BackTrack Volume 26 (2012)

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Published by Pendragon, Easingwold, YO61 3YS

Number 1 (January)

SR 4-6-0 No..30850 Lord Nelson, the first of the class named after it, stands commandingly outside Eastleigh shed in March 1961. Trevor Owen. front cover.

On letting the train take the strain. Michael Blakemore. 1
Editorial on the newly restored luxury hotel at St. Pancras railway station (formerly the Midland Grand and now Renaissance) and the far from first class service provided on the Grand Central service from Thirsk to London when the Editor had to stand.

Full 'Nelsons'. 4-5.
Colour photo-feature: No. 30853 Sir Richard Grenville on Basingstoke shed in 1958 (G.W. Potter); 30855 Robert Blake at Didcot with through train from South Coast working to Oxford on 5 September 1960 (D. Lloyd); No. 30860 Lord Hawke about to leave Bournemouth Central with up express in September 1960; No. 30861 Lord Anson near Swaythling on 13 September 1960 (D. Lloyd); No. 30854 Howard of Effingham leaves Basingstoke with train of Western Region stock in December 1960 (J. Phillips).

Michael J. Smith. Minor mishaps on the Metropolitan. 6-12.
The Metropoltan Railway enjoyed an excellent safety record in spite of the difficult working conditions in the days of steam. There were minor accidents due to the weakness of the iron side rods fitted to the Beyer Peacock 4-4-0Ts on 29 August 1873 and on 16 December 1884 when locomotive failures led to rear end collisions by following trains. On 4 June 1891 a C class 0-4-4T failed on the climb to Marlborough Road when the foulness of the atmosphere led to the collapse of the driver and signalman error led to a rear-end collision by a following train. At Baker Street on 28 May 1912 there was a collision due to motorman and signalman error which led Major J.W. Pringle to suggest that staff needed to be informed more fully when alterations to the track were made as had happened at Baker Street. In the summr of 1917 a Midland Railway and a Great Northern Railway train collided due to the Metropolitan Railway's signalman at Barbican incorrectly using the release key in the Sykes apparatus. On 6 June 1923 at what would become New Cross Gate station a Metropolitan Railway multiple unit ran into an LNER locomotive due to an error by the Southern Railway signalman on which Major G.C. Hall commented. At Baker Street on 14 June 1925 an electric locomotive running round its train collided with another train due to the motorman not seeing the signal and acting upon dubious shouted instructions. On 1 May 1939 a collision occurred at Farringdon when the motorman of Metadyne stock failed to observe signals and ran into a Great Western Railway 0-6-0PT No. 9705. Illus.: C class 0-4-4T No. 69 at Harrow-on-the-Hill on 31 May 1902; A class 4-4-0T No. 17 on Chesham train at Harrow-on-the-Hill on 31 May 1902; No. 69 near Pinner with 14.00 Liverpool Street to Verney Junction train with Pullman car on 16 November 1911; electric locomotive No. 9 in original condition inside Neasden shed; E class 0-4-4T and electric locomotive at Harrow-on-the-Hill on 25 September 1915; F class and T class London Transport stock, page 8 lower N2 No. 69583 and Fowler 2-6-2T No. 40023 at Moorgate on 27 July 1956 (H.C. Casserley); damaged multiple unit at New Cross Gate on 6 January 1923 (two views);  rebuilt electric locomotive No. 5 John Hampden at Baker Street; Former F class 0-6-2T No. 93 as L52 hauling breakdown crane crossing from Circle Line to Widened Lines on 23 May 1954 (most of dated photographs from Ken Nunn Collection). See also letter from Nicholas Ridge on page 126. and another from Mike Hayward on page 189 which relates to the accident of 14 June 1925 and is accompanied by a photograph

Anne-Mary Paterson: The railway that never was. 13.
Proposed railway to Ullapool: route sketched out by Murdoch Paterson in 1889 possibly at the behest of Sir John Fowler who had acquired Braemore Lodge.

Alistair F. Nisbet: The gentle art of passenger discomfort. 14-19.
Getting the maximum number of customers (passengers) into railway rolling stock both for commuting and for long distance journeys. Lines considered include the Southern suburban network, the London Underground, and the former LNER lines where articulated sets with very narrow compartments were used. Also overcrowding on LNER (ex-NBR) Glasgow suburban lines. Illus.: Piccadilly Line trains passing near West Ealing in February 1977 (colour); Class 4 No. 75074 on Kenny Belle service running round its train at Olympia; Class 144 four-wheel Pacer at Knaresborough on train for Harrogate on 20 June 1988 (colour); 82024 at Olympia with Kenny Belle; District Line service at High Street Kensington on Wimbledon to Edgware Road service (colour); Class 101 DMU in orange livery at Glasgow Central on 2 November 1997 (colour); ex-LSWR 4-SUB leaving Clapham Junction for Chessington on 25 August 1959 (John Scrace); Bulleid 4-SUB No. 4671 at Earlsfield with sevice from Hampton Court to Watlerloo on 9 August 1982 (John Scrace); two Class 415 at Charing Cross; First Great Eastern advertising horading at Clacton-on-Sea on 1 May 1999. (colour: all colour photographs by Author). On page 189 Chris Mills and Andrew Kleissner add their tales of misery (although in this case it was mystery rather than misery as writer commuted from Mill Hill Broadway to Moorgate in final years of diesel service).

Geoffrey Skelsey: The redevelopment of Liverpool Street Station: "the shining example of public-private partnership". Part One. 20-7.
Shoreditch, on the edge of some of London's worst slums opened in 1840 and this was replaced for passenger traffic by Liverpool Street which opened in 1874 and was adjacent to the North London Railway's Broad Street terminus where the platforms were high above those at Liverpool Street which was at the foot of a steep bank, but level with the Metropolitan Railway and the East London Railway with which junctions were made. For those who had known the station in the days of steam  it was a surprise to learn that the western platforms were sheltered by a lofty delicate roof. In 1892-4 an extension was opened on the eastern side of the station which in effect led to two separate stations with the long distance traffic being served by two long platforms which were in neither or both. High level walkways linked them and links to London Transport services were difficult to locate and narrow. Traffic at Broad Street declined until there was only a residual service to Watford (the main service to Richmond was diverted to North Woolwich) and the Watford service was diverted into Livrerpool Street via the Graham Road spur, but this service ended on 25 September 1992. The sale of the Broad Street site provided fiance for the redevelopment of Liverpool Street station. See also Bob Farmer's the Great Eastern as I knew it. Part 2 see p. 163.

London calling. 28-31.
Black & white photo-feature: Bulleid light Pacific No. 2C163 backs out of Victoria on 4 March 1948 (Eric Bruton); Fenchurch Street at 09.20 on 29 June 1949 with three cylinder 2-6-4T on train from Southend and L1 2-6-4T with train from Ilford and commuters arriving (Roy Vincent?); Bishopsgate goods with RCTS special for Cambridge hauled by D16/3 No. 62567 on 6 September 1953 (Eric Bruton); Victory Arch at Waterloo in 1930s; Charing Cross with E class No. 165 and 0-4-4T pre-1914; Peppercorn A1 No, 60136 leaving King's Cross with Queen of Scots Pullman on 2 July 1949 (Eric Bruton); Interior of Liverpool Street with Cromer express in Platform 9 and Hotel on 25 August 1948 (Eric Bruton); Nos. 7016 Chester Castle and No. 5007 Rougemont Castle awating departure from Paddington in mid-1950s. 

Wandering the Western branches. 32-3.
Colour photo-feature: former LMS Class 2 2-6-0 No. 46515 at Llanfyllin station on 09.45 to Oswestry in July 1963 (P.A. Fry); 14XX 0-4-2T No. 1451 at Hemyock with former LNER coach in November 1962 (P.A. Fry); 4575 2-6-2T No. 5530 at Chipping Norton with morning train for Kingham in April 1957 (R. Shenton); 45XX No. 4570 (in lined green livery) at St. Ives joining its train in summer of 1960 (J.W.C. Halliday).

George Smith. Brunel's Barmy Army. 34-6.
During construction of the Oxford, Worcester & Wolverhampton Railway there were problems with progress in driving Mickleton tunnel north of Chipping Camden and this led to conflict between Brunel, the main contractor which was Peto & Betts, and their sub-contractors; the first of whom Gale & Warden failed and were succeeded by Akroyd, Price & Williams who were failing to make progress and Akroyd and Price left and were replaced by Robert Mudge Marchant. In July 1851 there were battles between the navvies engaged in the main contract and Marchant's men and the police and army were called to intervene and new tunnel contractors (Hawley, Eales, Turner, Holden & Bryan were engaged) but took on the previous workforce and payments were made. The line which it had been intended to be broad gauge was completed as standard gauge. The notes make it clear that the workmanship of the tunnel was sub-standard: Roman-cement had been specified, but was not used. John Parson acted on behalf of the Oxford, Worcester & Wolverhampton Railway and later joined the GWR.

Two of a kind at York. 37
Colour photo-feature: A3 Pacifics No. 60074 Harvester (with single chimney) on Newcastle to Leeds express in late 1952 (train formed of carmine & cream stock, partially Gresley and Mk1) (J. Davenport); No. 60056 Centenary (with double chimney) in York station with northbound express in July 1959 (E.S. Russell)

Jeffrey Wells. The Blackburn to Preston Railway 1843-1859. 38-44.
Royal Assent received 6 June 1844. Chairman was Thomas Dugdale. Contractor was Messrs Stephenson, MacKenzie & Brassey. Major works were Hoghton Viaduct and King's Bank cutting where a major accident occurred during construction. There was a junction with the Northern Union Railway at Farington and stations at Pleasington, Hoghton and Bamber Bridge. Captain Coddington inspected the line on 30 May 1846 and the formal opening took place on 4 June 1846. An Act of 3 August 1846 enabled the railway to amalgamate with the East Lancashire Railway and an Act of 22 July 1847 enabled the unsatisfactory junction towards Preston at Farington to be replaced by a more direct route provided that certain conditions imposed by Preston Corporation were met. This required a new viaduct over the Ribble which collapsed on 25 October 1849 and the Preston Extension Line did not open until 2 September 1850. Illus.: Cherry Tree station on 5 August 1964; and in 1925; Pleasington station on 5 August 1964; Hoghton Viaduct in 1846 (drawing); Hoghton station in August 1964; p. 42 upper: Bamber Bridge station see Editorial gremlinia p. 189 Bamber Bridge was ten miles nearer to Blackburn than caption states; level crossing with A6 and signal box at Bamber Bridge; 4P compound No. 41100 arriving Bamber Bridge, and Class 5 4-6-0s Nos. 45073 and 45156 near Hoghton on 28 July 1968 (colour: David Idle).

Manx Electric [Railway]. 45-9
Mainly colour photo-feature: Car No. 19 with toast rack trailer and van near Laxey on 17.30 Douglas to Ramsey on 28 August 1969 (David Idle); Snaefell Mountain Railway Car No. 3 descending towards Laxey with roofboard (removed in 1970) (black & white: Roy Cole); Car No. 5 and trailer No. 45 and Car No. 14 at Derby Castle, Douglas on 18 July 1956 (T.J. Edgington); Laxey station with Manx Electric Railway Car No. 32 with trailer and SMR Car No. 5 (black & white: Roy Cole); SMR Car No. 5 at Snaefell Summit in July 1990 (T.J. Edgington); MER Car No. 22 and trailer entering Ramsey station; Car No. 26 crossing Glen Roy Viaduct at Laxey; Car No. 7 at Garwick Glen; SMR No. 5 leaving Laxey (all black & white: Roy Cole); Car No. 22 with trailer and van near South Cape on 28 August 1959 (David Idle); SMR Cars Nos. 1 and 5 at Laxey (T.J. Edgington); Car No. 6 at Derby Castle on 29 August 1959 with work on Summerland leisure centre in progress (David Idle). See also letter from Nicholas Ridge on page 126 concerning the reconditioning of the Snaefell Mountain Railway vehicles.

Bill Beresford as recorded by Paul Joyce: Post-War on the Southern. 50-4.
Senior fireman working on Southern Railway/Southern Region during the 1940s from Nine Elms. Did not like firing Lord Nelson class: "heart would drop at sight of one". Appeared to be happy with Bulleid Pacifics although had reservations about Canadian Pacific fitted with mechanical stoker as in spite of sorting out small lumps by the shed labourers large lumps tended to jam in the stoker mechanism. Also difficult to build up a fire before coming off at Salisbury for return working. Worked on the visiting locomotives during the 1948 Interchange trials namely A4 class No. 60022 Mallard and 60033 Seagull and on rebuilt Scot No. 46154 The Hussar and on Stanier Pacific No. 46236 City of Bradford. Eventually after being a junior steam driver he became a motorman at Orpington and suffered draughts in the old Southern electric multiple units. Steam trains interfered with visibility in Penge Tunnel. He became a foreman at Orpington depot in 1968. Illustrations: light Pacific No. 21C150 at Eastleigh in 1948; Q1 0-6-0 No. C10 in Nine Elms shed; Urie class H15 No. 490 waiting departure from Waterloo; Merchant Navy No. 35019 French Line CGT on 13.30 Paddington to Plymouth in Sonning Cutting (Maurice Earley); rebuilt Scot No. 46154 The Hussar at Waterloo on down Atlantic Coast Express on 7 June 1948 and Stanier Pacific No. 46236 City of Bradford running light through Vauxhall station..

Peter Hay. An evening in Sussex, 1951 55-7.
Boyhood travel for pleasure on the 19.34 to Tonbridge in a birdcage set as far as Lewes which was hauled by a D class 'Coppertop: this would achive 60 mile/h on the descent from Falmer. On the return journey the 19.37 ex-Tunbridge Wells with six Maunsell coaches might still be powered by the last I1X 4-4-2T which would struggle up to Falmer. Whilst at Lewes the struggle of a rebuilt Wainwright 4-4-0 on the 20.18 for London Bridge via the Bluebell Line to start its train from the sharply curved platform and 1 in 50 climb to the bridge over the High Street provided amusement. Illustrations: D class No. 31731 with birdcage set near Falmer with train for Tonbridge; D1 4-4-0 No. 31487 leaving Lewes; E5 0-6-2T No. 32585 on transfer freight at Lewes; C2X No. 32441 with transfer freight on bank and I1X No. 2002 outside Brighton station.

A.J. Mullay: Escape from Rotterdam by LNER. 58-9.
SS Malines escaped from Rotterdam in the face of the German invaders on 10 May 1940 due to the courage and skill of its master, Captain George Mallory. Another LNER vessel the St. Denis did not escape and had to be scuttled. The Malines sailed down the Maas under attack from the shore and aircraft, but this was accomplished under cover of darkness, but with the fear of a boom being raised at the Hook of Holland. The Malines was taken on a northerly route across the North Sea and eventually berthed at Tilbury. It is probable that George Mallory feraed experiencing the fate of Captain Fryatt, Master of the SS Brussels who was murdered by the Germans. Later the vessel participated at the Dunkirk evacuation, evacuation of the Channel Isles, service in the Mediterranean as HMS Malines before return to Britain for breaking up. Both the SS Malines and St. Denis are illustrated.

Rolling stock focus: GWR inspection saloons; photographs from Whitaker Archive and notes by Mike King. 60
Colour photo-feature: W80975 at Bristol Temple Meads coupled to Class 3 2-6-2T No. 82007 (inspection sallon built in 1948 to Hawksworth Diagram Q13 Lot 1701: batch of seven all of which extant — this vehicle on West Somerset Railway); W80971W at Woofferton station (Dean clerstory vehicle built as 1st class saloon, later family saloon Diagram G31 Lot 804, extent at Pontypool & blaenavon Railway). Both vehicles in photographs painted chocolate and cream.

Readers' Forum. 61
London East during war and peace. Peter Barker
The flying bombs and rockets were not launched from Denmark or Holland, but from Peenemünde (Peenemuende) on the German Baltic coast. Holland was actually subjected to rocket fire, as Rotterdam especially was targeted to cause as much disruption as possible to the Allies' supply lines after D-Day. The launch site would have been overrun by the advancing Russian armies when the German defences in the east collapsed.

Somewhere between Manchester and Liverpool. Roderick D. Cannon 
Writer was nephew of Wilfred D. Cooper: captions imply that the line from Eccles to Wigan via Roe Green carried mainly local traffic with some main line trains as weekend diversions from the West Coast route, but there were late afternoon Manchester-Windermere and Manchester-Glasgow trains, along with the evening 'Carlisle goods' from Liverpool Road, Manchester, which seems to be the subject of your picture on p. 531. KPJ: there may also have been a Manchester to Barrow tran.

Newton Heath revisited. S.R. Price.
Caption on p. 700 states Liverpool-Newcastle services were frequent on the Calder Valley route and were occasionally drawn by B1s is not correct: there were four regular daily Liverpool-Newcastle services and only one used the L&YR Calder Valley route, the 10.30 from Liverpool Exchange drawn by a Bank Hall Jubilee or occasionally a Patriot or Class 5. The other three services were from Lime Street and called at Manchester Exchange, took the LNWR route via Huddersfield and thus did not pass Newton Heath. B1s did feature on the Calder Valley route, e.g. on the 17.10 Manchester Victoria-York, but not on the Liverpool-Newcastle train The train pictured on p699 is almost certainly the 10.30am, which did  call at Manchester Victoria as the accompanying caption says but then would have reached Newton Heath via the Cheetham Hill loop and would not have ascended Miles Platting Bank as stated.

Newton Heath revisited. John E. Henderson. 
Caption on p. 699 to  No.45698 Mars at Newton Heath: writer used this service when travelling to Castleford, but train always travelled out of Manchester Victoria via the loop line from East Junction to Thorpes Bridge. as a result the train would not have been banked up the 1 in 47 Miles Platting bank as stated . The gradients were easier on the loop line and he never saw any of these services being banked. It also calls into question whether the photograph does show a Newcastle train as these did travel up the bank but via the Standedge route branching off at Miles Platting and not via the Calder Valley. They also started from Manchester Exchange at that time. Incidentally, the loop line will shortly be reopened as part of the Metrolink line to Oldham and Rochdale which branches off the Bury line at Irk Valley Viaduct.

Rebuilding the Bulleid 4-6-2s. Michael Yardley,
The Waterloo-Weymouth trains which remained steam-hauled until July 1967 were not the last steam-hauled express pasenger service on British Railways; many express passenger trains in the North West remained steam-hauled for a considerable time after that. Every day until Mayor June 1968, and irregularly right up to 3 August 1968, Black 5s (and occasionally other locomotives) powered the Belfast Boat Express between Heysham and Manchester, and portions of trains dividing at Preston to Liverpool, Manchester and Blackpool and return. On Saturdays until September 1967 there was a multitude of steam-hauled expresses across the north of England, regularly headed by Stanier and Standard Clas 5s, Jubilees and Britannia Pacifies, The 'Britannias' had several turns between Crewe and Carlisle, only a mile or so less than Waterloo-Weymouth, some of them non-stop. They may not have been as great in number as those on the Bournemouth line had been but they gave a very good account of themselves with some sparkling running by enthusiastic crews.

Grand openings and inconveniences Michael Knott
Writer was impressed that on the first day of the Elgin to Lossiemouth Line, 18 September 1852, the inaugural train took fourteen minutes for the journey. The last time he undertook the reverse journey in 1963 the Naval Leave Special for RNAS Lossiemouth (HMS Fulmar) managed to take lhr 50min to reach Elgin. ot a good start to a journey that would eventually reach King's Cross sixteen hours later. These specials were notorious for their lack of facilities and the number of set down only stops along the way. He considers the closing of the Morayshire line coincided with the end of Naval Leave Special Trains nationwide.

