Maunsell locomotive types

Specific designs
Lord Nelson
Schools
King Arthur
2-6-0 series
River 2-6-4T
W class 2-6-4T
Q 0-6-0
Z 0-8-0T
See also Maunsell (biography)
Unfulfilled projects
Note: the basis for this page was Jones's Steam locomotive development which has been updated.

Overall studies

Bradley, D.L. Locomotives of the Southern Railway. London: RCTS. 1975/6.. Volume 1.
Restricted solely to those locomotives, Lord Nelson, Schools, not many etc, actually designed by Southern Railway under Maunsell.
Burtt, F. SE&CR locomotives, 1874 — 1923. London: Ian Allan, 1947
Includes Maunsell designs developed prior to the Grouping
Cocks, C.S. History of Southern Railway locomotives to 1938. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1948, 38, 749-822. Disc.: 823-60. (Paper No. 481)
On the SECR the N class introduced by Maunsell was the first to combine high superheat with long travel valves. The leading pony trucks combined a spherical centre with Cartazzi type (the slides were in an oil bath). The tapered boiler barrel and top feeds and superheater were further advances. The K class (2-6-4T) was fitted with a two-wheeled Bissel truck with a 6ft 4 in radial arm. Cocks mentions the Sevenoaks accident without pursuing this topic in depth other than the conversion of the class to 2-6-0s.
On the foundation thus provided at the grouping, Maunsell laid down a set policy for the future design of locomotives, under the following headings:
(1) Ample power for all requirements to enable sectional timing to be maintained with a high degree of efficiency.
(2) Ease of maintenance.
(3) Suitable for operating on all three sections within the limits of bridge loading.
(4) Standard locomotives with as few types as possible to cover the whole of the requirements. Standard details to be as interchangeable as possible, such as boiler, cylinder, motion, tyres, axles, axleboxes, fittings and boiler mountings.
(5) Belpaire type firebox, with grate area and heating surface well proportioned.
(6) Long lap piston valves.
(7) Freer exhaust passages.
(8) Accessibility of all parts ("Make everything 'Get-at-able.' was Maunsell's remark).
(9) Footplate comfort and ease in handling. In this connection wooden models or mock-ups of the cab with the handles for operation in position were made for the enginemen's inspection and suggestions.
(10) Lubrication of all parts to be efficient and simple. To be under the control of the enginemen as far as possible without leaving the footplate.
(11) Large smokeboxes and capacious ashpans.

Holcroft (pp. 834-44) provided a major addendum in which he made a major contribution on three-cylinder locomotives. The benefit obtained by the third cylinder can take many forms, depending on the working conditions. For instance, the Author has made references to the Tonhridge-Hastings line in connection with three-cylinder engines. To those not familiar with this section of the Southern lines, it should be explained that this road traverses difficult, hilly country and has numerous sharp curves, speed restrictions and heavy gradients. The tunnels as constructed by the old S.E.R. had brick linings which proved to be too' thin. To have re-bored the cross section for thicker brickwork would have been a great expense and the short-sighted decision was made to thicken up the lining internally, thus reducing the structure gauge. The matter was not of much consequence with the narrow rolling stock of the period, but at the present day special 8 ft. 6 in. wide corridor stock has to be provided, some types of freight vehicles are barred and so are two-cylinder engines with outside cylinders. By constructing a three-cylinder modification of the standard engine, dimension over cylinders was reduced sufficiently to permit of its running. Thus in this special case use of a third cylinder enabled more powerful engines to be put to work over this heavy road.
In the case of heavy shunting engines, as exemplified by the Z class, three cylinders confer a number of desirable features which the Author has touched upon. These engines are specially adapted to hump shunting where a very steady push is needed. In all-out conditions they will continue to move almost imperceptibly under circumstances where an equivalent two-cylinder engine would have stalled. It should be noted that no superheater is fitted on the Z class. On an engine used intermittently in shunting duties no appreciable benefit results from the normal fire tube superheater; in fact it is a drawback in operation unless the regulator is on the cylinder sfde of the header.
The K class passenger tanks were very comfortable in their cab arrangements and smooth riding, but the three-cylinder No. 890 was outstanding by reason of its lighter balancing, apart from its performance. It was remarkable in that it could be operated with wide open regulator and a very short cut-off. The two-cylinder engines were more suited to a partially opened regulator witn a cut-off of not less than 20 per cent. I made several trips on No. 890 with an evening train very smartly timed to do the 26.1 miles from Tonbridge to Ashford in 28 minutes start to stop. The load was about 270 tons tare and the running was against the gradient shown in Fig. 17 (page 781). The engine performed its task with ease under a full regulator and with the reverser only half a notch from and- gear. Steaming left nothing to be desired and the trip was as near perfection in locomotive work as could be. Whether the superiority of this engine over the two-cylinder variety was sufficiently marked to justify the additional expense is a debatable point because the Sevenoaks accident occurred before any systematic tests were put in hand, and the matter was not, followed up after conversion.
Turning to the 4-4-0 type, even G. J. Churchward could not make a succes of his outside cylinder design, the original " County " class. Add a third cylinder to such a design and the situation is transformed to such an extent that the type can then compete in performance with a larger and nominally more powerful 4-6-0. Instances have been cited in the discussion of the fine work done by the " Schools " class in this respect. All the difficulties with balancing of the reciprocating parts disappear, and the effect on bridges can be observed in the almost perfect parabolas recorded by the instruments used in investigating bridge stresses.

Coming to the more difficult cases where two- and three-cylinder engines directly compete in normal traffic, more particularly as regards freight service, the only ways in which the three-cylinder can obtain advantage lie in improved combustion efficiency, higher mechanical efficiency and in reduced wear and tear. Without careful dynamometer car tests which include indicating, it is not possible to detect improvement in mechanical efficiency, though it is to be expected with reduced nosing, more even turning moment, steadier drawbar pull, reduced thrust on bearing surfaces and smaller reaction on the riding of the tender.
As regards wear and tear, a reduction is to be expected owing to better distribution of loading on bearings; smaller flange and tread wear should result from less nosing and lighter balance weights. If three-cylinder engines fail to show improved mileages over corresponding t\vo-cylinder between general repairs it may be that it is because there is a tendency to put them to work on the heavier duties. A ton-mile basis is required to assess the matter.
Turning to efficiency of combustion, this is influenced by the modified smokebox action through the same volume of steam being metered by the exhaust beats at shorter intervals per revolution with three cylinders instead of two.
In drawing out with a heavy freight train observation of the fire in the case of the two-cylinder shows a white flash with each exhaust beat followed by a rather longer interval in which the firebox is filled by the dull orange glow of incompletely burned hydrocarbon vapour. This alternation goes on until some speed is gained, when the light gradually becomes white but flickering. This dies out with further increase in speed a steady white glow fills the firebox as - combustion conditions improve.
In the case of the three-cylinder, the stages in combustion conditions are far less marked and occur earlier, and moreover the flickering dies out at a much lower speed. If the fire bed is watched through a dark blue glass, it will be seen that the agitation of the particles of fuel is less than occurs with a two-cylinder engine at the same speed. When the r.p.m. reach 100 or so the difference between the two types is small, and combustion conditions tend to become equal. Fuel saving in a three-cylinder engine is therefore to be looked for in slow and heavy haulage in freight service or passenger service over steep gradients
Although the Author had not been able to produce any figures, Holcroft able by reference to his notebook gave particulars of coal tests carried out between two- and three-cylinder engines on freight service over the same road and using the same grade of Kent coal (Chislet), the

Date Engine No. Cylinders Coal lb/engine mile . Coal lb/gross ton mile. Average No. loaded wagons
July 1923 &
July 1923

822

3

61.3

0.107

50

June 1924

821

2

66.5

0.114

51

June 1924

825

2

61.3

0.113

47

July 1922

817

2

74.4

0.106

59

July 1922

818

2

79.2

0.118

59


The coal returns supplied by the outdoor locomotive department for N class engines stationed at Ashford and working in the same link, prior to the first tests with No. 822 were as follows

Month In 1923 Engine No. Coal lb/mile Engine No. Coal lb/mile
March 822 66.03 820/ 821 71.89
April 822 66.87 821 75.38
May 822 66.88 821 76.99
June 822 62.99 821/ 823 69.74
Average 65.69 73.50


The result in favour of the three-cylinder engine was a saving of 11.8 per cent, of the coal consumed by the other engines in the link.
The economy in fuel by No. 822 is not so apparent in' the overall results of the coal tests, but if the results of the individual test runs are plotted as a graph (see Fig. X) they are very striking.
All the trials were conducted during the summer months so that weather had little effect on them. Disregarding the abnormally large consumption of Engine 'No. 8i8, lines are drawn through the scattered points plotted, one for No. 822 and the other br INOS. 817, 821 and 825. These lines show, under the conditions of the test, that with a load of 47 wagons the coal consumption of two- and three-cylinder engines are equal.
For a smaller number of wagons, advantage lies with the two- cylinder, but as the load increases above 47, so does the relative economy of the three-cylinder engine. The deduction is obvious: give three-cylinder engines the maximum of hard work and they will repay their cost.

During the course of the trials there was little difference in superheat between the two types but the average of 8~ readings of the water gauge for smokebox vacuum was 1.9 in. with ~ wagons for No. 822, and for 6~ readings with No. 825 pulling 48 wagons it was 2.6 in. As the conditions in each case were strictly comparable and the ashpan dampers well open on both engines, it is apparent that the lower smokebox vacuum was due to a smaller resistance at the fuel bed, that is to say the three-cylinder could be worked with a thinner fire so that combustion conditions were more favourable.
When it is considered that the coal consumed in the trials included that for lighting up, standing in steam and light running, the saving by the three-cylinder is all the more remarkable because the opportunity for fuel saving only occurs when the engine is pulling hard in traffic.
The conjugated valve gear used in three-cylinder engines has been criticised, mainly on account of over-travel of the middle valve which has been known to occur on infrequent occasions. The critics are, however, "barking up the wrong tree.." The conjugated faithfully reproduces the combined movement of the two primary gears, and if they have any faults it reveals those faults in magnified form. If there is over-travel of the middle valve it arises from over-travel of the primary gears.

In the shops it is customary to take readings of the valve motion while the locomotive wheels are slowly revolved. It is too often Assumed that precisely the same results are produced at high speed in service.

If the matter is considered, it will be found that two Walschaert gears are anchored at five points, at the reverser and at each cross- head and return crank. The structure includes a none-too-rigid reversing rod, a reversing shaft subject to torsion and deflection and off-sets at overhung return cranks and other non-alignment. Thus we have an elastic set-up for the purpose of reciprocating a pair of valves with a harmonic motion, the principal effort required being to overcome the inertia of the valve at each end of their travel. Such a system will have a natural period of oscillation and at some particular speed over-travel will reach a maximum, being accentuated if the motion. is put into full gear, as when steam is shut off at high speed.

In the case of a conjugation being added for operating the valve of the middle cylinder in a three-cylinder engine, there are three light valves to swing about instead of two heavy ones, so the work expended is not much affected. The phase is altered, because the impulses occur at intervals of 60º instead of 90º. The remedy for over-travel or other irregularities of the third valve is to make the primary gears as rigid as possible, consistent with their weight. The deflection of the levers of the conjugation is small but could be further reduced by using a deep I section of aluminium alloy. It does not seem to be grasped that corrections can be applied by departing from the rigid 2 :1 ratio of the levers; the valve events can be advanced or retarded and also the travel can be adjusted by slight alterations in the proportions of the levers. In other words, the possibilities of the conjugated gears have not been fully explored: they can take many forms, there is no need to adhere to those forms so far employed.


