clements, R.N. The "101" class, Great Southern and Western Railway. J. Stephenson Loco. Soc., 1949, 25, 120-2. 5 illus., (line drawings : s. el.)
Includes post 1923 modifications.
Flanagan, PJ., editor. The 101 class locomotives of the G.S. & W.R., 1866-1966. [Dublin], Irish Railway Record Society, 1966. 44 p. + folding plate. 13 illus., (incl.. 3 line drawings s. els.), diagr. (s. & f. els.), table, plan.
Contributions from the Editor, K.A. Murray, R.N. Clements, J. O'Neill and J.J. Johnston survey all aspects of its long history.

4-4-0
D4: 1934: Harty:
Rebuild of Coey 1906 class with Belpaire firebox, superheater and extended smokebox. The locomotive described (No. 335) retained its original cab.

GREAT Southern Railways. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1934, 40, 166.

342 class D4: 1936
Nos. 342-6: new locomotives, based to some extent on the Coey 1907 design, but built with Belpaire fireboxes and superheaters: 5ft 8½in coupled wheels; 18 x 26in cylinders (8 inch piston valves); grate area 20ft2. Heating surfaces: tubes 1080, firebox 136.7 ans 252ft2 superheater Boiler pressure 180 psi, ;later reduced to 160.

Contemporary sources
Great Southern Rys
., 4-4-0 type passenger locomotives. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1937, 43, 35. illus., diagr. (s. el.)
New 4-4-0 type locomotives, Great Southern Railways. Ireland. Rly Gaz., 1937, 66, 236-7. illus., diagr. (s. el.)
New rolling stock, G.S.R.. Rly Mag., 1937, 80, 335-7. 3 illus.

Retrospective
Derived from Class 333/338. Clements and McMahon (pp. 269-70) skeptical of overall GSR locomotive policy which had seen three class 321 withdrawn in 1927-8 whilst other members had received new boilers and stregthened frames. It is argued that the outide frames and bearings were fitted to the bogies to avoid overheating of the axle journals, but that this problem had been solved by a change in lubricant.
No. 346 was fitted with Hoffman roller bearing axleboxes on its bogie wheels.
Nos. 344 and 346 were fitted with 17in diameter cylinders in about 1940.
Before 1939 concentrated on services south of Dublin, but under CIE worked Dublin to Waterford/Rosslare, and on MGWR section to Sligo, Westport and occasionally to Galway.
No. 347 was lent to the GNR(I) to work the Bundoran Express between Dublin and Dundalk. No. 346 was an oil-burner at this time. Withdrawn 1959/60..

0-6-2T

670 I3: 1933-4: Harty:
This was a small class of suburban tank engines: 5ft 6in coupled wheels; 18 x 24in cylinders (8in piston valves); 18ft2 grate; heating surfaces: 662 tubes; 112 firebox and 112ft2 superheater.

Contemporary
[Harty GS. Rly. 0-6-2Ts, 670 class]. Rly Mag., 1934, 74, 227-8.
New 0-6-2 tank locomotives, Great Southern Rys., (Ireland). Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1934, 40, 2. illus., diagr. (s. & f. els.)

Retrospective
Clements and McMahon (pp. 266-7)  Survived until withdrawn 1959 to 1962. Used on Dublin to Bray and Greystones suburban services. Standard components included Z-type boiler and running gear from 710 Class. The inside motion was difficult to access. In spite of the archaic appearance the superstructure was welded. Cast iron number plates were replaced in favour of large painted numerals. From 1948 they were painted in green passenger livery.

