North Eastern Railway and its constituents
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The North Eastern Railway, like the LNWR, contained within it, the roots of the world's railway system and the Company was well aware of its rich historical heritage: Tomlinson and the National Railway Museum display this. This is a fairly preliminary page: one of the best sources of information is not yet fully cited namely the RCTS Locomotives of the LNER. The North Eastern Railway is very important as it is the only major railway for which a representational collection of locomotives still exists, although there are  major gaps (notably the absence of any large 20th century express locomotive, especially an Atlantic). The North Eastern Railway Association maintains an excellent website:

13 398 BTP Blyth & Tyne
1001 1440 901 post-Fletcher

General works
Ahrons, E.L. Locomotive and train working in the latter part of the nineteenth century. Volume 1.
Allen, C.J.
The North Eastern railway. London, Ian Allan, 1964. 240 p.+ 48 plates. 125 illus. (incl. 4 ports.), 2 diagrs., 3 plans, 13 maps.
Baxter, Bertram and Baxter, David. British locomotive catalogue, 1825-1923. Vol. 5A: North Eastern Railway; Hull and Barnsley Railway. Ashbourne: Moorland,  1986. 272pp.
One of the problems of citing Baxters' work is that the information is extremely dense and much relates to fine detail, such as the fitting of steam brakes or "Kendal cabs" yet lacks a great deal of the constructional detail found in Hoole or in the RCTS Locomotives of the LNER. Nevertheless, it does fill a major gap as both Hoole and even MacLean were mainly concerned with locomotives extant at a particular time. Their citations to earlier works are sadly incomplete.
Hewison, Christian H. Locomotive boiler explosions. Newton Abbot: David & Charles, 1983.
Boiler explosions were very frequent during the Fletcher period
Hoole, Ken. An illustrated history of NER locomotives.
Sparkford: Oxford Publishing, 1988. 255pp.
Based on official company list of engines in 1894. Hoole divided his work into two parts. Part1 covered up to and including the Tennant Committee, and Part 2 thereafter..
MacLean, J.S. The locomotives of the North Eastern Railway, 1841-1922. Newcastle, R. Robinson & Co., [c. 1923]. [vi] , 120 p. + front. 66 illus., 53 diagrs. (s. els.), tables.
Based to some extent on an earlier work on the same subject published by the author in 1906: same title except dates covered: 1854-1905. The Preface notes that: "This collection of drawings and photographs has largely been gathered together since 1906, when a little book by the author was published describing many N.E.R. locomotives, and it became apparent that certain errors and important omissions had then occurred which called for correction or amplification. The late Mr. W.W. Tomlinson gave every encouragement and much assistance towards this end. The historical portion is largely founded on notes made by Mr. Wm. G. Brown, of York, whose detailed knowledge he has so generously placed at the author's disposal, and by Mr. Ahrons, who was well acquainted with the Southern Division between 1876 and 1892. Indeed, the scope of the work has so increased that the author would almost claim for it the dignity of a history of the locomotive engine from its infancy to modern times. The best thanks of the author are due to A.C. Stamer, Esq., Chief Assistant Mechanical Engineer, L. & N.E.R., Darlington, for kind permission to use several official photographs. The author has also to specially acknowledge his indebtedness to the locomotive builders-Messrs. R. Stephenson & Co. Ltd., Darlington, and Messrs. R. & W. Hawthorn, Leslie & Co. Ltd., Newcastle-on-Tyne, for their permission to use drawings; and to Messrs. Beyer, Peacock & Co., Manchester, and Messrs. Neilson, Reid & Co., Glasgow, each for the use of photographs for reproduction..
Nock, O.S. Locomotives of the North Eastern Railway. London, Ian Allan, 1954. viii, 200 p. incl. 32 plates + col. front. + 3 col. plates. 81 illus., (incl. 8 ports.), 8 tables, map.
Later impressions omit the colour plates. One of the bibliographical curiosities of this book is that there is a publisher's note on page vi which apologizes for using MacLean's title in spite of using material from it..
Tomlinson, W.W. Tomlinson's North Eastern Railway: its rise and development; new edition with introduction by K. Hoole. Newton Abbot: David & Charles, 1967. 820pp.+40 plates.
A thorough examination of the best work on railway history is given elsewhere.
Tuplin, W.A. North Eastern steam. London: Allen & Unwin. 1970.
Ottley 12436

Stockton & Darlington Railway

The mightiest constituent, historically, was the Stockton & Darlington Railway. The history of this railway is encompassed into what David Jenkinson regarded as a magisterial work, and this provides the key focus for this entry. The earlier period (especially locomotives which did not enter NER stock) is considered elsewhere.

Pearce, Thomas R. The Locomotives of the Stockton and Darlington Railway. Historical Model Railway Society. 250pp.
This book is exactly what it says that it is and is of inestimable importance as it enables the reader to know as far as it can now be known which locomotives operated on the railway. It needs to be noted that originally the locomotives lacked either numbers or names which makes research extremely difficult. Furthermore, as in later years names were exchanged and bits of locomotives were exchanged. The book was the subject of a remarkably generous review from David Jenkinson in Backtrack Volume 12 page 61, and by Alan Cliff in Archive No. 14 p. 32. but ridiculously few copies of this work are held in public libraries (the book is so good that it could be used as a dip-stick for the quality of what used to be public libraries. A copy was obtained from North Yorkshire County Library where it had been seen at such tiny libraries as Kirbymoorside, but is not available in what it thought itself to be "City of Culture" Norwich. In his Foreword the Author notes that he "wrote this book because it didn't exist": surely the most admirable reason for writing a book and one wishes that more books were written on this basis. The book is still in-print and is obtainable from the Historical Model Railway Society (HMRS), and is remarkably cheap for Members.

The general division of the work is Background:(The People; General Note; History & Development; Locomotives at the 1875 Jubilee; Track Development; Liveries); Principles and Valve Gear:(Basic Mechanics; Gab Gear); The Early Engines: 1825-6.(Design; The Locomotives; "Chittapratt"; Nos. 3, 4 & 5); "Royal George" and Successors: 1827-31. ("Royal George": "Experiment"; Comparisons.); The Double Tender Classes: 1831-46. (The "Majestic" and "Director" Classes; "Magnet" and The "Enterprise" Class; The "Tory" and "Miner" Classes.); Passenger Traffic: 1837-60. (General; The Bury Engines; Mainly 0-4-2's & 2-4-0's); Mineral Locomotives: 1845-75. (The 0-6-0 Long Boiler Engines; E. Craven's Notes on "Gazelle" Trials); The 4-4-0's: 1860-74, and The "Gamecocks": 1873-6. (The 4-4-0's; The "Gamecocks".); The Tank Engines and The Final Mineral Engines.(The Tank Engines; The Final 0-6-0's).
Appendixes list Locomotive Names; Drivers' Names. Renumbering out of Class; Theodore West Sketch Sheets and Clement E. Stretton's Drawings: Numerical and Alphabetical Lists of Locomotives: List of engines in numerical order, with page and figure index; Alphabetical list of named engines.List of Lines and Opening Dates: Map of System.

Lowe, James W. British steam locomotive builders. 1975.
Lowe is cited by Pearce: as usual Lowe is very concise and his text has an excellent degree of connectivity.

4-4-0 No. 161 Lowther
Stockton & Darlington Railway photographs.
British Railway Journal, 1988, (24), 188-9.
Photographs of 4-4-0 No. 161 Lowther with 5 ton capacity crane built by Cowans Sheldon probably in Darlington North Road works yard. Notes by Ken Hoole.


The reminiscences of George Graham, an early driver of No.1 engine and son of John Graham, the first Traffic Manager of the line, recorded by a Mr. Harold Oxtoby in about 1896, gives much useful information and detail about the day to day operation of the line in the early years. These memories are based in the main on his father's notebooks, referred to above, a set of four held at the Science Museum (together with a later resum~) which, having been written at the time are rather more reliable. Nevertheless, George Graham adds much from his own experiences in the way of later adventures and behavior.

John Graham: Notebooks (4 vols.) 1831-1845; M.S., Science Museum.

George Graham: Reminiscences (recorded by H. Oxtoby c.1896-7); M.S., P.R.O. Kew & typed version, Stockton-on-Tees Reference Library.

R.H. Inness (unattributed): "Locomotive History of the Stockton & Darlington Railway, 1825-1876"; The Locomotive Magazine, 1925-1930.
Warren, J.G.H.
A Century of Locomotive Building by Robert Stephenson & Co., 1823-1923. Newcastle: Andrew Reid, 1923. (reprinted David & Charles with introduction by W.A. Tuplin in 1970). 461pp. extensive index. Fuller information

The reminiscences of George Graham, an early driver of No.1 engine and son of John Graham, the first Traffic Manager of the line, recorded by a Mr. Harold Oxtoby in about 1896, gives much useful information and detail about the day to day operation of the line in the early years. These memories are based in the main on his father's notebooks, referred to above, a set of four held at the Science Museum (together with a later resum~) which, having been written at the time are rather more reliable. Nevertheless, George Graham adds much from his own experiences in the way of later adventures and behavior.

John Graham: Notebooks (4 vols.) 1831-1845; M.S., Science Museum.

George Graham: Reminiscences (recorded by H. Oxtoby c.1896-7); M.S., P.R.O. Kew & typed version, Stockton-on-Tees Reference Library.

Later SDR locomotives (notably those which formed part of NER stock)

MacLean (p. 50) noted that 157 locomotives were added to the NER stock from July 1863, but that a separate Committee contintinued to function for a further ten years. Locomotives were not renumbered until 1873 (mainly by the addition of 1000). In September 1875 there were still 55 extant S&DR locomotives extant. Many were built to William Bouch designs..


1001 class: 1856-75
Long-boiler type (all wheels in front of firebox). William Bouch design developed out of Tow Law and Shotley in 1852. But majority (entering NER stock) were built following the amalgamation. No. 1001 was built at North Road Works in May 1868, but had been preceded by No. 175 Contractor in 1864 (when the Works opened). The Contractor had 4ft 11½in coupled wheels and the boiler was prressed to 130psi. It weighed 32 tons 8 cwt. Contractor is illustrated in Hoole's North Road Locomotive Works fp. 2) No. 1032 was the last to be built and was exhibited at the SDR Jubilee celebrations. Nos. 1145-50 were built by R&W Hawthorn in 1860 and were named: Panther, Ostrich, Leopard, Zebra, Fox and Mastiff. Nos. 1151-9 and 1167-70 were built by Gilkes Wilson between 1860-4 and reeived the names: Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Herschel, Planet, Lune, York, Newlands, Clifton, Tufton and Reliance. 1207-18 and 1221-5 were constructed by R&W Hawthorn in 1868-70; 1246-64 were supplied by Hopkins, Gilkes in 1873-5; 1271-80 by Dübs in 1874 and 1281-90 by Avonside in 1874-5. No. 1141 Excelsior (Gilkes, Wilson, 1859) had a total heating surface of 1728 ft2, 5ft coupled wheels and weighed 31 tons. 1186 Union and 1191 Autumn built at Darlington in 1866 were similar to the R. Stephenson series "already mentioned". These were the last to be fitted with Bouch's feedwater heating system via a double chimney and smokebox.
MacLean (pp. 52-4)
covers the class in considerable detail, noting that many received T.W. Worsdell boilers and cylinders in a range from 17in diameter x 18 to 28in stroke, some received 5ft 0½in coupled wheels whilst others received 4ft. The total heating surrface was raised to 1578ft2 and the grate area to 13,3ft2. MacLean concludes with a table of 1001 class locomotives built at North Road Works:  this was in number, rather than date order. No. 1256 was illustrated by MacLean. MacLean also includes a list of locomotives at work on the Rosedale branch in 1914, taken from the Locomotive Magazine. No. 1275 was retained to participate in the Centenary Celebrations of the Stockton & Darlington Railway and thus features in the RCTS Locomotives of the LNER. Part 5, although for once the history is lightly sketched and mainly restricted to this one locomotive, which originated at Dübs in 1874. Pearce also needs to be consulted. Locomotive Mag., 1914, 20, 287 listed those still in service in 1914 and noted where some were working. Locomotive Mag., 1914, 20, 287.

Hoole (pp. 54-7) noted that 192 were still in service in 1894, when the oldest survivor was NER No. 1727 ex-SDR No. 73 Aberdeen, built by Gilkes Wilson in 1852. They used to work trains of coke from Shildon to Cockermouth over the Stainmore and Troutbeck summits with the outward journey taking 8hrs or more and retuirn on the same day. An official weight diagram is reproduced on p. 56 and illustrations of No. 1289 with Worsdell boiler (constructed by Avonside in 1875); No. 1708 (former 1084) built by Gilkes Wilson in 1854; No. 2259 (former 1104) built by Gilkes Wilson in 1864 and 1093 with tender cab at Rosedale c.1903.
1001 class long boiler 0-6-0 No. 1256 inside Tyne Dock shed (H.L. Hopwood Collection). Rly Arch., 2009 (24) 61.

Inness, R.H. (unattributed): Locomotive history of the Stockton & Darlington Railway, 1825-1876. Loco. Rly Carr. Rev., 1929, 35, 185-6. 4 illus.
Engines Nos. 207, 208, 210, 211 and 223 (Hawthorn) see page 112: extensively rebuilt in early 1880s. These locomotives received Worsdell boilers Remaining Hawthorn locomotives received few major modifications. Nos. 207-218 and 221-225 were best of Bouch mineral engines.


No. 160 Brougham/161 Lowther
Delivered by R. Stephenson in 1860 for use on South Durham & Lancashire Railway and were notable for their large side window cabs. They had 6ft coupled wheels and 16x24in cylinders and a total heating surface of 1128ft2. Two photographic illustrations (MacLean p. 51) of Brougham: one as SDR No. 160 and one as NER No. 1160 with smaller cab.