Morris, O.J. Standardising. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1941, 47, 16-19; 157-60 [E4 class]; 229-31
Nock, O.S. The locomotives of R.E.L. Maunsell, 1911-1937. 1954.
Includes detailed arrangement drawings.
Reed, Brian. 150 years of British  steam locomotives. pp. 101; 103.
Through the authoritative personality of the new general manager, Sir Herbert Walker, the Southern Railway had a relatively easy settling down period, and Maunsell, the automatic choice as cme from the new Group's personnel, moved cautiously but steadily in his locomotive policy. He had already adopted taper boilers and some of the GWR valve motion tenets on the SECR in his initial 2-6-0 and 2-6-4T types and in the 4-4-0 rebuilds of 1920, influenced by two of his Swindon-trained assistants G.H. Pearson and H. Holcroft. His SECR 2-6-0 of 1917 was the second British locomotive to combine long-lap long-travel valves with high superheat, the first being GWR No 2901 in 1906 (see Chapter 7). After the first six or seven years the steam locomotive design and production side of the SR declined under increasing electrification. Maunsell's productions reflected his own characteristics of sound but not inspired engineering, common sense, and an appreciation of the proportion and fitness of things; though at the beginning he did not envisage a planned programme of standard types, his parts standardisation was thorough. Everyone of these aspects was changed completely under Maunsell's successor, Bulleid, and as regards steam locomotive engineering the 25 years of the SR was cleft in two – in design, construction and administration.
Maunsell built only 10 designs entirely of his own, and though eight were regarded as Southern standards some were built in such restricted numbers that that term was hardly justified. They comprised the Lord Nelson, King Arthur, H15 (6ft wheels) and S15 (5ft 7in wheels) 4-6-0s, the Schools 4-4-0s, the N-class (5ft 6in wheels) and U-class (6ft wheels) 2-6-0s, and Z-class three-cylinder 0-8-0Ts. Also built, largely with standard parts, were the W-class three-cylinder freight 2-6-4T with 5ft 6in wheels and, in 1925, the ill-fated River-class 2-6-4Ts later rebuilt to 2-6-0 tender engines after several derailments culminating in the Sevenoaks disaster of 1927. One good ex-LSWR feature was retained in all Maunsell 4-6-0s and in the Schools – the 7ft 6in bogie wheelbase introduced by Adams in 1880.

Southern Railway. Locomotives of the Southern (2nd Edition). London: Southern Railway, 72pp.
See Locomotive Mag., 1928, 34, 101 and Ottley7343 (first supplement) not in Jones
Webster, R. Locomotives designed by R.E.L. Maunsell, C.B.E., Chief Mechanical Engineer, South Eastern & Chatham Railways, 1914-1922. Rly Obsr, 1930, 2, 4-5; 29-31; 44-7.
Webster, R. Locomotives designed by R.E.L. Maunsell, C.B.E. Chief Mechanical Engineer, Southern Railway. Rly Obsr, 1930, 2, 127-8; 144,158-60; 161-2. table.
By later Railway Observer standards these articles are somewhat superficial.
Woodnutt, G.C. S.R. locomotives, 1923-35. Rly Obsr, 1937, 9, 4-8; 51-2; 86-8; 100-2; 128-30; 159-62; 214-15; 230-2; 257-61; 294-6; 329-31; 361-5. 21 tables.

4-6-0

LN ("Lord Nelson"): 1926 :
On the basis of tractive effort (33,500 lbf) this class was the most powerful express passenger design in Britain, when introduced. The Publicity Department expolited this fact in special posters : see "The Lord Nelson poster" (below). Bulleid modifications.

BOILER details of the "Lord Nelson" locomotive, Southem Railway. Rly Engr. 1927, 48, 21-3. 7 diagrs., plan..
Detailed working drawings.
Four-cylinder express engine, Lord Nelson class, Southern Ry. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1927, 33, 275 + col. folding plate f.p. diagr.
Coloured sectionalized diagrams.
4-6-0 type 4-cylinder, Southern Railway, new express locomotive, "Nelson" class. Engineering, 1926, 122, 473-4. illus., diagr. (s. & f. els.)
"Lord Nelson"  class engines, Southern Ry.  Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1928, 34, 375. illus.
No. 852 Sir Walter Raleigh
The "Lord Nelson." London: The Locomotive Publishing Co. Ltd. Ry.  Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1928, 34, 101
Complete set of drawings with description, giving leading dimensions of the engine, as well as a detailed table of parts. The folding plate ot the sectional elevation, reduced to a scale of 3/8 in. to the foot, is coloured to represent clearly and distinctly the various materials used in its construction, whilst every part is numbered in accordance with the key table. Another folding plate shows the plan and separate views depict the end elevation of the smoke box section through cylinders, and elevation of the footplate and section through firebox.. Ottley 7344
The "LORD Nelson" locomotive on the Southern Railway. Rly Engr. 1926, 47, 430-1 + folding plate. 5 diagrs. (incl.. s. el.), plan.
Includes sectionalized diagrams.
"LORD Nelson" poster, Southern Railway. Rly Mag., 1926, 59, 502. illus.
"The most powerful express passenger locomotive in Britain".
NEW four-cylinder 4-6-0 locomotive, Southern Railway. Rly Engr, 1926, 47, 395-7. 2 illus., 2 diagrs. (s. & f. els.)
NEW four-cylinder 4-6-0 locomotive, Southern Railway. Rly Mag., 1926, 59, 380. + plate f.p. 341. illus.
SOUTHERN Ry. four-cylinder "Nelson" class express locomotive. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1926, 32, 346. diagr. (s. & f. els.)
SOUTHERN Railway—four cylinder simple passenger engine. Engineer, 1926, 142, 413; 558-60 + folding plate f.p. 555. illus., diagrs., plans.
Includes detailed working diagrams.
SOUTHERN Railway—new express locomotive, "Lord Nelson" class. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1926, 32, 310-1 1. illus.
SOUTHERN Railway new express passenger locomotive. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1926, 16, 656-8. illus.
Very full description: notes that fitted with Maunsell superheater

1929 No. E860
the last of the class to be built, was fitted with boiler tubes 10 in longer than the rest of the class.
FOUR-CYLINDER express engine with longer boiler, Southern Ry. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1929, 35, 345. illus.

1934: No. 862 Lord Collingwood was fitted with a Kylchap double chimney.
[Double chimney fitted experimentally to Southern Ry. locomotive]. Loco. RIy Carr. Wagon Rev., 1934, 40, 287.
DOUBLE blast pipe fitted to Southern Ry. locomotive. Loco. RIy Carr. Wagon Rev., 1935, 41,14. illus..
[LORD Nelson class No. 862 fitted with a Kylchap double chimney]. Rly Mag., 1934,75, 382. illus.

1937: combustion chamber boiler:
In connection with the development of a Pacific type locomotive No. 857 was rebuilt experimentally, with a taper-boiler fitted with a combustion chamber.

LOCOMOTIVE boilers. Rly Gaz., 1937, 66, 746.
Editorial comment.
"LORD Nelson" class engine No. 857, Southern Railway : fitted with enlarged taper boiler having a round-topped firebox with combustion chamber. Rly Gaz., 1937, 66, 661-2. illus.,diagr. (s. el), table.
RE-BOILERED "Lord Nelson" class engine, Southern Railway. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1937, 43,100. illus., diagr. {s. & f. els.), table.

1938: Front-end modifications—see Bulleid.

Retrospective and critical

Anderson, E.P. Report on the partial derailment of the engine of an express passenger train that occurred on the 23rd January, near Kent House. Ministry of Transport: Railway accidents ... which occurred during the three months ending 31st March, 1930. London, HMSO, 1930. l0p. + folding plate. 4 diagrs. (incl. s. el.)
Anderson suggested that the flanges should be thickened and deepened on the leading coupled wheels and that the strength of the bogie control springs should be increased—the derailment was due to flange wear an the leading coupled wheels.
Atkins, Philip. Odious comparisons. Steam Wld, 2015, (335), 8-14
Annual mileage:  40,000 in 1937 and 44,000 in 1950
Beresford, Bill as recorded by Paul Joyce: Post-War on the Southern. Backtrack, 2012, 26, 50-4.
Senior fireman working on Southern Railway/Southern Region during the 1940s from Nine Elms. Did not like firing Lord Nelson class: "heart would drop at sight of one".
Boocock, Colin. Victory on a 'Nelson'. Steam Wld., 2003, (192) 16-20.
Boocock was an apprentice at Eastleigh and as part of his training he was allocated six weeks of footplate travel. The primary theme was on the way to fire the Lord Nelson class which ccalled for a particular skill to cope with the long, narrow, and partly sloping grate. Like many 4-6-0s the class could be rough and this was violent through the crossovers at Pirbright Junction.
Clarke, Jeremy. The locomotives of R.E.L. Maunsell. Part 6: the 'Sea Dogs'. Steam Wld, 2008 (251) 46-50.
Rather superficial assessment of the Lord Nelson class, although does note its reliability and the difficulties of firing the long difficultly shaped grate which was exacerbated by the small size of the class. Bulleid's significant modifications are noted, although the larger piston valves were never fitted to all locomotives.
Harvey, N. The Maunsell "Lord Nelson" class. J. Stephenson Loco. Soc., 1962, 38, 349-55. 5 illus., table.
Lacks depth.
Holcroft, H. "Castles", Lord Nelsons", and "Royal Scots". Rly Mag., 1947, 93, 13-15; 27. 3 illus.
The relationship of the LMS design to the Lord Nelson class.
Hooker, Bert. Firing the 'Nelsons'. Rly Wld, 1987, 48, 547-50
Began during WW2 in 1940 with run from Waterloo to Bournemouth and back. Subesquently he xeperienced No. 865 Sir John Hawkins, the locomotive with 90° crank settings which seemed to pull harder, but consumed more coal. Also experienced firing on No. 857 Lord Howe, with its experimental round-top firebox, on a 16 coach train from Salisbury and had no difficulty in getting to Andover in 22 minutes
IN memory of the "Lord Nelsons". Rly Wld., 1963, 24, 90-5.19 illus.
Photographic feature showing the many variants.
Kelway-Bamber, H. Modern British railway express passenger engines. J. Instn. Loco. Engrs., 1926, 16, 1004-17.
A detailed analysis of Castle locomotive work (including on the LNER) plus a comparative study of this design, the Al and "Lord Nelson" classes.
Lambert,  Arthur Ll. Bricklayers Arms — and Eastleigh. Rly Wld, 1983, 44, 576.
Regarding the 'Nelsons'. I feel that Mr Forge overplays the role of the 'tortuous' passages in the cylinders of the locomotives as built; after all, they were similar to those of the 'Schools', which were never replaced by a new design, while a set of the original design continued in use on one engine, No 30863, until it went to the scrapheap, without showing any inferiority compared to the rest of the class, with their redesigned cylinders and many with larger piston valves. The problem with the 'Nelsons' was surely a combination of draughting and a low brick arch over the flat and sloping parts of the grate, making them very difficult to fire, the technique of throwing coal over the high point, to keep sufficient firebed over the whole of the sloping portion being beyond the ability of many men. There was insufficient room to build the Great Western-type of 'haystack' fire. There was also a suggestion that, perhaps because of the poor draughting, sufficient air was not being drawn evenly through the firebars. I have written evidence that with No E850, before the rest of the class was built, the engine was run with the firedoor normally open to permit the ingress of top air to the fire, something not normally considered good practice as it lowers the temperature of the rear of the inner firebox, with resultant problems of maintenance caused by the differentials in expansion of the copper.
Martin, G.P.B. The "Lord Nelson" class, Southern Railway. Rly Mag., 1946, 92, 284-8; 358-9; 378-80. 11 illus.
A detailed account.
A NEW express locomotive. Engineer, 1926, 142, 419-20.
Editorial comment on the "Lord Nelson" design in comparison with the Al and "Castle" designs (see Kelway-Bamber above).
Poultney, E.C.  Locomotive performance and its influence upon modern practice. J. Instn. Loco. Engrs, 1927, 17, 172-261. Disc.: 261-72. (Paper No. 213)
General assessment of class alongside other British and other contemporary locomotives
Reed, Brian. 150 years of British  steam locomotives. p. 103.
They [N15 type] were the first move to try and cope with the traffic department's requirement for an engine to haul 500 tons on 55mph schedules, and from 1926 they were supplemented by the four-cylinder 135°-crank Lord Nelson 4-6-0s, one of the first British designs in which boiler proportions were drawn up deliberately on the basis of all British, Continental and American knowledge; yet the boiler and front end layout did not always provide free steaming. Because of the selected crank arrangement a choice had to be made between four sets of Walschaerts motion and a multi-lever conjugated actuation from the outside motion; the former was selected.
Swift, Peter. Locomotives in detail. 8. Maunsell 4-6-0 Lord Nelson class. London: Ian Allan, 2007.
Mel Holley (Steam Wld, 2007 (243) 66) called the book "rough and ready" and sighed that "it could have been so much better". KPJ agrees entirely: very poor standard of reproduction: copy seen at NRM bookshop where it contrasts greatly with NRM's own high standards for book production..
Tester, Adrian. A defence of the Midland/ LMS Class 4 0-6-0. Aberystwyth: Crimson Lake, 2013. 274pp.
The near accident at Kent Houuse on 23 January 1930, reported on by Anderson (above) and a very similar actual accident at Weaver Junction to a Royal Scot are considered by Tester
Townroe, S.C. 'Arthurs', 'Nelsons' & 'Schools' at work. London: Ian Allan, 1973/1983. 144pp. Bibliography.
Townroe, S.C. The "King Arthurs" and "Lord Nelsons" of the Southern Railway. London, Ian Allan, [1949] . 47 p. mcl. 16 plates. 37 illus., 4 diagrs. (incl. 2 s. & f. els.), 9 tables.
A good "potted" account which included performance. Location: British Museum.
Tuplin, W.A. Strange story of "Lord Nelson". Rly Wld, 1959, 20, 187-93. 2 illus,, 2 diagrs. (s. els.)
An assessment: in Tuplin's British steam since 1900 he was not wildly excited about the LN class and considered that the grate was excessivley long and difficult to fire and that the crank setting spoiled the balancing of the reciprocating parts.
Winding, P. Maunsell triumvirate. Rly Mag., 1963, 109, 566-74. 10 illus., 3 tables. Bibliog.
An appreciation of the V, LN and N15 designs.