Western Standards. Martin Johnson
Britannia class suffered from snatching which could be experienced from the passenger coaches through a fore and aft motion and from stopping dead centre which required the assistance of another locomotive and long delays. The writer criticises the lack of a prototype.

To Hampton Court. John Gilks.
States that there was a catch point on the embankment near flying junction where branch left main line and subsequent housing development took place below the catch point; also a V2 went through viaduct and into embankment.

Book Reviews. 62
Rails to Turnberry and the Heads of Ayr: the Maidens & Dunure Light Railway and the Butlin's branch. David McConnell and Stuart Rankin. Oakwood Press. WT. ****
Excellent review of excellent book, but surely deserved the five star treatment.

An outline history of the railways of Nottinghamshire. Michael A. Vanns. Nottingham County Council, CPA. *****
Well received although reviewer notes that Author failed to mantion traffic from the Eakring oilfield, one of the very few sources of onshore oil which was developed during WW2. Also notes that the speed of passenger services from Nottingham to London and to Manchester has not improved as much as comparable locations, but there has been a significant reopening — the Robin Hood Line.

The Slough Estates Railway. Jaye Isherwood. Wild Swan Publications. MJS ****
Based on a major WW1 vehicle repair fascility which failed to be completed in time and became an industrial estate with its own railway and link to the GWR.

All stations to Longridge. David John Hindle, Amberley Publishing. JW ****
Includes the railway to the Whittingham Mental Hospital. Well written.

Snowfall in the Peak District. Alan Tyson. rear cover.
Hope station on 8 January 1967 looking towards Lose Hill during influx of Arctic air.

Number 2 (February 2012) Issue No. 250

Time stands still at Dinting in 1953 as LNER B1 4-6-0 No.61188 backs a couple of brake vans over the Glossop branch level crossing. W. Oliver
A horse watches pensively as the imperturbable farmer waits patiently to proceed with his cart of milk churn and cans. See letter from Alastair Knox on p. 317 which notes the farmer's nickname and location at Higher Dinting Farm

"January brings the snow, makes your feet and fingers glow, February's ice and sleet, freeze the toes right off your feet...". Alistair F. Nisbet. 67.
Guest Editorial on "wrong kind of snow": in 1861 the LSWR had a plan to overcome snow for some of its locomotives were fitted with 'large scrubbing brushes' attached to the guard irons at the front. It is not clear whether these were a local fitting for use in the Exeter area but the Locomotive Superintendent, William Beattie, knew of them and according to the LSWR Locomotive Committee minutes for 1861 they were technically known as 'Engine snow brooms'. Rather later the conductor rails on the open sections of London's Underground were kept clear in a similar fashion with brushes attached to the shoe beams of its de-icing units known as sleet locomotives. On the Southern Region of the 1950s and 1960s there were standing plans for the way in which operations would be undertaken in foggy, icy or snowy weather conditions including changes to be made to the normal service pattern. These were well tried and tested, but it didn't always work out as planned, however, as a criticism made in Modern Railways in 1964 showed — it concerned the need for the Southern to improve its outdated communications system. On the showing of certain train operating companies during the winter of 2010/11 that attitude seemed to prevail in spite of so much more allegedly advanced communications systems.

Strathclyde Transport. Keith Dungate. 68-9.
Colour photo-feature: all units painted in Clockwork Orange livery: Class 101 DMU No. 101 321 in Glasgow Central with 14.35 to Girvan on 22 February 1886; EMU No. 303 038 on 18.55 to Gourock later on same dreich (wet) day; No. 303 032 at Partick in snow on 22 February 1986 see also second letter from Leonard Rogers on p. 254 giving more precise location; another 303 unit approaching Partick from east on same day; and on 24 February 1986 Class 314 No. 209 at Helesburgh Central on 08.11 limited stop service to Glasgow High Street.

Bob Farmer. The Great Eastern as I knew it. 70-5.
The Great Eastern as perceived from Theydon Bois which might have been on a highly useful line to Chelmsford. Both the Author and his father were users of the line which ran to Loughton, on to Epping and eventually to Ongar from which London Transport measures distances in metric unts, but earlier formed part of the Great Eastern and LNER suburban network. The development of the inner termini at Shoreditch, Liverpool Street and Fenchurch Street is considered and to some extent complements Part 1 of the article on Liverpool Street by Skelsey. Journeys over the old Great Eastern main line to Doncaster via Ely and Lincoln are described: this route was used in preference to the Great Northern route to reach Epworth as it was cheaper. Both the Author and his father attended Loughton School and in the case of the Author this involved commuter travel in compartment stock and the misdeamenour which such journeys encouraged.

Alistair F. Nisbet. Sir Robert Menzies and the Highland Railway. 76-9.
On Friday 4 May 1877 Sir Robert Menzies of Farleyer House wished to travel to Edinburgh to attend a meeting to raise a Highland Regiment of Volunteers. There were no through bookings beyond Perth off the Aberfeldy branch and Sir Robert acquired a return ticket to Perth intending to return on the Sunday and arranged for his man to meet the Mail at Ballinluig as there were no Sunday trains on the branch. This transaction took place between Thomas Fyffe, the station master at Aberfeldy. Returning from Edinburgh Sir Robert was ejected from the Mail train at Perth by the Highland Railway staff as it was claimed that his ticket was invalid for travel on a Sunday. Due to this action Sir Robert was forced off the train and had to make other arrangements for his return to Aberfeldy and this led to a claim against the Highland Railway. The case was heard by Sheriff-Substitute Hugh Barclay at Perth Sheriff Courthouse on 8 October 1877: Sir Robert lost his action although the Sheriff criticised the Highland Railway for its obscure ticketing arrangements which even applied to first class ticket holders and people of substance. Also notes a case involving Nelson Weaver who had attempted to take action against the LNWR in the County Court at Huddersfield on 13 September 1849. This concerned a similar case, but involved third class travel, when the railway company attempted to force Weaver to travel in an open carriage as there was no space available in the covered vehicles and he was forced off the train. Nelson hired a cab to take him from Huddersfield to Manchester and was due to seek restitution via the Court. Surprisingly, the Company paid Waever his fare rather than face th publicity: see also letter from B. Rigg on p. 446. .

Leaving Eastleigh. Alan Tyson. 80.
Colour photographs: rebuilt Bulleid light Pacifics on 7 August 1964 Nos. 34052 Lord Dowding with 09.30 Waterloo to Southampton and 34098 Templecombe departing for Southampton and Bournemouth.:  

Jeremy Clarke. "East Croydon, this is East Croydon". 81-7.
The London & Croydon Railway opened on 5 June 1839 from London Bridge to what was to become West Croydon station. The station at East Croydon did not come into being until the London & Brighton Railway opened as far as Haywards Heath on 12 July 1841. Parliament had dictated that the London & Croydon should be in the joint ownership of the South Eastern and the Brighton companies and that shared tracks should extend to Redhill where the South Eastern's route to Dover branched off. The shared ownership was a cource of tension which was partially resolved by the South Eastern opening its cut off to Tonbridge in 1868. In the same year the Brighton company attempted to recover market edge by opening a Croydon Central station, but this never achieved success although it formed the terminus for services provided by the LNWR and by the Great Eastern (via the Thames Tunnel). The LBSCR opened its Quarry Line which bypassed Redhill. The opening of the Brighton line into Victoria was marked by the division of trains into London Bridge and Victoria portions and this persisted into the early years of the twentieth century. The Post Office used to have a sorting office above the platforms with conveyors to take mail down to them. The station was reconstructed in 1894-6 and rebuilt in 1992. A flyover was constructed in the 1980s to eliminate the Croydon Tangle with its excessive number of flat junctions and speed the Gatwick Express services through without stopping. The LBSCR had intended to electrify to Brighton using its high voltage (6600 v AC system) but the catenary was only present in East Crodon for a short period (1925-8) and the Southern Railway extended the third rail to Brighton from 1 January 1933. Early signal interlocking was introduced at Norwood Fork Junction: John Saxby was a LBSCR employee. In the 1880s Sykes lock & block was introduced. Illustrations: D1 0-4-2T in umber livery arriving New Croydon; King Arthur No. 801 Sir Meliot de Longres on express for London Bridge under unused? catenary; completed catenary, but no third rail looking north; plan showing remodelling of Gloucester Road Junction; Gloucester Road Junction looking north on 6 March 1954; local side of East Croydon station during 1955-70 period; 12-coach 17.53 Victoria to Brighton fast to Haywards Heath alongside 17.49 London Bridge to East Grinstead DEMU leaving East Croydon on 10 June 1964; facing north in early 1050s with many ex-LBSCR signals still in place; Class 4 2-6-4T No. 42089 on Oxted route train with City of Truro alongside on 11 May 1958; panoramic to north over station from Essex House opened in 1961; 4-car EPB No. 5024 on Tattenham Corner to London Bridge peak hour working on 27 June 1964.;  

Over the Lancashire Moors [Bolton to Blackburn line]. 88-90.
Colour photo-feature: Class 5 4-6-0 No. 45096 passing Spring Vale on 1 in 74 climb with an up parcels train on 22 June 1968; Wickham two-car DMU (Eastern Region General Manager's saloon) in Blackburn station on route to Scarborough via Goole on 22 September 1979 (both J.S. Gilks); No. 70013 Oliver Cromwell and Class 5 No. 44781 on Locomotive Club of Great Britain end of steam railtour on 4 August 1968 about to enter Sough Tunnel and begin the descent towards Blackburn (David Idle); Cravens DMU calling at Entwhistle staation with train for Blackburn on 14 April 1967 (J.S. Gilks); Class 5 Nos. 44874 and 45017 at Sough Summit with last day of steam special on 4 August 1968 (David Idle); model of Isle of Man Steam Packet Company ship in glass case in Blackburn station on 22 September 1979 see also letter by Norman Dowd on p. 254; No. 70013 Oliver Cromwell and Class 5 No. 44781 on Locomotive Club of Great Britain end of steam railtour on 4 August 1968 at Walton's Siding (both J.S. Gilks);   

Ken Grainger. The Sheffield Victoria Accident. 91-3.
On 25 January 1954 the 11.16 Bournemouth to York approaching Sheffield Victoria was hit in the rear at about 18.10 by the B16 class locomotive which was scheduled to work the train forward to York. This was due mainly to sgnalman error, but was compounded by the driver of the train engine failing to comply with Rule 55 that is by sounding his whistle and sending the fireman to the signalbox. Colonel D. McMullen reported on the accident which caused minor injuries and serious damage to a Southern Railway restaurant car and the adjacent BR Mk 1 vehicle partly due to the failure of the Buckeye coupling, but mainly through structural faiure of the older vehicle. See also letter from Leonard Rogers (p. 254) who indicates that picture on p. 98 probably shows working involved in accident described (but an another time).

Steam on the Woodhead Route. 94-5.
Photo-feature: black & white except for first: 4-4-2 No. 264 emerging from Woodhead Tunnel at western portal and two 4-4-0s double heading an express for Marylebone entering tunnel in Great Central green (Locomotive Publishing Co. postcard); ex-GCR 4-6-0 (with Caprotti valve gear?) approaching tunnel with eastbound express in LNER period; O4/1 No. 63769 on westbound freight between Penistone and Thurlstone on 30 June 1952 (Bryan Goodlad); C13 No. 67434 on Penistone to Sheffield local at Wadsley Bridge on 19 June 1953 (Bryan Goodlad); and No. 4472 Flying Scotsman being hauled into new tunnel by electric locomotive No. 26001 on 18 April 1964 (Robert W. Miller).

LNER mixed traffic [B1 4-6-0]. 96-9.
Colour photo-feature: No. 1268 in apple green livery at Wakefield Westgate in 1948 (H.M. Lane); No. 61053 leaving Whitby Town with 18.10 to York on 24 July 1958 (Michael Mensing); No. 61248 Geoffrey Gibbs on express at Chaloners Whin Junction, York in June 1957; No. 61346 entering Craigellachie with 15.45 Aberdeen to Elgin in July 1959 (Chris Gammell); No. 61280 passing Stratford with down Day Continental in 1956; No. 61066 at Liverpool Street backing onto a down express with N2 No. 69506 in Broad Street above in April 1959 (Trevor Owen); No. 61142 at King's Cross on 16.15 to Grimsby in May 1959 (John C. Hart); No. 61380 on up South Yorkshireman near Tibshelf  on 29 September 1959 (Michael Mensing) see also letter from Leonard Rogers (p. 254); No. 61340 on Dundee shed? (Eastfield?) in 1964 (M. Chapman) and see also letter from Leonard Rogers; Class 5 No. 45049 and B1 No. 61278 on 12.05 Oban to Glasgow and Edinburh via Callender on 15 May 1961 (Michael Mensing).

Martin Smith. The Burry Port & Gwendraeth Valley Railway. 100-8.
Kymer's Canal linked Thomas Kymer's mines and quarries producing anthracite and limestoane in the Gwendraeth Valley with Kidwelly. This later became the Kidwelly & Llanelly Canal & Tramroad Company: by 1838 the canal had reached Cym Mawr 200 feet above sea level and this involved five locks and two inclined planes. The canal did not reach Llanelly, but terminated at a new harbour at Burry Port created in 1832. On 5 July 1865 the canal company was reincorporated as the Kidwelly and Burry Port Company with the aim of converting the canal into a railway. This opened to Pontyberem in July 1869 and to Cwm Mawr in June 1886. There were branches to Kidwelly Quay,  opened in June 1873 and to Sandy Gate Junction in 1891 which linked to the Llanelly & Mynydd Mawr Railway. In 1875 consideration was given to connecting the line to the LNWR at Llanarthney via the Burry Port & North Western Junction Railway. This would have involved steep gradienst and a 500 yard tunnel. Includes notes on the motive power, both steam and diesel, on the pssenger services which began as services for colliers, but eventually became a full passenger service, on the special bogie vehicles eventually provided by the Great Western, and on closure.

Snowdown Colliery: photographs (colour) by Roy Hobbs and notes by John D. Scholes. 109.
Pearson & Dorman Long purchased a pair of Avonside Engine Co. outside cylinder 0-6-0STs in 1927: WN 2004 St. Dunstan is still extant on the East Kent Railway, but shown as at work in October 1970 and WN 1971 St. Thomas at work with modern colliery behind (also extant at Dover Transport Museum).

John D. Mann. Undergraduates on the footplate: the Cambridge University Railway Club engine-driver specials. 110-11.
The Club used to hire a locomotive, coaches and crew for the day to do a spot of driving. The hire fee was £50 and the time was the 1950s early 60s. Actually none of the photographs were by John Mann and most of the notes are by Roger Hennessey, Chris Berridge and Bruce Crisp.

Michael B. Binks. Sunderland — from wagonways to South Dock. 112-21.
A somewhat disappointing introduction to the railways of Sunderland not helped with the use of maps out of context maps from Neil T. Sinclair's Railways of Sunderland (1986) (see Editorial gremlinia on p. 189 which apologizes for the lack of captions to the maps and assists in interpretation) and the juxtaposition of railways near Sunderland with those in Sunderland, notably the Victoria Viaduct (Victoria Bridge) on the mothballed Penshaw section of the East Coast main line. Biddle calls this "an extremely handsome viaduct" and is probably worthy of a specific article. The City grew out of the coal shipment business, both for export and for coastal transport to many locations in Britain, and on shipbuilding. The former led to the creation of staiths on the River Wear served by both the North Eastern Railway and by the colliery companies and their "private" railways most of which continued to operate independently after nationalisation of the coal industry. There is a shortage of dates and a failure to identify what remains to be seen. South Dock receives specific attention. Strangely, Monkwearmouth station (of considerable architectural merit but no longer used as a station is not illustrated). Illustrations: J27 No. 65855 with Presflo wagons passing Wearmouth Colliery, Monkwearmouth on way to South Dock on 27 July 1967 (colour: David Idle); Q6 crossing Victoria Viaduct on 28 August 1964 (I.S. Carr); WD 2-8-0 No. 90348 approaching Sunderland South Tunnel on 20 July 1967 (colour: David Idle); Lambton Coke Works and wagonway exposed during archaeological investigation (I.S. Carr); B1 No. 61014 on 12.54 Sunderland to Durham on Miners' Day Gala on 21 july 1962 (I.S. Carr); Copt Hill incline on 26 August 1959 (I.S. Carr); V2 No. 60964 Durham Light Infantry on down fitted freight at Penshaw on 28 August 1959 (I.S. Carr); Lambton Staiths and Wear Bridge viewed from NCB No. 37 on 9 June 1965 (I.S. Carr); aerial view of South Dock (Sunderland Ecko); WD No. 90445 with Manchester Locomotive Society brake van tour in May 1965 (Harold D. Bowtell); G5 No. 67253 at Sunderland Station with 15.26 arrival from South Shields (I.S. Carr); collier Firelight being loaded at South Doack coaling jetty; Victoria Viaduct with Q6 No. 63411 crossing it on 28 August 1964 (I.S. Carr). Further aerial view of mouth of River Wear see Archive No. 70 p. 24..

Richard Foster. Signalling spotlight: little and large on the London & South Western Railway. 122.
Colour photo-feature of signal boxes: Woodfidley Crossing on 4 June 1965 (A.B. Jeffery); Eastleigh East (Les Elsey), and Stoney Bridge on 27 July 1968 (A.B. Jeffery).

Peter Tatlow. Maintaining railway curves. 123-5.
Measurement of the versine using a string line and subsequent calculation of the smoothness and need to slew the track and the degree of superelevation (cant) required. Also the problem of platforms and other structures. Illus. (by Author): Coronation Pacific No. 46228 Duchess of Rutland arriving Penrith with up express on 1 August 1953; rebuilt West Coiuntry No. 34027 Taw Valley approaching Tonbridge with express for Dover on 31 May 1958 (nearest track has flat bottom rail on outside of curve whilst inner rail remained bullhead); Q1 No. 33009 on freight for Feltham marshalling yard between Wandsworth Town and Putney on 17 June 1959; H16 class 4-6-2T No. 30518 with train of ventilated containers on down Windsor local line on 26 June 1959. See also letter from Ron Stewien on p. 382 describing string lining in South Australia and the need for a fire to make billy tea in the outback.

Readers' Forum. 126.
Commemorating the pioneers of the railway age. Andrew Kleissner
See V. 25 p. 740: there is a further statue of George Stephenson on the facade of Keleti (or East) Station in Budapest, together with a statue of James Watt. The station was built in the early 1880s and the statues are by Alajos Strobl.

The Railways of Ayr. David Kelso.
The map on p712 is incorrect in that Castle Douglas station is not at the east end of Loch Ken. The loch itself is much longer than shown, the railway crossing the loch by a bowstring girder bridge at about half its length and then running down the east side of the loch. The station labelled Castle Douglas was Parton and the next station at the south end of the loch was Crossmichael after which the P&W Joint joined the G&SW just west of Castle Douglas, junction station for the Kirkcudbright branch.

Manx Electric. Nicholas Ridge.
The Snaefell cars were given a new lease of life during 1979-80 with the assistance of London Transport engineers. Redundant trams from Aachen in Germany, provided new motors and control gear. New axles and bogie frames were manufactured by the LT overhaul works at Acton, the Aachen gears and wheels being reclaimed and the Fell brake was overhauled. Roller bearings replaced plain.