Bredin designs

4-6-0

800:1939 B1a
By a large margin, the three locomotives were the biggest and most powerful engines ever to run in Ireland. Further, it was the only design which exploited the extra width afforded by the 5 ft 3 in gauge. The engines had 6ft 7in coupled wheels, three 18½ in x 28 in cylinders and 225 lb/in2 boiler pressure (later reduced to 180 psi): the heating surfaces were: grate area 33.5ft2, tubes 1670ft2, firebox 200ft2  and superheater 468ft2. The tender was very large by Irish standards with a capcity for 8 tons of coal and 5000 gallons of water. The nominal tractive effort was 34 799 lbf, which corresponded with Great British main-line power. They were intended for the Dublin-Cork route and received the names of ancient mythological Irish ladies of substance (sometimes known as queens): Maedhbh, Macha and Tailte. The nameplates had Erse characters. Clements and McMahon have assembled a highly comprehensive description which can be criticised for over-stating the novelty of double chimneys (eleswhere the Kylchap had been applied, notably on the LNER) and it is doubtful if the separate exhausts employed at Inchicore really represented an advance. Influences considerd by Clements and McMahon include Chapelon (in the design of the internal steam passages) and Maunsell who is known to have visited Inchicore following his retirement. The boiler was of the parallel type with tapering on the cladding. They suggest an enlarged Schools class as the inspiration. They are remain skeptical whether such a large locomotive could be justified, although they do accept that National prestige was a positive factor. They cost £12,000 each. Clements and McMahon consider that five locomotives were probably contemplated, when the design was being planned. The CIE failed to exploit the locomotives which achieved very low mileages compared with the King and rebuilt Scot classes. Furthermore, they could burn low grade fuel. The MeLeSco superheater was "advanced" at the time and is usually associated with post-War locomotive development in Mainland Britain. Clements and McMahon consider that the locomotives were the equal of the rebuilt Scots and better than the Kings..
Phil  Atkins (e-mail to KPJ) records that H J.A. Beaumont was chief draughtsman at Inchicore when the 800s were being designed. He has inspected a copy of a 1937 diagram for a proposed Inchicore 'Pacific' which would have much as the 4-6-0 later built but with a carrying axle tucked close behind Argentine-fashion, with a rather unpleasant streamlined cowl round the single chimney. Presumably, a Pacific was even more prestigeous, but adequate turntables were impossible to justify!..


Great Southern Railways : 800 class 4-6-0 locomotives. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1939, 45, 129. illus.
Irish notes. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1939, 45, 41-2. 2 illus., diagr. (s. & f. els.)
New "800" class 4-6-0 locomotives, GS.R.. Rly Mag., 1939, 84, 338. illus.
New 4-6-0 express engines for Eire: a 3-cylinder design for Great Southern Railways Dublin-Cork service. Rly Gaz., 1938, 69, 521.
New G.S.R. 4-6-0 locomotives. Rly Gaz., 1939, 70, 617-19. illus., 2 diagrs. (s. els.)

Performance
Semmens, P.W.B. Impressions of the Irish railways. Rly Mag., 1953, 99, 291-6. 4 illus. Footplate observations.
Striking performance of new Irish 4-6-0 locomotives. Rly Gaz., 1941, 74, 41-2. illus.

Retrospective and critical
Bredin, E.C. The design of a modern locomotive. Rly Gaz., 1939, 71, 718.
Abstract of a paper presented to the Dublin University Engineering Society.
Clements, Jeremy and McMahon, Michael. Locomotives of the GSR. Newtownards: Colourpoint, 2008. 384pp.
Pp. 271-7 form the main section for a description and assessment of these three remarkable locomotives, but the locomotives are also considered elsewhere in this work. There is Appendix J (page 379) which describes the attractive names which stem from Irish mythology, and are sometimes incorrectly stated to be "queens". There is a tantalising reference to a "visit by senior locomotive engineers from the LMS in 1940" and that "No. 801 was placed at their disposal": such a visit does not appear to be mentioned either by Bond or by Cox even they were "lavish in their praise" for its speed and haulage capacity...
Probert, W.A. The history of the Irish 4-6-0s. Trains ill., 1953, 6, 149-52+. 6 illus., table.
A detailed, evaluative account.

Preservation
"MAEVE" at Belfast. Rly Mag., 1965, 111, 59. illus.
Preservation at the Belfast Transport Museum.