Saltburn class: 1862
Designed by William Bouch and constructed by R. Stephenson. They had 7ft 0½in coupled wheels, a grate area of 12¾ft2 and a total heating surface of 1053ft2. They weighed 46 tons.

SDR number name Works number withdrawn
162 Saltburn 1332 1879
163 Morecambe 1333 1888
164 Belfast 1334 1882
165 Keswick 1335 1886

Photograph of Morecambe in original condition (MacLean p. 52). Hoole (p. 36) noted that the coupled wheels from Saltburn may have been used in its replacement (1162 class) constructed at Darlington in 1880..

1238 and 1265 classes (Ginx's Babies): 1871/1882.
Designed by William Bouch for the Darlington to Tebay route. The nickname is stated by MacLean (pp. 54-6) to have originated in the title of a popular novel. Nos. 238-41 had tenders with sloping backs as illustrated with a photograph of No. 238 in its original state. The later batch was numbered 1265-70. They were an enlargement of the Saltburn type, but with several rather precocious fittings: notably piston valves and long (30in) stroke outside cylinders (diameter 17in). They had 7ft 1in driving wheels, a total herating surface of 1217ft2 and boilers pressed to 140psi. The fireboxes were partitioned lengthwise and MacLean stated were not suitable for burning coal. They had patented screw reverse and a steam retarder acted as a brake. The piston valves were a constant source of trouble, although 60 mile/h was attained and coke consumption was 28lbs/mile. MacLean stated that they were gorgeously painted. No. 238 was tried between Newcastle and Berwick and No. 241 was also tried on the ECML. Fletcher showed his distaste for 4-4-0s by converting them to 2-4-0s between 1879 and 1882: see 1238 as rebuilt and 1265 as rebuilt; by reducing their stroke to 26in (except for Nos 1265 and 1270 where cylinders of 18x24in were fitted, presumably off something which had blown itself up) and slide valves. Fig. 46 (drawing) shows No. 1268 as converted. In this form No. 1268 was exhibited at the George Stephenson Centenary in Newcastle during June 1881. All were scrapped by 1914. Pearce also needs to be consulted. Nock (p. 38) gives he whole sad story of Ginx's baby inferring that the locomotives required an inordinate amount of nursing which he taken from the Locomotive Mag., 1906, 12,.26-7: tells the same sad story due to Edward Jenkins's pamphlet entitled Ginx's baby..

Russell, J. Darlington North Road Works (North-Eastern Railway). Rly Mag., 1903, 13, 89-100.
Article (page 99) cites Theodore West for information on Bouch 4-4-0 Nos. 1238-1241 known as Ginx's babies due to Edward Jenkins's pamphlet entitled Ginx's baby.


MacLean was only interested in locomotives which became NER property, whereas Pearce covers all SDR locomotives at great length. Amongst the residuals considered by MacLean were No. 71 Hackworth and built by Alfred Kitching at the Hope Town Foundry in 1851. WN 23/1851.drawing in MacLean p. 50 (with double frames). As renumbered 1071 it was renewed at North Road Works in 1873 as No. 84 when it beacme similar to the 1050 class. T.W. Worsdell reconstructed the engine yet again in 1889 when it became No.1717. Pearce (pp. 107-8) considers Hackworth to be a major puzzle..

Rokeby and Ruby: Shildon: 1847
Pearce p. 104: illus p. 104: extremely short wheelbase and outside cylinders.
Inness, R.H. (unattributed): Locomotive history of the Stockton & Darlington Railway, 1825-1876. Loco. Rly Carr. Rev., 1926, 32,  256-7.
Rokeby and Bouch feedwater heater

Priam, etc: Gilkes, Wilson: 1847
Long-boiler type ordered by Newmarket & Great Chesterford Raiilway, but failed to take delivery of half of order for twelve: SDR took remainder, or part thereof: Pearce attempts to limit the confusion: one locomotive named Newmarket may have operated on the SDR for a time. SDR No. 66 Priam is a certainty and Pearce (103 et seq) called it a "class" in captions on page 105. As NER No. 1066 Priam participated in the 1875 Jubilee Exhibition, but there is some doubt about its provenence. Other names associated with the class included Alarm, Stephenson, Orion and Clarendon. Pearce cited Engineer, 1880, February for article about Priam which included an engraving and very different dimensions.
Inness, R.H. (unattributed): Locomotive history of the Stockton & Darlington Railway, 1825-1876. Loco. Rly Carr. Rev., 1926, 32, 362-3.
2-4-0 No. 66 ex Priam and NER No. 1068 Woodlands

Woodlands class
Designed by Alfred Kitching in 1848 (Pearce states Bouch was designer p. 107), but "only the last five survived to enter the NER": Nos. 58 Woodlands, 59 Hallgarth. Former participated in Jubilee celebrations as NER No. 1058:

90 Ayton 1855 Gilkes, Wilson
116 Lartington 1856 Gilkes, Wilson
117 Nunthorpe 1856 Gilkes, Wilson
118 Elmfield 1857 Kitching
166 Oswald Gilkes 1860 Kitching

They had 5ft coupled wheels, 16x19in inside cylinders. John Kitching claimed that the design was copied by James Cudworth for the 59 class used on SER Hastings trains.
Inness, R.H. (unattributed): Locomotive history of the Stockton & Darlington Railway, 1825-1876. Loco. Rly Carr. Rev., 1926, 32, 362-3.
2-4-0 No. 66 ex Priam and NER No. 1068 Woodlands

1071 class: 1873
Hoole (p. 36) that this was constructed at Darlington as a replacement for the locomotive named Hackworth of 1851. It acted as the prototype for the 1068 class. It was withdrawn in October 1901. Illus. at York and numbered 1717.

1068 class (Gamecocks); 1875/6
MacLean (pp. 56-7) noted that these were a transitional W. Bouch/J. Kitching design. The six locomotives had 6ft 0½in boilers, 17x24in cylinders; a total heating surface of 1100ft2 and boiler pressurre of 140psi. They weighed 33tons 18cwt.. They hasd screw/lever reverse and Bouch steam retarders. According to Locomotive Magazine (1903) 17x24in cylinders were tried on No. 1068 which gave higher speed, but the gain was not sufficient to modify other members of the class. Hoole (pp. 35-6) stated that by 1894 two had 17x24in cylinders and 6ft 6in coupled wheels. MacLean Fig. 47 shows No. 1968 as originally built (drawing) and there is a photograph of No. 1059 in slightly modified condition. T.W. Worsdell fitted 901 class type boilers when the total heating surface was marginally changed. They were scrapped from 1907. Hoole noted that No. 1035 was based at Low Moor (L&YR) shed for a Halifax to Hull working. Hoole illustrated No. 1052 with a Worsdell boiler and 1068 with a Kendal cab. . See also 11 class..
No. 1035 at Selby. Arman, Brian H.L. Hopwood Collection. Rly Arch., 2009 (24) 65 upper

Four-coupled passenger engine, North Eastern Ry. Locomotive Mag., 1903, 8, 148. illustration
Attributes locomotive illustrated (2-4-0 No. 1062) to  John Kitching rather than William Bouch as latter had died & design of 2-4-0 for Central Divison known as Game Cocks.


Tyneside (No. 54): Robert Stephenson:
Pearce (pp. 96-7) states that was WN 354
Inness, R.H. (unattributed): Locomotive history of the Stockton & Darlington Railway, 1825-1876. Loco. Rly Carr. Rev., 1925, 31, 300-1.
drawing of 2-2-2 No. 54 Tyneside

Meteor (No. 50): William Bouch: 1843
Pearce (pp. 98-9)
Inness, R.H. (unattributed): Locomotive history of the Stockton & Darlington Railway, 1825-1876. Loco. Rly Carr. Rev., 1925, 31, 300-1.
drawing of 2-2-2 and No. 50 Meteor (and latter as rebuilt).

Wolsingham: Kitching: 1847
4ft 6in driving wheels: Pearce p. 101, also Inness. Two similar locomotives constructed for Whitehaven & Furness Junction Railway.
Inness, R.H. (unattributed): Locomotive history of the Stockton & Darlington Railway, 1825-1876. Loco. Rly Carr. Rev., 1925, 31, 346-7.
Notes on No. 55 Wolsingham.


1196 class: 1866
William Bouch design constructed by R, Stephenson for Skinningrove zig-zag incline. Probably converted to 0-6-0s in 1876 as tank engines were very destructive to permanent way according to R.H. Inness. Short-coupled and therefore similar to 1101 type, but retained 1196 classification Hoole p. 58 and 59 (illus. of No. 1681 as 0-6-0 with Worsdell boiler).

SDR number name NER number scrapped as 0-6-0
196 Roseberry 1196 1908
197 Kildale 1197 1909
198 Whitby 1198 1905
199 Escombe 1199 1911

1037 class: 1876
Hoole (p. 25) noted that last class designed by William Bouch. Intended for working Skinningrove zig-zag incline and 6 tons lighter than R. Stephenson 0-6-0STs which were being displaced (and eventually converted to 0-6-0 tender locomotives). Class constructed at Darlington and the four locomotives were numbered: 1037, 1292, 1293 and 1294. No. 1293 illustrated.

Stanhope & Tyne Railway. South Shields

Lowe states that at least one locomotive was built by railway: outside frame inside cylinder 0-6-0 Projector of 1839. When company failed in 1841 stock taken over by Pontop & South Shields Railway. Some suggest further locomotives constructed under aegis of this railway, but when this taken over by York & Newcastle Railway in 1847 stock consisted of ten from Robert Stephenson, two from Longridge and one from R.&W. Hawthorn: numbered 82-94. Baxter lists: 2-2-0 Thomas Newcomen, R. Stephenson WN 31/1834; four R. Stephenson 0-4-2 of 1834 (WN 50, 63 and 66 and another unknown) given names: John Buddle, Nathaniel Ogle, James Watt and Robert Hawthorn plus a Tayleur 0-4-2 WN 114/183 named Jacob Perkins..

Newcastle & North Shields Railway

Baxter listed:
2-2-0 Bury c1834: ex-Leeds & Selby Railway St Vincent; sold to Hartlepool Dock & Railway in 1840
2-2-2 R Stephenson WN 264/1839 Wellington; possibly NER 153
2-2-2 R.W. Hawthorn WN 238/9/1839 Nelson/Hotspur: one became NER No. 150
2-4-0 R.W. Hawthorn 1839 The Light; possibly became NER No. 151
0-4-2 R Stephenson WN 231/1839 Collingwood; possibly became NER No. 149
0-4-2 R.W. Hawthorn WN 295/1840 Exmouth; possibly became NER No. 152

Great North of England Railway


Purchased from Stockton & Darlington Railway in September 1839. Constructed R & W Hawthorn in 1836. 4ft 6in driving wheels; 11x16in. cylinders; weight 8¾ tons. MacLean p. 3. Baxter lists p. 66 under SDR with note that sold to contractor for GNER. Tomlinson noted that originally of the intermediate crankshaft type and worked Stockton to Middlesbrough...

Purchased in September 1839 as ballast engine. Built R. Stephenson in 1830. 5ft driving wheels. 11x16in cylinders; weight about 8 tons. 2-2-0? MacLean page 3. Does not appear to be listed by Baxter..

Neither of above entered GNER stock on opening on 31 March 1841. 22 locomotives were available at opening and Locomotive Superintendent was Ianson Cudworth. All locomotives were named, but lacked numbers.


Victoria: 1839
Obtained on trial from R & W Hawthorn. Works number 275. 5ft 6in driving wheels. 12x18in cylinders.; total heating surface 478.5ft2. MacLean states that seven further locomotives were acquired, but only mentions the three available at time of opening: Leeds, Wensleydale and Ouse. MacLean p. 3. Baxter lists Leeds (WN 301) with Victoria, but lists Wensleydale (WN 302) and Ouse (WN 307) separately. They became NER Nos. 67/68/40/69 and 74. Furthermore, Baxter considered that Hawthorn WN 298 and 299 became NER 50 and 51, but names were not known to Baxter.


Tees: 1839
Trialed from Hawthorn at same time as Victoria. Works number 274. 4ft 6in coupled wheels; 14x18in cylinders; total heating surface 540 ft2. Goods engine weighing 13 tons. Further six purchased: Newcastle, Auckland, Bedale, Edinburgh, Carlisle and Manchester. MacLean p. 3. Baxter lists Tees plus two further Hawthorn 2-4-0s of same type: WN 298 and 299 (names not quoted). The six further purchased Baxter lists as Tayleur WN 90-5 (also of 1839): below..

Newcastle...: Tayleur: 1839
Newcastle (59), Auckland (60), Bedale (14), Edinburgh (62), Carlisle (63) and Manchester (64) listed by Baxter (Tayleur WN 90-5) were of broadly similar dimensions to Tees. Numbers within parentheses indicate probable NER numbers. According to MacLean p. 4, these were rebuilt by Robert Stephenson in 1840 with 4ft 8in coupled wheels and 14x18in cylinders, but this would have been improbable..


Harperley and Etherley
According to MacLean (pp. 3-4) Whishaw lists two Tayleur locomotives which were to become York, Newcastle & Berwick Nos 32 and 33, These had 5ft 6in driving wheels; 12x18in. cylinders, which bores were later enlarged to 14in and 13in respsectively. Baxter notes that WN were 88 and 89 of 1839.


Five four-coupled supplied by Tayleur which became YNBR Nos. 59, 60, 62, 63 and 64.

Jones, Turner & Evans supplied three locomotives which beame YNBR Nos. 53-6. These had 4ft 6in oupled wheels and 14x18in cylinders.