4-6-0: modifications to pre-grouping designs.

London, Brighton & South Coast Railway

N15X:1934:
The L.B. & S.C.R. had built seven large express tank engines, with the Baltic wheel arrangement (the L class). These locomotives became redundant when the Brighton line was electrified. In consequence, the class was rebuilt as 4—6—0 tender engines, and used on the Western Division.

The SOUTHERN Baltics converted. Rly Mag., 1935, 76, 61; 36. illus.,diagr. (s. & f. els.), tables.
SOUTHERN Railway : conversion of 4-6-4 type "Baltic" tank engines to 4-6-0 type engines. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1934, 40, 365-6. illus. diagr. (s. & f. els.)

Retrospective and critical

EXTINCT locomotive classes : Southern Region class N15X (converted L class tanks). J. Stephenson Loco. Soc., 1957, 33, 372-3. illus., table.
Morris, O.J. As they were! — Class 'N15X' Southern Region. Trains ill., 1949, 2, 128-30. 2 illus.
Riley, R.C. The Pacific and Baltic tanks of the L.B. & S.C. R. Trains ill., 1957, 10, 40-6. 8 illus.
Includes the rebuilt Baltics.
Webber, A.F. The proportions of locomotive boilers. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1937, 27, 688-725. (Paper No. 378).
Included on a comparative basis.

London & South Western Railway:
The diagram (below) shows the complex inter-relationship of Drummond, Urie and Maunsell 4-6-0 classes.

H15: 1924 :
This was a modification of Urie's original 4-6-0 for new construction. The N15 boiler was substituted but the cylinders (21 in x 28 in) and 6 ft 0 in driving wheels were not changed.

NEW 4-6-0 mixed traffic engines, Southern Railway (L. & S.W. Section). Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1924, 30, 111.illus.
NEW 4-6-0 mixed-traffic locomotive, Southern Railway. Rly Mag., 1924, 54, 438. illus.

N15: King Arthurs: 1925:
To meet a demand for an increase of motive power on the Western Section, Maunsell modified the Urie N15 design for a new series. The boiler pressure was raised from 180 lb/in2 to 200 lb/in2, and the cylinder volume was reduced. In addition, the front-end was re-designed with long travel valves and more direct steam passages. It should be noted that the Urie locomotives were not modified until after Maunsell had retired. Several series of the Maunsell version were built. In retrospect it seems strange that the boilers and front ends were not modified to accept a drumhead smokebox. The differences between them were due to the varying nature of Southern operating conditions.

1925: Eastleigh series: LSWR cabs and bogie tenders.

4-6-0 express locomotives, Southern Railway. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1925, 31,135-6. diagr. (s. & f. els.)
"KING Arthur" class, Southern Railway. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1925, 15, 381-2. illus.
REBUILT 4-6-0 express locomotives, "King Arthur" class, Southern Ry. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1925, 31, 99-100. illus.
Rebuilt is a misnomer as the locomotives were built as replacements.

North British Locomotive Co. batch :1925

"KING Arthur' class 4-6-0 locomotives, Southern Railway. Rly Engr. 1926, 47, 248-50 + folding plate. illus. 4 diagrs., plan.
NEW express locomotives, Southern Railway. Rly Mag., 1925, 57, 164. illus.
NEW six-coupled bogie passenger engines, Southern Ry. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1925, 31, 235. illus.
SOUTHERN Rly.—express locomotive. Engineer, 1925, 140, 329. illus., diagr. (s. & f. els.)

E448: modification improved sprringing to bogie: 1925
Holcroft, H. Locomotive adventure. p. 132
Longer span laminated springs with addiotion of rubber pads.

Smoke deflection:
The class was the subject of several smoke deflection experiments. See also, the paper by Holcroft in the retrospective section.

1926:
Small wing-like deflector plates were fined immediately behind the chimney on No. E450. Incidentally, this application may explain why smoke deflector plates have sometimes been called "wings".

STEAM deflector for locomotives, Southern Ry. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1926, 32, 127. illus.

1927 No. 772 was equipped with large, rectangular plates which sloped inwards at the upper edges. The supporting arrangement was unusual in that the plates were fixed to the smokebox by large brackets which projected above the deflectors and met the smokebox near to the chimney.

SOUTHERN Railway locomotive fitted with smoke deflectors. Rly Mag., 1927, 60, 30, illus.

1928: Deflector plates of a standard design were fitted to the class.
[SMOKE deflectors for the "King Arthur" class.] Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1928, 34, 163.
Notes that "contrivance" used in Germany for some time.

World War II
King Arthur locomotives were loaned to the LNER: Nos. 739, 740, 742, 744, 747-51 and 754 sent to LNER North Eastern Area. Locomotive Mag., 1942, 48, 206

Barnes, Robin. Wartime service on Tyneside for SR Arthurs. Steam Wld, 1991 (51) 40.
Letter plus two reproductions of paintings: SR King Arthur No. 740 Merlin piloting C7 Atlantic passing through base of Cuxhoe signalbox with Q5 behind during WW2 (other relates to A1/1)..

Retrospective and critical

Atkins, Philip. Odious comparisons. Steam Wld, 2015, (335), 8-14
Annual mileage: 45,000 in 1937 and 32,000 in 1950
Bond, R.C. Organisation and control of locomotive repairs on British Railways. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1953, 43, 175-265. (Paper No. 520).
Annual average mileage statistics (70,995) attained between overhauls for the class are quoted.
Chadwick, John. One good [firing] turn. Gt Western Rly J., 2005, 7, 439-42.
Based at Oxford and used to footplate work on locomotives of all the pre-nationalization railways. Comment on exposed nature of King Arthur cabs and location of firehole, but regarded as powerful locomotives.
Gresley, H.N. [Report on the stability of S.R. classes K, K1 and N15 when tested on the Great Northern main-line] [in (pp. 34-7)]. Pringle, J.W. Report on the derailment of a passenger.train, which occurred on the 24th August, 1927, near Sevenoaks, on the Southern Railway. Ministry of Transport: Railway accidents [monograph]. London, HMSO, 1928. 38 p. 5 diagrs. (md. s. & f. els.), 6 tables, plan.
Gresley was critical of the vibration experienced in the cab of the N15 class during test running.
Hardy, R.H.N. "Balmore", pseud. Locomotive on shed. Trains Ann., 1956, 58-66.10 illus.
The author was shedmaster at Stewarts Lane. He gave his impressions of the N15s, which he considered to be a sound class.
Herbert, T.M. Locomotive firebox conditions: gas compositions and temperatures close to copper plates. Proc. Instn Mech. Engrs, 1928, 115, 985-1006
Part of a collaborative profamme between LMS, LNER and SR and British Non-Ferrous Metals Research Association Included tests on two King Arthur class locomotives working under different conditions
Holcroft, H. Locomotive trials on the Southern Railway. Engineer, 1925, 140, 658-62. 4diagrs., 6 tables.
Comparative Yorkshire/Welsh coal tests, coincidentally giving very full details of N15 working.
Holcroft, H. Smoke deflectors for locomotives. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1941, 31, 462-89. (Paper No. 430).
Smoke deflection development especially on the N15 class.
The King Arthurs—a class that sustained a great tradition. J. Stephenson Loco. Soc., 1964, 40, 47-51. 4 illus.
An appreciation reprinted from Modern Transport.
Lambert,  Arthur Ll. Bricklayers Arms — and Eastleigh. Rly Wld, 1983, 44, 576.
I hesitate to take issue with Eric L. Forge, Eastleigh and locomotive design - 1 (July). but feel compelled to do so. He says that after the first modernised N 15s were produced, the results were sufficiently encouraging for the Company to order 30 more from NB Loco Co. This was not so. The decision to replace the Drummond 4-6-0s, Nos E448-E457, by new locomotives was taken during 1924 and the 10 were completed between 2/25 and 7/25, though not in numerical order of construction. The order for the 30 'Scotch Arthurs' (Nos E763-E792) was placed in 1/25, before any of the Eastleigh engines were running, and delivered between 5/25 and 10/25. The first deliveries, for service on the Eastern Section from the beginning of the summer timetable on 13/7/25, actually overlapped at least four of the Eastleigh engines, for service on the Western Section that summer.
London & South Western Railway, "N 15" class 4-6-0's. J. Stephenson Loco. Soc., 1958, 34, 233-7.5 illus., table.
McKillop, N. Ace enginemen (1963)
Footplate log of Sam Gingell and Fireman F. Rowe working a Victoria to Ramsgate train with 30768 Sir Balin, recorded Ronald Nelson.
Nock, O.S. The Southern King Arthur family. 1976.
Includes both Urie and Maunsell two-cylinder 4-6-0s of classes N15, H15 and S15. Includes full general arrangement drawings for N15. Notes how Clayton had redesiigned front end. Improved balancing had reduced the hammer blow as compared with the Urie design. The Maunsell/Hutchinson superheater had replaced the Urie type.
Reed, Brian. 150 years of British  steam locomotives. p. 103.
First in point of time were the two-cylinder King Arthurs, the most uniformly successful and reliable six-coupled main-line engines of the SR. They were the first move to try and cope with the traffic department's requirement for an engine to haul 500 tons on 55mph schedules
Rich, Fred. Yesterday once more: a story of Brighton steam. 1996. Chapter 14. Yesterday once more. pp. 161-3.
Observations gleaned from former LBSCR enginemen on their brief experience of the King Arthurs and their response in comparison with the Brighton Baltics which accelerated more rapidly, but were slower downhill than the Arthurs.
Riley, R.C.  The Urie Arthurs. Rly Wld, 1958, 19, 185-92. 10 illus., 2 tables.
Swift, Peter. Locomotive in detail 4: Maunsell 4-6-0 King Arthur Class. Ian Allan, 2005.
Not seen, but presumably shares similar qualities as this Author's work on Schools class in same series.
Swift, Peter. SR 1930s – that makeshift lamp iron [letter]. Rly Arch., 2008 (20) 20.
See Rly Arch., 2008 (19) page 43 upper for photographic survey of Southern Railway Continel boat trains which included on of King Arthur No. 767 and its "makeshift extended lamp iron" on the buffer beam. The normal bracket was not broken as it is clearly visible above the smoke deflector plate. The reason for the makeshift may have been through the varying practices of the Southern Railway constituents. All its pre-grouping companies used route indicating discs, but the SECR used only four positions, three across the buffer beam and one in front of chimney. The LSWR and LBSCR both used six positions: the LSWR put its middle discs on either side of the smokebox at mid height, whilst the LBSCR used extended double brackets on the buffer beam, able to carry both the lower and middle disc. In about 1920, the SECR started to fit the additional brackets to locomotives, but lower down on the smokebox, as shown in the various photos of SECR 4-4-0s in Jim Greaves' article. The problem with the LSWR arrangement is shown on No. 856, in the photo below that of No. 767. The smokebox side, is right in the fireman's line of sight and would be even worse when the brackets were raised, as on No. 767, after smoke deflectors were fitted. The LSWR also differed from the other two in using sockets instead of spikes for its lamp irons, requiring a different set of lamps and discs. The Eastern Section solved this problem by inserting lamp irons into the sockets, as seen in the centre bufferbeam bracket on No. 767 and, more clearly, in the two photos of No. 772 on page 41. No. 772 also shows the final solution to the sighting problem with the side discs moved onto the smokebox door. As the photograph of 772 on page 42 shows, the operating department also solved the problem in 1934 by changing the Victoria-Dover via Tonbridge headcode. Lord Nelson No. 853 carried an LBSCR style double bracket on the fireman's side for a several  years.
Townroe, S.C. 'Arthurs', 'Nelsons' & 'Schools' at work. London: Ian Allan, 1973/1983. 144pp. Bibliography.
Townroe, S.C. The "King Arthurs" and "Lord Nelsons" of the Southern Railway. London, Ian Allan, [1949] .47 p. incl.. 16 plates. 37 illus., 4 diagrs. (md. 2s. & f. els). 9 tables.
Good "potted" history. Location : British Museum.
Webber, A.F. The proportions of locomotive boilers. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1937, 27, 688-725. (Paper No. 378).
Included on a comparative basis.
Winding, P. Maunsell triumvirate. Rly Mag., 1963, 109, 566-74. 10 illus., 3 tables. Bibliog.
Appreciation of the V, LN and N15 classes.