The One-Puff Railway. Andrew Kleissner.
It is ingenuous to describe William F. Bruff, who surveyed the route, as merely "an engineer from London" and incorrect to state that he was "curiously" also the engineer to the Tendring Hundred Railway. The name of Bruff is hallowed in Suffolk as 'the BruneI of East Anglia', for Peter Shuyler Bruff, born in Portsmouth in 1812, became engineer to the Eastern Counties Railway between Shoreditch and Colchester and then to the Eastern Union Railway which extended its route to Ipswich. Especially notable in the latter project was the construction of Ipswich Tunnel. He was also responsible for the magnificent viaduct at Chappel, on the Sudbury line. Although he appears to have maintained a residence in Bloomsbury, London, Peter Bruff moved to Handford Lodge, Ipswich, in 1846, the same year that the Eastern Union Railway opened. His son, William, had been born in London in September 1837 and was married there in 1861 to Louisa Ayres. However, the couple must have soon moved to Ipswich as their first child was born there in 1862.
William followed in his father's footsteps as a civil engineer and would thus have been in the early stages of his career when engaged by the Mellis & Eye Railway. It was at this time that his father Peter was involved in building the much larger Tendring Hundred Railway in Essex – this would have been an advantageous project for him as he had bought land at both Walton and Clacton and proceeded to develop both towns. His name is remembered by both a street name and a hospital ward in Clacton. William Bruff appears to have had interests in gold mining as well as railways. In the 1870s he was taken to court on a charge of embezzling money from his employers, contractors for the Severn Railway Bridge, but was acquitted for lack of evidence. In later years he made several trips to the United States and may have become an American citizen. He died at Brentford, Middlesex, in 1911.
There is still a level crossing at the site of Mellis station, on the Ipswich-Norwich main line. And Eye is also celebrated in ballet circles, as the noted choreographer Frederick Ashton lived there for many years; he is buried in Yaxley churchyard.

Grand openings and gross inconveniences. Michael J Smith.
The caption to the photograph of Ealing Broadway station refering to the Metropolitan District Railway is confused and thus erroneous. The District's trains began running from Hammersmith over LSWR metals to Richmond via Turnham Green on 1st June 1877, two years earlier than stated. What happened on 1st July 1879 was that the District opened its own line from Turnham Green to Ealing Broadway.

London East during war and peace. William Tollan.
Unlike the V-1, which flew relatively slowly and at low altitude, the V-2 slammed into the ground at 4,000mph without warning, except for a double sonic boom shortly before impact. Targets could not be pinpointed with precision, due to inaccuracies in positioning the missiles at launch and in timing the engine cut-off, so the missiles would fall anywhere within a wide area of the intended target. Since there was no defence against such a weapon, the Allies concentrated on attacking the fixed launch sites, many of which were located in the Pas de Calais region of France, and they were very successful in destroying the sites. However, the Germans also launched the V-2s from mobile sites and the Allies were seldom able to locate and attack those. The Germans often launched V-2s from city streets, hoping that they would be hidden from view by surrounding buildings. This could have disastrous consequences if the rockets were located by the Allies, resulting in catastrophic explosions in population centres. It took a German mobile rocket crew about two hours to erect and prepare a group of three missiles for launch.
The V-2 was first launched successfully in October 1942 and it was first used in combat in an attack on London on 7 September 1944. From this time until March of 1945, more than 1,100 V-2s fell in southern England, most around London and Norwich, causing about 2,700 deaths and over twice that many injuries. Another 2,000 of the missiles were fired at targets on the European continent, primarily Antwerp, Belgium, which had been recaptured by the Allies and had become an important Allied port. London was actually hit by 517 V-2s and 1,265 of the missiles hit Antwerp. At the height of their production, 700 V-2s per month were being built, most under very harsh conditions by slave labourers from concentration camps. A total of about 10,000 V-2s were made. The Germans were making plans to launch V-2s from submarines against the United States, but they were never successful, due to technical difficulties. Shortly after the war ended, the United States was successful in launching captured V-2s from submarines.
The most deadly V-2 attack of the war occurred on 16th December 1944 when a V-2 struck the Rex Theatre in Antwerp, Belgium, killing 567 people (296 of these being servicemen) and wounding an additional 291 people. The most deadly V-2 attack in Britain happened on 25th November 1944 at New Cross Road, London, where a V-2 destroyed a Woolworth's department store and surrounding stores, killing 160 people and seriously injuring 120. The final V-2 attacks of the war occurred on 27th March 1945 - one on Antwerp, which killed 27 people, and one on England, which seriously injured 23 and killed Ivy Mildred Millichamp, the last person to be killed in Britain by enemy action during WW2. A total of about 7,000 people were killed by V-2 rockets during the war. Despite the great damage caused by the V-2s, they were actually considered to be a failure as a weapon due to their poor accuracy, great expense and relatively small warhead size. Each V-2 cost twenty times more money to manufacture than a V-1 and yet their warheads were almost the same size. The greatest value of the V-2 was actually realised after the war, when captured V-2s were used by the United States and the former Soviet Union to begin their own missile and space programmes.

Minor mishaps on the Metropolitan. Nicholas Ridge.
No. L52 on p. ll is Metropolitan Railway F Class which were 0-6-2 as can be seen in the photograph, not 0-4-4. The number of the "unidentified" E Class locomotive on p. 8 had a brass number on the chimney and '9' is clear thus must be '79' as the only number in that class ending in '9'.

The Longridge branch. Emma Hewitt
Writer works as Heritage Officer in the refurbished Longridge Railway Station: after years of decline since the closure of the line in 1967 Longridge station reopened in 2011 as a Heritage Visitor Centre, Cafe and Business Centre which is home to the Town Archive of historical photographs of the area and features special exhibitions about local history and how the Preston and Longridge Railway led to the development of stone and cotton industries in Longridge. Since opening, we have welcomed schools and groups for special visits, talks and heritage trails. Longridge station is once again the hub of activity in Longridge; around 200 visitors stop for a drink in the cafe each day and the Farmers' Market brings over 1,000 visitors to the station on the last Saturday of each month. Longridge station is well supported by a team of 25 volunteers.

Railway bridge of the silv'ry Tay. Trevor Owen. rear cover.
B1 heading freight across Tay Bridge towards Dundee from Wormit in April 1965 with Dundee Law and Sidlaw Hills visible in evening light.

Number 3 (March 2012) Issue No. 251

LMS 3F 0-6-0T No.47408 on station pilot duty at Carlisle with long rake of carriages in April 1963. C. J. Gammell. front cover

It's been in the news. Michael Blakemore. 131.
HS2 and its devastation of the Chilterns by people who never see or use the M40?.

Aberdeen. 132-3.
Colour photo-feature: A2 No. 60531 Bahran at Ferryhill coaling stage in 1960; V2 No. 60825 with stepped out coping plates departs with southbound express in February 1963; V4 No. 61701 at Ferryhill shed in May 1957 (J.G. Wallace); Z5 0-4-2T No. 68192 on quayside in June 1956 (K. Bannister); A2 No. 60527 Sun Chariot backing onto 09.50 for Edinburgh in April 1954 (J.B. McCann).

Alan Taylor. The 12.17 to Manchester Victoria. 134-7.
On Friday 29 March 1968 travelled on the 12.17 from Preston to Manchester which formed the Manchester portion of the Glasgow and Edinburgh train to Manchester and Liverpool on which a Brush Type 4 D1619 worked through from Glasgow to Liverpool.  Class 5 No. 45202 worked the Manchester portion

Jeffrey Wells. Aspects of junction development. Part One. 138-43.
This part considers the junctions at Derby where the Midlands County Railway, the North Midland Railway and the Birmingham & Derby Junction Railway met and soon merged to form the Midland Railway with its headquarters at Derby — and the very different Swindon where the Great Western Railway formed a junction for a line to Gloucester and established its main works. In part the text is based on historical contemporary literature notably The Railway Times. Illus. (all H.C. Casserley): Derby Midland station exterior on 16 April 1959; interior of Derby works with standard compound No. 934 under repair on 28 May 1933; Fowler 2-6-4T (caption states 2-6-2T) No. 2361 taking on water in Derby station on 13 July 1947; ex-MR 4-4-0 No. 726 and Fowler 2-6-4T No. 2414 under repair in Derby Works on 19 September 1948; Aberdare 2-6-0 No. 2651 in Swindon Works on 4 July 1947; Swindon station on 4 April 1946; 4575 2-6-2T No. 5518 in Swindon Works on 30 April 1950. See also letter from Nick Daunt (p. 317) which corrects statement about ownership of railway at Hampton-in-Arden (London & Birmingham, not Grand Junction) and corrects caption information.

Minehead memories. Hugh Ballantyne (photographer). 144-5.
Black & white photo-feature (except where specified otherwise): the 10.24 DMU from Taunton departing Dunster for Minehead on the singled former double track section on 18 July 1970 (colour); Hymek diesel hydraulic No. D7026 prepares to leave Minehead with the 10.25 SO (Saturdays only) for Paddington on 18 July 1970; 11.20 Minehead to Taunton  DMU arrives at Blue Anchor on 18 July 1970; Minehead station with 13.00 DMU for Taunton on 12 October 1968 (colour); Hymek diesel hydraulic No. D7026 enters crossing loop at Williton on 06.20 SO Oxford to Minehead; Class 123 nine-car DMU runs through Crowcombe on 13.00 SO Minehead to Paddington on 18 July 1970.   

George Smith. Whitbread's Trophy. 146-9.
Railway police and Whitbread Shield formerly awarded for meritorious service. Includes account of detection of the notorious Redpath fraud which Nisbet cites in Volume 28 p. 372 Cites Whitbread's The transport policeman, 1961. Records both their initial functions as protectors of railways against criminal activity and as signalmen. The South Eastern Railway transported gold bullion between London and the Continent and Edward Agar with an accomplice called Pierce managed to switch the gold for lead whilst the train was in motion, but they were caught and sentenced to transportation to Australia. Leopold Redpath defrauded the Great Northern Railway, but was eventually caught and sent to Australia. Cites the very unpleasant murder of Mary Money in Merstham tunnel on 23/24 September 1905 by her brother Robert Money. In 1849 Harry Poole and Edward Nightingale robbed the Great Western Railway night mail train from Plymouth by entering the Post Office vehicle between Bridgewater and Bristol, but were caught when they attempted to rob the down mail due to the diligence of a fellow passenger. Little is known about Whitbread except that he donated th Whitbread Shield for exceptional behaviour: photograph shows presentation to Detective Constable Roy Hulin on 4 May 1967 for arresting whisky thieves at Newport Mon.  

David Cullen. Great Western Railway eight-coupled freight locomotives. 149-56.
Churchward's prototype 2-8-0 No. 97 emerged from Swindon in 1903 and reflected the then current practice on the Lehigh Valley Railroad in the USA. It was renumbered No. 2800 in 1906 and series production of what came to be known as the 28XX class. Locomotives were superheated from 1909 and the cylinders were enlarged to 18½in. diameter which increased tractive force (effort) to 35,380lbf. In 1938 Collett introduced a series (2884 class) with minor improvements, notably outside steam pipes (but not outside valve gear) and slightly improved cabs. Churchward introduced an eigt-coupled tank engine the 42XX class which combined the cylinder and coupled wheel dimensions of the 28XX type. but with drive onto the second, rather than the third coupled axle and the smaller No. 4 boiler. Collett introduced the 5205 series in 1923 which had larger cylinders. The class was conceived for work in the South Wales coalfield where short hauls were not hindered by the limited bunker capacity, but between 1934 and 1939 forty 5205 and fourteen 42XX were rebuilt as 2-8-2Ts with large bunkers. Churchward's final development in 1919 was the 47XX type with 5ft 8in coupled wheels and a No. 1 boiler with extended smokebox. This was intended for express freight, but the boiler was found to be inadequate and the No. 7 was developed for it in 1921. Collett ignored the type which remained at ten locomotives which surprisingly were not withdrawn until British Railways days. The early locomotive types are not illustrated with the exception of No. 2801 in as-built condition in 1905. See also letter from Rory Wilson on p. 318 who mentions the four Barry Railway 0-8-0s which became GWR Nos. 1387-90..

Steam in the Peak District. Alan Tyson Collection. 157-9.
Black & white photo-feature(all Alan Tyson, except those noted as W.D. Cooper): ex-Midland Railway 4F No. 3970 in Chee Dale with nortbound freight (Cooper); Jubilee class No. 45641 Sandwich leaving Chinley with Manchester Central to Lomdon St Pancras express on 25 June 1960; 4F No. 44565 passing through Millers Dale station with freight (Cooper); 8F No. 48605 on 1 in 90 gradient emerging from tunnel under LNWR line to Buxton with empty ICI bogie hoppers on 10 February 1962; ;

An everyday story of shunting tanks. 160-2.
Colour photo-feature: 3F Midland Railway design/standard LMS class 0-6-0T: No. 47475 at Carnforth in September 1962 (Geoff Rixon); Nos. 47276 and 47502 at Vigo on Lickey Incline at rear of carmine & cream liveried BR Standard Mk I coach forming rear of Cardiff to Newcastle express (T.J. Edgington); No. 47307 in Willesden yards on 24 April 1963 (Geoff Rixon); No. 47341 still lettered "LMS" at Manchester London Road in 1954; No. 47638 at rear of northbound freight on Lickey Incline on Easter Saturday 20 April 1957 (Michael Mensing); No. 47202 inside Kentish Town roundhouse in 1960 (Geoff Rixon), and No. 47590 heading towards Bridge Street Junction with brake van in September 1964 (Geoff Rixon). 

Geoffrey Skelsey. The redevelopment of Liverpool Street station, 1974-1991: "the shining example of public-private partnership". Part Two. 163-7.
Part 1 see p. 20 (January Issue): considers one of the wildest railways into roads proposals whereby a fleet of 494 buses (like one of those railway building proposals of the previous century which gave estimates down to pence) would displace trains on a busway from Harwich, Clacton and Southend and Liverpool Street would have become a bus station. Another proposal would have diverted the East London Line and another faction wished to restore the link to the Metropolitan Line. The reconstruction of the station was intimately associated with the adjacent Broadgate development of offices to enable the City of London to compete with Canary Wharf and the new station enabled the majority of the platforms to accommodate at least twelve coaches with a common barrier line; improved access to the Underground system (KPJ's son-in-law involved in work on reconstructing original oval escalator shafts and daughter in filthy shirts which emerged as a by-product); spacious ticket office; and street level balconies and walkways provide access to airport style retail area and sustenance for Trans-Essex creeps. The new station was opened by HM The Queen on 5 December 1991. The west side retained its original glass roof and the recreated similar structures over the new passenger concourse. The east side is rather cavernous. KPJ: the station is remarkably difficult to find for pedestrians. The Hotel and War Memorial were retained. Illustrations (all colour and by Author or in Author's Collection) include a Network SouthEast liveried Class 315 EMU for Enfield and publicity material which shows the preserved GER 0-6-0T mounted next to the War Memorial. .

Rowan Patel. Relics of the Storeton Tramway. 168-70.
This was an early horse-powered tramway which connected Keuper sandstone quarries in the Wirral Peninsula to Bromborough Pool on the Mersey. Construction began in 1837 and the line lasted until about 1905. It is considered that the rail used on the line may have been secondhand from the Liverpool & Manchester Railway and examination of some rail excavated during redevelopment in 2009/2010 seems to confirm its origin. Illustrations: quarries and tramway in 1890; diagram of rail resting on stone blocks; recovered rail and rail joint. Cites Roger C. Jermy's The Storeton Tramway (1981) who writes about hidden remains (mainly under roads) in letter on p. 318 and other literature

Jeffery Grayer. This is the Age... of the Train! 171-3.
Sir Jimmy Saville's quixotic involvement in the advertising campaign organized by Allen, Brady and Marsh (ABM) for Sir Peter Parker's British Railways Board during 1977 to 1984. Well-written, concise analysis of advertising which produced a considerable amount of interest in the media and continues to resonate. Illustrated in colour with handbills produced during the campaign and an HST approaching Nailsea & Backwell in the late 1970s in the refined original livery. Article includes details of a website which includes video clips and a DVD produced by the British Film Institute The age of the train (1982).

A.J. Ludlam. The opening and closing of the Spilsby Railway. 174-5.
Opened from Firsby to the market town on the Lincolnshire Wolds on 1 May 1868. Intermediate station at Halton Holgate. Closed 30 November 1958 due to failure of bridge over river. Illustrations: Sharp 2-2-2WT at Spilsby station with passenger train c1870; Halton Holgate station in June 1950, Alfred Mitchell, station master at Halton Holgate in late 1920s; C12 4-4-2T No. 67350 on freight on branch on 23 July 1952; Spilsby station in 1950.

R.A.S. Hennessey. A rare species – the British and Irish rod-drive electrics. 176-82.
By some complex metaphysical process Roger has been beavering away at the same time as Kevin is delving into the Locomotive Magazine for eighty years ago: thus the involvement of Metropolitan Vickers in the export of components for the Hungarian electrification in the early 1930s is not so surprising to him (Roger could have added that these exports from Trafford Park went all the way by rail using the Harwich to Zeebrugge train ferry). The rod-drive locomotives for the Great Indian Peninsula Railway were also described in the same journal. This article also includes an interesting precis of the debates which took place within the Institutions of Civil and Electrical Engineering on the relative merits of different electrical systems and drives for electric traction and the names of those so involved, namely F.W. Carter, Frank Lydall, H.E. O'Brien and G. Borgeaud (incorrect spelling in article). Notes that rod-drive provided superb adhesion and was exploited by Hitachi in rod drive locomotives supplied  in 1972 to the Santos to Sao Paulo Railway in Brazil. It is argued that the Bessbrook & Newry Tramway in County Armagh was not only a very early exponent of electric traction, but also exploited rod-drive, although Edward Hopkinson largely ignored this aspect. The Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway rod-drive lcomotive was based on the chassis of a 2-4-2T with Dick Kerr motors and was designed jointly by George Hughes and H.E. O'Brien: it was unsuccessful. Bruce Peebles built at least one 0-B-0 locomotive for the Portmadoc, Beddgelert & South Snowdon Railway, but this never entered service. A 4000V dc 2-A-A+A-A-2 design is both described and illustrated: it was for an English main line, although which one is not stated, although it may have been the L&YR. The illustrations include some further rod-drive industrial locomotives: 2-B-B-2 E52 class of German State Railways known as Heuwender or hay-sweeper or Jumbo; Charles Page's railcar of 1850 driven by a pair of solenoids (drawing); MAV (Hungarian State Railways) Kando design with Metrovic motors; L&YR 1-A-A-1 at Aintree sidings on freight train; Bessbrook & Newry Tramway tramcar; Great Indian Peninsula Railway C-C crocodile from Metropolitan Vickers; Bruce Peebles 0-B-0 for the Portmadoc, Beddgelert & South Snowdon Railway; 0-B+B-0 on the Harton Electric Railway with chaldron wagons, c1910; Hellingly Hospital Railway locomotive on 1 September 1951. See also letter from Geoffrey Skelsey on p. 317.