R & W Hawthorn WN 404 of June 1845. As built it had 6ft 6in driving wheels, inside cylinders of 16x24in, special expansion valve gear and weighed 18 tons. This engine was in all probability the first one to figure in the gauge trials. The incident is described by J.S. Jeans in Jubilee Memorial of the Railway System (Ottley 7018): "In order to show that passengers could be conveyed safely on the narrow (or standard) gauge lines at a high rate of speed Mr. Nicholas Wood obtained from the Railway Company permission to try the Richmond, one of their best engines, over the main line from Darlington to York. The distance of 44¼ miles was accomplished in 47 minutes, a speed of 60 miles an hour being reached during the journey, and he thus eclipsed all former achievements of the locomotive." MacLean (pp. 4-5) noted that "The train was only a light one, consisting of two first-class carriages, but Mr. Wood had the satisfaction shortly afterwards of finding that the narrow gauge system was recommended in preference to the broad gauge for British railways." Unfortunately MacLean's Fig. 1 shows the locomotive in rebuilt condition (as YNBR No. 66), when in 1849, following an accident it was rebuilt by Hawthorn with smaller cylinders (15½x20). Nevertheless, according to MacLean Tomlinson noted that it hauled a special from Darlington to York in 52 minutes. Baxter is much thinner, but not at variance..


No. 75
MacLean (p. 5) called this a "curious little coupled engine". Constructed by R. Stephenson & Co. in 1845. Fig. 2 shows the haystack firebox. It had 15x22in cylinders, 5ft 6in coupled wheels and weighed 21 tons. For many years it worked a train service from Tweedmouth to Edinburgh via Kelso and Galashiels. In 1863 it was rebuilt at Gateshead to become the forerunner of thhe 675 class. Baxter is not at variance..

2-2-2 (11A)

Great A
This was of a type which the Whyte notation fails to classify as it was a 11A (where the drive was to the rear axle). It was known as "A" in the gauge trials and was constructed by R. Stephenson for the Newcastle & Darlington Junction Railway, but was purchased by the GNER after the gauge trials. A similar locomotive was supplied to the YNMR. The wheelbase of this long boiler type was 12ft, the driving wheels 6ft 7in. The oval boiler had a total heating surface of 939 ft2 and the grate area was 9¼ft2. The locomotive weighed 22 tons 18 cwt. MacLean (pp. 4-5, Fig. 3) stated that D.K. Clark recorded 48 mile/h during the gauge trials. The drawing is based on one by David Joy and differs from that in the Engineer, 1892, 27 May. W.G. Brown informed MacLean that the locomotive became No. 38 on the YNBR and acted as pilot engine for the Royal Train when Queen Victoria opened the High Level Bridge in 1849. Baxter in agreement. See also YNMR No. 58.

Newcastle & Darlington Junction Railway

Formally opened on 18 June 1844. Initially dependent upon GNER Cleveland, Glasgow and Edinburgh; and four from Brandling Junction Railway: Nathaniel Ogle, Brandling, Mountain and Weir. Entirely dependent on locomotives from these two companies for six months. On 1 June 1845 took over GNER and in 1846 the York, Newcatle & Berwick Railway was formed. MacLean p. 7. One major problem in reconciling Baxter with MacLean is that Baxter tended to allocate locomotives to different elements of the York, Newcastle & Berwick Railway.


21 class: 1844
R. Stephenson supplied these long boiler, outside cylinder locomotives with firebox to rear of rear axle. WN 463-8 (running numbers 21-6) and WN 490-2 (running numbers 29-31). 5ft 7¼in coupled wheels and 14x22in cylinders, activated by Stephenson link motion. The total weight of the engines was about 22 tons. MacLean pp. 7-8: Fig. 4 No. 26 (drawing), also No. 30 as rebuilt as 0-6-0ST in 1873. Like many early outside cylinder locomotives there was constant rocking at speed and they were judged to be dangerous at speeds in excess of 45 mile/h.. Nos. 21 and 29 were involved in accidents at Fence Houses and Bradbury, respectively. Shorter boilers and compensating levers wer fitted to Nos. 23, 30 and 31. No. 21 was renewed in 1869, with double frames, 5ft 6in coupled wheels and 17x22in cylinders. Several were rebuilt as 0-6-0STs from 1868, and were renumbered as (665 and 666 for those rebuilt in that year).


41-45 series: 1844
R. Stephenson WN 436, 438, 439, 447, 228: 4ft 8in coupled wheels; 15x24in cylinders. MacLean p. 9

46-49 series: 1845
Supplied by Longridge. Fig. 5 shows No. 48 with its haystack firebox. This locomotive was subsequently rebuilt as an 0-6-0ST in 1871. It shunted at Leeds numbered as 1901 from 1890, 1706 form 1903, and withdrawn in 1904. MacLean p. 9.


27/28: 1845
Supplied R&W Hawthorn: MacLean (p. 9) called them mixed traffic locomotives with 5ft coupled wheels and 14x21in cylinders. No. 27 was scrapped in 1853, but No. 28 was rebuilt as a tank engine, was based at York, and ran until 1883.


4/7: 1845
Built by Bury with 5ft 6in coupled wheels and 12x18in cylinders. MacLean p. 9.

2-2-2 (11A)

77: 1847
R. Stephenson (WN 618) experimental three-cylinder locomotive with 6ft 6in driving wheels, exploiting Stephenson/Howe patent. MacLean (pp. 10-11 and Fig. 6) is also covered in Ahron's (British steam railway locomotives pp. 75-6 with sectional diagram) where it is noted that this locomotive was tested on the LNWR in April 1847 between Wolverton and Coventry when the 41 miles were run in 42 minutes. MacLean stated that the locomotive was running on the York & Newcastle Railway in June. It ran in its original form until reconstruction by R. Stephenson in 1852 (WN 737) when it became a normal 2-2-2 with 6ft 8in driving wheels. The inside cylinder was 10.375x18in and the two outside cylinders 10.5x22in. The outside cylinders were actuated by a single set of valve gear with a transverse shaft to operate the other cylinder. The grate area was 11.8ft2. MacLean stated that D.K. Clark claimed the lcomotive was very steady in this form which is illustrated by MacLean (Fig. 7) in this form. D.K. Clark's Railway locomotives: their progress, mechanical construction and performance. Glasgow: 1860 (Plate 16) illustrates this locomotive in one of its three-cylinder states (preumably the second form). Finally, in 1860 No. 77 was rebuilt at York as an inside-cylinder (16x20in) locomotive. In 1881 this locomotive was renumbered No. 1679 and bacame the notional basis for Class 190 2-2-4T. See also Macnair Backtrack, 2012, 26, 756..

York & Newcastle Railway


140 class: 1847
Long boiler type supplied by R. Stephenson with 15x22in outside cylinders. 6ft coupled wheels and locomotive weight of 24 tons. Similar to class 21. Nine constructed. Fig. 9 (drawing) shows No. 159. Running numbers: 103, 104, 108, 137, 139, 140, 142, 159 and 168. Replaced or renewed between 1858 and 1888. No. 104 was derailed a Willington, killing the driver, who is buried at Tweedmouth with details on his tomstone.. No. 137 knocked the permanent way out-of-gauge near Benton, and the civil Engineer, T.E. Harrison forbade their use on express trains. Nos. 103 and 168 were rebuilt with the trailing axle behind the firbox, and No. 159 was rebuilt as a single. MacLean pp. 12-15.

143 class: 1847
Fig. 10 (MacLean p. 13) makes it abundantly clear as to why these were called the cross-legged engines: Nos. 143-5 were R. Stephenson outside-cylinder locomotives with 6ft 1in coupled wheels, 15x22in cylinders and 100 psi boilers. Two pumps ran off the driving wheels. There was no steam jet in the smokebox and brakes were limited to one side of the tender. MacLean states that they were fast runners (60 mile/h). No. 144 lasted until 1883.

York, Newcastle & Berwick Railway

Simmons gives an excellent concise history of this major railway in the Oxford Companion.

2-2-2 (11A)

147/148: 1847
Built by R. Stephenson for an Italian company, but not delivered. Regarded as being developed from Great A. Long-boiler type with total heating surface of 880ft2 and boiler pressure of 120 psi with outside cylinders. No. 147 was scrapped in 1869. No. 148 was rebuilt as a normal 2-2-2 (1A1), but was scrapped in 1866. The firebox was divided lengthwise by a water space and had two fire-holes. MacLean p. 14: Fig 11 (No. 147)


No. 156 (Coulthard's Jenny Lind): 1847
Built by Coulthard (WN 42) in 1847. Cylinders 14x18in, coupled wheels 5ft (but used on passenger services). Fig. 12 (drawing) clearly shows name on both cabside and tender. MacLean pp. 14-15 and Some early locomotive myths, North Eastern Ry. Locomotive Mag., 1912, 18, 59.


No. 157: 1847
Built T. Richardson & Son in 1847: 6ft driving wheels and 15x22in cylinders. MacLean p. 15.

161/162: 1847
Built Nasmyth, Gaskell & Co: 6ft 6in driving wheels; 15x24in cylinders. MacLean p. 15.


165 class: 1847-8
R & W Hawthorn supplied eight locomotives with double-frames, 5ft 6in coupled wheels and a boiler pressure of 80psi. Fig. 13 (drawing) shows No. 177 fitted with grasshoppers springs under the trailing axleboxes. MacLean pp. 15-16: photograph No. 207 as rebuilt with new boiler. This locomotive pilooted the Royal Train between Newcastle and Berwick on the opening of the High Level Bridge. No. 166 was rebuilt at Gateshead in 1868 with 15x22in cylinders.


MacLean (bottom of page 16) mentions in passing the acquisition of three 0-6-0s from R. Stephenson & Co. in 1847: these appear to have been off-the-shelf purchases and were WN 644-6, running numbers 170-3. They had 4ft 9in coupled wheels and 15x24in cylinders.

Nasmyth 0-6-0 acquiired in 1848 (MacLean Fig. 14, p.17): stated to be one of a set: 4ft 8in coupled wheels; 15x24in cylinders. No. 175 rebuilt at Gateshead in 1869.


180 Plews
Built by R&W Hawthorn (WN 711) in 1848. 7ft driving wheels; 16x20in cylinders and oval boiler at 120 psi boiler pressure. Total weight 27 tons. MacLean Fig. 15, pp. 17-18. MacLean (pp. 17-18) claims that Plews was similar to large Hawthorn 2-2-2 on NBR (presumably No. 57 The Queen) and that the NBR achieved 70 mile/h, whereas both Thomas and Ellis claim that the NBR locomotive was unsteady and damaged the track. Plews (named after Nathaniel Plews, a Director) was tested against R. Stephenson No. 190. Plews was rebuilt in 1865 (Fig. 16) with smaller driving wheels (6ft 6in) in which form it lasted until 1884. Ahrons Locomotive and train working Vol. 1 p. 57 noted taht it latterly worked from Hull to Doncaster and to Leeds..

Tredgold, Thomas. The principles and practice and explanation of the machinery of locomotive engines in operation on the several lines of railway. Division A, Locomotive Engines. Ninth paper.
Includes a very large plate (drawing) of locomotive.


185 class: 1848
R. Stephenson supplied five locomotives with hay-stack fireboxes and outside valve gear. They had 6ft 1¼in and 18½x22in. cylinders. The Works numbers were: 635-8 and 685 and the running numbers 185-9. MacLean pp. 18-19, Fig. 17 (No. 185). Table states that No. 185 scrapped in 1868, but text states that stationed at Carlisle in 1875 as pilot engine, before receiving new boiler. Withdrawn in 1880s


190: 1849
R. Stephenson WN 726: 6ft 7in driving wheels, 16x20in cylinders, oval boiler with total heating surface of 1046ft2. Driver Thomas Law drove No. 190 on Queen's train used to open High Level Bridge in Newcastle. Tested against Plews in 1849 when hauling thirteen carriages between Darlington and York and back, stopping at all stations. Consumed 18lb of coke per mile. MacLean pp. 19-21: Figs. 18 (original condition and 19 as rebuilt). Rebuilt at York, under District Locomotive Superintendent, J. Stephenson in March 1881, when the rebuild was similar to No. 77: MacLean p. 11 states that Stephenson used No. 77 (originally of the Newcastle & Darlington Junction Railway) as the basis for a new locomotive with the original No. 77 becoming No. 1679. Finally rebuilt at Gateshead by T.W. Worsdell as 2-2-4T and used for hauling officers'  saloons. In its final form it became LNER class X3 and lasted until December 1936. (RCTS Locomotives of the LNER. Part 9B). See also 190 class 2-2-4Ts (which used numbers from Nos 190 and 1679) and therein shows No. 190 as rebuilt as updated 2-2-2 in 1881 probably at Stanhope c1890..


63: 1849
MacLean (p. 21) called this "very small". It was R. Stephenson WN 733 and was similar to 189 class, but much smallwe: 4ft 9in coupled wheels and 15x20in cylinders. 11ft 6in wheelbasse. Fig. 20 based on a sketch by W.G. Brown. Used initially on Newcastle to Sunderland and Tynemouth services and later on Kelso branch.

152: as rebuilt in 1868
Originated as R&W Hawthorn locomotive in 1840 acquired from Newcastle & South Shields Railway in 1847, probably Exmouth. Rebuilt with 4ft 8in driving wheels. MacLean Fig. 21, p. 21.


Also acquired from Newcastle & South Shields Railway (ex Collingwood). 5ft coupled wheels, outside bearings. MacLean (p. 22): shunter at Tweedsmouth "sixty years ago".


73: 1852
R&W Hawthorn locomotive with outside frames, 4ft 6in coupled wheels and 13x18in. cylinders. Fig. 22 (MacLean p. 22) based on Theodore West diagram. Worked Alnwick branch until replaced in 1882. Suggests that similar locomotives were No. 266 which worked locals in Newcastle and No. 153.