Names
The Arthurian names bestowed on the class by a vigorous publicity department were imaginative and seem to have caught the public imagination (see The Times reference (below)). Excalibur, Joyous Gard and Camelot had a poetic quality seldom found in post-grouping names.

KING Arthur haunts the railway. J. Stephenson Loco. Soc., 1964, 40, 23-5.
Reprinted from The Times of the 28th October, 1963 and accompanied by a letter from Sir John Elliott.
SOUTHERN Railway locomotivesto be named. Rly Mag., 1925, 56, 321.
Elliot, J. Early days of the Southern Railway. Journal of Transport History, 1960, 4, 197-213.

P14: 1923:
One of the Drummond P14 class four-cylinder locomotives was selected for an experimental alteration in crank settings. The conventional setting was 180o, but Holcroft had suggested that a change to 135o would lead to an improvement in performance. The P14 locomotive was modified to test Holcroft's theory.

Holcroft, H. Four-cylinder locomotives. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1920,10,115-32; 139-64. Disc.: 132-8; 165-77; 186-206.29 diagrs. (Paper No.80).
Theoretical treatise on crank settings.
SOUTHERN Railway (L. & SW. Section) re-built 4-cylinder express engine. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1923, 29, 352-3. illus., diagr. (s. el.)

S15:1927:
This class was introduced, by Urie, in 1920. It was similar to the N15 class, except for smaller (5 ft 7 in) driving wheels, and was intended for fast freight duties. In 1927, and again in 1936, Maunsell introduced further series, modified to conform with his N15 improvements.

1927 batch

NEW 4-6-0 goods locomotives, Southern Railway. Rly Engr. 1927, 48, 305. illus., diagr. (s. el.)
NEW six-coupled bogie goods engines, Southern Railway. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1927, 33, 174-5. illus., diagr. (s. el.)

1936 batch

EXPRESS freight locomotives, Southern Railway. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1936, 42, 236. illus., diagr. (s. & f. els.)
NEW express freight locomotives, Southern Railway. Rly Gaz., 1936, 65. 545-6. illus. 2 diagrs. (s. & f. els.)

T14:1930:
Introduced in 1911, the T14 was the last, and most successful, Drummond 4-6-0 design. Urie removed the firebox water-tubes and extended the smokebox. From 1930, Maunsell raised the running plates, improved the lubrication system and fitted his standard superheaters.

REBUILT 4-6-0 engine No. E 460, Southern Ry. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1930, 36, 181. illus.
SOUTHERN Railway rebuilt 4-6-0 No. E 460. Rly Mag., 1930, 67,34. illus.

Retrospective and critical

Maxwell, H. Farewell to the "Tl4s". Rly Mag., 1952, 98, 56-7.2 illus.
Webber, A.F. The proportions of locomotive boilers. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1937, 27, 688-725. (Paper No. 378).
T14 boiler included on a comparative basis.

2-6-0

The diagram (below) was contained in Jones in an attempt to show the complicated variations in the Maunsell 2-6-0/2-6-4T types with their variations in driving wheel diameter and numer (2 or 3) cyclinders. It also shows the locomotives which were constructed at Woolwich Arsenal following WW1. Since then Rowledge has published a very thorough and detailed examination of the type including the locomotives which were supplied to the Metropolitan Railway and to Irish railways.
Middlemass, TomThe 'Woolworths' — Woolwich Arsenal tentative entry into main line locomotive building. Backtrack, 4, 148-54.
2-6-4T and 2-6-0 for SR (N, N1, K, K1, U, U1); 2-6-0 for MGWR/GSR  (K1, K1A); 2-6-4T for Metropolitan Railway (K).
Rowledge, J.W.P.  The Maunsell Moguls. Oakwood, 1976. (Locomotion Papers No. 99). 64pp.
The Maunsell "Moguls" in their earliest form represented the first real change from the more elegant Victorian and Edwardian aspect of British locomotives, being a transition from the advanced design achieved by Churchward at Swindon to the outside-cylinder, outside-valve gear, mixed. traffic locomotive which became the typical steam locomotive until the demise of steam, and successfully copied by the LMS, LNER and British Railways; only the GWR remained an exception. At the time of introduction their appearance was the subject of much adverse comment, and they were never accorded a proper place in history. That history is not confined to the railway of origin, the SECR and its successors, by virtue of the British Government's choice of the type fot construction by the Woolwich Arsenal after the First World War. Efforts to sell them were spread over several years and inevitably resulted in a considerable loss to the British tax payer. Whilst the SR took the greater number, other sales resulted in the appearance of the type in Ireland and on the Metropolitan Railway.

N:1917
The N class occupies a significant position in British locomotive development. It was the first non-GWR design to incorporate most of Churchward's design features, as exemplified by the coned boiler and long travel valves. Further, the outside valve gear represented an advance on Churchward's practice. The Locomotive Mag., 1920, 26, 231 refers to 810 class for Nos. 811-13

New locomotives: South Eastern and Chatham Ry.. Locomotive Mag., 1917, 23, 195-6. 2 illustrations
2-6-4T No. 790 and 2-6-0 No. 810.

In 1919, the Government adopted it as a standard design for post-war rehabilitation. To reduce unemployment in the munitions factories, one hundred locomotives were constructed by the Woolwich Arsenal. Whilst most of these locomotives were bought by the Southern, some were purchased by the Metropolitan Railway and Great Southern Railways. The Southern engines received the soubriquet "Woolworths" which reflected their place of origin and low price. Holcroft's Locomotive adventure (both volumes) is an essential reference. .

Clayton, J. The lubrication of a modern locomotive. J. Instn Loco. Engrs., 1922, 12, 473-503. Disc.: 504-15. (Paper 124)
Clayton shows where aspects of the design came from Swindon (notably the big end) and shared this with the S&DJR 2-8-0s and had come with Maunsell from Inchicore. Folding diagrams show the means of lubrication used on the N class.

1924 : Woolwich Arsenal series
An excellent book on the Locomotives of the GSR by Clements and McMahon considers the Irish purchases at lenth and throws additional light on the whole Woolwich story.

Locomotives built at Woolwich Arsenal. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1924, 30, 298. illus.
No. 830A illustrated alongside mechanical coaling plant at Feltham
SALE of Government locomotives. Rly Mag., 1925, 57, 261.
Reply to a question in Parliament (13 July 1925) on the disposal of the R.O.D. and Woolwich Arsenal locomotives.

1933: left-hand drive.

NEW mixed traffic engines, Southern Railway. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1933, 39, 347. illus.
NEW mixed-traffic locomotives, Southern Railway. Rly Mag., 1934, 74, 64. illus.

Experimental alterations

192? : Marshall valve gear. This gear was applied experimentally to No. 1850.

Elsey,W. Experimental locomotives. 3. S.R. 2-6-0's Nos. 1816, 1629 and 1850. Rly Obsr, 1941, 13, 212-13.
Robertson, Kevin. Leader: the full story. Stroud: Allan Sutton, 1995. 123pp + 128pp.
Published with Leader and Southern experimental steam (originally published in 1990): this latter part (pp. 12-13) includes No. 1850, the locomotive fitted with J.T. Marshall's experimental valve gear..
SOME "improved" locomotive valve gears. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1938, 44, 373-6: 1939, 45, 24-6. 10 diagrs.
Includes details of the Marshall valve gear.

1930 : No. A816 was fitted with the H.P.H. Anderson compression system of condensing apparatus.
The situation on Patents is covered in the brief biography of H.P.H. Anderson

Developments in boiler feeding. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1936, 42, 104-5. illus.
Duffy, M.C. Waste heat recovery and steam locomotive design. Trans. Newcomen Soc., 61. 15-30. Disc.: 30-1.
Elsey,W. Experimental locomotives. 3. S.R. 2-6-0's Nos. 1816, 1629 and 1850. Rly Obsr, 1941, 13, 212-13.
Holcroft, H. Condensing by compression a locomotive experiment. Engineer, 1946, 182, 202-3; 227-9; 248-9. 3 illus., 3 diagrs., table.
There was further discussion on this topic by H.H. Carr and Oliver Lyle in Engineer, 1946, 182, 327; 350; 446: 183, 89-91. (item missed by KPJ) see Duffy ibid
Holcroft, H. Locomotive adventure fifty years with steam. London, Ian Allan, [1962].
See Chapter VII (Pp. 155-73).
Holcroft, H. Southern railway locomotive A816: a great engineering venture. J. Stephenson Loco. Soc., 1958, 34, 70-87. 12 diagrs.
Holcroft, H. Discussion on Lomonossoff, G.V. and Lomonossoff, G. Condensing locomotives. Proc. Instn mech. Engrs, 1945, 152, 275-88. Disc.: 289-303.8 illus., 25 diagrs., 4 tables. Bibliog.
Pp. 292-4 : This item of discussion was expanded into the article in the Engineer.