Miles MacNair. Blue is not a good colour for locomotives – unless it is on the Great Eastern (or sometimes on the Caledonian). 183-4.
Article published without captions to four coloured illustrations. Text begins with a tirade against BR blue King class: [KPJ BR blue looked magnificent on all classes to which it was applied. BR green was extremely sombre]. Red looked magnificent on the Stanier Pacifics and would have suited the A4 class, as would yellow, and KPJ has often wondered if the LNER contemplated a golden West Riding with its Golden Shuttle to haul it. The coloured illustrations: GER S69 class 4-6-0 in blue livery with copper-capped chimney and burnished ring on smokebox door and cast number plate with red background setting off from Liverpool Street with Continental boat train or express for Cromer; Callendar & Oban line 4-6-0 in Caledonian blue (Hamilton Ellis??); four colour plate from Railway Magazine of January 1936 showing N15X 4-6-0 in Southern green, umber, dark blue (as per Somerset & Dorset Joint) and Stroudley yellow (painted M. Secretan) and N15X and Paddlebox 4-6-0 (both in Stroudley gamboge as painted by Robin Barnes) on down freight passing Surbiton. See also letters from Bob Farmer and David Burton on page 317..

Edward Talbot. Some thoughts on GT3. 185-7.
Gas turbine locomotive designed at the Vulcan Foundry by John Hughes and styled by W.G. (Bill) Allen of Rolls Royce who knew Hughes and was respomsible for the appearance of Rolls Royce cars. The illustrations show GT3 "bare" at the Vulcan Foundry; in similar condition hauling two 8F 2-8-0s near Rugby; a sketch for a 4-8-4 with cab in the middle for freight haulage naumbered 18100 Britannia; a differently styled GT3 named Lord of the Isles; GT3 passing Northwood; on exhibition at Marylebone in May 1961. See also letter from Malcolm Grant on p. 317 which mainly concerns bview of GT3 passing Northwood..

Looks aren't everything. David Idle (photographer). 188.
Colour photo-feature: Bulleid Q1 0-6-0 No. 33027 at Guildford shed on 9 April 1964 and No. 33035 working tender-first passing Ash Junction with 10.32 Alton to Guildford freight on 11 August 1964.

Readers' Forum. 189.
Recent gremlinia. Editor.
See p. 42 upper: caption for Bamber Bridge station which was ten miles nearer to Blackburn than caption states and see article on page 112 et seq where the lack of captions to maps relating to the railways of Sunderland did not assist interpretation: the one on page 114 should have had title Railways in the toewn of Sunderland; the other on page 115 should have been Railways in about 1840: both were from Neil T. Sinclair's Railways of Sunderland (1986)

Mishaps on the Metropolitan. Mike Hayward.
See p. 6 et seq relates to the accident at Baker Street on 14 June 1925 and is accompanied by a photograph 

The gentle art of passenger discomfort. Chris Mills.
Commuting to Raynes Park off the Epsom line in the 1950s/early 60s: travel in the guard's compartment; illicit travel to Wimbledon by train (beyond limit of season ticket).

The gentle art of passenger discomfort. Andrew Kleissner.
Also refers to photograph on page 8 lower: writer commuted from Mill Hill Broadway to Moorgate in final years of diesel service when Type 2 diesel locomotives were displaced by Classes 112/113 and 116 DMUs. Records one trip where signals were set for wrong route (Hotel Curve) and the train had to pause until the route was reset.

Book Reviews. 190.

Still nodding – a history of the class 142. Peter Dickinson. Historical Model Railway Society. MB ***
Presumably four-wheel vehicles are only suitable for model railways. "A commendable effort with an unpromising subject""

The Ratty album – Volume 3. Eliot Andersen and David Jenner. Ravenglass & Eskdale Railway Co. DWM ****
2011 marked fiftieth anniversary of preservation and this Volume largely covers this more "recent" period. Sadly David Jenner died after this review was written.

LNWR wagons. Volume Two. Chris Northedge. Wild Swan. MJS ***
"The 220 pages are jam-packed and wholly devoid of unnecessary content or irrelevancy, creating an impressive product overall.": [KPJ: why only three stars?]

Science on the rails (the story of railway scientists). James Park. Author. APT ***
Reviewer notes several errors in transcription: Francis Holt as Hoult; Rankine without the terminal "e" and a Dean 4-6-2. States that greater coverage of LNWR/LMS, but that might be expected. Reviewer appears to fail to define coverage of subject: for instance, does author conider people like Professor Dalby and the work of the British Standards Institution and the DSIR research associations?

On the slow train from Devizes. Paul Strong. rear cover.
15.15 Westbury to Paddington heading for tunnel on exit from Devizes station in May 1963.

Number 4 (April 2012) Issue No. 252

English Electric Class 37 No. 37 162 leads a train of loaded coal hoppers through Port Talbot Parkway station on 5 April 1988. Michael Mensing. front cover.

Index linked. Michael Blakemore. 195
Editorial on highly appropriate Silver Jubilee celebration in the shape of a cumulative index: only the very best produce such treasures: Chemical Abstracts, Engineering Index. Congratulations. Index available from Pendragon in Easingwold.

2-8-0s of the LNER. 196-7.
Colour photo-feature: O4/8 (Robinson locomotive rebuilt with 100A boiler) No. 63697 at Mansfield Colliery Sidings in December 1964 (M. Smith); O4/3 No. 63665 on shed at Newark in November 1964; O1 No. 63803 at March in 1961 (Gordon Green); O2/2 No. 63937 at Immingham in May 1961 (J. Davenport); O2/4 No. 63948 newly outshopped at Doncaster in August 1959; and O1 No. 63725 at York in November 1964.

A.J. Mullay. Rebuilding the railway: how the LNER planned Post-War reconstruction in 1945. 198-202.
Based partly on documents in NAS file BR/LNE/4/452 and Geoffrey Hughes' LNER (1986). Examines the plans made by the three Areas or Divisions of the LNER. The LNER also issued a 25 page brochure entitled Forward: the L.N.E.R. development programme in 1946 (Ottley 6287), but this is not mentioned. The document in the National Archive serves to show that the LNER remained a highly incoherent organisation in many respects with the North Eastern Area pursuing a far more radical policy in signalling envisaging colour signalling being extended to Newcastle and eventually to Edinburgh. One strange anomaly is that provision was made for the replacement of ships on the Clyde and Loch Lomond (latter jointly with LMS) no mention was made of ships for the Humber and Harwich-based services. Large expenditure was anticipated on locomotive depots and for water troughs (near Brandon and near Drem: neither was built) and on marshalling yards. It is strange that Mullay failed to cite Volume 3 of Bonavia's A history of the LNER which covers Postwar reconstruction very well.  Illus. (only indirectly related to text): A4 No. 4489 Dominion of Canada at Newcastle Central on up Coronation (Clifford McFall); points and crossings renewal at Church Fenton on 17 October 1948; K3 No. 61862 un up freight (bricks) being switched to slow line at Greenwood; bomb damage at Sunderland station; King's Cross terminus exterior in August 1952; V2 No. 60915 on Scotch goods near Potters Bar on 22 April 1951 (Eric Bruton); B1 (green) No. 61333 on Cambridge Buffet Express near Hatfield on 15 April 1949 (Eric Bruton); A1 No. 2561 Minoru on Langley troughs. On page 200 Mullay queries the widening between "Greenwood [Wood Green?] and Potters Bar" which Andrew Kleissner picks up in a letter on page 318..

Mark Smith. The Charnwood Forest Line. 203-5.
A 9½ mile branch line from Coalville to Loughborough. It was authorised as the Charnwood Forest Railway in 1874 (Reed) but did not open until 16 April 1883. It was worked by the LNWR and sought to bring coal into Loughborough where the terminus at Derby Road remained unconnected to the other railways. There was an intermediate station at Shepshed. In 1907 halts were opened at Snells Nook, Grace Dieu and Thringstone, but the passenger service was withdrawn on 12 April 1931 and freight services ceased in 1963. Some structures remain including the viaduct at Grace Dieu (illustrated).

Taking to the hills again. Alan Tyson (photographer). 206-7.
Colour photo-feature: 8F 2-8-0 No. 48542 stopping at Appleby with up freight on 12 June 1965; 9F 2-10-0 No. 92086  shunting at Kirkby Stephen on 30 June 1964; No. 48542 at Appleby with up freight on 12 June 1965; No. 48399 approaching Kirkby Stephen with up freight on 30 June 1964; and Class 5 passing Kirkby Stephen with up heavy freight on 30 June 1964.

On tour with City of Bradford. 208-9.
Black & white photographs of No. 46236 City of Bradford taken during the Locomotive Exchanges of 1948: in Sonning Cutting with GWR dynamometer car on 13.30 Paddington to Plymouth during May; approaching Finsbury Park with 07.50 King's Cross to Leeds on 29 April see letter from Brian Ady (pp, 317-18) which suggests north of Finsbury Park; with WD tender lettered "L M S" and  GWR dynamometer car on down Atlantic Coast Express passing Vauxhall on 22 June; at King's Cross at head of 13.10 to Leeds on 6 May (mechanical lubricator? receiving attention); passing Hayes & Harlington with up? train; and with WD tender leaving Waterloo with 10.50 to Exeter in July 1948.  

Robert Emblin. From Sneinton Hermitage to Weekday Cross: closing the Loop in the GNR's Nottingham suburban network. 210-16.
The Great Northern Railway reached Nottingham from Grantham in 1854, but due to conflict with the Midland Railway was forced to construct its own terminus nearby at London Road. From a junction to the east of Nottingham GNR railways were constructed to enable it to reach the Nottinghamshire coalfield, Derby and a junction with the North Staffordshire Railway.  The London & North Western Railway also used London Road for its services from the south and reciprocatory running powers enabled it to compete for traffic from the coalfield. The arrival of the Great Central Railway altered this pattern and the GNR constructed a new line which also involved a new station at London Road (High Level). The junction with the Great Central was at Weekday Cross and this enabled the GNR to be a joint owner of Victoria station. Although the new line was short it involved building a new station London Road High Level, substantial girder bridges across a canal basin and a curved viaduct. See also letter from Chris Heaps of the Transport Trust on p. 446.

Hinksey South. M.H. Yardley (photographer). 217.
Colour photo-feature: Class 47 No. 1605 (green livery) passing signal box with 12.30 Birmingham New Street to Paddington on 30 November 1972; Class 52 No. 1040 Western Queen (blue livery) with 12.35 Swindon to Banbury Road Junction hauling train load of stone on 14 May 1973; and Class 20 Nos. 8137 and 8144 with 08.20 Langwith to Didcot coal train on 14 May 1973.

David Andrews. The role of the Chief Engineer. 218-21.
A consideration of the management methods applied by Churchward at Swindon in relation to how methodology in production engineering has developed since. Begins with extensive quotation from Holcroft's Outline of Great Western locomotive practice. Compares this with MBWA (Management by Walking About) or in Toyota method terms Genchi Genbutsu. Reintroduces Tuplin's Great Western steam and notes that Stanier (in an interview for the Chartered Mechanical Engineer) considered that Churchward was very approachable and the author wonders as an aside whether Bulleid failed in this respect. Cites A.E. Durrant's Swindon apprentice. See also letter from Mike Zanker on p. 382 concerning inside Walschaerts valve gear.

Bob Yate. An appreciation of fireless locomotives. 222-3.
Refers to T.D. Allen Civil and Allan Baker's Fireless locomotives (Oakwood Locomotion Paper No. 97, 1976).  Author argues that the needs of munitions factories during WW1 spurred development. Germany exported some to the United Kingdom, but none of these have survived. Andrew Barclay was the main British supplier who built 114 of which 18 have been preserved. Othrer manufacturers included Hawthorn, Leslie and Bagnall. Sentinel produced a very unsuccessful product for the Dorman Long steelworks at Middlesbrough. Note excellent captions. Illustrations: Peckett 0-4-0 (WN 2155/1955) for CWS Higher Irlam Soap, Candle and Starch Works on 23 September 1962: see also letter from N.L. Cadge on p. 382; Andrew Barclay 0-4-0 (WN 1944/1927) at Midland Tar Distillers at Four Ashes, north of Wolverhampton (previously owned by Reckitt & Colman of Norwich) on 27 March 1971 (both black & white: remainder colour). Narrow gauge Bagnall 2-4-0 Unique (WN 2216/1923) at Sittingbourne & Kemsley paper mills on 5 October 1980; Andrew Barclay 0-4-0 (WN 1966/1929) owned Monsanto Chemicals of Newport (Mon) (previously owned by Reckitt & Colman of Norwich) on 22 July 1983; and Andrew Barclay 0-4-0 (WN 2268/1949) owned Glaxochem Ltd at Ulverston on 23 May 1986. See also letter from Allan C. Baker on p. 317 who records the physics of fireless locomotives, notably that the reservoir which replaces the boiler contains hot water which converts to steam as the pressure falls; furthermore the reservoir and the moving parts experience expansion and contraction..

Class 37s in South Wales. Michael Mensing (photographer).. 224-6.
Colour photo-feature: No. 37 220 (Rail blue livery) stops on relief lines alongside Radyr station with train of coal hoppers; Nos. 37 692 and 37 693 (both in Railfreight grey livery) cross River Amman approaching Ammanford with train of coal empties on 5 September 1989; No. 37 251 passing under Great Western main line at Neath (site of Riverside station) with BR standard coal wagons on 4 July 1983; No. 37 801 Aberddawan-Aberthaw in Railfreight grey livery with empty coal hoppers at Ystrad Mynach heading towards Nelson line; No. 37 698 Coedbach (railfreight livery with coal sub-sector markings) passes Tondu station with coal empties en route to Maesteg on 25 September 1989; No. 37 887 (railfreight livery with petroleum sub-sector markings) with coal hoppers from Tower Colliery south of Mountain Ash on 1 September 1989.

Alistair F. Nisbet. The Forfar & Brechin Railway. 227-33.
The author fails to make clear that there had been a branch line from Bridge of Dun to Brechin since 1848, and this illuminattes the Inspecting Officer's strictures relating to the new line; namely its effect upon the existing trains. An Act of 4 August 1890 for a railway to be worked in perpetuity by the Caledonian Railway. General Hutchinson was not satisfied with the works when inspected on 26 May 1894 and the official opening had to be deferred until 12 June 1895. Furthermore, Hutchinson's strictures on the workiong of Brechin station approached on a down grade of 1 in 45 led to it being completely rebuilt. Like several similar railways the Forfar & Brechin served a district with limited commercial potential: passenger traffic was very light and services were greatly reduced in both WW1 and WW2. The passenger service was withdrawn on 4 August 1952 and freight services finally ran on 24 September 1966. Seed potato traffic was a feature of the line. Notes motive power used on line, including visit of Wainwright H class Nos. 1177, 1184 and 1259 based at Forfar during WW2 between 1943 and 1944: John Macnab (p. 318) queries this and notes the very poor passenger service offered. Illustrations: Forfar South Junction with CR 4-4-0 No. 54500 on cattle train coming off branch and V2 No. 60919 passing on up express (W.A.C. Smith); CR 0-4-4T No. 55185 on branch train in Forfar station; Brechin station with daily goods on 5 September 1960 (T.J. Edgington); daily goods hauled by CR 4-4-0 No. 54486 at Tannadice on 28 November 1959 (J.B.C. Nisbet); Justinhaugh station with passenger train; Careston station with daily goods on 25 February 1961 (W.A.C. Smith); Signalman W.S. Nisbet at Forfar South Junction holding single line token in 1958 (J.B.C. Nisbet); CR 4-4-0 No. 54500 on daily goods approaching Forfar South Junction (W.A.C. Smith); Forfar station exterior on 16 June 1960; Brechin station on 17 June 1962 with RCTS/SLS Scottish Railtour.

Jeffrey Wells. Aspects of junction development. Part Two. 234-41.
Crewe; Knottingley and Doncaster. Crewe was selected by the Grand Junction Railway as the site for its Works on the basis of cheap land and the location became a junction with the opening of the Chester & Crewe Railway on 1 October 1840 and its status was enhanced two years later with the opening of the Manchester & Birmingham Railway. As in previous articles by thie author the text is illuminated by contemporary press material, such as Herepath and Illustrated London News which also provides many of the physical illustrations with reproductions of its engravings. Illustrations: Crewe station in December 1843 (ILN); interiors of Crewe Works in 1849 (R.B. Head); 0-6-0T No. 7467 in Crewe Works on 7 June 1931 (H.C. Casserley); Stanier 2-6-4T No. 42565 in Crewe Works on 28 April 1951 (H.C. Casserley); Crewe station and Crewe A signal box on 10 April 1957 (H.C. Casserley); Doncaster station on St. Leger Day 1849 (ILN); Royal party leaving Doncaster station on 28 August 1851 (ILN); C1 4-4-2 No. 4451 inside the Doncaster Plant on 23 September 1934 (H.C. Casserley); A1 Pacific No. 2576 The White Knight with ACFI feed water heater entering Doncaster station (H.C. Casserley).

On the Dymchurch Line. David Idle (photographer). 242-3.
Colour photo-feature of Romney Hythe & Dymchurch Railway (RHDR) locomotives taken on 21 September 1969: No. 3 Southern Maid (Pacific in apple green livery and smoke deflectors); No. 5 Hercules (4-8-2 in red livery); No. 9 Doctor Syn (Canadian style 4-6-2 in black livery) see letter from David Page on p. 446 whih indicates that design based on Canadian Pacific locomotive not CNR;  No. 3 Southern Maid approaching New Romney with The Blue Train; and No. 1 Green Goddess (Pacific in apple green livery) on manually powered turntable at New Romney.

Peter Paye. The Isle of Wight E1 Class 0-6-0Ts. 244-7.
Under order E700 of 18 March 1932 three Stroudley E1 0-6-0Ts were modified in Eastleigh Works for service on the Isle of Wight: they were fitted with Marsh type boilers, replacement injectors, sight feed lubricators and Drummond chimneys. Condensing gear, feed water pumps and vacuum ejector were removed. The class operated on the limited services on the Island, mainly coal from Medina Wharf and the Tourist trans-Island train which ran from Freshwater to Ventnor (on the Newport to Ventnor section). Illustrations: No. W1 Medina (in SR green) on 14.48 Newport to St. John's freight at Smallbrook Junction in September 1948; No. W3 Ryde at Newport shed in 1955; No. 2 Yarmouth in ulined black and lettered BRITISH RAILWAYS at Newport shed in 1948 (G. Bloxham); from inside of cab view from No. 2 in 1955; No. 4 Wroxhall at back of Ryde shed in August 1960; and dark green No. 4 Wroxhall lettered BRITISH RAILWAYS at Newport shed in May 1949 (W.H.G. Boot)

Jeffrey Wells. Manchester's Victoria Station in focus. 248-52.
Station opened on 1 January 1844: for full details see Tom Wray Manchester Victoria Station (2004) see Backtrack review p. 638 Vol. 19. Cites Railway Gazette for Platform 11 linking Exchange with Victoria and colour light signalling (latter see also LMS Journal No. 23 for longer, tedious? description). Illustrations: frontage onto Long Millgate on 29 July 1966; telpher with basket on Platform 5 in 1919; Platforms 7 and 8 with 2-6-4T and parcels traffic on 4 May 1954; bankers on Road 19 on 14 June 1962 (2-6-4T No. 42696 and 2-6-0 No. 46449); Class 5 No. 45063 at Victoria East Junction with Stockport to Colne through coaches in June 1960; Platform 1 used by Bury electric service in May 1971; view from Co-operative Insurance Society building of Victoria Station in May 1972; Signalling School in 1913.