129 class (76 class): 1853
Hoole (p. 29) called this the 76 class and then cited MacLean who listed as as 129 class! R. Stephenson double-frame type with 6ft 2in coupled wheels, 15x22in cylinders and 100 psi boilers. The transverse water space in the firebox was adopted subsequently by Fletcher. Used on ECML until 1868. Very successful: economical, good steaming and popular with drivers. MacLean pp. 22-3: Fig 23 based on information from builder.

Running number Works number
129 827 latterly Newcastle pilot
76 838 at York until 1889
136 879 new boiler in 1888


159: 1853
Rebuilt by R. Stephenson as 2-2-2 from 2-4-0 (YNR Class 140). 6ft 6in driving wheels and 16 x 22in cylinders. MacLean 22-3 Fig. 24). Further rebuilt under McDonnell and renumbered as No. 1709 (Fig. 25). In last state used on Hull to Leeds expresses. Some early locomotive myths, North Eastern Ry. Locomotive Mag., 1912, 18, 59.

Sanspareil: 1854
Built at Shildon by Timothy Hackworth and his son. 6ft 6in driving wheels, 15x22in cylinders, total heating surface 1188ft2. Wrought iron driving wheels. Special slide valves, about which Hackworths were highly secretive. MacLean pp. 24-5, Fig. 26 as No. 135.

Hackworth's Sanspariel No.2 (question from J.S. MacLean) Rly Mag., 1900, 7, 428
Interesting that question placed by MacLean. According to Seakon locomotive bought by the York, Newcastle and Berwick Railway in 1855, then numbered 135. Previous to Sanspariel No.2 Hackworth built twenty express engines for LBSCR similar in construction to it, except the boilers were rivetted and they had common slide valves.

27/212 (Jenny Lind type): 1853
Order with E.B. Wilson placed under Edward Fletcher. Fluted dome designed by James Fenton's wife. 6ft 3in driving wheels; 16x20in cylinders; total heating surface 1006ft2. MacLean pp. 25-7: Fig. 27 (No. 212 in original condition). MacLean claims amongst largest Jenny Linds ever built. Ahrons Locomotive and train working Vol. 1 p. 57 noted that these latterly worked Hull to Doncaster trains..


219: 1853
Order with E.B. Wilson placed under Edward Fletcher with 2-2-2s above and large 2-4-0s below. MacLean pp. 26-7: No. 219 was the smallest with 5ft 9in coupled wheels and 16x20in cylinders. Not illustrated.

216 etc (Hoole 213 class): 1853
Order with E.B. Wilson placed under Edward Fletcher. Running numbers: 213, 214, 216, 217: 6ft coupled wheels and 15x22in cylinders. MacLean pp. 25-6: Fig. 27 (No. 216 in original condition); The cost per locomotive was £2375. They were rebuilt at York from 1878 (216 in that year) under J. Stephenson. Photograph in MacLean p. 28 clearly shows additional safety valve immediately behind chimney and two whistles: same photograph in Hoole p.29: much clearer: additional safety valve clearly functioning and note the smokebox wing plates.

215/218: 1853/4
Order with E.B. Wilson placed under Edward Fletcher. MacLean pp. 25-9: Fig. 29 (No. 215 as built). Fig. 30 (No. 218 as rebuilt).  Known as "Big Wilsons": 6ft 6in coupled wheels; total heating surface 975ft2. Working pressure 120 psi. No. 218 suffered boiler explosion at Holbeck on 23 July 1875. Both rebuilt at Leeds in 1876. MacLean cited Locomotive Magazine, 1915, 15 June, and 1914, 15 September).


220 class: 1854
R. Stephenson supplied 6ft 6in singles with 15x2oin cylinders: WN 931-6 (Running Nos. 220-5). Gateshead built two further of this type (but with 16x20in cylinders): No. 66 in 1859 and No. 258 in 1863. They were designed to burn coke. MacLean pp. 29-32: Fig. 32 No. 66 (original);; Fig. 33 No. 225 (reboilered); Fig. 34 No. 223 (as rebuilt, figure supplied by Ahrons). No. 221 was rebuilt at Yorkk under J. Stephenson in 1882 when it received 16x20in cylinders. No. 223 was renewed with 6ft driving wheels and 16¼x20in cylinders. No. 66 was stationed at York for a long time and between 1867 and 1869 worked some of the premier expresses to Newcastle.

Leeds & Selby Railway

Opened 22 September 1834 (official celebration on 18 September): thus a very early railway: all information from or via Baxter

Bury 1834
St Vincent disposed to Newcastle & North Shields Railway in 1838
Lord Hood disposed to West Hartlepool Harbour & Railway Co. in 1840
Rodney disposed to West Hartlepool Harbour & Railway Co. in 1840

Fenton, Murray & Jackson
Nelson 1834 passed to York & North Midland in 1849
Exmouth 1836 disposed to West Hartlepool Harbour & Railway Co. in 1840

R. Stephenson 1830
Acquired from Liverpool & Manchester Railway (former No. 7 North Star) in December 1833 and sold in January 1836

Fenton, Murray & Jackson

Locomotive (name) date YNMR No.
Gambier or Hawke 1836 14
Eagle or Anson 1837 15
Dart 1839 16
Express 1839 18 rebuilt as tank engine by YNMR

Kirtley of Warrington, 1839
Lowe lists nine locomotives: Baxter suggests five which became YNMR Nos. 17-22: Prince, Swift, Swallow and Queen listed.

Hull & Selby Railway

Opened in 1836: leased to YNMR in 1845. Locomotive Superintendent: John Gray

Shepherd & Todd, 1840
Six locomotives: one replaced before 1846, remainder became YNMR 53-7 (including 53 Star and 54 Vesta). At least two fitted with Gray's valve gear.

Fenton Murray & Jackson, 1840

Kingston 67 293
Exley 52
Selby 58 278?
Collingwood 68 305
Andrew Marvel 59 279
Wellington not taken over

York & North Midland Railway

MacLean (p. 31) states that 114 locomotives were contributed to NER stock (Baxter p. 39 stated 112), but many were small and worn-out. Given NER numbers: 245 to 358. The later work of the York locomotive Works has been mentioned several times above. It continued to function until 1905 when it closed. Lowe notes that  2-4-0 No. 21 Etna with 14x20in cylinders and 5ft 6in coupled wheels (NER No. 265) and 2-2-2 No. 22 Selby (NER  No. 266) were constructed at York.


No. 23
Hoole (p. 45) illustrates NER No. 2258 awaiting scrapping at Gateshead in 1902 and notes that Locomotive Magazine which published same picture accredited it to Blyth & Tyne Railway, but Hoole cliamed was built by R. Stephenson for YNMR in 1843 becoming No. 23 and No. 1741 at time of 1894 listing (classified as 41 class).


254 class: 1857
Hoole stated that Nos 1728 (originally 260) and 1781 (254) were still extant in 1894, but are not illustrated by Hoole (p. 30).. Ahrons Locomotive and train working, Vol. 1 p. 57 called these "somewhat superior looking" and noted that No. 254 had 6ft 6in coupled wheels and No. 260 6ft: both had 16x22in cylinders and had been constructed at York.

11A (2-2-2-0)

No. 58:
Sister locomotive to the Great A. Claimed to have become NER No. 290, but David Joy claimed that worked on OWWR.

No. 48
MacLean (p. 32) stated that constructed by Fenton, Murray & Jackson in 1840 for Hull & Selby Railway. Sekon stated that fitted with rotary valves on 26 January 1854 patented by Locking and Cook. Taken out of service in May 1854 having run 10,000 miles and consumed 20% less coke whilst working Hull & Bridlington line.


Antelope/Ariel; 1841
Built by Shepherd & Todd in 1841. Fitted with John Gray's expansive reversing gear. 6ft driving wheels; 13x24in cylinders; grate 9.75ft2; total heating surface 601ft2, boiler pressure 90 psi. Opened Hull to Bridlington line on 6 October 1846. Became NER Nos. 253/4. MacLean noted that they were known to David Joy: see Diaries for evidence (June 1883). Baxter (p. 40) suggests may have been ordered by Hull & Selby Railway.

Prince of Wales: 1842
Supplied R. Stephenson: long boiler-type. This became NER Number 261. MacLean (pp32-3) stated that David Joy had seen this locomotive (but his Diaries as presumably seen by MacLean state Princess of Wales). MacLean stated that locomotive had either 5ft 6in or 6ft driving wheels; 14x20in cylinders; and a total heating surface of 795ft2. A haystack firebox was fitted. The locomotive achieved 48 mile/h and coke consumption averaged 19.2 lb/mile. MacLean reproduced a painting of the locomotive then housed at the N.E.R. Literary Institute at Gateshead. Presumably now housed at NRM, or is this wishful optimism?
Baxter p.40 inflates this to a "class" of six locomotives: WN 312/313/316/317/possibly 328/355 with a variety of cylinder sizes:

YNMR No. Name WN NER number cylinders
23 Duncombe 317/1841 257 14x18
25 Rocket 312/1841 258 14x18
26 313/1841 259 14x22 Baxter gives date as 1851 but this must be an error
27 Princess 316/1841 260 13x22
28 Prince of Wales 328/1841 261 14x20
30 355/1841 263 13x22

Jenny Lind type: 1847-8
Eleven locomotives supplied by E.B. Wilson. No. 88 named Jenny Lind on boiler which was lagged with mahogany strips. No. 103 had 5ft 6in driving wheels, the remainder 6ft. Total heating surface 800ft2. 15x22in cylinders. Working pressure 120psi. The table shows the YNMR numbers with their NER equivalents.

YNMR 88-95 102 103 113
NER 319-26 333 334 344

MacLean p. 34: illus. of No. 326 as rebuilt at York under J. Stephenson in November 1877: 16x24in cylinders. Withdrawn 1884. Some early locomotive myths, North Eastern Ry. Locomotive Mag., 1912, 18, 59.

AA (0-2-2-0T)

Crampton: 1847
Crampton twin axle locomotive with intermediate crank shaft (dummy crank shaft) drive to both axles: hence AA wheel type classifcation. One of several built by E.B. Wilson in 1847 and one acquired by YNMR in 1850. 5ft wheels. 11x18in cylinders. Total heating surface: 576. NER No. 273. David Joy called them Little Mails. MacLean p. 35-6: (No. 273 illustrated: this is an excellent illustration of this type and clearly shows the drive arrangements). The Engineer eulogized over the "neat little engines". Achieved 43 mile/h. Replaced in 1878.


No. 10 class: 1845
Six supplied by E.B. Wilson under the instructions of Thomas Cabry, Locomotive Superintendent of  the YNMR. They had 6ft coupled wheels, 15x20in cylinders actuated by Stephenson link motion and boilers pressed to 90psi. They became NER Nos. 293-8. MacLean p. 33, including Fig. 36 showing No. 10 (David Joy drawing).

271/293: [1856]
Reconstructions at York under J. Stephenson of two former YNMR four-coupled passenger engines. Double frames: as reconstructed 6ft 1½ coupled wheels and 16x22in cylinders. No. 271 illustrated.

Leeds Northern Railway

MacLean (p. 36) noted that 28 locomotives passed to the NER and were given the numbers: 359-387. These included three small six-wheeled four-coupled engines with 5ft 6in driving wheels and 15x20in cylinders built by Kitson & Co. and were very similar to six on the YNMR given the numbers 352-357


No. 8 (LNR 8-13): 1847
Built by Kitson in 1847 with 6ft coupled wheels and 16x22in cylinders. The oval boilers had a 15.5ft2 grate area. Weight in working order about 26 tons. MacLean (pp. 36-7, Fig. 37 shows No.8). No. 364 was rebuilt at Leeds in August 1875, receiving 17½in cylinders and a new boiler from Gateshead. It was then placed in the 1440 class. Note on withdrawal: Locomotive Mag., 1920, 26, 92.


Manufactured by Kitson Thompson & Hewitson (WN 281) and exhibited at the Great Exhibition at Crystal Palace in 1851 when it was painted blue. Following the Exhibition it was sold to the LNR and became NER No. 369. MacLean's drawing (Fig. 38) shows it in its original form with 6ft driving wheels and outside 11x18in cylinders. MacLean (pp. 37-8) notes that it became the Locomotive Superintendent's Saloon and following a collision at Otterington in 1868 it was rebuilt as a 2-2-2T with double frames and inside 13x20in cylinders. It was rebuilt as a two-cylinder compound by T.W. Worsdell with 13x20in high pressure and 18½x20in low pressure cylinders as a a 4-2-2T: his brother Wilson literally reversed his brother's locomotive when it became a 2-2-4T in 1902. It is a national treasure and is covered by the RCTS Locomotives of the LNER Part 9B (LNER Class X1) which demolishes much of the mythology beginning with a totally new locomotive following the Otterington accident. See also Class 66 (Worsdell fraternity)..

Brewer, F.W. North Eastern Depsartmental tamk engines. Rly Mag., 1935, 77, 203-6.
The 2-2-4T locomotives classified as X1, X2 and X3: importantly, Fletcher 2-2-2WT Aerolite of 1869 is illustrated
F.W. Brewer. The last of the N.E.R. two-cylinder compounds. The historic "Aerolite". Locomotive Mag., 1926, 32, 219-21. 2 illustrations, 2 diagrams (side elevations)
2-2-2 constructed by Kitson, Thompson & Hewitson exhibited at the Great Exhibition of 1851. In 1869 a replacement 2-2-2 Aerolite was constructed under Fletcher; this was converted into a 2-2-2T  in 1886 and finally as a 4-2-2T in 1892 and was subsequently reboilered.
An interesting old tank locomotive. Locomotive Mag., 1911, 17, 216. diagram

Newcastle & Carlisle Railway

Part opened in 1836: merged with NER in 1863. MacLean states table compiled by A.E. Mason of Hawick. Livery red. Trains ran on right, rather than on left.