Retrospective and critical

Hardy, R.H.N. "Balmore", pseud. Locomotive on shed. Trains Ann., 1956, 58-66.10 illus.
The author was recently appointed shedmaster at Stewarts Lane, and formerly from the Great Eastern Section, Hardy likened the N class to a much improved LNER K2.
Bond, R.C.  Organisation and control of locomotive repairs on British Railways. J. lnstn Loco. Engrs, 1953, 43, 175-216. (Paper No. 520)
Includes mileage/overhaul (average annual mileage: 53,852) statistics for the class.
Casserley, H.C. End of the Maunsell moguls—the Southern maids-of-all-work. Rly Wld, 1966, 27, 436-40. 11 illus.
Superficialities receive most of the author's attention.
Clarke, Jeremy. The locomotives of R.E.L. Maunsell. Part 3. The 'Mogul' family – SECR. Steam Wld, 2008 (248) 38- 41.
Brief mention of the K class 2-6-4T No. 790 (illustrated in original condition) and questions the reason for this design. Also the emergence of the N class 2-6-0 No. 810 which shared many components in common with the 2-6-4T.  The K1 and N1 three-cylinder variants also mentioned. The initial locomotives were Nos. 890 and No. 822 and these were fitted with Holcroft's form of derived motion, but a later batch of five three-cylinder N1 2-6-0s in 1930 were fitted with three sets of valve gear. The sources of the design at Derby and Swindon are noted. The N class was used very widely on the Southern, especially on service in Devon and Cornwall. The illustrations of SECR No. 790, which clearly displays the tail rods which were originally fitted and No. 822 with this its Holcroft valve gear are excellent, but where are the photographs working as Southern Railway work horses?
Holcroft, H. Locomotive adventure: fifty years with steam. London, Ian Allan, [1962]. p. 97.
Considered that the N class should have been fitted with a larger boiler as class tended to be shy for steam.
Kirkland, R.K. The Woolwich moguls a locomotive family. Trains ill., 1951, 4, 134-7. 2 illus.
Also includes the Irish and Met. R. purchases.
"Namron", pseud. Uckfield line services. J. Stephenson Loco. Soc., 1955, 31, 26-7.
A footplateman's criticism of the N class and other classes.
Reynolds, W.J.
The Maunsell moguls, S.R. Rly Mag., 1943, 89, 155-8; 199-202; 279-82. 17 illus., 3 tables.
Robertson, Kevin. Leader: the full story. Stroud: Allan Sutton, 1995. 123pp + 128pp.
Published with Leader and Southern experimental steam (originally published in 1990): this latter part includes a chapter entitled the Holcroft-Anderson condensing turbine engine No. A816 (pp. 22-33). The chapter title is inaccurate: the turbine was used solely as a secondary drive: to drive the fan within the smokebox. Holcroft's Locomotive adventure is a much better source...

N1: 1922 :
The original N1 locomotive incorporated three cylinders and Holcroft's derived motion for the inside cylinder. Later locomotives were built with three separate sets of Walschaerts gear. All contemporary references are to the original locomotive.

NEW three-cylinder 2-6-0 type locomotives for the Southern Railway (South Eastern & Chatham Section). Rly Engr. 1923, 44, 140-3 + folding plate. illus., 3 diagrs., plan, table.
Includes sectionalized working diagrams.
Southern Railway (S.E. & C. Section) : new three-cylinder superheater locomotive, 2-6-0 type. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1923, 13, 2-6. illus., diagr. (s. el.)
Southern Railway—three cylinder simple, superheater locomotive. Engineer, 1923, 135,200-1. illus,2 diagrs. (incl.s. & f.els.)
THREE-CYLINDER "Mogul" locomotive, Southern Railway (S.E. & C.R. Section). Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1923, 29, 61-4. illus., 5 diagrs. (incl. s. & f/r els.), plan, 2 tables.
THREE-CYLINDER 2-6-0 locomotive for the Southern Railway (South Eastern and Chatham Section). Rly Mag., 1923, 52, 310-11 + folding plate f.p. 263. illus., diagr.

Retrospective and critical

Baxter, F.L. Balancing of three-cylinder locomotives. Engineer, 1935, 160, 84-6. 5 diagrs., 8 tables.
The N1 is considered on a comparative basis.
Casserley, H.C. End of the Maunsell moguls—the Southern maids-of-all-work. Rly WId. 1966, 27, 436-40. 11 illus.
Clayton, J. Discussion on Gresley, H.N.
The three-cylinder high-pressure locomotive. Proc. Instn mech. Engrs, 1925,(2), 927-67. Disc. 968-86. 9 illus., 15 diagrs., 6 tables.
Pp. 968-70. Clayton gave details of the satisfactory performance of No. A822 in service, but states his preference for three independent sets of valve gear. This may explain the change from conjugated gears, on the S.R. Clayton was critical of the irregularity of the derived motion.
CONJUGATED valve gears. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1949, 55, 41-2. 5 diagrs.
Considers the Holcroft and Gresley versions.
Holcroft, H. Conjugated valve gears for locomotives : their history and development. Engineer, 1946, 181,145-7; 68-70; 192-3. 21 diagrs.
Includes the application to the N1 locomotive.
Holcroft, H. Locomotive adventure: fifty years with steam. London, Ian Allan, [1962]. p. 153
In 1931 Ashford built five 2-6-0 three-cylinder engines, Class N1. They were generally similar to the prototype No. A822, and were intended for the restricted Tonbridge-Hastings line over which the two-cylinder N class was not accepted owing to its' greater width over cylinders. An inside valve gear similar to that on the Z class was provided, notwithstanding that this meant some sacrifice of the rigid horizontal staying of frames and impaired accessibility for oiling, since engines had to be brought over a pit. .
Reynolds, W.J. The Maunsell moguls, S.R. Rly Mag., 1943, 89, 155-8; 199-202; 279-82. 17 illus., 3 tables.

U and U1
These designs differed from the N and N1classes in having larger (6 ft 0 in) driving wheels. The U design pre-dated the Sevenoaks accident (see K class), but after this the K class was rebuilt as 2-6-0s. The rebuilt K1 locomotive formed the prototype for the Ul class.

U: 1928 two-cylinder design.

New passenger locomotives—Southern Ry. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1929, 35, 104-5. illus., diagr. (s. & f/r. els.)
New Southern Railway locomotives. Rly Mag., 1929, 64, 350-2 + plate f.p. 337. 2 illus., 2 diagrs. (s. els.)

Experimental alteration

1930 Experimental equipment of No. A629 with A.E.G. pulverized fuel apparatus.

Elsey,W. Experimental locomotives. 3. S.R. 2-6-0's Nos. 1816, 1629 and 1850. Rly Obsr, 1941, 13, 212-13.
Holcroft, H. discussion on page 841 Cocks, C.S. History of Southern Railway locomotives to 1938. J. Instn Loco. Engrs., 1948, 38, 749-822. Disc.: 823-60.(Paper No. 481)
Gave a brief account of the experiment: KPJ suspects that the second volume of Locomotive adventure gives fuller (and more colourful) account.
Maunsell, R.E.L. Discussion on  Armstrong, J.C.  Pulverized fuel locomotives. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1929, 19, 53-90. Disc. 86-114; 492-9:1930, 20, 146-55; 325-34 (Paper No. 239).
Pp.86-90 (19) : Maunsell adds some notes on the purchase of A.E.G. equipment for the S.R. : the paper is basically about the German results from the system.
Southern Railway No. A629 burning pulverized fuel leaving Eastbourne on 09.30 express (A.L.P. Reavil). Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1932, 38, 13 bottom
Robertson, Kevin. Leader: the full story. Stroud: Allan Sutton, 1995. 123pp + 128pp.
Published with Leader and Southern experimental steam (originally published in 1990): this latter part (pp. 41-4) includes an account of the experiment. Photographs show the fuelling plant at Easboirne (the experiment terminated when this exploded) and a photograph of the locomotive working the 09.30 Eastbourne to Victoria express.

Ul:
The contemporary references noted are to the 1931 locomotives built with three sets of Walschaerts valve gear.

NEW three-cylinder 2-6-0 type locomotive, Southern Railway. Rly Mag., 1931, 68, 362. illus.
NEW three-cylinder 2-6-0 type locomotives, Southern Railway. Rly Engr, 1931, 52, 152. illus., 2 diagrs. (s. & f/r. els.)
THREE-CYLINDER passenger engines, Southern Ry. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1931, 37, 109-10. illus. 2 diagrs. (s. & f/r. els.)

Retrospective and critical

Bond, R.C.  Organisation and control of locomotive repairs on British Railways. J. lnstn Loco. Engrs, 1953, 43, 175-216. (Paper No. 520)
Includes mileage/overhaul statistics (68,941 average annual) for the class for the U class only.
Casserley, H.C. End of the Maunsell moguls—the Southern maids-of-all-work. Rly Wld, 1966, 27, 436-40. 11 illus.
Superficialities receive most of the author's attention.
Clarke, Jeremy. The locomotives of R.E.L. Maunsell. Part 4. The 'Mogul' family – SR. Steam Wld, 2008 (249) 53-6..
As is usual with descriptions of this species nothing is simple: 75% of the illus. are of 2-6-4Ts, and the only 2-6-0 illustrated is a former River class U No. 31798 at Ash Junction on 7 September 1949. The remaining photographs are of K1 No. A890 River Frome at Bricklayers Arms in July 1927; W class No. 1914 at Battersea on 21 April 1932 and A class No. A797 River Mole near Merstham on Victoria to Eastbourne train on 27 August 1926. A table partly assists to show the origins of the 6ft driving wheel Moguls and the 5ft 6in W class freight only 2-6-4Ts which absorbed some of the off-cuts. The 2-6-0s were both two and three-cylinder types: the W class were wholly three-cylinder. See also letter from Bill Southgate (251 p. 21) who corrects the assertion that the U class Nos. A610-29 were ordered as 2-6-0s.
Holcroft, H. Locomotive adventure: fifty years with steam. London, Ian Allan, [1962]. p. 153
Eastleigh at the same time [1931] built 20 of the U1 class; these were similar to the N1 class, but had 6 ft. diameter wheels. New tenders of 4,000 gal. capacity were provided. Instead of having the flat sides hitherto prevailing, these had the tops turned inwards, as on the 'Schools', to improve visibility when working tender first. The new system of numbering was being introduced at this time, so these engines became Nos. A891-900 and 1901-1910.
Johansen, F.C.
Wind tunnel experiments [in:] Holcroft, H. Smoke deflection for locomotives. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1941, 31, 462-89. Disc. : 490-509 + 3 folding plates. 31 illus., 8 diagrs. (Paper No. 430).

Pp. 473.84 An abstract of a National Physical Laboratory report on smoke deflection experiments on mdoels of the U and V classes.
"Namron", pseud. Uckfield line services. J. Stephenson Loco. Soc., 1955, 31, 26-7.
A footplateman's criticism of the N class and other classes.
Reynolds, W.J. The Maunsell moguls, S.R. Rly Mag., 1943, 89, 155-8; 199-202; 279-82. 17 illus., 3 tables.
Wilson, G.R.S. Report on the collision which occurred on 6th November at Herne Hill on the Southern Railway. Ministry of Transport Railway Accidents. HMSO, 1948
Wilson was critical of right-hand drive on No. 1901 buuilt in 1931 which was a factor in the collision, although the main cause was lack of care by the driver in thick fog

0-6-0

Q: 1938 :
This was Maunsell's final design and was a straightforward, but modern 0-6-0 freight locomotive.

NEW freight engines, Southern Railway. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1938, 44, 58. illus., diagr. (s. & f. els.)
NEW 0-6-0 goods engines for the Southern Railway. Rly Mag., 1938, 82, 227. illus.
NEW 0-6-0 type freight engines, Southern Railway. Rly Gaz., 1938, 68, 219. illus., diagr. (s. el.)