Tim Edmonds. Station seats at Leamington Spa. 253.
Colour photo-feature: three photographs taken on 10 September 2011 of extant seats featuring cast iron work with initials in pre-1934 style (W entwined with G/R), post-1934 style (circular GWR), and Gill Sans British Railways Western Region style: BR (W).

Readers' Forum. 254
An everyday story of shunting tanks. Editor.

The top caption should note that No.47638 is banking a northbound freight: caption statees southbound!

Steam on the Woodhead Route. Editor
Attributions for three of the illustrations to their photographers. The photographs of Nos.63799 and 67434 on p95 were taken by Bryan Goodlad, that of  No. 4472 on the same page by Robert W. Miller.

Steam on the Woodhead Route. David Wignall
Caption to photograph of Flying Scotsman about to enter new Woodhead Tunnel on 18 April 1964 is erroneous as claims that this was the only steam-hauled train to go through this tunnel: ceased to be true when on 27 June 1964 the High Peak Railtour did the same thing! This train was headed by Bl No.61360 which for part of its journey was piloted by No.26000 Tommy, which was attached at Wombwell Main Junction and detached at Guide Bridge.

LNER mixed traffic. G.C. Bett
Suggest that picture showing No. 61340 was not taken at Dundee Tay Bridge shed, but perhaps at Eastfield as the LMS locomotive behind it has its depot stencilled on the buffer beam which was a feature of locomotives overhauled at Cowlairs At the most Dundee Tay Bridge had six roads and not in excess of eleven. Both locomotives are obviously ex-works.

LNER mixed traffic. Leonard Rogers 
Michael Mensing's photograph of No.61380 on p98 provides a ready illustration of what's described in the preceding article by Ken Grainger about the Sheffield Victoria accident. Here's "a homeward-bound Leicester [Central] engine" heading the up South Yorkshireman which ceased to run a few months later with the end of through daytime services between Sheffield Victoria and Marylebone at the beginning of January 1960. The locomotive depicted was, with the exception of the ill-fated No. 61057, the class member with the shortest working life, entering service in August 1951 and being withdrawn in March 1962. No. 61057 entered service in July 1946 and was withdrawn as beyond economic repair after an accident in March 1950.  Over-twenty years life was enjoyed by No. 61030 (June 1947-September 1967) which was part of the final trio withdrawn from Low Moor at the end of (North) Eastern Region steam. Incidentally, of the first dozen class members to be withdrawn, apart from No.61057, in the period November 1961-March 1962, ten were LMR-based examples.
The photograph of No.61340 on p99 is interesting for two reasons — it illustrates a detail difference found only on Scottish Bls and it depicts a stranger in the background. The distinctive detail, seemingly bestowed only on Bls shopped at Cowlairs, is the filling out in the corners of the running plate valance, so as to provide a flowing contour, emphasised here by the clean lining-out. The stranger in the shed is Darlington's 2-6-4T No 42477. It also appears to be in bright, clean condition, as though it might have been just ex-works, and may have been running-in after overhaul at either St. Rollox or Cowlairs. Although a few NER locomotives are known to have been overhauled at Inverurie in earlier years, it is less likely that this locomotive would have been there than that it would have been to one of the two Glasgow works. St. Rollox ceased steam repairs in summer 1964, and all its steam work was transferred to Cowlairs thereafter while St. Rollox was refurbished to handle an expanded diesel workload. Upon completion of the refurbishment, Cowlairs was closed and St. Rollox was renamed as simply Glasgow Works.

Over the Lancashire Moors. Peter Eastham.  
Members of Ribble Valley Rail enjoyed this colour photo-feature of the Blackburn-Bolton line featuring the line at the end of steam and before rationalisation of the 1970s, which included singling most of the double track. Ribble Valley Rail is the present-day user-group for the service from Blackburn to Clitheroe and is also involved in tending both Entwistle and Darwen stations on the Bolton line, which carries through services between Manchester Victoria and Clitheroe. The group was instrumental in the reopening of the Blackburn-Clitheroe section for passenger trains in May 1994, the service having been withdrawn in September 1962.
Two questions are posed in the accompanying descriptions. Firstly, the platform clock shown on p88 before the 1888 overall roof station at Blackburn was demolished in 2000 was relocated to the lower entrance to Manchester Piccadilly station concourse (Fairfield Street entrance) and was converted to electric drive.
Secondly  the model of the Isle of Man Steam Packet Co. vessel Viking  was still owned by IoM Steam Packet and it arranged for its return to the shipping company's head office in Liverpool.
The photograph of Entwistle station with two platforms, four tracks and an elevated gantry signal box is contrasted with the present arrangement of a single track and platform only. The information given that "now not all trains are booked to call there and those that do so only stop on request" has also changed in the latest timetable, in that all trains are timed at Entwistle but with an X denoting "Only stops on request".
However, since reintroduction of the through service in 1994, passenger numbers have grown spectacularly, with the result that platforms of the Ribble Valley stations have recently been lengthened to accommodate longer trains, together with additional intermediate signalling installed to permit greater line capacity. The single line between Blackburn and Bolton is now the major bottleneck preventing further improvement of the overcrowded service and Ribble Valley Rail is working with its local authority and rail industry partners in the Community Rail Partnership towards remedying this situation. This matter was highlighted in an Adjournment Debate in Parliament on 10 January when the B1ackburn MP, Jack Straw, spoke at length and received support from other local MPs for redoubling sections of the line. Quite amazing that from among the selection of photographic subjects in the feature, all these years on Britannia and Black Five locomotives are still quite frequently seen at Blackburn hauling lengthy passenger trains and only the Wickham and Craven DMUs will never be seen again.

Over the Lancashire Moors. Norman Dowd
Re photograph of Isle of Man Steam Packet model on p90; as a child he used to see one of these models at Manchester Central station. Now living on the Isle of Man, he is aware of at least two of these models: one in the House of Manannan at Peel and another in the Manx Museum at Douglas; both in their original display cases. There are also at least three other models on the Island which may or may not have been used at English railway stations. The Manx Transport Heritage Museum has a website: www.manxtransportheritagemuseum. org has a page devoted to a project seeking information about these models.

Strathclyde Transport. Leonard Rogers
Keith Dungate photograph of No.303 087 on p69 may have been taken from Partick station looking east, with a telephoto lens, it shows Yorkhill, across the River Kelvin, in the background. The high-rise blocks are Glasgow's Sick Children's Hospital.

The Burry Port & Gwendraeth Valley Railway. Robert W Miller 
The correct title, as approved by Parliament in 1866 and subsequently, was the Burry Port & Gwendreath Valley Railway. The trains of open wagons for miners and their families were paid for by the colliery companies concerned. The trade unionist after whom Mabon's Day is named was William Abraham: Mabon was his bardic title. The Board of Trade was aware that the BP&GV carried persons other than miners (they were not called passengers) well before 1903; the railway had written to the Board on 28th November 1899 giving full details. There was no "harsh rap over its corporate knuckles", the Board merely pointing out the risks involved, particularly if there was a fatality when "a great deal would depend on the verdict of the jury".
The new hydraulic coal hoists were installed at the East Dock in 1904, the West Dock having been closed since 1900. The East Dock was not "more or less abandoned" following the general strike of 1926. In each year from 1929 to 1936 a greater tonnage was shipped than in 1912 and the dock did not close until 1939. The reason that Pontyberem (locomotive No.2) was sold in 1914 was that it was too small and also needed heavy repairs; it was a 14in engine and was replaced by a larger 16in one. The 'replacement' No. 13 was not delivered on 20 October 1916 as that is the date it was requisitioned by the War Office and sent to Richborough Sidings, Kent, and did not reach Burry Port until 25 November 1916. The workshops were not adjacent to the running sheds at Burry Port, were located south of the West Dock behind the company's offices. Tycoch was not opened in 1927 but on 2 August 1909, being included in the original Light Railway Order. It closed in May 1949.
The new carriages built at Swindon in 1939 were not similar to the standard 'B' sets, which were brake composites, but based on then current suburban compartment stock. As well as being 18in lower they also were 3in narrower at 8ft 8in wide and had second-hand lightweight bogies. Three cut-down Class 08s are still running, several of the cut-down Class 03s are preserved as well as old No. 2 Pontyberem, sold by the railway in 1914 and some track on the main line is still intact.

Passing Kirkham Priory. J.S. Gilks. rear cover
Preserved A3 No. 4472 Flying Scotsman returning from Scarborough with an excursion from Birmingham on 6 April 1968.

Number 5 (May 2012}

GWR '43XX' 2-6-0 No.6319 brings a train of empty stock off the Kingswinford branch to join the Dudley-Stourbridge Junction main line north of Brettell Lane station on 26th August 1961. Michael Mensing. front cover.
See also letter from Leonard Rogers on p. 446

Maintaining your dignity – or not. Mike Jacobs. 259.
Guest Editorial on the loss of dignity which used to be afforded to railway travellers as typified by silver service meals in dining cars and trains which looked dignified vide GNER not First anything.

'Peak' Performances. Rodney Lissenden (photographer). 260-2.
Colour photo-feature: Class 45 (all blue): No. 45 132 at Mallerstang hauling a Carlisle to |Leicester excursion on 21 April 1984; No. 45120 near Marsden with a Newcastle to Liverpool train on 23 October 1982; No. 45 013 near Saltash with a St Blazey to Severn Tunnel Junction freight (permanent way train) on 27 September 1985; No. 45 026 leaving Blea Moor Tunnle with a Leeds to Carlisle train on 24 April 1984; No. 45 065 assisting an HST (08.45 Paddington to Plymouth) at Dawlish Warren on 13 August 1983; No. 45 040 on freight (sheeted metal castings) passing Brocklesby on Scunthorpe to Immingham working on 18 June 1986.

A.J. Ludlam. Robinson's Great Central Railway Class 9J 0-6-0. 263-8.
The Pom-Poms were introduced by Robinson in 1901 and represented both a logical development of the 0-6-0 type as built under Parker and a transfer of Robinson's final design for the Waterford, Limerick & West Railway where he had introduced the Belpaire firebox: these were No. 2 Shannon, No. 4 Shamrock and No. 11 Samson. Author cites three main authorities: RCTS Locomotives of the LNER. Part 5, David Jackson's J.G. Robinson and (never seen in bookless Norfolk) Johnson's Locomotives of the Great Central Railway. Ludlam notes that J11 class worked from Norwich between 1927 and 1933 and that they were also used on the Midland & Great Northern for a time. The nickname stemmed from the sharp steccato beat and Thompson considered them to be good enough to form a standard class: remarkably for the LNER no attempt was made to replace the Belpaire boiler with a round-top type. In 1909 No. 16 was fitted with a Schmidt superheater and piston valves and eventually most of the class was fitted with the Robinson superheater, but retained the slide valves. The J11/3 type acquired new cylinders, similar to the J39 type, and piston valves, but progress on conversion was slow and only a few locomotives were rebuilt between 1942 and 1953. They were mainly freight engines, but were also used on passenger trains, notably between Manchester and Chester Northgate. Includes reminiscences of footplate work banking a freight from Wath Junction to Dunford. Illus.: GCR No. 316 at Guide Bridge post 1915; GCR No. 307 c1917; No. 64320 shunting at Wragby station on 25 July 1952; No. 64417 at Penistone on passenger train on 23 April 1953 (two views)(H.K. Boulter); No. 5286 with brake van at Guide Bridge on 15 September 1945 (H.C. Casserley); No. 4313 at Neasden on 22 June 1946 (H.C. Casserley); No. 5218 at Neepsend; No. 4329 at Neasden on 7 April 1947 (H.C. Casserley);No. 64372 passing through Boston station with freight in 1957.

Alistair F. Nisbet. Slip coach accidents. 269-75.
Cites C.E.J. Fryer History of slipping and slip coaches. Begins by noting some very early attempts to slip vehicles more or less unofficially and then proceeds to examine eight accidents: Halesowen (Great Western Railway) on 12 August 1883 (slipped vehicle collided with train which had braked); Werrington Junction (Great Northern Railway) on 14 February 1887 when slip coach was accidentally detached and collided with train when it braked; Reading (Great Western Railway) on 15 May 1894 when slip collided with vehicles in platform; Warwick on 21 December 1895 (minor collision in fog); Marks Tey (Great Eastern Railway) on 29 December 1906 (collision between slip and train in fog); Catesby Tunnel (Great Central Railway) on 4 January 1906 (broken rail which derailed a train which included a slip coach); Woodford & Hinton (LNER) on 19 December 1935 (fault in vacuum brake coupling). Also notes the dates when multiple slip coaches ceased and when the practice ceased at Bicester on 10 September 1960. Refers to the official accident reports and Inspecting Officers. Illus.: No. 6010 King Charles I approaching Reading on 08.30 from Plymouth and slipping rear coach in April 1947 (two colour photographs by H.N. James); Halesowen station with steam railcar c1912; Hawksworth slip coach No. W7374W at Paddington; 16.34 Paddington to Wolverhampton with Bicester slip coach off 17.10 express immediately behind No. 6980 Llanrumney Hall passing Solihull on 20 June 1960 (Michael Mensing); Marks Tey station in Great Eastern days; slipping in progress on GWR at Filton Junction in 1929 (Ian C. Allen whose head must have been far out of the window of the slip coach); B3/2 No. 6166 Earl Haig with clerestory coach (slip no slip?) at Woodford & Hinton in 1932; Bicester North slip on 25 August 1960 (two Michael Mensing photographs, including one being hauled/propelled by No. 5994 Roydon Hall onto front of 16.34 ex-Paddington.   

Alan Bennett. The Garden Isle. 276-82.
Southern Railway and Southern Region publicity material. Begins with quotations from S.P.Mais Isles of the Island (1934) which depict a very beautiful landscape on the Isle of Wight. Three covers of Hints for Holidays (1932, 1933 and 1929) are reproduced in colour: the first two encapsulate the Art Deco period with the exploitation of bold, bizarre colours and silhouette images which are highly appropriate for Alum Bay (although the visitor may be disappointed not to find the Grand Canyon depicted in 1933).

Neil Burgess. Lincoln's Tunnel that never was: Lincoln and the Lancashire, Derbyshire & East Coast Railway. 283-7.
The Lancashire, Derbyshire & East Coast Railway was conceived to join Prestbury? (Cupit states Warrington) in Cheshire with Sutton-on-Sea a distance of 130 miles. Due to shortage of finance only the section from Chesterfield to a junction west of Lincoln was opened and this was eventually taken over by the Great Central Railway. Sir Robert Elliott-Cooper was the engineer. This article considers the unbuilt section through Lincoln where the course was dictated by an antagonistic Great Northern Railway, which already suffered from congestion, and this was increased by its ownership of the Fossdyke Navigation. The route under Lincoln, to the south of the Cathedral, would have involved a 1270 yard long tunnel which was 122 feet beneath the surface at its maximum depth and would have lacked ventilation shafts. The route lacked provision for a station and possible locations are discussed. The article considers the proposed route in the light of subsequent development which included high value housing, some being backed by a major local employer, namely Shuttleworth. Illus.: map, Kitson 0-6-2T LNER N6 No. 6162; view from Carline Road showing location of Carholme racecourse (the railway would have run round back of this); the Fossdyke where the route towards the tunnel would have passed; Class D 0-6-4T as LNER M1 No. 6148 probably at Tuxford; the Arboretum (public park), and A5 No. 69804 at Skellingthorpe on final day of passenger working between Shirebrook and Lincoln, namely 19 September 1955..

Really useful engines on the Western. 288-91.
Colour photo-feature: 43XX class: No. 6316 shunting a GUV at Carmarthan Junction in 1960; No. 5380 on Inter-Regional express passing Tilehurst on 8 September 1962 (Derek Penney); No. 6394 (clearly in lined green livery) on train of ballast hoppers descending Hatton bank in March 1962  (Derek Penney); No. 6378 near Culworth Junction heading towards Banbury with long freight on 12 October 1963 (R.C. Riley); No. 7330 at Birmingham Snow Hill with Saturday train from Welsh coast on 5 August 1961 (Michael Mensing); No. 6324 with tender still lettered "GWR"" at Swindon Works on 1 April 1962 (Derek Penney); p. 290 lower No. 6319 near Hatton with long express passenger train (Derek Penney) see also letter from Leonard Rogers on p. 446; No. 7307 leaving Acocks Green & South Yardley with 18.05 commuter train from Snow Hill to Leamington Spa oon 27 June 1961 (Michael Mensing); No. 7332 (caption incorrect) passing Beaver's Hill Crossing near Manorbier with train of pipes (R.J. Maxwell); No. 6363 on turntable at Barnstaple shed on 20 July 1964 (R.C. Riley). See also front cover.

Philip Atkins. The evolution of the Gresley Garratt. 292-3.
See also article by David Cullen in Volume 25 on p. 582. There are four Beyer Garratt drawings in the Beyer Peacock archive held in the Museum of Science & Industry in Manchester. One of November 1912 shows a 2-8-0 + 0-8-2 with Belpaire firebox and a grate area of 54ft2. This was drawn by Samuel Jackson. Another design which is probably relevant was a Gorton GCR 0-10-2T with three cylinders and the Sir Sam Fay boiler. This dated from about 1912 and was presumably intened to work as a banker on the Worsborough incline. In 1923 the LNER considered ordering two Beyer Garratts and haulage as well as banking was probably being considered. At about the same time the P1 2-8-2 design was being developed. The eventual U1 Beyer Garratt was founded on the chasses of two O2 three-cylinder 2-8-0s.

Jeffrey Wells. Road-rail goods traffic and containerisation 1928-29. 294-300.
Cites Theo Barker and Dorian Gerhold The rise and rise of road transport. The Railways (Road Transport) Bill of 3 August 1928 enabled the railways to participate more fully in road haulage and this allowed for voluntary agreements with hauliers; independent action and compulsory powers. Most of the text is based on reports in the Railway Gazette: on 20 April 1928 it considered road haulage in relation to the Southern Railway, on 26 October 1928 it considered the Great Western Railway. Also in October the LNER replaced its railway services by road haulage in the Rosedale and Pickering areas and reinforced its raod haulage activity in the area around Haverton Hill. On 3 December 1928 the LMS and LNER announced joint road haulage operations in the Bradford area. On 3 December 1930 the LMS reported on the introduction of mechanical horses supplied by Karrier Motors at its Camden goods depot. These highly manoeuvrable vehicles replaced horses and the need for stables. Containers dated back to the Liverpool & Manchester Railway where they were used to convey coal. Charles Fay on the Lancashire & Yorkshire railway developed container design in 1856. The Great Central Railway used them to transport fish' The LMS relaunched the container concept in 1926 and in 1930 announced container services to the European Continent via Goole and via Tilbury. The Railway Gazette of 24 August 1928 announced its container services for J.S. Fry and improvements to its Ladbroke Grove depot. On the 15 March it reported improvements on the Southern. On 23 May 1930  there was a report on the container transport by the LNER of household furniture for the workers transferred from Cassell's Cyanide Works in Glasgow to the ICI plant in Billingham. Illus.: (many from Railway Gazette) road vehicle body plant at Wolverton, LMS; Southern Railway container built at Eastleigh Works; Karrier Cob mechanical horse with former horse-drawn vehicle at Camden depot demonstration; LMS open container being lifted off dray onto flat wagon by steam travelling crane;Great Wrestern container supplied by Gloucester Railway Carriage & Wagon Co. Ltd in 1930; LNER fleet of Karrier and Thornycroft lorries at Pickering station; LMS delivery vehicles with solid and pneumatic tyres advertising road dlivery services in East Midlands; LMS containers at Bury Knowsley Street on 6 February 1934; LMS steel A type container on horse-drawn dray; LMS (demonstration) train of insulated containers; LMS (demonstration) train of furniture containers at Wolverton with 0-6-0ST Wolverton.