Proposed 4-6-2T: Bredin: 1940
Three-cylinder design (14 x 26in cylinders, 5ft 8½in coupled wheels, boiler followed that for 342 Class: 21 grate area and heating surfaces consisting of 1084ft2 tubes, 136.7ft2 firebox and 252ft2 superheater. Clements and McMahon (page 278.

Fuel shortage during WW2
This is covered in Clements and McMahon Chapter 13: as someone disciplined by the Penny Catechism KPJ hopes that the Authors are performing some Celtic penance barefoot for allocating this number to this subject. During WW2 Southern Ireland suffered from a chronic shortage of fuel and this was most accute in 1941 when train services had to be greatly reduced and journey times became protracted. There were attempts to burn peat and to mix cement with coal dust, but these were largely failures. In the immediate post-War period oil-burning was adopted on quite a large scale, but the rapid change to diesel traction was the most lasting influence. J.H. Dudley, Assistant Locomotive Running Superintendent to the CIE described some of his work on this subject in a paper to the IRRS (and as transcribed in Chapter 13).

Liveries

Liveries: carriages and engines of Irish railway companies
Great Southern and Western Railway: Locomotives, olive green; carriages, dark chocolate , but new tints — red & cream being introduced.

Boilers
Clements and McMahon Appendix C1: The GSR programme to modernise the constituent companies' locomotive fleets focused on replacement of time-expired boilers. There was already considerable variety among the boilers acquired in 1925 and while the concept of standardisation might have seemed attractive, limited progress to this end was achieved in the next 20 years. A system of boiler types was introduced, mainly identified by a single letter although some were known by the GSR Class designation with which they were originally associated. Several of the boiler types were used with a single locomotive class, but two types in particular – N and Z – were fitted to several different classes of varying vintages. It was significant that both types were parallel boilers with Belpaire fireboxes and superheaters: after the Bazin hiatus of 1925-1929, there was a determined effort to introduce modernity with enhanced efficiency. Nonetheless, older saturated types with round-topped fireboxes lasted well into the 1950s.
The policy of retiring boilers on an age basis alone was criticised in the Milne Report. The inference is that the possibility of an old boiler still having years of potential operating life was discounted at the time of withdrawal. By this process, changes of boilers or of boiler types occurred more frequently than might have otherwise been necessary. It was notable that changes in boiler type could persist well into old age, as graphically illustrated with the 19 surviving members of 2-4-0 Class 650 (G2). At the creation of CIE in 1945, the programme of boiler changes which had started in the early 1920s continued unabated. As at 1 January 1945, these locomotives were aged between 48 and 51 years yet 14 more changes of boiler type were to occur, the last being as late as 1959. Pursuit of improved performance would not have been a significant criterion by that stage so replacements would have been implemented to make use of whatever was in stock and serviceable at the time. As will have been observed in the individual class histories, some later boiler changes were regressive and of doubtful value. The Bandon 4-6-0Ts, already sound performers, were improved by installation of Type R boilers. Only five of the class were so fitted; two later reverted to round-topped saturated boilers although one of these did return to a Type R after two years.
Sometimes the number and variety of changes seemed bewildering. During the period 1932 to 1951, Class 455 (C2) carried six different boiler types and underwent seven different boiler changes. As this class comprised a mere three locomotives, this programme must have achieved some sort of record.
Another case of regression involved Classes 400 and 500 which originally shared the same boiler. Later, six of the surviving 400s received larger K type boilers, but three of these were carrying original type boilers at withdrawal. In view of the comparatively modest haulage demands made of this class during the 1930s, the excursion into larger boilers must have been an exercise offering a minimal financial return.
The heating surfaces quoted for the original Class 400 boilers identify a further complication. The class prototype (No 400) and the three Armstrong Whitworth superheated locomotives (Nos 403-05) shared the same heating surface areas yet the Inchicore trio (Nos 401, 402 and 406) had smaller tube areas. Variations in tube areas resulted from use of differing numbers of small tubes, easily effected by replacement of boiler tube plates. This is the most likely explanation why the heating surfaces quoted in the table in this Appendix sometimes differ from heating surfaces for the same type of boiler recorded in some of the class histories.
In several instances the differences in quoted heating surfaces are quite small and would have had little or no impact on steaming capacity. Presumably these variations, as with a number of the boiler changes, came about through monetary shortages and the necessity of using whatever suitable material was on hand.
Another difficulty lies in photographic evidence that is at odds with recorded details in class histories. For example, locomotive No 403 reportedly received a Type K boiler in 1936 which it carried until withdrawal in 1957. However a photograph shows this locomotive in CIE lined green livery and carrying an original type, smaller boiler. The inevitable conclusion is that even more changes of type (let alone of heating surfaces) took place than were actually recorded.
Finally, reported boiler dimensions can vary between classes that ostensibly carried the same type.
Nock page 195 observes that the K class boiler was of the sloping throat type. This feature of boiler design (which appears to have generated a growing literature retrospectively) does not appear to be mentioned by Clements and McMahon. Moreover, it is probable that the 800 class also incorporated boilers of this type, and possibly those introduced by Bazin.