Retrospective

Clarke, Jeremy. The locomotives of R.E.L. Maunsell. Part 8: Shunt and trip. Steam Wld, 2008 (253), 36-9.
Z class three-cylinder 0-8-0T and Q class 0-6-0. Illus. include excellent view of Q class No. 534 as new at Eastleigh in 1938 which clearly shows the steam reverser. Also Q class No. 30543 as pilot to WC 34043 Coombe Martin approaching Radipole Halt on climb from Weymouth to Dorchester.

4-4-0

E1 and D1 rebuilds: 1919-20 (E1) and 1921-7 (D1)

Modified for oil-burning

Oil-burning locomotives on the London, Midland & Scottish and Southern Railways. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1926, 32, 207-8. illus.
No. A163 illustrated: (modified with Mexican trough burner) other classes modified on both railways are listed.

Fitted with Titan tilting grate
No. 504A: see Locomotive Mag., 1926, 32, 364

There is a strong tradition that these were superb locomotives: certainly Nock  and Cox (Locomotive panorama Vol. 1 p. 67) give this impression, but they receive only passing reference in Cocks' paper. although T.E. Chrims in the discussion (pp. 832-3) noted that "these locomotives did splendid work". Burtt gives the technical information (some were rebuilt at Ashford and some at Beyer Peacock). They were rebuilds of Wainwright's E and D classes. The main alterations were superheating, 10 inch piston valves and a new firebox with a grate area of 24ft2. They were fast and were capable of hauling heavy boat trains over the difficult former LCDR lines.

Clarke, Jeremy. The locomotives of R.E.L. Maunsell. Part 2. The SECR 4-4-0s. Steam Wld, 2008 (247), 48-52.
Interesting in that earlier writers have given the impression that A.D. Jones, the Outdoor Superintendent and Maunsell were appointed at the same time, whereas Clarke states that Jones was appointed in April 1913 and assisted with Wainwright's removal prior to Maunsell's arrival in September 1913. Maunsell found that the design of the L class had reached an advanced stage under Wainwright and Robert Surtees, but sent the drawings to W. Joynt at Inchicore for his observations before construction by Beyer Peacock and Borsig commenced. The rebuilding of the E class 4-4-0 No. 179 with 10 inch piston valves and greatly improved boiler is regarded as a masterpiece, and this led to ten further E class locomotives being converted to the E1 type at Beyer Peacock in 1921 and twent D class being converted at Beyer Peacock or Ashford into the slightly less puisant D1 class.

V (Schools class): 1930:
The Schools class marked a departure from the normal British standards in 4-4-0 design, in that the leading dimensions were akin to 4-6-0 practice. The tractive effort (25,130 lbf), total heating surface (2049 ft2) and grate area (28.3 ft2) were comparable with most 4-6-0 designs of intermediate capacity. Performance in service was equal to, or rather better than, that of the King Arthur class. The remarks made by Holcroft in his 1918 paper on three-cylinder loocomotives are especially interesting where he stated that three-cylinder 4-4-0s would be able to perform the work handled by two-cylinder 4-6-0s. Holcroft's extensive contribution to Cocks' paper is highly relevant. Bulleid fitted a mock-up streamlining to one locomotive.

4-4-0 type "V" class passenger locomotive for the Southern Railway. Engineering, 1930, 129, 408; 412. illus., diagr. (s. & f. els.)
NEW express locomotives, Southern Railway. Rly Engr. 1930, 51, 176-8. illus., diagrs. (incl.. s. el.), plan.
Includes detailed sectionalized working drawings.
NEW 4-4--0 locomotives ("Schools" class). Southern Railway. Rly Mag., 1930, 66, 359 + plate f.p. 337. illus.
NEW 4-4-0 type locomotives, Southern Railway. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1930, 20, 137-40. illus., diagr. (s. & f. els.)
SOUTHERN Ry., new 4-4-0 express locomotives. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1930, 36, 109-10. illus., diagr. (s. el.)

Retrospective and critical
Atkins, Philip. Odious comparisons. Steam Wld, 2015, (335), 8-14
Annual mileage: 45,000 in 1937 and 34,000 in 1950
Bond, R.C.  Organisation and control of locomotive repairs on British Railways. J. lnstn Loco. Engrs, 1953, 43, 175-216. (Paper No. 520)
Includes mileage/overhaul statistics (69,851 average annual) for the class.
Holcroft, H. Locomotive adventure fifty years with steam. London, Ian Allan, [1962].
Pp 152-3: When Eastleigh started to develop the design, 'Old Jock' [Finlayson] protested that he could not work a Belpaire firebox in, and that it would be heavier than a round top one and would produce excessive axle loads. We knew that he disliked Belpaires, taper boilers, circular smokeboxes and conjugated valve gears. However, he got the better of Clayton, who rather gave in to him, so the final scheme presented to Maunsell included a shortened version of the 'King Arthur' boiler, or, more correctly, that of the 'Arthurised' SI5 class, for it had wider waterlegs in the firebox. A third valve gear was adopted for the inside cylinder but it necessitated a second reversing shaft linked to the main one. A conjugated gear would have provided a lighter and cheaper alternative.
There was some trouble from slipping at first; the V class had hand sanding, using dried sand, which was liable to become exhausted during a trip when rails were generally greasy. Steam sanding to all four wheels was substituted and the trouble ceased. The greatly reduced outflow of sand enabled sanding periods to be prolonged. For instance, it could be applied while passing over the two miles of normally greasy rails of the up road in Sevenoaks Tunnel, rising at 1 in 144. This put the class 'properly on its feet'.
Steam leaks occurred at the pipe joints between cylinders, and a special design of flexible copper joint had to be used to cure the trouble. When the class had been running for some time, fractures began to occur in the bogie frames. The bogie was the same as that on the 'Nelson' but carried 3½ tons more weight. New frames of greater depth were substituted; and with that, the 'teething troubles' of the V class were over.
The performance of the class in traffic was outstanding, and these engines became the highlight of the Maunsell regime. Thirty more were built during 1932-35, the only alteration being to raise the side w,indows a little and enlarge the openings in the cab sides to give more head room. The 'Schools' were to be found in services to and from London and Folkestone, Kent Coast, Hastings via Tonbridge, Portsmouth via Guildford and Bournemouth, and at times on certain cross-country routes.

Holcroft, H. (Paper No. 65) Three-cylinder locomotives. J. Instn Loco. Engrs., 1918, 8. 355-68. Disc.: 368-95; 476-91.
Argued that a three-cylinder 4-4-4T could take the place of a two-cylinder 4-6-2T or 2-6-4T. This idea was pursued still further in the paper, and in the discussion, where it was considered that three-cylinder 4-4-0s would be able to perform the work normally allocated  to 2-cylinder 4-6-0s: these remarks may be regarded as the genesis for the Schools class.
Holcroft, H. discussion on Cox, E.S. and F.C. Johansen Locomotive frames. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1948, 38, 81-196.
Pp. 134-8.: Details of trouble experienced with the V class.
Johansen, F.C. Wind tunnel experiments in Holcroft, H. Smoke deflectors for locomotives. J. lnstn Loco. Engrs, 1941, 31, 462-509. (Paper No. 430).
Pp. 473-84 (17 illus.) : An abstract of a National Physical Laboratory report on experiments with models of the U and V classes: mainly the latter.
Mercury, pseud. Salute to the "Schools" 4-4-0s of the Southern. Rly Wld, 1963, 24, 164-71. 14 illus., 2 tables.
Le Fleming, Hugh M. International locomotives, Plate 78
Painting in Southern green (number on cabside)
A fairly detailed history.
Reed, Brian. 150 years of British  steam locomotives. p. 103.
The three-cylinder Schools 4-4-0 of 1930-1 embodied all the lines of thought on valves, boilers and Fig 21 General arrangement of the two-cylinder King Arthur class 4-6-0s, probably the most reliable and effective top-class motive power of the Southern Railway, 1925 accessibility supported by Maunsell, but there was an additional 'something' about them, an almost unwitting combination of correct ratios right through, apart from one detail, that made them the most powerful and effective 4-4-0s ever to run in Britain.
Riemsdijk, J.T. van. Compound locomotives: an International survey. 1994. 140pp.
Written mainly about Midland compounds, but added that the maximum sustained power outputs achieved by the Midland Compounds, Southern Schools, LNWR George V and LNER Shire (D49) 4-4-0s were all much the same, but the Midland and LNER types were rarely required to produce such outputs.
Swift, Peter. Locomotives in detail. 6. Maunsell 4-4-0 Schools class. London: Ian Allan. 2006. 96 pp.
Aimed at the modeller: thus rather superficial in both senses. Some of the illustrations are very small, and not well reproduced: some are very redolent of the Publisher's ABC series. On the other hand some of the superficial detail is impressive: at the bottom of page 47 there is an illustration of No. 926 Repton with its tender adorned with a British Railways totem of the sort associated with platform signs. Extensive use has been made of Colour Rail material. One suspects, having seen the same Author's excellent work in Railway Archive that the limitations must be placed firmly on the shoulders of the publisher. Mel Holley (Steam Wld, 2007 (238) 66) comments: "this volume is not as poor as some in the series" "Yet again this series fails to live up to what it promises tthe reader".
Townroe, S.C. 'Arthurs', 'Nelsons' & 'Schools' at work. London: Ian Allan, 1973/1983. 144pp. Bibliography.
Blurb stated that Stephen Townroe assisted in the construction of the Schools class.
Townroe, S.C. The book of the "Schools" class. 1947.
A short history. Location : British Museum.
Webber, A.F. The proportions of locomotive boilers. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1937, 27, 688-763.. (Paper No. 378).
Analysis of the boiler design on a comparative basis.
Weight, R.A.H. Silver Jubilee of the Southern "Schools"- Trains ill., 1955, 8, 374-6. 3 illus.
The workings of the class in 1955, rather than history.
Winding, P. Maunsell triumvirate. Rly Mag., 1963, 109, 566-74. 10 illus., 3 tables. Bibliog.
An appreciation which also considers the N 15 and LN classes.
Winkworth, D.W. The Schools 4-4-0s. London: Allen & Unwin, 1982. 112pp.
Very thorough monograph: notes experiments on draughting; two illus. of wooden mock-up for streamlining; illus. of "30,903" (note comma) and other painting variants; much performance.

Names

[No. 923 Uppingham renamed Bradfield]. Loco. RIy Carr. Wagon Rev., 1934, 40, 287.
Burtt, G.F., photographer. S.R. No.923 with original nameplates (as built in Dec. 33). (Renamed Bradfield in August 1934). J. Stephenson Loco. Soc., 1949, 25, plate 8 f.p. 249.
Formerly Uppingham

4-4-0: Pre-grouping designs

South Eastern & Chatham Railway

L: 1914 originally K class
Two series inherited by Maunsell: one from Borsig and the other from Beyer Peacock

New superheater express locomotives, South Eastern & Chatham Ry. Locomotive Mag., 1914, 20, 71. diagram (side elevation)
Borsig series
Superheater express locomotive, South Eastern & Chatham Ry. Locomotive Mag., 1914, 20, 185. illustration
Nos. 772-781 built by Borsig of Berlin: No. 779 illustrated
New express engines. South Eastern & Chatham Railway. Locomotive Mag., 1914, 20, 287
Beyer Peacock series: notes Robinson suprheater and lack of brass capped chimneys

L1:1926 : The L1 design was based on Wainwright's L class, which had been introduced in 1914. Maunsell modified the valve arrangement to correspond the D and E class rebuilds. The boilers were adapted from the Wainwright design, hence the classification: L1.

NEW 4-4-0 locomotive, Southern Railway. Rly Engr, 1926, 47, 186. illus. diagr. (s. el.)
NEW 4-4-0 locomotives, Southern Railway. Rly Mag., 1926,58, 381 + plate f.p. 337. illus.
SOUTHERN Railway : new 4-4-0 type engines. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1926, 16, 226-8. illus.
full list of leading dimensions: notes that fitted with Maunsell superheater
SOUTHERN Railway : new 4-4-0 type engines. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev. 1926, 32, 106. illus.