NER No. Name N&C No. Builder Date wheel arrangement cylinders coupled wheel ths bp
453 Hercules 4 Hawthorn 1857 0-6-0 15x22 4ft 6in 659 110
454 Samson 5 Hawthorn 1836 2-4-0 14x18 5ft 0in 499
455 Goliah 6 Hawthorn 1836 0-6-0 14x18 4ft 0in 473 70
456 Atlas 7 Stephenson 1861 0-6-0 15x22 4ft 6in 619 40
457 Tyne 8 Hawthorn 1861 0-6-0 15x22 4ft 6in 673 110
458 Eden 9 Stephenson 1861 0-6-0 15x22 4ft 6in 619 110
459 Lightning 10 Hawks & Thompson 1837 2-4-0 14x15 4ft 6in 440 65
460 Newcastle 11 Hawthorn 1860 0-6-0 15x22 4ft 6in 659 110
461 Carlisle 12 Hawthorn 1860 0-6-0 15x22 4ft 6in 659 110
462 Wellington 13 Hawthorn 1838 2-4-0 14x18 5ft 0in 531 50
463 Victoria 14 Hawks & Thompson 1838 2-4-0 15x18 6ft 0in 528 80
464 Nelson 15 Hawthorn 1838 2-4-0 14x18 5ft 0in 529 80
465 Northumberland 16 Hawthorn 1838 2-4-0 14x18 5ft 0in 529
466 Cumberland 17 Hawthorn 1838 2-4-0 14x18 5ft 0in 529
467 Durham 18 Hawthorn 1839 0-6-0 14x18 4ft 0in 529
468 Sun 19 Hawthorn 1839 0-4-2 14x18 4ft 9in 530 80
469 Matthew Plummer 21 Thompson Bros 1839 0-6-0 14x18 4ft 0in 529 60
470 Adelaide 22 Thompson Bros 1840 0-6-0 14x18 4ft 0in 529 60
471 Mars 23 Thompson Bros 1840 0-6-0 14x18 4ft 0in 528 80
472 Jupiter 24 Thompson Bros 1840 2-4-0 14x18 4ft 9in
473 Venus 25 Thompson Bros 1841 2-4-0 14x18 4ft 6in 563 70
474 Saturn 26 Thompson Bros 1841 0-6-0 14x18 4ft 6in 528 80
475 Globe 27 Hawthorn 1846 0-6-0 15x24 4ft 3in 594 90
476 Planet 28 Hawthorn 1846 0-6-0 15x24 4ft 3in 631 90
477 Albert 29 Hawthorn 1847 2-4-0 15x21 5ft 0in 661 90
478 Swift 30 Hawthorn 1847 2-4-0 15x21 5ft 6in 597 90
479 Collingwood 31 Hawthorn 1848 0-6-0 16x24 4ft 6in 769 85
480 Allen 32 Hawthorn 1848 0-6-0 16x24 4ft 6in 769 85
481 Alston 33 Stephenson 1850 0-6-0 15x22 4ft 6in 619 90
482 Hexham 34 Stephenson 1850 0-6-0 15x22 4ft 6in 619 90
483 Prudhoe 35 Hawthorn 1852 0-6-0 15x22 4ft 6in 661 110
484 Naworth 36 Hawthorn 1853 0-6-0 15x22 4ft 6in 661 110
485 Blenkinsopp 37 Stephenson 1853 0-6-0 15x22 4ft 6in 619 110
486 Bywell 38 Stephenson 1853 0-6-0 15x22 4ft 8in 619 110
487 Dilston 39 Hawthorn 1855 0-6-0 15x22 4ft 6in 661 110
488 Langley 40 Hawthorn 1855 0-6-0 15x22 4ft 8in 661 110
489 Thirlwell 41 Stephenson 1855 0-6-0 15x22 4ft 8in 619 110
490 Lanercost 42 Stephenson 1855 0-6-0 15x22 4ft 6in 619 110
491 Featherstonehaugh. 43 Hawthorn 1857 0-6-0 15x22 4ft 8in 655 110

Lightning ceased running in 1863. No. 455 Goliah was scrapped in 1864. No. 5 was rebuilt as 2-4-0 prior to amalgamation with NER: Fig. 41.

Blyth & Tyne Railway

Lowe, James W. British steam locomotive builders. Cambridge: Goose, 1975. 705pp.
Lowe states that about twenty locomotives were constructed at Percy Main, but very little information exists about them. Between 1862 and 1876 fifteen 0-6-0s and five 2-4-0s were constructed. Lowe claims that most interesting locomotive was No. 35, a three cylinder compound 0-6-0 with two outside high pressure cylinders and a single inside low pressure cylinder. For a time Joseph Cabry was resident engineer. Amalgamated into NER in 1874.


28 0-6-0s, built between 1856 and 1873 passed to the NER and there was much renumbering which sometimes led to duplicates: former B&TR Nos. 8 and 9 shared the number 1719 in 1894. No. 8 as No. 1719 was withdrawn in February 1904 and sold to the Seaham Harbour Dock Co. and named Ajax. No. 3 (as 2255) and 14 (as 172 1712?) were sold to the Harton Coal Co. at South Shields; and No. 19 (as No. 1319) was sold to the Cramlington Coal Co. Hoole (58-9) includes a photograph of 1335 which he stated had been the experimental three-cylinder locomotive.

Three-cylinder locomotive

Sekon, G.A. The evolution of the steam locomotive. 1899. Pp. 231-2.
Does not suggest a compound locomotive: built to design of W. Kendall (patent of 26 October 1867). On level operated by single inside cylinder. One or both of outside cylinders used for starting and climbing gradients. Hoole noted that had two outside cylinders (10x24in) and a single inside cylinder (20x24in).


According to Hoole (p. 42) two of the 2-4-0s were extant in 1894: these were former No. 29 constructed by R. Stephenson in 1864 which had become NER No. 1713, and No. 10 built at Percy Main in 1868 which is illustrated as NER No. 1928 in about 1891; was 1734 in the 1894 list and withdrawn in the 20th century as No. 2256.

West Hartlepool Harbour & Railway Co.

Taken over by NER in 1865


611 class: 1865
In course of construction at Stockton Works when line was taken over. The first two had 14x20in cylinders and 3ft 6in coupled wheels and Hoole (pp. 62-3) suggests may have been based upon a Fletcher Jennings design. No. 2053 (illustrated at Leeds in W.J. Barker photograph) had been WHHR No. 39 Prince of Wales and became NER No. 611) was cut up at York in 1897. No. 41 Alexandra became NER N0. 613 then 1777. Others were 49 Victoria which became NER No. 619 and was sold to the Lintz Colliery in 1893 and was withdrawn in 1900; and No. 52 which became NER 620 and was withdrawn in 1883.

North Eastern Railway

Ahrons stated that in "one respect the North Eastern was unique amongst British railways in that during the locomotive superintendency of Mr. Edward Fletcher until 1883 there was by far the largest variety of locomotive classes, shapes and sizes that ever ran on one line. In fact, it may truthfully be said that hardly two engines were alike in every particular. Even after 1874, when a faint and feeble attempt at some sort of standardisation of certain of the newer classes was attempted, such engines began to assume differences of detail and colour after a few years, chiefly dependent upon the taste of the shops in whIch they were repaired. For the chief locomotive districts of this line had an amount of latitude allowed to them which almost bordered upon a go-as-you-please system. There were four principal locomotive shops, all of which did heavy repairs and rebuilding for all engines within their respective districts, though, generally speaking, only those at Gateshead and Darlington constructed new engines. These shops were (1) Gateshead, (2) Darlington, (3) York, and (4) Leeds.

The principal or North Eastern proper locomotive works were at Gateshead and were under the supervision of Mr. Fletcher himself. The main characteristics of the Gateshead engines were wrought iron chimneys, clumsy-looking large domes, but somewhat neat brass safety valve columns. The colour was light green picked out with dark green and black bands and with both vermilion and white lines. The underframes were red brown in colour, lined out with vermilion lines. The smokebox doors were of a rectangular shape, let in flush with the smokebox front and with all the rivet heads showing. Some had the hinge bars polished, but the majority were painted dead black.

The Darlington-built engines were completely different and retained many of the characteristics of the Stockton and Darlington locomotives, from which they sprang. The chimneys were shorter than those of the Gateshead engines and had a big taper, so that they were very much wider at the top than at the bottom. The domes were' taller and of an even more unprepossessing shape than the Gateshead domes, and in some respects were very simllar to the large domes formerly used on the Paris, Lyons and Mediterranean Railway in France. The brass safety valve columns were small, insignificant and plain. The cabs had flat tops and square sides. The smokebox doors were of the circular dished pattern and projected well out from the front of the smokebox, and had all hinges and hinge bars polished bright. The colour of the engines was a slightly lighter shade of green than the Gateshead engines, but the underframes were of a much darker chocolate colour.

The above differences relate to outward appearance only, but the details of motion, boilers, etc., were also completely different, and were originally due to Mr. Thomas Bouch, who had been chief locomotive engineer of the Stockton and Darlington section until 1875.

The York shops were under the charge of Mr. Stephenson, and had originally been the property of the old York ,and North Midland Railway. No new engines were constructed here by Mr. Fletcher, but by far the greater part of the engines in the southern division were rebuilt and repaired at York. In 1884, after Mr. McDonnell had succeeded Mr. Fletcher, five new engines were constructed at York; these were of Mr. Fletcher's design, of which the boilers, motion, and parts had been made at Gateshead. To make room for other work Mr. MacDonnell had them sent to York, where they were put together. The York engines were, generally speaking, much neater than those which issued from the other North Eastern locomotive shops, and as far as rebuilding was concerned Mr. Stephenson appears to have had a free hand. The chimneys were of cast iron in one piece, the domes differed consider~.bly in sizes and shapes, but generally were of a smaller and neater design than the Gateshead domes. The safety valve columns were of somewhat neat appearance, and the smokebox doors were dished and almost exactly like those of Mr. Patrick Stirling's Great Northern pattern. All the rivet heads in the York smokeboxes were countersunk. The cabs were somewhat after the Gateshead shape, and the colour of the engines was light green picked out with black bands and white lines. The underframes were claret colour with vermilion lines-in fact, the York colour schemes was throughout almost identical with that of Mr. Stirling's Doncaster practice.

The Leeds shops at Holbeck had originally belonged to the Leeds Northern, or the Leeds and Thirsk Railway, as it was sometimes called, and under the supervision of Mr. Johnson, and afterwards Mr. Taylor, looked after the requirements, including the rebuilding, of all engines in the Leeds district. Extreme severity characterised the appearance of the engines which issued from Leeds shops. The wrought iron chimneys were very similar to the Gateshead pattern, the domes were a hybrid cross between Gateshead and Darlington, and the safety valves had a shape of their own, somewhat like a decanter, and were generally painted green instead of being of the usual North Eastern polished brass. But the cabs were the plainest and most ugly that existed; they were somewhat after the Stirling South Eastern pattern, but of a more ungainly shape. The smokeboxes had dished doors, painted dead black and were covered with a profusion of rivet heads. The Leeds shops had a green colour of their own-a brilliant emerald, which was thrown into prominence by being picked out with yellow lines. Prior"to 1881 the underframes were painted the same green as the engines and the tenders carried large yellow letters N.E. on the back plates.

Until about 1881 all North Eastern tenders had an exact replica of the engine number plate painted on the sides. The engine number plates were of brass with large figures, and in this respect also Gateshead, Darlington and York had their own designs, in which the figures were of completely different sizes and shapes. Gateshead, Darlington and L1:eds painted their number plates vermilion and reproduced them on the tenders in paint. York painted the plates the same green as the engines but usually omitted the replica on the tender, and after 1878 did so on all engines.

As if the above differences were not sufficient, there were also a large number of engines which had been built by Messrs. Stephenson, Hawthorn, Neilson, Dubs, etc., all of which were not only very different in appearance and details £rom those which had been constructed at Gateshead and Darlington, but were widely different from each other. [Mr. Acworth, in The Railways of England (p. 356, 5th Ed.), writes:-"In the running shed at Gateshead I found that 200 different patterns of nuts, bolts, pins, etc., were needed to meet the everyday requirements of the 120 engines that have their home there. ". See Hewison for his observation on boiler explosions or Reed (p. 63): "the go-as-you-please policy of the time which in the locomotive department reached its peak on the NER under Fletcher, gave that company 10 out of 16 boiler explosons recorded over the years 1875-80. 

Edward Fletcher designs


Hoole (pp. 42/4) noted the extreme diversity within the so-called Fletcher classes.Baxter (pp. 96-9) lists locomotives which were assumed to have been built at Gateshead plus one (No. 305) at York in 1855 which were never classified and for which no records exist. Building dates and cylinder dimensions arre provided. and the sub-division is by coupled wheel diameter and/or cylinder size. One suspects that Hoole would have demanded more. Many were renewals or replacements for stock inherited from earlier companies. A further problem is that Baxter did not adopt some of the categories noted by Hoole or MacLean.

7 class: 1853
Hoole p.44 notes the existence of No. 1793 in 1894: it had 17x24in cylinders and 5ft driving wheels and was built in 1853.