Tenders
Clements and McMahon Chapter 11 (pp. 279-97. Also considers water sofening plant (only one and that at Inchicore). Water troughs were considered, but difficult to find a suitable location combining good quality water with level track. Tenders were recycled as on other railways: the GSR built 49 tender locomotives, yet built only 34 tenders.

Coras Iompair Eireann

O.V.S. Bulleid, formerly C.M.E. of the Southern Railway, became a consultant to the C.I.E. in 1949 and later assumed the full responsibility of being CME. In Ireland, Bulleid adopted a vigorous dieselisation policy and the use of steam traction rapidly declined. Nevertheless, one experimental steam locomotive was constructed; namely a turf, or oil, burning 0-6-6-0. This was similar to the Southern "Leader" class in many respects, but the new design wias simpler to build. In connection with this attempt to burn turf (i.e. peat), one 2-6-0 was also modified.

Milne, Sir James. Report on transport in Ireland.
Clements and McMahon present a digest of this significant report on pp. 329-35. They note O.V.S. Bulleid's in the study presented to the Minister for Industry & Commerce, but sadly fail to name the other two GWR ex-officers involved in the study. They do note, however, the GWR policy of standardization. As the ex General Manager of the GWR the report may also show the way in which he might have steered the GWR, and more significantly, the direction that British Railways might have taken if he had accepted the post as Chairman of the Railway Executive.KPJ wonders if James Ness, GM of the Scottish Region was influenced by Milne: he certainly advocated shorter, faster and more frequent trains, but hauled by large steam locomotives. It is also tempting to wonder what Milne's paradigm locomotive might have been like: perhaps Robin Barnes' Hawksworth 4-4-0 on pp. 78-9. The most significant observations are noted below:
On 1 January 1948 there were 418 broad gauge locomotives: Milne considered that only 233 were needed.
More intensive maintanance of narrow gauge fleet to reduce its total stock.
Condemned the 37 boiler types, when the GWR had only 15 types for 2000 locomotives.
Milne considered the Inchicore boiler policy to be unsound and extravagant.
Criticised lack of water treatment policy.
Three or four classes with a maximum axle load of 16 tons could handle all traffic except for shunting. All the 4-6-0s should be withdrawn.
A more intensive Dublin to Cork service should be operated with short trains
Diesel railcars were favoured, but not diesel locomotives as they were too expensive.
Steam locomotives hauling six coaches could perform as well as diesel lcomotives.
The existing orders for diesel locomotives should be cancelled.
Clements and McMahon note that most of the Report was not implemented, although most passenger services were worked by diesel railcars.

Oil-burning
Oil-burning locomotives in Eire. [J, Macartney Robbins]. Rly Mag., 1947, 93, 248.
White circle painted on smokebox and tender sides to indicate oil-burning: classes so fitted/painted included 2-6-0s and 623 class 0-6-0s, but being extended to 400 and 500 class 4-6-0s.

Locomotive classification

Classification of locomotives, January, 1953. J. Stephenson Loco. Soc., 1953, 29, 139-41.
Locomotive classes and leading dimensions.