Retrospective
Atkins, Philip.The James Clayton influence. Railways South East, 1988/89, 1, 122-9.
Traces Clayton's influence on MR and SECR/SR, and also shows that designs developed on MR for 2-6-2T for LTS Section were developed into 2-6-4Ts on SECR and on LMS. One extremely revealing comparison pairs photographs of West Country Pacifics piloted by 40562 (on S&D passing Masbury) and L1 on Night Ferry (near Faversham). The article inter alia contains further Clayton influences through J.H. Adams and Hookham. Whilst at Derby Clayton not only worked on the Paget locomotive but also input into the S&D 2-8-0 and Lickey 0-10-0 designs. Atkins argues that the Ashford taper boiler did not come from Swindon with Holcroft but from Derby. The similarities of the E1 and D1 with the MR 2P, and the L1/Q with their Derby counterparts (2P/4F) are also noted. The LN and Royal Scot classes shared the boiler flanging plates used by NBL
Clarke, Jeremy. The locomotives of R.E.L. Maunsell. Part 2. The SECR 4-4-0s. Steam Wld, 2008 (247), 48-52.
Interesting in that earlier writers have given the impression that A.D. Jones, the Outdoor Superintendent and Maunsell were appointed at the same time, whereas Clarke states that Jones was appointed in April 1913 and assisted with Wainwright's removal prior to Maunsell's arrival in September 1913. Maunsell found that the design of the L class had reached an advanced stage under Wainwright and Robert Surtees, but sent the drawings to W. Joynt at Inchicore for his observations before construction by Beyer Peacock and Borsig commenced. The rebuilding of the E class 4-4-0 No. 179 with 10 inch piston valves and greatly improved boiler is regarded as a masterpiece, and this led to ten further E class locomotives being converted to the E1 type at Beyer Peacock in 1921 and twent D class being converted at Beyer Peacock or Ashford into the slightly less puisant D1 class. The L1 design was based upon the L class, but with some of the improvements worked into the E1 class, but as finalised by the North British Locomotive Co. (NBL)..
Grayer, Jeffery. Twilight of the [Southern Region] 'L1s'. Steam Wld, 2007, (235) 24-8.
Largely displaced by Phase 1 of the Kent Coast electrification in 1959 some were transferred to Nine Elms and used to a limited extent on Waterloo to Basingstoke trains; and some worked on the Reading to Redhill and Redhill to Tonbridge services. The South Eastern Limited double-headed by L1 No. 31786 and D1 31749 is seen passing Falconwood (not on Dartford Loop as stated, but on Bexleyheath line) on 11 June 1961 (Derek Cross: b&w).
What is that vertical smokebox pipe on a Maunsell 'L1' class 4-4-0? John Jones. Steam Wld, 2007, (237) 20.
Reply with illustration from R.H.N. Hardy: pipe carried exhaust steam from blast pipe to exhaust steam injector. At time photograph taken of No. 31754 exhaust steam injector was probably still capable of working. .

Stirling 440 class
Maunsell modification to James Stirling 440 class 4-4-0 No. 13 (fitted with helcal feed-water apparatus)

S.E. & C.R. express locomotive with feed-water heater. Locomotive Mag., 1921, 27, 286. illustration

Tank engines

0-8-0T

Z: 1929 :
The 1927 building programme included eight 0-8-0 shunting locomotives: see Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1927, 33, 32
The Z class was introduced for heavy shunting duties. A three.cyIinder arrangement was adopted to avoid slipping and noise.

[CLASS Z 0-8-OT, S. Rly. J. lnstn Loco. Engrs, 1929, 19, 4-7. illus., diagr. (s.&f.els.)
LOCOMOTIVES for shunting, Southern Ry.. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1929, 35, 103-4. diagram (side & front elevations)
NEW Southern Railway locomotives. Rly Mag., 1929, 64, 350-2 + plate f.p. 337. 2 illus., 2 diagrs. s. els.)
THREE-CYLINDER shunting engine, Southern Ry., Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1930, 36, 404 + folding plate. 3 diagrs.
Includes sectionalized diagrams.

Clarke, Jeremy. The locomotives of R.E.L. Maunsell. Part 8: Shunt and trip. Steam Wld, 2008 (253), 36-9.
Z class three-cylinder 0-8-0T and Q class 0-6-0. Illus. two good views of Z class: No. A950 on 9 June 1929 (O.J. Morris) and No. 951 taken in late 1930s.
Holcroft, H. Locomotive adventure. V. 2
In 1930 the existing swing bridge [at Folkestone] was replaced by a new one in steel capable of carrying heavier locomotives than the R class tanks. The use of three locomotives per train was an expensive matter, and with some relaxation in the weight limit being permissible it was decided to experiment with a Z class shunter on this working. Accordingly No. A955 was sent to Folkestone and the first trial was carried out on August 29th. This was mainly for trying the engine over curves and for clearances in the Harbour area. No. A955 returned to the junction drawing two coaches up the gradient. Further trials with train loading took place on October 9th, the weather being fine and still. For the first test a train of eight coaches and a van, weighing in all 266 tons were assembled at the Harbour station. The start was at 11.32 a.m., with the safety valve blowing off 10 lb. light at 170 lb.; rounding the sharp curve leading to the bottom of the 1 in 30 slope speed fell off rapidly and the train almost came to a stand on reaching the critical point, part of the train being on curve and the rest on the slope. Any two-cylinder engine would have stalled under these conditions, but with the more even turning moment of the three-cylinder propulsion No. A955 hung on with bulldog tenacity. Speed was so low that one had to look down at the ground to see that there was any movement at all. Very gradually as one coach after another left the curve behind speed picked up and the engine got going well. Pressure dropped to 150 lb., but recovered to 160 lb. by the time Folkestone Jct. signal box was passed at 11.41 a.m., water being at the bottom of the gauge glass. Thus time taken was 8ó min. of which about half was spent at the foot of the bank in slow motion. For the second trial one coach was taken off, reducing load to 233 tons. The start was at 12.17 p.m. and the curve was rounded without the same difficulty. Pressure stood at 160 lb. with the injector on, the engine being worked at Notch 4 on the reverser, and an inch of water was showing at the finish. The signal box was passed at 12.21, a time of 4 min. and the stop in siding was at 12.22. This demonstrated that a load of 233 was about the limit for the engine when unassisted.
The final test was with a train of eleven coaches of 364 tons tare, No. A955 having the assistance of R class tank No. A125 in the rear. Pressure at the start at 1.57 p.m. was 170 lb. and the gauge glass was full. The box was passed in 4ó min. at 2.2 and the stop in siding at 2.3. There was a little priming at first but it soon ceased. There was no slipping whatsoever . The conclusion reached was that it would be possible by using an engine of Z class capacity to work trains requiring the use of three R class tanks by the use of two engines. Being specially designed for shunting, without superheat and with relatively small grate area, the Z class were not suited to continuous steaming, and consumption of water was heavy. In any case none of the eight shunters could be spared, but it would have been possible to modify the design and build one or two specially for working the incline. However, nothing further was done.

Z class acting as banking engine at Exeter St Davids: Summer 1960 (KPJ)

2-6-4T:
Maunsell designed the K class for express duties. The first locomotive was built in 1917, but the main batch of 19 was not introduced until 1925. In addition, one three-cylinder (class K1) locomotive was built. In 1927, two engines were derailed and the class was withdrawn from service. Subsequently, they were rebuilt into the U and Ul 2-6-0 classes . Certain spare parts from the tank engines were incorporated into a freight tank engine version of the N1 class; the W class.

New locomotives: South Eastern and Chatham Ry.. Locomotive Mag., 1917, 23, 195-6. 2 illustrations
2-6-4T No. 790 and 2-6-0 No. 810.

K (River class): 1925 batch;
The 1927 building programme scheduled a further twenty: see Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1927, 33, 32

SOUTHERN Ry.: new 2-6-4 passenger tank engines. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1925, 31, 238. illus.

K1 :1925 three-cylinder variant.

NEW three-cylinder 2-6-4 tank engine for the Southern Railway. Rly Mag., 1926, 58, 122-4. illus.
SOUTHERN Railway: new three-cylinder passenger tank locomotive. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1926, 16, 2-3. illus.
leading dimensions listed, including weights on Bissel truck and bogie
SOUTHERN Railway : three-cylinder tank locomotive. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1926, 32, 1-2. illus., diagr. (s. & fr. els.)

Retrospective and critical :
With the exception of the first two references, all are connected with the accidents at Bearsted and Sevenoaks.

Bradley, D.L. The 'River' tanks. Br. Rly J., 1986, 2, 122-5.
Bradley considers that one influence was probably J. Clayton's involvement in the proposed Midland Railway 2-6-4T design for the Tilbury and Southend services, but a major influence was the LBSCR Baltic tanks and G.H. Pearson was sent to evluate their performance.
Clarke, Jeremy. The locomotives of R.E.L. Maunsell. Part 4. The 'Mogul' family – SR. Steam Wld, 2008 (249) 53-6..
As is usual with descriptions of this species nothing is simple: 75% of the illus. are of 2-6-4Ts, and the only 2-6-0 illustrated is a former River class U No. 31798 at Ash Junction on 7 September 1949. The remaining photographs are of K1 No. A890 River Frome at Bricklayers Arms in July 1927; W class No. 1914 at Battersea on 21 April 1932 and A class No. A797 River Mole near Merstham on Victoria to Eastbourne train on 27 August 1926. A table partly assists to show the origins of the 6ft driving wheel Moguls and the 5ft 6in W class freight only 2-6-4Ts which absorbed some of the off-cuts. The 2-6-0s were both two and three-cylinder types: the W class were wholly three-cylinder. See also letter from Bill Southgate (251 p. 21) who corrects the assertion that the U class Nos. A610-29 were ordered as 2-6-0s.
Conjugated valve gears. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1949, 55, 41-2. 5 diagrs.
Describes the Holcroft gear which was fitted to the K1 locomotive.
Fryer, Charles. The rolling Rivers: the saga of  Maunsell's 2-6-4 express tank locomotives. 1993. 56pp.
Ottley 18895: not seen, but recommended by Steamindex user
Holcroft, H. Conjugated valve gears for locomotives: their history and development. Engineer, 1946, 181, 145-7; 168-70; 192-3. 21 diagrs.
Including the K1 application.
Holcroft, H.Locomotive adventure: fifty years with steam. London, Ian Allan, [1962]. p. 145
Commenting on the derailment of No. A790 at Sevenoaks: Holcroft observed that "all the previous incidents could be accounted for. In the case of the Sevenoaks accident, the summer was a wet one and exceptionally heavy rain had fallen that day, causing some difficulty with drainage; this may have had some bearing on the derailment. Owing, however, to the popular agitation and prejudice raised through the press, it was thought advisable to withdraw all 21 engines from service for the time being, notwithstanding the power shortage created and the possibility that the move might be construed as a confession of unsuitable design.
After the M.O.T. inquiry it was agreed to conduct some high speed trials with the engines on a first-class track involving some curvature. A section of the L.N.E.R. main line was decided on and Gresley agreed to ride on the footplate and give his impressions. Nos. A803 and A890 were selected and a 'King Arthur' engine No. E782 was included to provide a basis of comparison with a tender engine. The trial took place in October. The three-cylinder engine was used on the special. train consisting of a dynamometer car and coaches for the officials. The way No. A890 'marched' its train from King's Cross to Potters Bar was an eye-opener to the L.N.E.R. pilotman. The other engines ran light to the scene. . In the trial runs No. A890 attained a maximum speed of 83¼ m.p.h. and A803 recorded 79. Both ran with perfect rectitude and were praised by Gresley in his report.
The S.R. General Manager, Sir Herbert Walker, wanted to have the trials repeated on the Western Section, S.R. main line, which was considered to be of superior construction to that of the Eastern; the length selected was between W oking and Walton. These trials were begun, but Gresley called them off before attempting high speeds, as the riding near 70 m.p.h. was not good enough and it was considered unsafe to proceed; this disillusionment was quite a shock for the G.M.
It was therefore decided to abandon the use of tank engines on fast passenger trains, and twenty were rebuilt in line with the new U class being constructed at Brighton and Ashford. No. A890 became the prototype of a future U1 class three-cylinder design.
Marshall, C.F.D. Some lessons of the Sevenoaks accident. Rly Engr, 1928, 49, 139-40.
a discussion on the rolling periods of engines and their train at speed, in relation to track stresses and resistance problems".
Mount, A.H.L. Report on the derailment of a passenger train which occurred on the 20th August, 1927, between Bearsted and Hollingborne. Ministry of Transport : Railway accidents ... which occurred during the three months ending 30th September, 1927. London: HMSO, 1928. 22 p.
In this accident to the K1 locomotive the track was mainly at fault, but the springing of the locomotive was criticised.
Pringle, J.W. Report on the derailment of a passenger train, which occurred on the 24th August, 1927, near Sevenoaks, on the Southern Railway. Ministry of Transport : Railway accidents [monograph]. London, H.M.S.O., 1928. 38 p. 5 diagrs., (incl. s. & f/r. els)., 6 tables, plan.
This accident to a K class locomotive was caused by poor track, weak spring design and oscillation due to water surging in the tanks. An appendix, signed by H.N. Gresley gives the results of exhaustive riding tests carried out on the Great Northern main-line at a variety of speeds.
Ridley, M. Noel. Sevenoaks derailment [correspondence]. . Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1928, 34, 371-2. diagr.
Chartered Civil Engineer queries where and how the Bissel truck derailed.
Sanders, T.H. The influence of springs in locomotive derailments. Rly Engr. 1931, 52, 209-13. 5 diagrs.
Four un-named accidents are discussed in detail : the 2-6-4T design is quite clearly the K class.
Sanders, T.H. (Paper No. 271). Locomotive suspension, and its influence on derailments. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1931, 21, 133-55.
Very similar to the other Sanders reference.
SOME recent derailments. Rly Engr, 1928, 49, 435.
The SOUTHERN Railway derailments. Rly Engr, 1928, 49, 83.
TANK engines and the track. Engineer, 1928, 146, 320.
All of the last three references consist of editorial comments.