388 class: 1855-7
Double framed with 5ft coupled wheels.  Built by R. Stephenson and by E.B. Wilson. No. 390 illustrated. MacLean p. 107

93 class: 1860-
Hoole (p. 47) stated that by 1894 forty nine of these double-frame short-coupled locomotives remained. They were supplied by R.W. Hawthorn (initial batch), R. Stephenson, Manning Wardle and Dubs (total 75) plus some from Gateshead. No. 510 (supplied Stephenson) suffered a bolier explosion at Alne on 28 March 1877 (Hewison p. 89 noted tat this was due to corrosion and grooving). Four of the Hawthorn locomotives were rebuilt in 1871 as 0-6-0STs for banking: see class 577. The class lasted in service until 1909. Illus.: No. 658 on 15 August 1881 (this locomotive was sold in 1908 and lasted until 1959 (latterly in NCB ownership); No. 657 at York c1906.
Ahrons (British steam locomotive development p. 158)  noted Fletcher locomotives of this type had all wheels in front of the firebox, 16x24in cylinders, boilers working at 130psi, and were intended for long distance coal trains. The outer-framing was "somewhat antiquated type, with horn-plates bolted on. Majority built by R. Stephenson and R&W Hawthorn, 1860-6.
Baxter (103-6) stated that designated "93 class" by Worsdell and comprised mainly locomotives supplied by the major manufacturers plus No. 93 built at Gateshead in 1860, and Nos. 295 of 1865 and 359 of 1866. All were of the short-coupled type and most had double frames: Nos in bold indicate plate frames.

Running Numbers Builder Works numbers Date
417-421 R.W. Hawthorn 1096-1100 1860
422-426 R. Stephenson 1321-5 1860/1
502-509 R.W. Hawthorn 1236-43 1864
510-517 R. Stephenson 1601-8 1864/5
520-523 Manning Wardle 120-1/183-4 1865/6
559-563 Dubs 57-61 1866
564-571 R.W. Hawthorn 1338-45 1866
572-583 R.W. Hawthorn 1346-57 1866
642-661 R. Stephenson 1731-50 1866/7

93 class 0-6-0 No. 659 with Whitby Abbey behind. H.L. Hopwood Collection. Rly Arch., 2009 (24) 62.
93 class 0-6-0 No. 646 on Percy Main scrap road. H.L. Hopwood Collection. Rly Arch., 2013 (37) 44.

13 class: 1861-
In 1894 (Hoole) there were 69 locomotives in this "class". They had 5ft long-coupled wheels, double frames and ten had 16x24in cylinders and the remainder 17x24in. The captions to the two illustrations are indicative of the origins of this "class": No. 434 (in nearly as built condition with fluted dome of the type associated with E.B. Wilson), one of four built by Manning Wardle in 1861, and No. 430 built by Sharp Stewart in 1861 but with T.W. Worsdell boiler (withdrawn 1903). 708 class developed from this type..
Baxter (p. 100 et seq) gives greater detail for this "class". In addition to those tabulated below: there were No. 361 built at either Leeds or York, and Nos. 83, 474, 669, 318 and 143 which were probably built at Gateshead. All had broadly similar dimensions. 361 and 318 were rebuilt at York and No. 669 at Gateshead in 1882. 361, 318 and 143 lasted until 1920. No. 669 was replaced in 1911 and Nos. 83 and 474 were replaced in 1903..

Running Numbers Builder Works number Date
388-397 R Stephenson 1010-19 1855/6 394 rebuilt at Leeds in 1882 (withdrawn 1896): remainder replaced 1880-4
399-414 E.B. Wilson 459-64/589-98 1855/7
427-432 Sharp Stewart 1250/1/1258-61 1861
433-436 Manning Wardle 24-7 1861
437-442 Beyer Peacock 217-22 1861
443-446 R. Stephenson 1401-4 1863
524-535 R.W. Hawthorn 1286-97 1865
554-558 Hudswell Clarke 46-7/51-3 1865/6
536-543 R.W. Hawthorn 1298-1305 1866

143 class 0-6-0 No. 143 on Percy Main scrap road. H.L. Hopwood Collection. Rly Arch., 2013 (37) 46 upper.

398 class: 1872-5
Single frames: 5ft coupled wheels, 17x24in cylinders, total heating surface 1138ft2. Firebox similar to that on 1463. Total constructed: 324. No. 398 illustrated. MacLean pp. 107-8..

Number in lot Running Numbers Date Builder Works numbers
19 781-99 1872 R. Stephenson 2051-69
11 813-23 1873 R. Stephenson 2070-80
20 824-43 1873 R&W Hawthorn 1561-80
19 879-97 1874 R. Stephenson 2151-69
11 913-23 1874/5 R. Stephenson 2170-80
10 934-43 1874 Neilson, Reid 1809-18
10 984-91 1874 R&W Hawthorn 1623-32
20 1370-89 1875 R. Stephenson 2261-80
20 1390-1409 1875/6 Sharp, Stewart 2540-59
20 1410-29 1875 Dübs 863-82

Hoole (pp. 48-51) noted that the class total was 325, and this included output from Gateshead and from York (Nos. 52, 134 and 266). By the time of the 1894 listing there were many cylinder sizes (17x24; 17½x24; 17x26 and 17x28) and coupled wheel sizes (4ft 6in; 4ft 9in; 5ft, and 5ft 8in). 86 passed to the LNER. Hoole noted that No. 991 nearly entered the York Railway Museum, but was usurped by the Stirling 4-2-2 No. 1. The RCTS Locomotives of the LNER Part 5 notes other coupled wheel sizes. NER No. 396 (of 1881) was sold in 1925 to the Harton Coal Co. where it became No. 5 and lasted until 1953 when it was owned by the NCB. Hatcher notes that Nos. 888/786/827/1453/396/1453 were acquired by the Harton Coal Co. via Robert Frazer from 1907. Hoole noted that Nos. 45, 61, 79, 183, 200, 202, 488, 636, 984, 991, 1386, 1396, 1403, 1404 and 1456 were on loan to the Highland Railway during or following WW1. Nos. 282, 283, 308 and 1378 were on loan to the Caledonian Railway, and Nos. 896 and 916 to the LNWR in the same period. Hoole reproduced an official weight diagram on p. 49; and illus. of No. 1404 Sharp Stewart of 1876) at York after being rebuilt; No. 838 (Hawthorn of 1873) at Ingleby Incline Bank Foot in 1905/6; No. 1291 (built Darlington) with T.W. Worsdell boiler fitted in 1889 (Hoole's North Road Locomotive Works following p. 10) illustrates No. 1291 with Fletcher boiler); No. 1208 (SDR short-coupled rebuilt with long wheelbase) in c1890; No. 1418 (with single window cab) at Feryhill on 23 June 1923. Baxter (pp. 108-118) repeats much of this information, but adds that the Hawthorn series (WN 1561-80) were known as "Belgians" as Hawthorn had brought in Belgian workers to break a strike. According to Baxter No. 787 was involved in a boiler explosion in November 1878; and No. 941 in another boiler explosion in November 1880 .
Denholm, Michael J. North Eastern Railway '398' Class 0-6-0s. Br. Rly J., 1993, 5, 330-2.
A large and diverse class, a member of which (Hawthorn WN 1632/1874, running No. 991) had been intended for preservation, but which was usurped by Stirling Single. Lists outside suppliers (Stephenson, Hawthorn, Neilson, Sharp Stewart and Dubs) as well as output from Gateshead, Darlington and York. Illus.: No. 789; No. 200 and No. 1454.
Pouteau photograph of No. 922 Rly Arch., 2008 (19) 59 upper)

Arman, Brian. The Hopwood Collection 1901-28. Part 5: the North Eastern Railway. Rly Arch, 2009 (24) 63 lower
398 class 0-6-0 No. 841 in lined black livery at Percy Main workshops on 22 July 1912
398 class 0-6-0 No. 1080 near Saltburn working passenger train
Arman, Brian. The H.L. Hopwood Collection 1901-28. Part 16: Percy Main. Rly Arch, 2013 (39) 41 et seq

708 class: 1870
Double-frames, otherwise as 398 class. Built by R. Stephenson: running numbers: 706-75 (Baxter WN 1961-80/2021-50). Illus. No. 774. MacLean pp. 108-9. Ahrons (British steam locomotive development p. 203) noted that: "had the old plated oak outside frames and, with the exception of a feew subsequent Great Western classes, were the last engines in this country with this type of framing", but the "drivers are unanimous in stating until many years later that these were the best goods engines on the line" Hoole (pp. 52-5) stated that derived from 13 class and adds 20 built by R.&W. Hawthorn in 1872/3 (Baxter WN 1521-40). All were withdrawn by 1911. Hoole includes an official weight diagram and shows No. 717 with Fletcher boiler at York in 1890 and No. 726 awaiting scrapping at Seaham Harbour. No. 718 was sold to Robert Frazer 1907 who sold it on to the Marsden Railway where it ran passenger trains: not scrapped until 1929...
Arman, Brian. The H.L. Hopwood Collection 1901-28. Part 16: Percy Main. Rly Arch, 2013 (39) 41
No. 757 photographed 4 July 1902

606: 1871
Baxter (p. 107): assumes was 0-6-0 with 4ft 9in coupled wheels and 16x22in cylinders: rebuild or renewal of WHHR No. 31. On p. 52 they suggest was a R. Stephenson 0-6-0 of 1850 with 4ft 6in coupled wheels and was probably hand when acquired.

120 class: 1874/5
Short-coupled inside frames. Constructed at Gateshead. Hoole p. 48. No. 185 was sold for £400 to the Seaham Harbour Dock 1911 where it became Clio and lasted until 1955 (illus. Hoole p. 227).
120 class 0-6-0 No. 118 in plain black livery at Gateshead. Brian Arman. H.L. Hopwood Collection. Rly Arch., 24, 63 upper.

603 class: 1878/9
Hoole p. 52. Six locomotives built at Darlington. By 1894 had been fitted with 398 class boilers. Five had 17x24in cylinders, but No. 592 had 17½x24in. Last withdrawn in 1911. Illus. No. 592 at Percy Main in early 1890s.

36 class: 1880
Built at Gateshead: similar to 398 class, but with 10in shorter wheelbase. Withdrawn between 1911 and 1913. Illus.: No. 393 with new boiler at Park Lane (Botanic Gardens), Hoole p. 45.


492 class: Whitby bogies: 1864-5
Fletcher's sole 4-4-0 design: intended for steeply graded and sharply curved Malton to Whitby line. Constructed R. Stephenson & Co. WN 1581-90 (NER 492-501).. 5ft coupled wheels. 16x22in cylinders. Last withdrawn 1893. MacLean p. 43. Fig. shows No. 492. The class failed to last long enough to get into the 1894 listing, but Hoole (pp. 59-60) listed the numbers of the four extant in 1893 which had been reboilered between 1882 and 1886. A spotless No. 1809 (former No. 496) is illustrated at Whitby engine shed.Hoole observed that the original drawings (not reproduced) were extant: signed John Atkinson and dated 5 April 1864. From  1888 some, when withdrawn, formed the frames for snowploughs...


25 class: 1863-9
MacLean pp. 39-41: double framed passenger engines. Fig. 40 No. 312 (drawing). The locomotives had big fireboxes with a water space in the middle and two doors in the middle. They were constructed at Gateshead and worked mainly north of Newcastle, including through to Edinburgh. The numbers and entry into service were as follows:
25 (1863) rebuilt York in 1887
26 (1865) rebuilt York in 1883
312 (1865) rebuilt Gateshead with new cylinders and boiler in 1880
148 (1866) rebuilt York in 1883
257 (1876?) rebuilt York in 1887
468 (1868) rebuilt York in 1887: worked through Newcastle to Edinburgh in May 1869
250 (1868) rebuilt by T.W. Worsdell with strengthened frames and new boiler (illus. p. 41)
473 (1868)
683 (1869) never rebuilt: boiler used for pumping engine at Leeds
459 (1869) rebuilt York in 1887
463 (1869) rebuilt York in 1887
462 (1869) rebuilt Leeds in 1884
102 (1869) rebuilt York in 1883

Hoole (p. 27) illustrated No. 26 in final condition and No. 250 at Leeds Holbeck shed. Hoole noted that they had either 16in or 17in x 22in cylinders and 5ft 6in, 6ft or 6ft 6in coupled wheels.
25 class 2-4-0 No. 257 on Scarborough shed. Arman, Brian. H.L. Hopwood Collection. Part 5 Rly Arch., 2009 (24) 65 lower

544 class: 1865
Express engines designed to burn coke (tender capacity quoted as 2 tons). Constructed by R&W Hawthorn (WN 1306-15) NER 544-53. 6ft 6in coupled wheels. 16x22in cylinders. Total heating surface 1183ft2. Fig. 42: No. 545 line drawing. Rebuilt between 1881 and 1886 into state shown in Fig. 43 (No. 553). Some renumbered. No. 1753 lasted until 1904 running between Bradford and Hull. MacLean pp 44-5. Hoole (p. 30) contributes illus. of No. 548 at Leeds Holbeck and notes that they were renumbered in 1891 and again in 1894.

24 or 38 class: 1867-71
Smaller version of 25 class. Constructed at Gateshead. Double frames; 6ft coupled wheels; 16x22in cylinders. No. 38 illustrated (Fig. 44), but MacLean states not in as built condition as modified with compensating levers in drawing. MacLean 45-6.

38 1867 replaced 1882
157 1868 rebuilt with 6ft 6in coupled wheels at Gateshead in 1882
29 1869 rebuilt York 1887
147 1869 rebuilt Leeds 1882
24 1869 rebuilt Darlington 18882
682 1869 scrapped 1883
286 1869 scrapped 1888
472 1870 scrapped 1888
369 1871 scrapped 1883

"21 class": 1869-71
"Similar in all respects" (MacLean p. 46) to above, but with 5ft 6in coupled wheels and 17x22in cylinders. Nos. 21 and 680 built in 1869, and 139 in 1871. When new No. 680 ran on Consett branch. No. 21 was first locomotive on NER to be fitted with Westinghouse brake. Note MacLean did not refer to these three locomotives as a "class", but treated them as an appendage to 24 class.