John Macnab. 'British Railways Network for Development–Scotland': the reshaping map of March 1967. 301-3.
The Author does not mention that the document highlighted followed The development of the major railway trunk routes of 1965 which should have led to the diversion of East Coast traffic for Scotland over the Newcastle & Carlisle Railway despite the anticipated major flows of oil northbound over Beattock and southbound traffic of iron and steel. The traffic projections made in 1965 failed to anticipate North Sea oil, the decline of the British steel industry (to zero in Scotland), the closuure of small oil refineries and the growth of passenger traffic. If Beeching had had his way Berwick would have been as unlikely to see trains of any sort as Galashiels and Hawick. Macnab does not mention the fate of Hawick, surely one of the most thriving industrial towns to be left without a link to London (Thatcher might have told Cameron: they are our people Mr Cameron! — and that there are seven times the number of them than Falkland Islanders: presumably they do not count in Salmond's ambitions), but does mention St. Andrews and Kilmacolm and the farce of the Paisley Canal Line. Illus. (mainly by J.S. Gilks): 13.05 Mallaig to Glasgow on Horseshoe Curve at Tyndrum on 14 July 1961; the map; Kilmacolm station with DMU on 23 May 1964; Kyle of Lochalsh on 29 May 1957; St Andrews with 13.58 DMU to Dundee on 1 May 1965 (colour); preserved No. 256 Glen Douglas passing through Glenfarg on 28 August 1965 (colour) (locomotive would now need a low loader to traverse M9 at this point on this underused motorway). See also letter from Author on page 573 which follows what was written in preceding precis.

Glynn Waite. Passenger classification on the Midland Railway in the nineteenth century. 304-9.
Originally published in Midland Railway Society Journal No. 27. A detailed statistical analysis of the financial effects of the Midland Railway's decision to admit third class passengers to all its trains (and its conflict with neighbouring companies wrought by this decision) and the eventual abolition of second class from all trains.

Great Western stations. 310-12.
Black & white photo-feature: Bath station entrance, c1920; Goonbell Halt (note concrete sleepers with bullhead rail); Warren Halt (before addition of "Dawlish") with steam railcar No. 72 with Teignmouth destination on front and Edwardian lady passenger; 311 upper: Symonds Yat station viewed from above see also letter from Richard Bull on p. 446; Weymouth station in 1931 with Bulldog 4-4-0 No. 3324, Southern Railway T9 No. 730, auto trailer No. 103 and LSWR carriages; Mitchell & Newlyn Halt; Lustleigh station on Moretonhampstead branch with 2-6-2T No. 2178; Wells Tucker Street

Steam on the Rheidol Line. 313
Colour photo-feature: No. 7 Owain Glyndwr (GWR green and rolling stock in chocolate and cream) taking water at Aberffrwd; No. 9 Prince of Wales (green with carriages in Cambrian Railways bronze green (M. Potton), and No. 9 Prince of Wales (in corporate Rail blue with BR logo) in Aberystwyth station (M.H. Yardley).

Roger J. Kell. 1960s railtouring. 314-16.
Black & white photo-feature: J37 0-6-0 No. 65234 inside Bathgate shed in summer of 1964; Lord Garnock's newly restored K4 No. 3442 The Great Marquess en route from Cowlairs Works to Leeds working a freight photographed on stretch of third rail electric near Heaton Junction on 29 April 1963; same locomotive taking water at Bishop Auckland on a County Durham railtour in 1964 see letter from David Myers (p. 382) commenting upon orientation observations made within caption; and preserved Great North of Scotland Railway Nos. 49 Gordon Highlander and Caledonian Railway 4-2-2 No. 123 leaving Carlisle on railtour on 13 June 1964; Merchant Navy class No. 35012 United States Line departing Carlisle Citadel with RCTS special to Leeds via Ais Gill on 13 June 1964; 4F No. 44408 viewed from tender of LYR 0-6-0 No. 52515 at Darlington Bank Top on 29 September 1962, and Q7 No. 63460 near West Boldon on RCTS/SLS special. Letters  on p. 509 from Jeremy Clarke refer to the problems faced by Bert Hooker with water supplies on the Settle & Carlisle line with his Merchant Navy Pacific and from Leonard Rogers on No. 3442 The Great Marquess and where it was going to at Bishop Auckland; also further information about J37 No. 65234.

Readers' Forum. 317-18.
Blue is not a good colour for locomotives. Bob Farmer.
Comment on British racing green
Blue is not a good colour for locomotives. David Burton.
Comment on bus liveries, use of green on cars and rolling stock (common in Europe aand Ireland and KPJ ghastly DMUs) and notes blue offset by red wheels (A4), red lining on Great Eastern and carmine & cream rolling stock on BR)

Rod-drive electrics. Geoffrey Skelsey
Describes an experimental Bradford Corporation tramcar built in 1927 which had bogies with a  single motor but driving on both axles via a worm gaer. The single deck tram had air-worked folding doors and separate driving cabs. It was withdrawn in 1930.

Some thoughts on GT3. Malcolm Grant.
Mainly about railway at Northwood prior to changes introduced when Metropolitan line was widened.

Aspects of junction development. Nick Daunt.
Corrects statement about ownership of railway at Hampton-in-Arden (London & Birmingham, not Grand Junction); also expands upon the railway politics of 1846 in which the Midland Railway thwarted the Great Western Railway in establishing a major cross-country route to the south west: also comments on captions (incorporated into index). Also notes that Edward Thompson, CME LNER, was grandson of Francis Thompson, architect..

An appreciation of fireless locomotives. Allan C. Baker.
Records the physics of fireless locomotives, notably that the reservoir which replaces the boiler contains hot water which converts to steam as the pressure falls; furthermore the reservoir and the moving parts experience expansion and contraction and the reservoir has to be mounted like a boiler..

February cover picture. Alastair Know.
Dinting level crossing with B1 and farm vehicle: notes the farmer's nickname (see original text) but surname was Bennett and his location was Higher Dinting Farm. The picture reminded KPJ of milk being delivered in Saddleworth in a similar vehicle and of his good fortune of seeing No. 60103 Flying Scotsman near Crowden level crossing (whilst still painted blue) syncopating its way towards Woodhead with the afternoon express for Marylebone in the early 1950s.

On tour with City of Bradford. Brian Ady.
Suggests that photograph stated to be on "approach to Finsbury Park" from King's Cross was north of Finsbury Park.

Great Western Railway eight-coupled freight locomotives. Rory Wilson. 318
The GWR acquired four 0-8-0s from the Barry Railway which became GWR Nos. 1387-90. These had been built by Sharp for the Swedish & Norwegian Railway between 1884 and 1887, but remained in Sharp's hands due to the failure to receive payment. Two were sold to the Barry Railway in 1889 and a further two were acquired in 1895. They lasted on the GWR until 1927/1930. Repeated publication of this letter p. 382.

Relics of the Storeton Tramway. Roger Jermy.
Identifies G.H. Morton (1826-1900) in one of photographs on p. 168: he was founder of Liverpool Geological Society. Also notes that further lengths of rail remain hidden beneath road surface. Repeated publication of this letter p. 382..

Rebuilding the railway. Andrew Kleissner.
Objects to the phrase Greenwood [Wood Green?] and Potters Bar as anyone who knows the East Coast route would know that the section between Wood Green and Greenwood had been widened already. The writer notes the wonderful Cuneo poster On Early Shift which featured th interior of Greenwood signal box with an A4 approaching on a northbound express. 

The Forfar & Brechin Railway. John Macnab.
Questions the use of Southern Railway H class in Forfar area during WW2 and notes paucity of passenger train service. See also letter from David Ferguson on p. 573.

Book Reviews. 318
A history of the Newcastle & Berwick Railway. John F. Addyman (editor), NERA. GBS. *****
Produced to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the North Eastern Railway Association and called "an outstanding volume, a worthy and reasonably-priced tribute".  The review could almost serve as a model entry for a concise railway encyclopaedia.

Railway season. David St John Thomas. Francis Lincoln. DWM ***
"This is a very attractive book, very stylishly produced". Complains about the sub-editing (but it should be Frances Lincoln): KPJ offers a slightly different view, although even he liked the chapter on natural history

High season at Devil's Bridge. M.H. Yardley. rear cover
No. 7 Owain Glyndwr departing withh train for Aberystwyth on 25 July 1972 (locomotive and trains in British Rail blue: see letters above on blue locomotives and feature on Vale of Rheidol Line.

Number 6 (June 2012}

SR rebuilt 'West Country' 4-6-2 No.34008 Padstow heads past Earlsfield with a through train of maroon stock from the North to the South Coast in summer 1964. (Derek Penney). front cover
See also letter from Gerald Goodall on p. 446.

On a need to know basis. Mike Blakemore. 323
Editorial on lack of informative labelling on exhibit at National Railway Museum and lack of sympathetic display at the Glasgow Museum of Transport' Only the National Museum of Scotland receives praise. Also comment on Backtrack captions. See also letters from Gerald Goodall on p. 446 and from David Fairgrieve on pp. 509-10.

'Warship' review. Trevor Owen (photographer). 324-5.
Colour photo-feature on the Western Region B-B diesel-hydraulic locomotives: under construction in Swindon Works A Shop on 3 May 1959;  No. D804 Avenger (in original livery) on up Mayflower passing White Waltham on 8 August 1959 See also letter from Gerald Goodall on p. 446 who comments on Gresley coaches augmenting the set.; No. D843 Sharpshooter passing White Waltham on express freight on 24 March 1963; No. D807 Caradoc passing Woking with down Salisbury train (carriages in Southern Region green livery) on 17 August 1966; No. D831 Monarch (in corporate rail blue with matching train on South Western main line in snow in January 1968: See also letter from Gerald Goodall on p. 446 who considers that final photograph had unique livery variant and from Leonard Rogers (pp. 573-4).

Alastair F. Nisbet. The consequences of brawling on the railway. 326-30.
Other than mentioning Footex specials (football hooligans) during the 1970s this is largely restrited to the drunken activities of Scottish Highlanders and Islanders, notably the men from Skye when or before they joined the Dingwall & Skye Railway at Strome Ferry. One riot involved crofting rights and greedy landlords was so bad that the Glasgow chief constable was requested to send Inspector Conkey and forty constables to Portree on the steamer Clansman to make arrests. Another drunken incident took place at Inveramsay Junction on the Great North of Scotland Railway when a party of labourers who had arrived off the Highland Railway were arrested at Fraserburgh and brought before Sheriff Comrie Thomson in Aberdeen. On 3 June 1883 there was another riot at Strome Ferry when an attempt was made to transport fish on a Sunday. In 1898 a pair of Tynesiders were noted fighting on an Edinburgh to Newcastle train near Dunbar, but were arrested at Berwick-upon-Tweed and tried under English law. Much fuller account of Strome Ferry riot over Sunday work in Rly Arch., 2012 (35), 16 from Jeffrey Wells. Illustrations: Dingwall station (Edwardian period); Strome Ferry station with overall roof; Highland Railway six-wheel coach No. 140; Keioth Junction; Dyce ststion in 1963 (incorrect caption see p. 446); Fraserburgh station on 10 July 1957; Inveramsay station; two class 5s along Loch Carron (view from carriage window); down freight alongside Loch Carron on 11 July 1958.

Michael S. Elton. The Ingleton Line – the alternative Settle to Carlisle route? 331-9.
The North Western Railway, often cited as the Little North Western, attempted to link Clapham in Yorkshire with Low Gill on the Lancaster & Carlisle Railway. It ws incorporated on 26 June 1846. It enjoyed the services of John Errington as engineer and the contractor Coulthard & Allen and opened as far as Ingleton in 1849 where the finance ran out. Thereafter railway politics took control and involved the alternate love-hate reletionships of the Midland and London & North Western Railways and an attempt by the Great Northern Railway to outflank the North Eastern Railway. Eventually the line between Low Gill and Ingleton, with its own station at Ingleton, was opened on 27 August 1861 under the control of the Lancaster & Carlisle Railway. This led the Midland Railway to  seek to abandon its Settle & Carlisle Line, but this was thwarted by Parliament. Passenger services ceased on 1 February 1954, but the route saw diverted traffic off the Settle & Crlisle route as late as the 1962/3 winter (KPJ's wife and eldest daughter were routed this way behind an A3, but neither were aware of the significance, but only the delay). Illustrations: Low Gill Viaduct looking towards Howgill Fells; LNWR 2-4-0 near Ingleton; Sedbergh station during LNWR period; Clapham Junction in early 1950s; Fowler 2-6-2T No. 16 at Ingleton on 1 May 1948. Earlier article by G. Machell: Rly Wld., 1954, 15, 279.

Michael J. Smith. Metropolitan electrics: names and nemesis. 340-6.
Twenty Bo-Bo electric locomotives were built, or rebuilt from earlier locomotives supplied by BTH in 1906/7, by Metropolitan Vickers for the Metropolitan Railway in 1921/3. They hauled steam trains which had originated beyond Harrow to Baker Street and on to the City (from 1925 the changeover point became Rickmansworth), and until WW2 Great Western steam suburban services from Paddington through to the City. From 1927 the locomotives were given names placed on bronze nameplates, but these were gradually removed during WW2 when the locomotives were painted grey. Eventually the maroon livery was restored anbd names were reinstated gradually from 1954. The original numbers and names were: No. 1 John Lyon (founder of Harrow School); No. 2 Oliver Cromwell; No. 3 Sir Ralph Verney (Puritan landowner from Buckinghamshire); No. 4 John Byron (poet who had attended Harrow School); No. 5 John Hampden (owned Manor of Wendover); No. 6 William Penn (founder of Pennsylvania and buried at Jordans); No. 7 Edmund Burke (political theorist with links to Chilterns); No. 8 Sherlock Holmes (Sir Arthur Conan Doyle readily agreed to the use of his character's name); No. 9 John Milton (poet with home at Chalfont St. Giles); No. 10 William Ewart Gladstone; No. 11 George Romney (painter); No. 12 Sarah Siddons (actress and resident in Baker Street); No. 13 Dick Whittington; No. 14 Benjamin Disraeli (Hughenden Manor in Chilterns); No. 15 Wembley 1924 (had been exhibited at the British Empire Exhibition in 1925); No. 16 Oliver Goldsmith (poet with home at Kingsbury); No. 17 Florence Nightingale (often stayed at Claydon); No. 18 Michael Faraday; No. 19 John Wycliffe (Rector of Ludgershall near Brill); No. 20 Sir Christopher Wren. In 1955 No. 2 was named Thomas Lord with a plaque bearing a cricket ball and crossed bats beneath the aluminium nameplate. Some of the other names considered are listed: these include Charles Dickens, Anthony Trollope and Sir Francis Drake. The Wembley name might have beren B.E.E. 1924. Illustrations: locomotives under construction at Barrow-in-Furness in 1921; No. 17 (coloured picture from postcard with Dreadnought stock, c1925); No. 15 in Palace of Engineering during British Empire Exhibition; No. 7 on 11 September 1926; No. 8 Sherlock Holmes at Baket Street in Metropolitan Railway livery; two locomotives in Neasden car sheds during Metropolitan days; No. 1 John Lyon entering Wembley Park with 14.30 special train from Stanmore to Baker Street on 22 May 1955; No. 2 Thomas Lord; No. 3 Sir Ralph Verney at Rickmansworth in July 1956 (colour: Ray Oakley); No. 18 Michael Faraday at Rickmansworth in July 1957 (colour: Ray Oakley); No. 7 Edmund Burke and No. 14 Benjamin Disraeli at Rickmansworth in April 1957; Bakerloo Underground station c1906. Further information in letters from Nick Ridge and C.I. Horsey on page 509; and note on error concerning names from Author on p. 574.

L.A. Summers. Swindon's acquaintance with rotary cam valve gears. Part One. 347-51.
Saint class No. 2935 Caynham Court was fitted with Lentz (Lenz was correct German spelling, but was not used in connection with valve gear in English literature) rotary cam valve gear in 1931 and remained thus fitted until withdrawn in 1947. Also considers the development and use of Lentz valve gears (both oscillating and rotary forms) on other railways including the LNER, and further eccentricities in valve gear introduced at Swindon. Concluded p. 437. See also letter from Allan C. Baker on p. 509 who is critical of terminology used. In article Author queried Swindon's reluctance to use outside valve gear and David Andrews reponds to this in letter on page 574.

'West Country' travelling. Derek Penney (photographer). 352-5.
Colour photo-feature (all rebuilt unless noted otherwise): unrebuilt No. 34102 Lapford (in ex-Works condition) at Tilehurst with inter-Regional train (formed of two Southern green vehicles, maroon vehicles and chocolate & cream vehicle at rear); No. 34004 Yeovil; No. 34026 Yes Tor at Earlsfield; No. 34047 Callington leaving Basingstoke for Reading with train formed of LMR maroon stock in September 1964; unrebuilt No. 34105 Swanage on Bournemouth to Waterloo express near Worting Junction in autumn 1964; No. 34095 Brentor at Worting with down Bournemouth express on 2 September 1962; No. 34037 Clovelly at Worting with down West of England express; and No. 34022 Exmoor entering Basingstoke with up train from Bournemouth.

Jeremy Clarke. The Salisbury & Yeovil Railway. 356-63.
The London & Southampton Railway was incorporated on 25 July 1834 and opened on 11 May 1840, but the Salisbury & Yeovil Railway did not open until 1 June 1860. The twenty year delay in developing what was to become the London & South Western Railway route to Exeter and beyond was due to two pressures: competition from the Great Western Railway which sought to exclude the standard gauge and from Charles Castleman, a Wimbourne solicitor who sought to make Dorchester the jumping off point for a southerly route to Exeter: this led to the proposed route being known as Castleman's Snake or Castleman's Corkscrew. Salisbury had been linked to London via Bishopstoke from 27 January 1847. Beyond Basingstoke Andover was reached on 3 July 1854, but thge extension to Salisbury did not open until 1 May 1857. Thereafter completion to Exeter was swift being achieved in 1860. Bibliography is quite extensive but excludes B.L. Jackson's Castleman's Corkscrew (Oakwood Library of Railway History No. 144) in spite of Volume 1 being well reviewed in Backtrack, 22 p. 510. Illustrations: unrebuilt West Country Pacific No. 34099 Lynmouth near Tisbury with four coaches in 1959 (colour) See also letter from Gerald Goodall on p. 446 {not a lightweight Plymouth express; BR Standard Class 4 2-6-0 No. 76007 at Wilton South with 08.20 Semley to Salisbury on 16 May 1964 (colour); Salisbury station frontage in Fisherton Street; Wilton South; Dinton station, c1912; Tisbury station c1910; Gillingham station c1910; rebuilt West Country No. 34024 Tamar Valley at Templecombe in September 1961 (colour: G.W. Powell); Gillingham station; Templecombe station c1930. Yeovil Town shed on 24 August 1963 (colour); K10 4-4-0 No. 394 at Templecombe with up stopping train c1910; Milborne Port station c1900, Sherborne staation in 1923; Yeovil Town station in 1960; Yeovil Junction station in 1958.