Livery: Light green, lined black and white.

NEW locomotive livery, C.I.E., Rly Mag., 1948, 94, 271.

Bulleid, O.V.S.:
The major descriptions of Bulleid's activity are examined on the Bulleid page.. It should be noted, however, that only S. Day-Lewis' Bulleid, last giant of steam portrays his Irish work. H.A. Vallance's The railway enthusiast's bedside book. Pp. 13-21 : include some anecdotal material on Bulleid and his turf burning locomotives. Obviously the infamous Leader type had some influence on this project..

2-6-0

K3:1954 : turf burning modifications.

[C.I.E. 2-6-0 (class K3) converted by Bulleid to turf burning] . Trains ill., 1954, 7, 363. illus.
Illustration and caption only.

0-6-6-0 turf-burner

Very few details of this locomotive appear to have been published in contemporary journals. Chapter 20 of H.A.V. Bulleid's Bulleid of the Southern, 1977 gives an excellent summary and mentions the involvement of J.G. Click (whose archives) are "believed" to be held at the NRM.

C.I.E. prototype turf-burning locomotive. Rly Gaz., 1958, 108, 611. illus.
Excursions and notices of works visited [Institution of Locomotive Engineers' summer meeting in Ireland]. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1958, 48, 428-33 .
There was a visit to inspect the turf burning locomotive (428-33) when E.S. Cox and Robert Arbuthnott met Bulleid, and there was a visit to the Guiness Brewery where the narrow gauge locomotives were inspected (433-6)
IRISH report. Trains ill., 1958, 11, 116-117. illus.
TURF-BURNING experimental locomotive. Rly Gaz., 1958, 108, 586.

Retrospective & critical

Duffy, M.C. Waste heat recovery and steam locomotive design. Trans Newcomen Soc., 1989, 61, 15-30. Disc.: 30-1.
Describes economisers fitted to Irish turf (peat) burning locomotive.
Durrant, A.E. Bulleid's turf burner. Steam Wld, 1992 (57), 22-7
Would have been better as a small Garratt like those  built for Leopoldina Railway in Brazil designed to burn low grade fuel. John Click colour photographs
Robertson, Kevin. Leader: steam's last chance. Gloucester: Alan Sutton, 1988. 123pp.
Very little included on the Irish turf burner.
Rowledge, J.W.P. The turf burner: Ireland's last steam locomotive design. Billericay (Essex): Irish Railway Record Society, 1972.
Excellent diagrams, but extremely concise, also contains notes on Leader class, and on turf burning experiments on GNR and GSR during WW2.
Shepherd, Ernie. Bulleid and the Turf Burner. Southampton: Kestrel Books,
Reviewed in Archive No. 44 and seen in Motor Books, but invisible in Norfolk bibliographical wilderness and absent from BLPC. A study of O.V. Bulleid's experiments with steam traction in Ireland after 1949 and in particular with his turf burning locomotive CCl.: "a fascinating read."
Tufnell, Robert Prototype locomotives. 1985.
Page 55, at the end of the chapter on the Leader class Tufnell notes the involvement of J.G. Click and A.R. Pocklington of the Rugby Test Plant in getting the turf burner onto the road, its inspection by Armand of the SNFC, its successful operation in trials and visits to see it by the Institution of Locomotive Engineers and Institute of Transport in 1958

Self-weighing tenders

SELF-WEIGHING tenders in Eire. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1951, 55, 40.
SELF-WEIGHING tenders in Ireland. Rly Mag., 1951, 97, 384-9.


Chapter 11 Tenders
Chapter 12 Other motive power
Steam railcars: actual Sentinel and Clayton
Proposed narrow gauge Sentinel
Petrol powered units
Drewry railcars for both narrow and broad gauge.
Battery electric powered units 308-17.
Drumm electric multiple units
Drumm, James
Talented research chemist invented resistance alkaline battery capable of rapid recharging. Began with converted Drewry railcar. Eventually five car unit: two two-car units with ordinary coach in middle. Eventually streamlined unit. Used between Amiens Street and Bray.