W:1931 :
These locomotives were practically identical with the three-cylinder Goods Tender engines Class N1 with the addition of side tanks, bunker and a trailing bogie. They were intended mainly for the heavy goods trafiic in the Metropolitan area and other short distance goods workings elsewhere. The engines were fitted with a powerful and graduated steam brake, working in conjunction wwith the vacuum brake on the train when required, the brake blocks being applied to all wheels except the leading pony truck. From J. Instn Loco Engrs (below). They appear to have been banned from passenger work, hence there is a large literature on alleged breaches of the ban.

NEW goods tank locomotive, Southern Railway. Rly Mag., 1932, 70, 152. illus.
NEW goods tank locomotives, class "W" on the Southern Railway. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1932, 22, 155-6. illus., diagr. (s. & f. els.)
NEW goods tank locomotives, Southern Railway., Rly Engr, 1932, 53, 62. illus., diagr. (s. & fr. els.)
SOUTHERN Railway new goods tank locomotives. Engineer, 1932, 153, 210. illus.
SOUTHERN Ry.-new 2-6-4 goods tank locomotives, class "W". Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1932, 38, 39-40. illus., 2 diagrs. (s. & fr. els.)

Retrospective and critical

Ball, J.D.W. Equivalent distributed loads for recent locomotives. Rly Engr., 1932, 53, 399-401. 4 diagrs., 2 tables.
Three designs were considered, namely the booster equipped 4-4-2s and 0-8-4Ts of the LNER and the W class
Bradley, D.L. The 'River' tanks. Br. Rly J., 1986, 2, 122-5.
Notes that W class was tested on passenger trains, but was found to be rough between Headcorn and Paddock Wood and experienced severe pitching when descending Oxted bank.

2-6-2T

Lynton & Barnstaple line 2-6-2T No. 188 Lew:1925
This Manning, Wardle locomotive is of interest in being one of three narrow gauge locomotives to be built by, or for, the four main-line companies in Great Britain. The engine was a slightly modified version of the type built for the opening of the railway.

SIDE tank locomotive for the Lynton and Barnstaple Section of the Southern Ry. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1925, 31, 303. illus.

Lynton & Barnstaple Railway. Locomotive Mag, 1936, 42, 169
The last of the locomotives of this line, No. 188 Lew, was still at work removing the track. When the dismantling is completed the engine will be re-conditioned and shipped to Brazil, for service on a private narrow gauge line.

Retrospective and critical

Brown, G.A., Prideoux , J.D.C.A and Radcliffe, H.G.  The Lynton and Barnstaple Railway. 1964.
Catchpole, L.T. The Lynton & Barnstaple Railway. 1949. (Oakwood library of railway history, No. 51).
First published in 1936.

0-6-2T

E1/R:1927
In 1927 there was a need for some 0-6-2Ts with an axle loading of less than sixteen tons for service in the West Country. This need was met by rebuilding some redundant El 0-6-0Ts (a Stroudley design of 1874) with radial trailing axles and enlarged bunkers.

Rebuilt tank locomotive, Southern Ry. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1927, 33, 210-11. illus., diagr. (s. & f. els.)

Retrospective and critical

Riley, R.C. Stroudley tank engines in the West Country. Rly Wld, 1960, 21, 274-8. 9 illus.
Southern Railway tank engines, class E.1R (with notes on the E.1 class). J. Stephenson Loco. Soc., 1951, 27, 264-5; 283. illus.

0-6-0T

R1: 1925 .
This class was introduced by J. Stirling in 1888. Originally it was fitted with domeless boilers. Most locomotives had been modified with the domed type, but a few of the original design were required for working through a tunnel of restricted dimensions on the Canterbury & Whitstable line. From 1925, these locomotives were fitted with boilers which incorporated very squat domes.

REBUILT 0-6-0 tank engines, Southern Railway (South Eastern & Chatham Section). Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1925, 31, 311-12. 2 illus., diagr. (s. & fir. els.)

I1X:1925 .
The I1 class was introduced by D.E. Marsh in 1906. Maunsell continued L.B. Billinton's policy of re-boilering the Marsh 4-4-2Ts.

REBUILT 4-4-2 tank engine No. B 596, Southern Railway. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1925, 31, 306. illus.

I3: .
This Marsh design was altered in several ways by Maunsell. New cylinders and superheaters were fitted and the boiler mountings and cabs were cut-down to meet the composite loading gauge.

No. 2028 suffered a boiler explosion in December 1948. Locomotive Mag., 1949, 55, 142
Due to corrosive effects of Tunbridge Wells water

Riley, R.C. The Marsh 13 tank locomotives. Rly Mag.,1953, 99,156-7.5 illus.

0-4-4T

O2: .
The Southern Railway decided to standardize the locomotive stock in the Isle of Wight with three classes, namely 02, El and Al (Terriers). In 1932 the O2 class locomotives on the island were fitted with extended bunkers, and in this form operated most passenger services until the end of 1966.

Developments in the railways of the Isle of Wight. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1932, 38, 21-5. 7 illus., table.
SOUTHERN Railway tank locomotive for the Isle of Wight. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1923, 29, 190. illus.

Retrospective and critical

Allen, P.C. and MacLeod, A.B. Rails in the Isle of Wight. London, Allen & Unwin, 1967. 68 p. + col. front. + 61 plates (incl. 1 col.). 136 illus., diagr., 2 tables, map.
Reviewed Rly Wld, 1947, 28, 312  
Allen, P.C. Recent railway developments in the Isle of Wight. Rly Mag., 1932, 71, 157-65.12 illus., 3 tables, map.
The replacement of older locomotives by the O2s.
Bradley, D.L. A locomotive history of railways on the Isle of Wight. London: RCTS, 1982. 45pp. + plates
Robbins, M. The Isle of Wight Railways. 1953. (Oakwood library of railway history No.54).
Woodnutt, G.C. The railways of the Isle of Wight. Rly Obsr, 1936, 8, 3-7; 28-32; 57-62; 207-9. 3 illus., 3 tables.

2-4-0WT

0298: 1931:
This Joseph Beattie design was introduced in 1874, but the survivors were rebuilt in 1884, 1921 and 1931. The last two reconstructions were necessary as the locomotives formed the only suitable motive power for a mineral line near Wadebridge in Cornwall.

Ellis, [C.] H. The Beattie 2-4-0 tanks. Trains ill., 1956, 9, 483-6. 5 illus., table.

0-4-2T

Dl: 1931:
The Lyme Regis branch was difficult to work. It had steep gradients, sharp curves and a severe axle-load limit. For most of its life it was worked by the Adams class 0415 4-4-2Ts. In 1931, four Stroudley Dl 0-4-2Ts were modified for service on the branch, but were not successful. The modifications included reduced coal and water capacity to lessen weight.

ALTERED 0-4-2 tank engines, Southern Ry. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1931, 37, 267. illus.
ONE of a well-known class in a new form. Rly Mag., 1931, 68, 443. ihlus.

Retrospective and critical

Riley, R.C. Stroudley tank engines in the West Country. Rly Wld, 1960, 21, 274-8. 9 illus.

Unfulfilled projects:
These are fully covered in the paper by C.S. Cocks and in Holcroft's books

Allen. C.J. Engines that were never built. Trains Ann., 1955, 59-70. 14 diagrs. (s. el.)
Atkins, Philip. The fruitless quest. Rlys South East, 3, 62-7.
The frustrating period of steam locomotive design on the Southern during Maunsell's tenure when William Glynn Hooley, Leading Locomotive Draughtsman, drew up plans for many projects which remained unfulfilled including an initial design for the Schools class, with taper boiler, various designs for 2-6-2 (post the Sevenoaks accident these were doomed to failure) and 4-6-2, and for several variants based on the Lord Nelson class, including a compound version. See letter by E.S. Youldon on page 177 concerning outside admission piston valves and on experimental LN boiler which latterly was equipped with at least one thermic syphon.
Hill, J., illus. Express engines that might have been. Trains Ann., 1958, 22-3. 3 illus.
An artist's impression of the Maunsell 4-6-2 design.

Locomotive in detail

Standardization:
The locomotives acquired from the L.B. & S.C.R. were mostly out-of-gauge on the other sections of the S.R. The S.R. gradually modified these locomotives for more extensive service.

Morris, O.J. Standardizing Southern Railway locos., Central Section. Loco. Rly Carr.Wagon Rev., 1937, 43, 42-5; 82-3, 291-2; 355-9: 1938, 44, 26-9; 77-9; 225-8; 279-80: 1939, 45, 344-7: 1940, 46, 93-4; 181-3: 1941, 47,16-19; 157-60; 229-31: 1942, 48,122-5: 1943, 49, 7-9: 1945, 51, 2-4; 40-2; 68-71; 120-4; 148-51: 1947, 53,155-8: 1948, 54, 21-4; 70-3; 107-9: 1949, 55, 183-6: 1950, 56, 12-14; 22-5. 67 iIlus, 16 diagrs. (incl. 5 s. els.) 10 tables, plan.
STANDARDIZING Central Section locos., Southern Rly. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1936, 42, 279-80. 4 illus.

Liveries
Southern Ry. Locomotive Mag., 1923, 29, 380
For the approval of the directors three S. E. & C. locomotives had been painted in different styles experimentally. No. 686 (0-6-0) black with green lines, not No. 696 as stated in our last issue. 728 (4-4-0) green with white lines and 825 (2-6-0) black unlined. The numbers in large figures on the tender sides, with the word Southern above. The numbers were also painted on the buffer beams and inside the cabs.

2016-09-24

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