Doing the Tyneside sheds. David Idle (photographer). 364-6.
Colour photo-feature on motive power depots near Newcastle: Gatehead on 31 August 1964 with A3 No. 60051 Blink Bonny and A1 No. 60124 Kenilworth; Tyne Dock on 22 August 1965 with Q6 class (caption incorrectly states Q7: see further muddle on p. 446 which calls Q6 0-6-0 type) Nos. 63389, 63458 and 63360; Heaton with V1 2-6-2T No. 67673; Gateshead on 31 August 1964 with A3 No. 60051 Blink Bonny and V1 No. 67628 and V3 No. 67690; Heaton on 31 December 1961 with WD No. 90155; Gateshead on 4 April 1964 with A3 No. 60092 Fairway and V1 No. 67643; Gatehead on 31 August 1964 with A1 No. 60121 Silurian; and Heaton on 22 August 1965 with J72 No. 59 (service stock)

John W.E. Helm. Track record: a financial history of British Railways 1948-1954: the steam railway. Part One: the liabilities. 367-72.
Period covered began and ended with 1947 which nationalized the railways and sought integration between all forms of transport and ended with the 1953 Transport Act which mainly sought to remove the road haulage industry from state control and reduce some of the bureaucracy and excessive centralisation, but this did not extend to finance, only administration. Tabulated statistics are given for the historic debt as on 1 January 1948; with subsequent additions as at 31 December 1954; for British Transport Commission interest payments on a year by year basis; traffic receipts (both passenger and freight with some broad breakdowns into categories); freight traffic in tons and ton miles; passenger receipts and journeys. Illustrations: GWR 5101 class No. 4171 built in October 1949 as working in 1963; SR N15 No. 30800 Sir Meleaus de Lile passing Eltham Well Hall in 1959; Burton shed with Stanier 2-6-0 No. 42964 in August 1961; Hull Springhead shed without roof and J73 0-6-0Ts Nos. 68360 and 68661; Princess Royal 4-6-2 No. 46203 Princess Margaret Rose at Carlisle; A2/2 No. 60506 Wolf of Badenoch alongside New England coaling stage in May 1955 see Editor's grovel for misclassification as A2/3; Britannia class No. 70030 William Wordsworth at Liverpool Street; 9F 2-10-0 No. 92077 passing Leicester Cattle Market Sidings in 1960; 1750 hp diesel electric locomotive No. 10201. Part 2 see page 493 (August Issue).

LNER sports days. 373.
Colour photo-feature basefd on David V. Beeken Collection: handbills advertising greyhound racing at Harringay Park (five pence return tickets from King's Cross to Harringay issued in May 1931 and excursion to Whitby (West Cliff) and Scarborough for Cricket Festival from Darlington, Middlesbrough and intermediate stations on 9 September 1931

Mike Zanker. The George Bennie Airspeed Railway. 374-5.
A suspended monorail which advanced to the stage of a 426 feet long demonstration track over a siding on the Milngavie branch in the Glasgow suburbs in 1930. The system had some similarity to Wuppertal system, but was propelled by a propeller. George Bennie was the son of a successful hydraulic engineer who owned the Star Engine Works and he held several patents relating to golf clubs, ashtrays for ships as well as those relating to the system described herein. Hugh Fraser was the consulting engineer. Finance was provided through Inter-Counties Ltd. An LNER staff member presented a paper on the system to the Institute of Transport.  The track was built by Tees Side Bridge & Engineering Works. The car was built by William Beardmore. The opening ceremony took place on 20 June 1930. Interest in the system was shown by Blackpool Corporation to link the town with Southport and by Palestine to link Tel Aviv with Jerusalem and the Dead Sea. Charles Boot, chairman of Henry Boot (Construction) Ltd who contemplated using it to link to London satellite towns near Waltham Abbey and Dagenham. Illustrations: LNER colour poster; Bennie Railplane; LNER officials in July 1930; buffers; remains in 1950. See also letter from Walter Rothschild on p. 510 giving further information on the development of railways in Palestine. See also proposals to link Central London with airfields at Croydon and Heston.

Premier Line portraits. 378-81.
Black & white photo-feature of London & North Western Railway locomotives: rebuilt Problem class 2-2-2 No. 127 Peel at Prestbury in early 1880s; Waterloo (small Jumbo) class states caption but David Patrick states was Ramsbottom Samson class 2-4-0 No. 650 The Earl of Chester;  Waterloo (or Whitworth) class 2-4-0 No. 824 Adelaide piloting Claughton No. 650 Lord Rathmore on Bushey troughs; George the Fifth 4-4-0 No. 502 British Empire at Euston buffer stops with arrival c1912; 19-inch goods 4-6-0 as LMS No. 8865 on Dillicar troughs with coke train from County Durham to Cumbrian steelworks; 2-4-2T No. 2149 at Carnforth on 8 July 1905; B class four-cylinder compound 0-8-0 No. 2561; compound 2-2-2-2 No. 1505 Richard Arkwright; 4-6-2T No. 1692 leaving Oxenholme with three-coaches on Preston to Carlisle stopping train

Readers' Forum. 382.

An appreciation of fireless locomotives. N L. Cadge
Peckett fireless locomotive No.2155: caption unfortunately in error. Locomotive no longer resides in a children's playground in Irlarn, but at side of the Cadishead bypass in Irlam, adjacent to the turning for Martens Road. When last seen, the condition was reasonable, with no graffiti, but it has suffered due to the removal of the asbestos lagging from the water reservoir and nothing being put in its place. No doubt the external plates of the reservoir had suffered over the years and there was some danger of the asbestos gradually coming out, so it had to be completely removed, but it was a great pity that nothing could be found to be used as a substitute for this, because the external appearance now leaves something to be desired.

The role of the chief engineer. Mike Zanker 
There was one aspect of Churchward's design philosophy which remains a puzzle: why did he insist on inside Walschaerts gear on the Stars? This point is discussed in some detail in Master Builders of Steam by H.A.V. Bulleid. (lan Allan 1963) pp1l9·21, which states: "Its inaccessibility was obvious on the drawing board, and notorious in Works and Sheds. Approach from above was baulked by the cross-members stiffening the frames in line with the outside cylinders, and the inside cross- head slide-bars were sandwiched between the smokebox and the framing carrying the bogie pin. There certainly was a strong prejudice at the time against exposed valve gear, but such prejudices did not deter Churchward, as he himself pointed out. It is far more probable that he never fully realised the serious and costly effects of poor accessibility, because he lacked running shed experience; his deserved reputation was such that the overall wisdom of his design would go unchallenged." This is, of course, Bulleid's opinion, but the fact remains that the essentially practical Churchward, like most great engineers, still had his blind spot.

Maintaining railway curves. Ron Stewien 
In 1954 the writer was attached to the Resident Engineer, Northern Lines of the South Australian Railways as a surveyor and for about nine months he did little else but string-line curves in territory covering all the 5ft 3in gauge lines north of Salisbury (a junction thirteen miles north of Adelaide). The Engineer went out on inspections once a week and always came back with a short list of curves that needed re-aligning, which he handed to me to do something about. I had two chainmen to assist me. All travel in those days had to be by rail as the only cars the railways owned were two that were used by the Commissioner of Railways. We used to travel out to the site of each curve on passenger trains that left Adelaide any time between the 06.50 and the 09.l5, each to different destinations. In most instances there was only one train out and one train back all day to each destination.

1960s railtouring. David Myers 
Bishop Auckland station complexities (caption): the train was standing outside the East signal box, probably partly blocking the east junction. It was facing west into the Crook/Wear Valley platform. If it were travelling to Barnard Castle it would need to be facing east. The line on the right is the line to Durham and the far right from Durham, towards Darlington or Barnard Castle and the Stainmore route. The third face of the triangular platform structure, beyond the overbridge in the background was used by trains from the Wear Valley to Durham. See also further letter from Leonard Rogers on p. 509..

LYR & LSWR carriages. Richard Bell
It seems that there are some similarities between LYR late-era elliptical-roof coaches and the late LSWR/early SR Ironclads. The cross-section profiles appear to be similar; sides at brake-ends taper inwards towards end-duckets, and some of both breeds have distinctive trussed bogie sideframes outside the springs. Could it be that someone of consequence in carriage design moved from Lancashire to Hampshire at a crucial moment?

Great Western Railway Eight-Coupled Freight Locomotives. Rory Wilson 
See same letter p. 318..

Relics of the Storeton Tramway. Roger Jermy 
See same letter p. 318..

Loading at Lochalsh. G.S. Gilks. rear cover
Quayside on 10 April 1974 with crane loading milk churns, a trolley loaded with mailbags and MacBrayne containers.


Number 7 (July 2012) Issue No. 255

The restored North British Railway Glen 4-4-0 No.256 Glen Douglas and J37 0-6-0 No.64632 pause at Bridge of Orchy with the Jacobite special over the West Highland line from Glasgow to Fort William on 1 June 1963.  David Idle. front cover

Tales of an armchair traveller. Michael Blakemore. 387.
Editorial. Failures in the Grand Central service between Thirsk and King's Cross: the continuing saga of the failure by the company to recompence him for a reserved first class seat which he had pre-booked and on the return journey the lack of air conditioning in the rolling stock provided (it was a hot day in October 2011. 

Jeffery Grayer. Publicising the 'ACE'  [Atlantic Coast Express]. 388-93.
Instituted by the Southern Railway in the summer of 1926 and coming to an end on 5 September 1964, the multi-portion (multi-train in high summer) Atlantic Coast Express was sometimes served up as the ACE. The Southern Railway published an ACE guide called the Atlantic Coast Express with text by S.P.B. Mais and illustrations by Anna Zinkeisen (Ottley 18901) which described and depicted what could be seen from the carriage window.  Text includes long extracts from writings of Mais and Leigh-Bennett (Ernest Pendarves) who was the editor of Over the Points (a Southern Railway magazine for first class dseason ticket holders and Tales of the trains (a marketing booklet supplied to potential freight customers). Illustrations: King Arthur No. 456 Sir Galahad passing Milborne Port on down ACE on 22 August 1935; cover for ACE guide (colour); M7 No. 322 piilots N class No. 832 followed by eleven coaches and another M7 on the rear climbing Mortehoe bank in 1930; Southern Railway map of lines served by Atlantic Coast Express in Devon and Cornwall; E.P. Leigh-Bennett's Devon and Cornish days; illustrated by Leonard Richmond cover (colour); Lord Nelson No. 851 Sir Francis Drake passing Tunnel Junction, Salisbury on up train on 2 August 1939; Tintagel illustration by Leonard Richmond in E.P. Leigh-Bennett's Devon and Cornish days cover (colour); S.P.B. Mais's Let's get out here published Southern Railway cover (colour); map showing Walk No. 13 (Lyme Regis to Seaton); No. 850 Lord Nelson on Atlantic Coast Express (Tuck's coloured post card)

Alistair F. Nisbet. What's in a timetable? 394-401.
Analysis of the North British Railway timetable book for July 1900 which included a wealth of information not only on train times, but on services provided in conjunction with other operators and on what could, or could not, be conveyed. The following may give some idea of the variety. Lunch baskets could be ordered for services on the West Highland Line. There were sleeper services run in association with the East Coast companies and with the Midland Railway. Bulk purchases could be made of first class tickets and measures were available to encourage commuting. Pleasure cruises were available on the Firth of Forth as well as on the Firth of Clyde. On the Firth of Tay joint season tickets were available from Newport-on-Tay for use by train or by ferry. Longer sea journeys included the ferry service between Silloth and Whitehaven to Dublin via Douglas in the Isle of Man in association with the North Eastern Railway. Very competitive fares were quoted for these services from NBR stations across Scotland via the Waverley Route, but much higher fares were charged for travel via Holyhead. Details are given of services provided via David MacBrayne's vessels. Continental Europe was served by sailings from Grangemouth via the Rankine Line and from Leith by George Gibson & Co., but other routes from Southern Britain are not ignored and afres are quoted to destinations like Vienna. Road services were provided to link stations in Glasgow and to places like St Abbs and Gifford which had still to be connected by rail, if ever. Tickets were sometimes available by more than one route, and sometimes over competitor's routes. There were many regulations relating to the conveyance of animals, on the weight of luggage, and on explosives. Illustrations: NBR 2-4-0 No. 334 with four-wheel tender at Edinburgh Waverley in 1900; Glasgow St. Enoch GSWR station, Subway station and hotel in 1917; Oban station with CR 0-6-0 in 1960s; Ardrossan Montgomerie Pier station (also contained in A.J. Mullay's Through Scotland with the Caledonian Railway); Granton pier with NBR 0-6-0T with antique tank wagon and modern Corporation tram on 2 September 1955; Craigendoran station with train in pier platform; Perth General station with CR 4-4-0 No. 117 on Up Postal Special in 1910; TS King George V at Fort William pier (MacBrayne vessel); Aberdeen station in 1958; Ardrossan Winton Pier in 1962; CR train at Balloch Pier on Loch Lomond; early motor car being craned onto SECR ferry; King's Crosss station in GNR days; page from timetable showing West Highland services.

David Cullen. It began with 'Turbomotive'. 402-6.
The progression from No. 6202, Stanier's turbine locomotive designed in association with Henry Guy of Metropolitan-Vickers (described very fully in superb paper by Bond, not cited); the rebuilt four-cylinder Pacific No. 46202 Princess Anne which was destroyed in the Harrow & Wealdstone disaster on 8 October 1952 and its "replacement" by Class 8 three-cylinder Pacific No. 71000 Duke of Gloucester. Cullen notes that this last was an unsatisfactory locomotive, but has been vastly improved in its reconstructed state following preservation. Illustrations: No. 6202 in June 1935; being overhauled in Crewe Works; with high superheat boiler entering Euston c1937, and as No. 46202 in BR black c1949; No. 46202 near Whitmore Summit with Liverpool to Euston express in June 1949 (Eric Oldham: caption notes singing sound produced by turbine); No. 46202 Princess Anne outside Crewe Works in August 1952 (colour: W.H. Foster); No. 46202, when very new, leaving Crewe for London on express; No. 71000 Duke of Gloucester heading south from Crewe (colour: Colour-Rail) and at Llandudno Junction with 10.05 Chester to Holyhead on 14 June 1952. See also letters on page 573 from Doug Landau and from Robin Leleux. And on page 637 from Joseph Cliffe and Allan C. Baker. See also letter from KPJ on page 701..

John Macnab. Discourse on diesel multiple units. 407-9.
The Inter-City units manufactured at Swindon initially for the service branded as Inter-City (the name which has since been used in many countries) between Edinburgh Waverley and Glasgow Queen Street. Macnab makes brief mention of these initially fairly glamorous units, but tends to concentrate on the later series use on the Ayrshire lines where they became the Class 126. Macnab observes, and the illustrations show, that the Ayrshire units had buckeye couplers, which KPJ suspects that the E&G units lacked. They tended to work as three-car sets which led to an untidy appearance as one end normally had a normal cab whereas the other had a gangway connection and Class 150 type cab. See also letter from Author on p. 573..

Taking the West Highland line. 410-13.
Colour-photo feature: K4 No. 61995 Cameron of Locheil with blue background to nameplate an smokebox number plateon shed at Fort William in June 1960; K1/1 No. 61997 MacCaillin Mor on freight for Mallaig near Glenfinnan in April 1961 (D.M.C. Hepburne-Scott); K2/2 No. 61787 Loch Quoich alongside Loch Linnhie with MacBrayne's AEC lorry outside Fort William station in August 1959 (R.E. Toop); preserved No. 256 Glen Douglas (in NBR bronze green livery) and J37 No. 64632 on Jacobite special on 1 June 1963  (for adventures of this event see Volume 25 p. 376); signalwoman/porter handing tablet over to fireman of D34 No. 62496 Glen Loy at Rannoch station in May 1956 with note on James H. Renton memorial behind [stationwoman must have had a very painful arm by "May 1959" when she was still adopting exactly the same pose: see Steam World, 2012 (300), p.10 (14 upper): see also letter from Tom Adam on page 701, sadly the date was May 1959 when BBC was making a Railway Roundabout film and Peter Handford made a recording]; No. 61997 MacCaillin Mor with passenger train in carmine & cream livery near Glenfinnan in March 1956 (J.M. Jarvis); No. 256 Glen Douglas and J37 No. 64632 on Jacobite special at Garelochhead (David Idle, also previous one); Class 5 No. 44970 with small snowplough, and No. 61997 MacCaillin Mor and K1 No. 62034 on Fort William shed in 1959 (D.M.C. Hepburne-Scott).

Brian Topping. If only they knew. 414-15.
Working as a steam raiser on Saturday night the writer was horrified to find that one of the Horwich Moguls had a leaking firebox tubeplate and virtually empty boiler. It was too late to find a replecement and steam was raised by transferring the fire from another locomotive and shuttling the Mogul up and down behind another locomotive with the regulator wide open thus forcing air into the boiler to create a draught to force combustion. The Mogul, No. 42820, was ready to work a Sunday excursion from Bury to Blackpool.

50 Years of the Class 73 Electro-Diesels. Keith Dungate (photographer). 416-19.
Colour-photo featureof electro diesel locomotives: No. 73 003 being repaitnted in malachite green without a yellow warning panel in Selhurst depot on 24 March 1993; see letter from David Stewart-David p. 573 stating not malchite but Southern Region coaching stock livery; No. 73 006  stated to be in corporate grey, but probably freight grey with all-yellow cab at Tonbridge on 23 May 1993; No. 73 114 Stewarts Lane Traction Maintenance Depot in Mainline blue on final 21.00 Manchester to Dover Travelling Post Office at Tonbridge at night on 28 September 1996; No. 73 004 The Bluebell Railway in bluebell blue livery at Selhurst depot on 29 September 1987; No. 73 142 Broadlands in Inter-City livery passing Redhill with Royal Train en route from Victoria to Gatwick to greet Presidenet Francesco Cossiga of Italy on 23 October 1990; No. 73136 Kent Youth Music hauling nucler flask between Dungess and Sellafield near Tonbridge on 22 June 1995; No. 73 119 Kentish Mercury in yellow and grey livery and No, 73 129 City of Winchester in Network SothEast livery with test train at Three Bridges en route from Stewarts Lane to Littlehampton on 11 April 1995; No. 73 101 Brighton Evening Argus in Pullman livery in Lovers Walk depot. Brighton, on 22 September 1991; and No. 73 128 in English Welsh & Scottish  & Scottish livery at Stewarts Lane depot on 21 August 1996.

Eric Bruton on the Great Northern. 420-3.
Black & white photo feature: A4 No. 60033 Seagull in BR blue livery on up express picking up water from Langley troughs on 3 November 1951; N2/4 No. 69582 with condensing gear with two red liveried Quad-Art articulated sets approaching Hatfield at 19.07 on 29 June 1951; A3 No. 60056 Centenary in BR blue livery on down Saturday express formed of Heart of Midlothian rolling stock approaching Greenwood (caption notes somersault signals on concrete posts); B1 No. 61097 on 13-55 Hitchin to King's Cross leaving Potters Bar Tunnel at Ganwick on 20 March 1951; V2 No. 60976 with train formed of Great Western coaches south of Potters Bar station on Sunday 10 September 1950 (presumably diverted off Great Central route); B17/4 No. 61655 Middlesbrough with Cambridge to King's Coss buffet car express picking up water at Langley troughs on 12 May 1951; A2/3 No. 60513 Dante on vacuum-powered turntable at King's Cross Top Shed on 9 May 1954; and Atlantics Nos. 990 Henry Oakley and 251 waiting at King's Crosss to haul Plant Centenarian on 20 September 1953.