675 class: 1870-7
Mixed traffic engines with 5ft 6in coupled wheels and 15x22in cylinders. Similar to Great North of England Railway No. 75 rebuilt in 1863. 34 constructed. Worked passenger trains on hillier sections. Under T.W. Worsdell rebuilt with new boilers. Last withdrawn in 1890. No. 64 (photo.) is shown with additional safety valve between chimney and dome. No. 50 (photo.) is shown in rebuilt condition. No. 465 (constructed 1873) had slightly larger bore (15½in) cylinders. MacLean pp. 46-7. Hoole (p. 30) contributed illus. of No. 1889 (former No. 478) with McDonnell boiler. Ahrons Locomotive and train working Vol. 1 p. 58 noted that latterly the class worked trains from Hull to Scarborough, Hornsea and Withernsea trains: he called them "quaint little machines".

686 class: 1870-1
Twelve supplied by Beyer Peacock in 1870 (WN 932-43) running numbers 686-97 and eight supplied by Robert Stephenson in 1870/1 (WN 1947-54) running numbers 698-705. Although the two series differed quite markedly in appearance (good comparitive photos. of Nos. 696 and 698 in original condition on p. 48), the leading dimensions were near identical: 6ft coupled wheels; 16x22in cylinders; total heating surface 1181ft2 and grate area 16ft2. All rebuilt between 1883 and 1887 at York, Darlington and Leeds. No. 693 is shown as rebuilt at York in 1883. MacLean pp. 47-9. Hoole (p. 31) illustrates No. 693 (identical to MacLean) and No. 691 (still with some evidence of Beyer Pdacock origin) at Neville Hill (Leeds) and No. 686 with McDonnell boiler. Hoole noted that No. 694 renumbered as 11 was used to haul Raven's saloon and was not withdrawn until 15 January 1911 (last survivor).

901 class: 1872-82.
This was Fletcher's magnus opus. Nock stated that the design was "very sound in all respects" It was a large class (55 locomotives) built by several manufacturers, and the final locomotives lasted long enough for them to enter into LNER ownership (but did not receive an LNER classifcation). One No. 910 appeared at the Stockton & Darlington Railway Celebration in 1925 and is now in the National Collection. MacLean (pp. 59-63) noted that ten were built by Beyer Peacock in 1873: WN 1241-50; running numbers 844-853. Ten were built by Neilson, also in 1873: WN 1799-1809; runing numbers 924-933. Remainder were constructed at Gateshead. Designed for heavier services. 7ft coupled wheels; 17x24in cylinders (17½in from 1880); grate area 16.1ft2, total heating surface 1208.5ft2. They had generous bearings. MacLean 59-63. Fig. 48 (drawing) No. 925 as modified by McDonnell in 1884. Photographs: No. 901 as originally built with additional safety valve between chimney and dome; Beyer Peacock No. 833 with additional safety valve; Neilson No. 926 with additional safety valve over firebox. Hoole's major contribution is the reproduction of an official weight diagram (p. 33).

The class survived long enough to be included in the magisterial RCTS Locomotives of the LNER. Part 4 which unlike Hoole pp. 32-5) gives the whole history of the class, although both Hoole and the RCTS do note that both Nos. 167 (in 1906) and 933 (in 1907) received larger (4ft 8¾in diameter) boilers and that 933 received a leading bogie as well. Hoole noted that there had been a proposal in 1888 to convert one of the class to a 2-2-2. Hoole lists many of the accidents in which the class was involved and most were due to human error, even the late accident involving No. 366 at Ravenstonefale on 18 October 1923 when the connecting rod fractured, and penetrated the firebox scalding the crew. Hoole illustrated No. 910 with a McDonnell boiler and a livery described as olive green with black panels and fine yellow lining (at York station in 1885); No. 908 with Worsdell boiler and livery and fitted with both Westinhouse and Smith's simple vacuum brake, and No. 178 at Darlington Bank Top.

Ahrons had a few trips on the footplate of the old "Fletchers" in the 'eighties, but did not keep any records of their speed performances, but amongst Mr. Rous Marten's records of the years 1884-5 he noted that one of the 17 in. by 24 in. engines took the Scotchman with a load of 180 tons from Newcastle to York, 80¼ miles, in the net running time of 92 min., gaining no less than 10 min. On another occasion a similar engine ran from Darlington to York, again with 180 tons, 44¼ miles, in 48 min., an average speed start to stop of 55½ miles per hour. They were really excellent engines, certainly amongst the fastest ,running coupled engines of that period. But their principal merit within my own observations was the ease with which they did their work. There was an easy exhaust and no throwing out of unburnt fuel, and consequently they were very economical coal consumers. The blast on the fire was softened materially by the use of what the old North Eastern men called "exhaust cocks." These were fitted to the cylinders in such a way that when the cock was opened from the footplate a portion of the exhaust was diverted from the blast pipe and turned directly into the atmosphere underneath the cylinders. These "exhaust cocks" were an essentially Fletcher feature and were fitted to nearly all North Eastern engines, both passenger and goods.

Ahrons added what he regarded as "excellent examples of coal consumption during the period 1884-5" for locomotives based at Gateshead working to (1) Edinburgh and (2) to York and Leeds. In the case of (1) the average mileage was 4421 and the coal consumption 28.4 lb/mile and (2) 4412 miles and 29.5 lb/mile. The engines each averaged about 53,000 miles per annum on a consumption of less than 29 lbs. of coal per mile, with a mean load of 160 to 170 tons.

901 class 2-4-0 No. 845 departing Scarborough possibly in September 1904. Brian Armin. H.L. Hopwood Collection. Rly Arch., 2009 (24) 66.

Two 901 class locomotives were extensively modified by Wilson Worsdell in 1907: No. 33 became a 4-4-0 and No. 167 became a sort of NER Humpty Dumpty

The "901 class", NER. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1910, 16, 32-5: 71-2; 90. 4 diagrs.
Including Neilson-built locomotives: running numbers 924-33. See also letter J.S. MacLean: Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1910, 16, 64. Later part includes notes on liveries, including McDonnell frame colours.Page 90 noted error on p. 72 concerning liveries: McDonnell applied dark olive green.
Nock, O.S. Historical steam locomotives. 1959. Chapter 4 2-4-0s of the decorated period
Preserved 910 and 1463
Smith, Walter M. Results of recent practical experience with express locomotive engines. Proc. Instn Mech. Engrs, 1898, 55,. 605-69.
Paper included a comparison between the three cylinder compound locomotive and the standard M1 class 4-4-0s. Poultney's British express locomotive development reproduces this data which also included the 7ft 7in 4-2-2 and 4-4-0 designs and the Tennant and 901 2-4-0s..

No. 367 pre-1892 in Rly Arch, 2008 (19), 54 lower

1440 class: 1876-8
Similar to 901 class, but with 6ft coupled wheels. Hoole p. 39. Nine were constructed at Gateshead, and a tenth was a replacement for Leeds & Thirsk Railway No. 364 which was rebuilt at Leeds. This series was numbered 1440-9. A further four were constructed at Gateshead in 1882: 150; 159; 220 and 486. Some lasted into LNER ownership (RCTS Part 4), but did not receive an LNER class allocation. Hoole p. 39 illustrates No. 1444 at Leeds New c1908 and the very different No. 364 at Leeds New c1890: this latter clearly shows the curved outside frames noted by  MacLean, but not in Hoole's caption..

11 class: 1877
Similar to Gamecocks with inside frames and inside bearings: built Darlington in 1877. 6ft 6in coupled wheels. 17x24in cylinders. 1091ft2 total heating surface. Weighed 38 tons 4cwt. MacLean pp. 57-8: illus. 1100 as rebuilt. Running nos.: 1166 (160), 11 (161, 1100 (162), 1114 (163). Works numbers in parentheses. All scrapped by 1912. Hoole's illus. (p. 27) of No. 1100 as rebuilt is much sharper than MacLean's. Hopwood photograph of No. 11 on scrap road at Percy Main: see Rly Arch., 2013, 37, 45 lower.

No. 162: 1879
MacLean p. 39: Rebuilt as a 2-4-0 (from 450 class 2-2-2) at York under J. Stephenson. Had 6ft driving wheels, double frames and 17 x 22in cylinders. Worked Leeds to Scarborough expresses. Fig. 39 (photograph) and Hoole p. 29 (different original) Hoole gives similar origin but stated rebuilt from 447 class. Enormously confusing as No. 1162 below was also a replacement for a locomotive which originated as No. 162 .

1162 class: 1880
Built at Darlington as a replacement for SDR 4-4-0 No. 162 Saltburn. R.H. Innes claimed that 7ft driving wheels came from Saltburn. Hoole (p. 36) illustrates No. 1162 at Hull,

1238 class: 1879/80
Rebuilt from SDR 1238 class of 4-4-0s. Piston valve were replaced by slide valves and inside replaced outside cylinders. Originally the leading axle had inside bearings, but later outside bearings were fitted to Nos. 1238 and 1240. Illus. No. 1238 at Neville Hille (W.J. Barker) and 1240 at York. Hoole pp. 36-7. Hoole's North Road Locomotive Works following p. 10) illustrates No. 1240 as originally rebuilt as 2-4-0.

1265 class: 1881
Rebuilt from SDR 1265 class of 4-4-0s. Piston valve were replaced by slide valves and inside replaced outside cylinders. Hoole p. 38 noted that as rebuilt No. 1268 took part in the Stephenson Centenary Procession from Newcastle to Wylam in 1881. No. 1268 is illustrated at Bridlington.

40 class: 1882
Constructed at Darlington for Central Division. Outside bearings to leading wheels. 6ft 6in coupled wheels. 17x24in cylinders. Total heating surface 1091ft2. Numbers: 40, 58, 1099 and 1101. No. 1099 fitted with Younghusband valve gear in 1905. No. 40 illustrated (phot. at York). MacLean p. 58. Hoole (p. 28) notes withdrawn by 1911. No. 40 photographed by Hopwood see Rly Arch., 2013, 37, 45 upper


450 class: 1861/Hoole 447 class
MacLean p. 38

Builder WN Running No. driving wheel diameter cylinder dimensions
Robert Stephenson 1411-1413 447-9 6ft 6½in 16in x 22in
R. & W. Hawthorn 1131-1133 450-2 6ft 6½in 16in x 22in
Gateshead 162, 161, 280 6ft 8in 17in x 20in

Rebuilt during the Tennant period with larger boilers (1248 ft2 total heating surface) and 17 x 22in cylinders. Built with partitioned fireboxes. Fig. 39 (line drawing) shows Hawthorn No. 451. See also 2-4-0 rebuild of No. 162. By 1894 only eight remained (Hoole p. 68) Illus. No. 1935 (originally No. 449, built R. Stephenson) at York in 1892.

Fletcher tank engines

The remnants of this collection are listed by Hoole: most would have been excellent candidates for Colonel Stephens' lines.


Although only a handful of Fletcher derived 0-6-0 saddle tanks survived into LNER ownership the RCTS Locomotives of the LNER 8B tabulates many of them and includes ones which did not become LNER property. The NER class 44 classification was not replaced and all the locomotives were withdrawn by 1926. In the section on the class J76 it is noted that tank engines were not charged to the capital account until 1864. Two heavy tank engines were ordered for banking between Grosmont and Goathland in 1863. Four long boiler 0-6-0s were rebuilt as banking saddle tanks in 1866. In 1875/82 four 0-6-0STs were built at Gteshead for the Redheugh incline. Earlier four long boiler tank engines had been built at Darlington for the Skinningrove zig-zag incline, but these were rebuilt as tender locomotives..

Date Class Builder cylinders coupled wheel boiler type
1867-9 5 Gateshead 14½x22 4ft 2in long
1872-3 964 Black Hawthorn 14½x22 4ft 2in long
1873-5 964 R Stephenson 14½x22 4ft 0in long
1875-6 1350 Hawthorn 15x22 4ft 0in short
1871-81 30/48/287 Gateshead 15x22 4ft 0in both
Gateshead 15x24 4ft 0in both
1881-3 44 Gateshead 15x24 4ft 6in short

Hoole (p. 16) shows No. 1900 which was claimed to have originated as a Great North of England 0-6-0 built by R. Stephenson in 1844 and which became York & Newcastle Railway No. 44 and had been converted to a tank engine: it was sold to Backworth Collieries in 1894.

Similar to 287 type. Also locomotive No. 1716. Originated in 1845 as short wheelbase 0-6-0s and rebuilt as saddle tanks in 1862. Hoole mentions on page 18.

577 class: 1863
Purchased from Manning Wardle for £2370 each and intended for use as Goathland deviation. These had the numbers 518 and 519. They had 4ft coupled wheels and 16½x24in cylinders. In 1871 Nos. 572, 575, 576 and 577 were converted from Hawthorn (see Hoole p. 47: Class 93) 0-6-0s for use on inclines in Newcastle and on the Whitby to Pickering line. Hoole (p. 22) illustrates No. 2262 (former No.577). No. 2262 also shown in Pouteau photograph (taken by G.W.J. Potter) in Rly Arch., 2008 (19) 60 upper which the caption (John Alsop) describes as "one of the most eccentric looking engines to be found on any British railway".

[665 class]: 1868
Some of the NDJR 2-4-0s were rebuilt from 1868 as 0-6-0STs and MacLean (p. 8) notes that the former No. 24 became No. 665 on reconstruction and that No. 29 became No. 666. No. 30 is illustrated (photograph). Nos. 22, 23 and 31 were also reconstructed: the last being No. 23 in 1875.

964 class: 1872-4
Inside frames; inside cylinders; originally saddle tanks, later side tanks. Hoole pp. 23-4.

Builder Date/s Running Nos. Total
Black Hawthorn 1872 776-80 5
Black Hawthorn 1873 854-8 5
R. Stephenson 1873/4 859-78 20
R. Stephenson 1875 962-81 20

Several were sold for further use, mainly to local collieries, but one went to the Shelton Iron & Steel Co., another to the Milford Haven Dock & Railway Co. Backworth Colliery purchased six., Briggs Collieries of Castleford also acquired six and Pelaw Main obtained four. One of the two which went to Seaham Harbour Dock Co. became Mars and lasted until 1863. Illus.: No. 979 and drawing of one with saddle tank. Hoole pp. 23-4.

1350: 1875/6
Twenty identical locomotives supplied by R&W Hawthorn: 15x22in cylinders, eventually replaced by larger (16x22in). Many had further service in collieries: one lasted to become NCB property. One served on Catterick Camp Military Railway during WW1. Last withdrawn from NER service in 1911. Hoole pp. 25-6 Illus of No. 1360 and weight diagram. Similar wheelbase to T.W. Worsdell E class..

993 class: 1875
Kitson supplied: long wheelbase; 4ft coupled wheels. No. 994 was similar, but with short wheelbase. No. 994 was sold to John Bowes of Killingworth and it became Seaton Burn Coal Co. No. 6. Illus of both Nos. 993 and 994. Kitson supplied similar locomotives to Consett Iron Co. Hoole p. 25.

476 class: 1875
Incline engines constructed at Gateshead: double-frame 0-6-0STs: No. 476 was based at Gateshead for work on the Redheugh incline until scrapped in 1905. Hoole (p. 21) illustrates Nos. 479 fitted with new boiler in 1891 (also shows slotted frames) and No. 73 with solid outside frames and original boiler. They had 18x24 cylinders and (mainly) 4ft coupled wheels: No. 487 had 3ft 8in coupled wheels. Class also used on dock and staith work. Last withdrawn 1914.

287 type: 1878
Rebuilt from Kitson 2-4-0s built in 1847: No. 315 illustrated by Hoole (p. 20). Withdrawn in 1902. Hoole  noted that 1894 list merely called them "old tank engines", although some appear to have been built as new in 1868-70.No. 313 was sold to the Cramlington Coal Co. and became Hartley Main 12 and was scrapped in 1935. No. 287 became Harley Main 33 and lasted until 1943..

44: 1881-3
Built at Gateshead in 1881-3. Hoole (pp. 17-18) illustrates No. 49 as saddle tank and No. 44 as modified by T.W. Worsdell as side tank (official diagram). Fig. 2 of RCTS Locomotives of the LNER Part 8B shows No. 106 lettered LNER with shunting pole at Shildon in 1923. The rebuilds served as the basis for T.W. Worsdell's E class..


124 class: 1881/2: LNER class J76
Similar to Fletcher BTP class and initially fitted with back tanks, but some later rebuilt with saddle tanks and some as side tanks. In true Fletcher fashion some had tanks all over the place (including in wells and as small tanklets on the side), and the wheel sizes were optional 4ft 6in and 4ft 9in. Hoole pp. 18-20: illus. show No. 1959 as back tank, 211 as saddle tank and 124 as side tank. RCTS Locomotives of the LNER Part 8B .contains further information, not all of which is directly helpful. All were withdrawn in the 1920s, but No. 598 became Milford Dock Ajax and lasted until 1944 at Milford Haven..
Denholm, Michael J. A North Eastern well tank.  Br. Rly J., 1995, 6, 203
Fletcher 124 class of 0-6-0WT or 0-6-0BT: they were similar to the BTP 0-4-4BT. No. 610 is illustrated.


BTP: 1874-
The back tanks passenger lasted long enough to become LNER class G6, although some of the Heinz varieties of wheel size (5ft to 5ft 8in) had disappeared by then. MacLean merely gives an illustration of No. 273 on p. 115. The illustrations in the RCTS survey emphasise the 0-4-0 plus built-in four-wheel tender aspect of the type and show how the "LNER" and LNER number were combined on the bunker. Hoole (pp. 64-7) notes that the class total reached 124, but the arrival of the Worsdell Class O in 1894 led to many being redundant. Between 1899 and 1904 forty were converted Class 290 0-6-0Ts at York. In 1907/8 a further ten convertions were made at Darlington and a final batch of ten were changed at Darlington in 1921/2, also at Darlington. Further BTP locomotives were adapted for push & pull working, known on the NER as autocar working. A mechanical system was used with a speaking tube being provided to communicate between the driver and the fireman. No guard was carried. Hoole estimated that there at least 37 convertions. The autocars were worked intensively. In 1909 one working started as Darlington to Croft Spa empty stock, followed by in service return to Darlington, thence to Newcastle, Blyth, Newcastle, Sunderland, Durham, Darlington, Bishop Auckland and back to Darlington: 150 miles. A pair provided a frequent service between Hartlepool and West Hartlepool. In 1903 Neilson No. 957 was converted to a 2-2-4T to work an inspection saloon. 46 locomotives of the original type passed to the LNER, but all had been wirhdrawn by the end of 1929: the Sentinel railcars dispaced many of the autocars. Hoole included an official weight diagram (p. 66) and illus. of No. 91 prior to receiving a Worsdell boiler; No. 1055 at Darlington in November 1891 fitted with besom holders on the front and rear guard irons: the besoms were intended to clear the track of snow or leaves; No. 638 plus a single autocar (probably for Harlepool service, c1905; No. 950 with autocar controls at both ends (to enable sandwich formations to be operated; No. 955 with Worsdell cab (the only convertion of this type): this locomotive was not withdrawn until 1926.  See also Class 957 (2-2-4T) and Class 290 (0-6-0T)..

Alsop, John. Wish You Were Here? Railway Postcards of Durham. Rly Arch., 2006 (14) 90 (bottom)
Autocar (push & pull) with Fletcher BTP 0-4-4T (not as caption) approaching Plawsworth, c1907
Barnfield, Steve. The North Eastern Railway BTPs and their derivatives. Br. Rly, J., 1992, 5, 69-78.
Introduced by Edward Fletcher in 1874: bogie passenger tanks. Initial batches constructed by Neilson and Hawthorn. Subsequent batches built at Gateshead, Darlington and York (last two in 1884) with a variety of coupled wheel sizes from 5ft to 5ft 8in but the author stated that there is some confusion about which locomotive numbers were related to which wheel size. The bogie wheels also varied in size. There was great variety in boilers (as these were gradually replaced by more modern versions) and of boiler mountings. From 1899 sixty were rebuilt as Class 290 0-6-0Ts with 4ft 1¼in driving wheels. The final ten were not rebuilt until 1921 and unlike the remainder these were fitted with new Worsdell-type cabs, but the remainder retained the Fletcher type. In 1903 No. 957 (a Neilson's locomotive of 1874) was rebuilt as a 2-2-4T with 6ft 1¼in driving wheels. Many of the BTPs were converted for autotrain (push & pull) working. Some of the surplus bogies liberated from the conversion of the type to 0-6-0Ts were used to construct bogie wagons including trolley wagons with a capacity of 40 tons. Bibliography. Illus.: No. 954 official Neilson & Co. photograph with both Naylor (on firebox) and Salter safety valves, August 1874; No. 954 with Westinghouse brakes and McDonnell chimney and livery, c1884; No. 1431 (Hawthorn-built) in September 1875; No. 1000 (built Gateshead Works) in as built condition without train brakes, 1880: No. 263 (Gateshead built) in original condition c1881; No. 256 (Gateshead built in 1882) still in original condtion; No. 321 with McDonnell number plate and Worsdell chimney at Middlesbrough shed post 1885; No. 321 as rebuilt with Worsdell boiler c1901; No. 466 as rebuilt with Worsdell boiler at Whitby; No. 207 with boiler from withdrawn 0-6-0 at Darlington following fire at Hawes Junction shed in 1917; 290 class No. 998 pre-1904; 2-2-4T No. 957 with low side tanks in 1903 and as with high side tanks in LNER livery; BTP No. 341 with two auto coaches c1923 at Gallows Close close to Scarborough; No. 247 at Selby; LNER No. 672 on Scarborough autotrain; No. 108 at Starbeck on 6 September 1925; 290 class (LNER) No. 1000, No. 1439 probably in 1939; 68392 with Worsdell cab and 68409.
Ellis, C.H. The splendour of steam. 1965. Cartoon page 52. Text Chap. 11
BTP crossing Knaresborough Viaduct in 1920.
Gunston, Henry North Eastern Railway push & pull coaches. Br. Rly J., 1991, 4, 264.
See BRJ 32 page 122 et seq  Cites Skinley drawing and Hoole's The North Eastern electrics (1987) for BTP No. 343 modified to work with modified Tyneside electric car 3243 and used on West Hartlepool to Hartlepool services. Further information from same writer Vol. 5 p. 88 (citing Skinley catalogue 17th edition 1971)..
Barnfield, Steve. NER push-pull coaches. Stephen Barnfield. Br. Rly J., 1992, 5, 127.
See letters by Henry Gunstone (BRJ 41 and BRJ 35) and original feature (BRJ 32) relating to Skinley drawing of push & pull unit (auto-train) formed from Tyneside electric stock (car No. 3243) with electrical equipment removed: illus.: BTP No. 343 with coach 3243.


Class 84: 1876
Small number of light 2-4-0Ts built for branch line work, but only one survived to be listed in 1894: former No. 84 as No. 1764, which had been rebuilt in 1881 and was condemned in December 1896. Illustrated at Leeds New. Others noted were No. 19, withdrawn as No. 1712 in 1885, and No. 266 replaced in 1884. Hoole p. 62.


959 class: 1871-5
Eleven standard industrial locomotives formed this class according to Hoole (pp. 62-3): six from Manning Wardle, four from Black Hawthorn and one from Hawthorn of Leith. They had 12 (or 13) x18in outside cylinders and 3ft coupled wheels. Only three (Manning Wardle) remained in 1894. No. 1798 (former 997) is illustrated in c1895 before its sale to Lingford Gardiner of Bishop Auckland in 1897.

Pressure release valves (bye-pass valves)
The "steam cocks" used by Fletcher (and which were removed by McDonnell) are well described in an obscure South American paper given by an expert on blast-pipes A.J. Poole

Poole, J. (Paper No. 437)
Freight locomotive rating and the statistical control of fuel consumption. J. Instn Loco Engrs, 1942, 32, 251.
Poole's response (page 251) to Durnford (page 240-3) and his reference to the back pressure valve as used in the USA he noted that apparently it is hard to find anything new under the sun and it is not generally realised that a hand-operated exhaust bye-pass was a standard fitting on the Fletcher and Tennant engines of the North Eastern Railway from very early days, while the "jumper" blast pipe used on the Great Western Railway falls under the same category.


Ahrons: ... the drivers took a hand and made confusion worse confounded. Many engines were ornamented by the men with brass collars of various patterns, usually placed round the lower narrow portion of the chimneys, and the fronts of the smokeboxes had brass crowns, stars, and insignia of different designs after the manner of regimental badges attached to them. But some of the drivers went further than this. One of the features of all the North Eastern passenger engines was a very large sandbox placed on the platform in front of the driving splashers, and a number of the men-chiefly in the Leeds district-utilised the space on the sides of the sandboxes for large transfer pictures. Generally speaking, the Royal Family, such as Queen Victoria and the then Prince of Wales, and also certain leading statesmen, were predominant, and so long as this was the case, the locomotive chiefs apparently took little notice of the transfers. But one fine day an enterprising driver of one of the 6 ft. coupled engines of the 686 class turned up in Leeds station with his engine, on the sandbox of which was a transfer picture depicting a classic nymph reclining in an extremefy neglige attitude on the greensward. It was just one of those artistic productions which would have delighted the heart of a royal academician, the chief drawback being that Aphrodite or Ceres, or whoever the lady may have been, was hardly suitable for a locomotive sandbox. For some minutes the proud driver surveyed and beamed smilingly upon an enthusiastic crowd of passengers, porters, etc., that collected round the engine. The nymph lasted for a few days, being chiefly occupied in making trips between Leeds, Harrogate and Thirsk, and was the cynosure of all eyes on this portion of the line. Then she suddenly disappeared. I believe that the driver was rash enough to take her to York. Now York is, as everybody knows, not only the centre of North Eastern official activity, but also, possesses a dean and chapter and various other dignified ecclesiastical luminaries. Whether the picture caught the eye of one of these dignitaries or whether one of the superior officials of the Company came across it, I do not know, but the net result of whatever actually occurred was that the lady was promptly and effectively expunged with the aid of a pot of green paint.

I think this incident also put an end to the other transfer pictures, for at about the same time the Royal Family and the political celebrities also disappeared from the sandboxes. And not before it was time, for some of the more artistically minded engine cleaners had in their turn assisted at various improvements in their features, and some of the politicians were showing signs of having been severely "rebuilt." An ultra Radical cleaner had improved a striking likeness of the late Lord Beaconsfield by giving him a bad squint and a military moustache. In retaliation a cleaner with Tory leanings had blacked Mr. Gladstone's eye on another engine, and indulged in several minor structural alterations to the right honourable gentleman's features. But although the transfers came to a sudden termination, the brass collars, crowns and stars lasted until the end of Mr. Fletcher's time, when his successor made a clean sweep of all "extras" of this nature.

Russell, J. Darlington North Road Works (North-Eastern Railway). Rly Mag., 1903, 13, 89-100.
At that time Darlington was still just one of NER's locomotive works. Also includes description of the former locomotive works at Shildon. Notes that company tended to buy in components for locomotive construction. Mainly a description of the Works on a shop-by-shop basis. Plan. Illustrations of some of locomotives built at Works.

See also Part 2

Updated 2016-09-25