George Smith. Wylam Billy — William Hedley and the Wylam Waggonway. 424-8.
"Hedley remains a hard figure to like. He comes across as an arrogant and abrasive character". Four locomotives are described Grasshoper, Puffing Billy, Wylam Dilly and Lady Mary. Puffing Billy is in the Science Museum and Wylam Dilly is in the National Museum of Scotland. There is little known about the last and it may have been used to power a tug on The Tyne. The origin of the name Puffing Billy is explored. Cites John Crompton's paper in Early Railways 2. See also letter from Mike Zanker on page 637.

Leeds City varieties. Gavin Morrison (photographer). 429-31.
Colour-photo feature: No. 46145 The Duke of Wellington's Regiment (West Riding) departing for Glasgow with The Thames-Clyde Express on 28 February 1960; No. 45725 Repulse coupling onto southbound Thames-Clyde Express on the same day (KPJ got he two trains mixed up on the afternoon before his wedding and headed south instead of north!); No. 70054 Dornoch Firth on down Waverley at Whitehall Junction on 15 March 1961; No. 45593 Kolhapur on parcels train for Liverpool in Leeds City station on 19 September 1966; B1  No. 61306  after arrival with 07.55 from Bradford Exchange on 30 September 1967; No. 46159 The Royal Air Force and No. 45525 Colwyn Bay on morning Newcastle to Liverpool Lime Street ready to depart for Standedge on 28 May 1960 (good comparison of two rebuilt Scot and Patriot types); No. 46123 Royal Irish Fusilier on Sunday 16.20 departure for London St Pancras on 7 August 1960; and No. 45592 Indore on 13.54 to Carnforth on 20 August 1960 (note clerestory coach painted black with large E painted on side).

Jeffrey Wells. Manchester to Bury in 1846 and 1879. Part One. 432-6.
The East Lancashire Railway began at Clifton Junction on the Manchester & Bolton Railway and was originally known as the Manchester, Bury & Rossendale Railway. An Act was passed on 4 July 1844 and the contractor was Messrs Pauling & Henfrey. The line was inspected by General Pasley and opened on 25 September 1846. The line was closed from 5 December 1966, but remains are visble from the Death Valley section of the M60 Motorway. Much of the text is based on contemporary newspaper reports: The Leeds Mercury, The Manchester Times & Gazette, the Burnley Standard and The Manchester Guardian. Illustrations: Clifton Viaduct in October 2010; Clifton Junction station c1920; Ringley Road station, c1910; Radcliffe Bridge station c1950; Outwood Viaduct; East Lancashire Railway offices at Bury in May 1971; Fairburn 2-6-4T No. 42079 near Ringley Road with 16.20 Manchester to Colne on 19 April 1963 (colour: Eric Bentley). Part 2 see page 473.

L.A. Summers. Swindon's acquaintance with rotary cam valve gears. Part Two. 437-42.
Began p. 347. Saint class No. 2935 Caynham Court fitted with Lentz (or Lenz) rotary cam valve gear in 1931 and remained thus fitted until withdrawn in 1947, but was not successful. Attempts were made by the Associated Locomotive Equipment Company (ALE) through its representative Colonel Cantlie, to improve this fitting, but this effort was thwarted probably by Collett, rather than by Hawksworth. Later there was an endeavour to fit one of the County class 4-6-0s with Caprotti valve gear, but this also foundered. See also letter from Allan C. Baker on p. 509 who is critical of terminology used and another letter from Robin Leleux on the premature scrapping of No. 46202 which led to construction of No. 71000. See also sequel by L.A. Summers in next Volume page 58.

Book Reviews. 443.

The branch lines of Gloucestershire. Colin Maggs. Amberley Publishing. RH ****
The text covers the full, historic county before Whitehall's unsure touch meddled with its extent and boundaries. These boundaries are taken seriously so that, for example, treatment of the Fairford or Ledbury branches fades at county limits. The rest is what reviewers are wont to call 'a masterpiece of compression'. The treatment of each and every branch runs to a standard form: a brief, clear history, an abundance of photographs and a clear, supporting sketch map, scaled although not formally oriented. In spite of the compression the author finds room for many intriguing asides, such as the Sentinel railcar that the GWR tried out on the Tetbury branch, the gong in Clifton Down tunnel, and Dursley's engine shed which predated the railway. Most of the photographs are of the kind that stimulates thought, assisted by a fairly generous format for a softback. ...Neat compendium offers good coverage, a helpful bibliography (although, alas, no index), and the distinction of being a dual-purpose work, at once a readable chronicle and yet also a neat source of reference.

A Cumbrian railway album – from the cameras of Ian and Alan Pearsall; compiled by Leslie R. Gilpin. Cumbrian Railways Association. DWM *****
The Pearsall brothers combined a passion for transport and photography with a fascination for the railways of the Lake District and the Northern Pennines. Folowing the death of the elder brother, Alan, in 2006 the collections of photographs passed into the archive of the Cumbrian Railways Association. This elegant album is the eventual result. The photographs themselves are beautifully reproduced; and are supported by detailed captions and excellent maps.
Inclues a formal portrait of the brothers alongside River Irt at Dalegarth in 1938. Great variety of locomotives in the photographs: Ivatt Class 4s, complete with double chimney, a sun-dappled NB 'Scott' at Carlisle, Furness, NE and LNW 0-6-0s and a refreshing number of BR Clans which were recently described to the reviewer by a former fitter from Inverurie as 'not really a 'Pacific' but a darn sight better than a Jubilee!

The history of the Calderstones Hospital Railway 1907-1953. R.B. Cornwell. Author. RH ***
This interesting work exemplifies well some of the 'laws of railway history'. The further we move from events, the greater the detail and depth of their treatment; the shorter the line (this one was barely half a mile in length) the more numerous or detailed are those treatments, and so on.
The author has fleshed out the chronicle of what was, in effect, a siding from the LYR, partly by literary padding ('For those who have no knowledge of the Ribble Valley, it is in Lancashire') but mostly by departures from the mainstream. These include an analysis of the badge of the Royal Army Medical Corps, the heavy works involved in the GCR London Extension and – to a much the largest extent – the legislation, policies and practice of dealing with mental health in Edwardian times. This scene-setting explains how Lancashire County Council came to build a huge mental hospital near Whalley. So large was this establishment that it had its own power station and gasworks, both supplied with coal by its private railway: 40 16-ton wagons of 'steam slack' per month. Worked at first by contractors' locomotives, for most of its existence it relied upon a finely maintained Barclay fireless locomotive, well recorded here in photographs backed by data and the interesting tale of how the authorities came to decide upon its purchase rather than others, including a petrol Simplex. The CHR might have been a freight and mineral line for all its existence, had not Calderstones (temporarily renamed Queen Mary Military Hospital) been used as a military hospital during the Great War. Long ambulance trains were heaved up from the LYR by that company's own motive power, along a track that had to be realigned to take the longer coaching stock; temporary stations were erected in the hospital grounds.
The author's predilection for context setting pays off; careful reading of the text and some of its wry comments will tell the reader much about social and medical history as well as the central narrative of the railway itself. Readers may need to adjust to a world with markedly different norms than those of our days. Public language, although free of stupid managerial jargon, was decidedly non-pc, even brutal. Calderstones was part of a system overseen by 'Commissioners in Lunacy', containing people categorised, for example, as 'Moral Imbeciles'. Still, even this grim regime was a great advance on earlier attitudes and treatments. Acting according to its lights, officialdom devoted massive resources to an equally massive issue of public health. Apart from a modern NHS medium secure unit in part of the former grounds, Calderstones (like the railway that served it) is long gone. They have nevertheless left a thoroughly researched chronicle, well supplied with illustrations and maps, resting on a wide range of sources, particularly primary ones like the minutes of Asylum Boards. It may take the reader on a roundabout route, but it is a rewarding and interesting one. Presume that RH is Roger Hennessey

Great Western 'Kings'. Kevin McCormack. Haynes Publishing. CPA ***.
Comprehensive and profusely illustrated account with some emphasis on the preservation/restoration scene. Many of the illustrations have not previously been published and reference is made to the enigmatic testing, of which no photographic evidence nor any definitive official explanation appears to be on record, of two Kings on the Ebbw Vale branch in 1938. No reference is made to the covert increase in weight of the class over the years by at least 7 tons,which would have increased further had the eight sets of roller bearings supplied for fitting to members of the class cl957, been installed. The author is in error in stating that the Churchward two-cylinder 4-6-0 No. l00 entered service fitted with a taper boiler from new, although one was later fitted. It was the subsequent 4-6-0 No.98 (March 1903) which established both this and the remarkably enduring overall Churchward format. A regrettable omission from the bibliography is Michael Rutherford's excellently researched Castles & Kings at work (Ian Allan, 1982) which particularly throws considerable light on the ancestry of Swindon's finest and also provides more dimensional data for the technically minded. At the end of the book there are stunning very recent photographs of Nos 6023 and 6024, the former liveried in the short-lived BR blue, now of increasingly distant memory, and with its original elegant single chimney restored. Highly recommended.

Adrian Gray. The Mold Riot of 1869. 444-5.
John Young, an underground manager, at the Leeswood Cannel and Gas Goal Company's coal mine near Mold was at the cntre of a dispute with the local miners over a cut in wages and the freedom to speak Welsh in the pit. The LNWR became involved because its local manager named Green became embroiled in an action taken by David Phillips who removed Young's funiture from his house within the colliery complex and took it to Black Diamond Wharf on 24 May 1869. Arrests were made and a court case was held on 3 June when large numbers of miners and their families were in Mold in the hope of disrupting proceedings. The military (King's Own) were called in from Chester led by Captain Blake and ssome of the troops began to shoot wildly killing several people, many of whom were bystanders. More troops were called in and the Riot Act was read. Eventually a selection of rioters were given punitive sentences, The aged Coroner  (Parry) did a whitewash job on the deaths, but Major-General McMurdo was called upon to investigate on behalf of a Parliamenmtary Select Committee. Illustration: contemporary engraving of shots being fired.

Readers' Forum. 446.
The Consequences of Brawling on the Railway: In the June issue, p328, the top photograph is of Dyce station in 1963 (Stations UK). The caption for Dingwall correctly appears with its photograph on p326.
Doing the Tyneside Sheds: On p364 the three North Eastern 0-6-0s sic are, of course, Class Q6 ..
Track Record: On p369 No.60506 is a Class A2/2 (rebuilt from P2).

Premier Line Portraits. David Patrick 
Lower photograph on p378 is of a Ramsbottom Samson Class built in 1866: Webb modified and rebuilt many of his predecessor's designs, but it is still the basic Ramsbottom design but with the Webb cab, chimney, closed driving splashers, closed safety valves, steam brakes on the engine and is fitted for working vacuum-braked trains, whilst retaining the Ramsbottom horizontal smokebox door and coupling rods. Webb continued to also build this class but with the already mentioned modifications included from new. The upper photograph on p379 shows a Waterloo Class or, as they were also sometimes known, Whitworth' Class. These were a nominal rebuild of the Ramsbottom design but in fact were new locomotives introduced by Webb from 1889 bearing the same numbers and names of the Ramsbottom Samsons but having steel boilers pressed to 150psi and incorporating all the usual Webb features such as a circular smokebox door. All but ten Samsons were accouuted for in this way, the survivors being allocated to one of the Engineer's divisions for use on officers' inspection trips etc.

Nottingham London Road . Chris Heaps
It was a coincidence that the April 2012 issue should include an article about the Great Northern Railway's presence in Nottingham because, only weeks before its publication, the Transport Trust had commemorated this presence by unveiling a Transport Trust Red Wheel at the former GNR London Road Station. The Red Wheel reads:

Designed by Thomas Hine and opened
1857 by the Great Northern Railway
at the height of its competition
with the Midland Railway

London Road ceased to be used by passenger trains in 1944, but continued in use for parcels traffic until 1972. Thereafter it fell into disrepair, but in the 1990s the station was beautifully restored as a health club which now forms part of the Virgin Active chain which agreed to the erection of the plaque in the entrance.
The Transport Trust campaigns for, and promotes the restoration and preservation of, Britain's transport heritage and the Red Wheel scheme is intended to extend the appreciation of such heritage to a wider audience. Readers of Backtrack may be interested in becoming a member of the Transport Trust. If so, please contact the Trust at 202 Lambeth Road, London SE1 7JW or at (see index page for link).

Great Western stations. Richard Bull
Picture of Symonds Yat station on p311 upper: very tall home signal post on the right-hand side of the picture. All the 1:2,500 maps on, except the 1960-1977 revision (when the loop had been singled), show the position of this signal post and indicate that photographer was standing on the road above the tunnel parapet from which the single line emerged. The signal, unless it had a co-acting arm lower down, would have been invisible to drivers coming out of the tunnel, other than momentarily and not at all for those with a stiff neck, yet it was nowhere near tall enough to be seen over the hill from the other side of the tunnel. And the Great Western was not famous for co-acting arms.

Sir Robert Menzies and the Highland Railway. B. Rigg
In the case of the incident at Huddersfield N. Weaver was perfectly within his rights to change his mind when he saw that there was no covered accommodation left and ask for his money back, as he was entitled (as we all are) to change his mind and expect the company to uphold his rights, in this case the right to change his mind without punishment (ie not getting his money back). The company's refusal to refund him on the grounds that accommodation was available and that he could have travelled was therefore not justified It would have been bad publicity for the company if the public thought that they couldn't get their money back for simply changing their minds and choosing not to travel. It could also have had a knock-on effect, for if it had come to light that refunds could be had simply for there not being sufficient covered accommodation, then those passengers who turned up late could have demanded a refund rather than thinking that they had no choice but to travel. (Advantage Company) Passengers refusing to travel and asking for refunds would have forced the company to cover over all their carriages at a cost to the company. (Advantage passenger) Settling out of court kept the status quo in favour of the company.

Really useful engines on the Western . Leonard Rogers.
By a fascinating coincidence, writer considers that Michael Mensing's photo on the front cover and Derek Penney's at the foot of p290 depict the same locomotive and coaching stock on the same day. Notice the distinctive line-up of a BR MkI coach in chocolate and cream, followed by another in maroon and then an ex-LNER Gresley vehicle, at the front of the  train. Although the Derek Penney photograph is undated in its caption, it too was probably taken on 26 August 1961. This surmise is supported by other photos published in Derek Penney's book GWR 4-6-0s in colour (lan Allan, 1997)  which show that Derek was photographing at Hatton on that day in very similar weather and countryside conditions to those shown. That book would indicate that the photograph was taken around about 15.00. Richard Woodley's book The day of the holiday express (Ian Allan, 1996), offers clues on trains passing Hatton about that time. . If running late — and timekeeping was notoriously poor for these summer Saturday workings, either the 09.02 Margate-Wolverhampton (via Redhill and Reading) or the 09.25 Weymouth- Wolverhampton (via Westbury, Chippenham, Swindon and Oxford) might have passed Hatton about 3pm. Both appear to have been regularly Mogul-hauled in 1961. While the first of these was fairly regularly covered by a Reading locomotive from Redhill onwards, Weymouth often resorted to borrowing locomotivess, including from St. Philip's Marsh (Bristol), for the latter. No.6319 was an SPM locomotive in August 1961. On arrival at Wolverhampton, it would appear – though this is surmise – that the locomotive was not detached from the stock nor serviced but simply worked forward empty stock from Wolverhampton Low Level, turning off at Oxley and taking the Wombourn line to Kingswinford Junction, where Michael Mensing captured it on film. Where it was bound for thereafter is simply a matter of speculation; it might have been somewhere local in the West Midlands but equally might have been somewhere south of Worcester either in the direction of Oxford or Bristol.

On the Dymchurch line. David Page 
p243, it is mentioned that RHDR Dr. Syn is of Canadian National general appearance: this should be Canadian Pacific. Dr. Syn is quite similar to a CPR G3 Class Pacific. As a former CPR Asst. CME I am, of course, completely unbiased. I believe that the Winston Churchill engine was of the same outline.

'West Countries' and 'Warships'. Gerald Goodall. 446
Likes extended captions given to photographs in Backtrack, as mentioned in Editorial in the June issue, and agrees with comments about museums. Queries about some of the captions in this issue. Firstly front cover: what is a train of newish MkI stock (some with Commonwealth bogies) in maroon livery doing on the South Western main line near Earlsfield? And what was last vehicle of the train? clearly not a MkI. Whatever the train was, writer considers an inter-Regional one as suggested in the caption. The headcode is simply Waterloo-Bournemouth-Weymouth. More significantly, the SW main line could only be reached at this point from the West London line without fearsome shunting and reversing around Clapham Junction. No passengers appear to be visible, so is it empty coaching stock, though still a mighty strange one? One of the head code discs is clearly marked SPL, the other looks like duty 16; does anyone know what this was? [KPJ using Windows Explorer on steamindex database a Derek Penney photograph was found in Volume 23 p. 739 which was clearly taken at same location and probably on same date which shows the Cunarder hauled by unrebuilt light Pacific: the last vehicle in front cover picture is probably a Gresley vehicle]
On to the 'Warships' on pp324-5. I wonder if, in the last of these, you have stumbled on a unique colour photograph — a 'Warship' in blue but with only a small yellow warning panel, double arrow symbol at both ends, but number at only one end. I suspect this is a rare livery variant. Perhaps there is a livery expert who can tell us. How wonderful to see the Gresley coaches in the Mayflower on p324! Those were the days. The third chocolate-and-cream coach looks interesting, too. Incidentally, if it is indeed the up Mayfiower and not the down, it's on the slow line. Do we know why? Finally, I suspect No.34099 on p356 has a down local and not a (very!) lightweight Plymouth express. The same head code was used for everything. I wonder if the vehicle right at the back is a detachment from a Waterloo train — though it seems odd for it to be behind a (presumably) non-gangwayed van.

Away on the 'Hayling Billy'. Paul Strong. rear cover
A1X Terrier No. 32650 on a hot 19 August 1962 departing from Langstone.

Number 8 (August 2012) Issue No. 256

LMS Stanier 5MT 2-6-0 No.42960 approaches Lancaster with an up excursion, formed of non-corridor coaches (Derek Penney). front cover
See also page 480

Going digital. Kevin P. Jones. 451.
Literature on Kindle and similar tablets; access to electronic archives and the joys and dangers of Wikipedia. KPJ intends to expand on this theme on after an appropriate interval. See separate file for full text. This has produced letters in response which are reproduced in full with the Guest Editorial, but are also cross-referenced herein: A.J. Mullay and Michael R. Bailey..

Lime Street blues. Tom Heavyside (photographer). 452-4
Colour photo-feature: No. 85 024 on 14.25 to London on 7 May 1985; No. 86 102 Robert A. Riddles arriving on 10.20 from London on 24 June 1985; No. 47 550 University of Dundee on 10.00 from Scarborough on 9 May 1985; No. 31 442 on 12.45 to Sheffield on 19 May 1986; No. 86 254 William Webb Ellis on 14.25 to London on 9 May 1985; No. 25 279 with two engineers' saloons on 22 May 1986.

R.A.S. Hennessey. An Inca at Euston: F.A. Cortez-Leigh. 455-61.
Born in Piura, Peru, in March 1873 to an Irish father, Henry Leigh from County Wexford and Carmen Cortes del Castillo. Educated at the Catholic Prior Park School in Bath, Manchester University and Finsbury Technical College. Apprenticed then employed at Brush Electrical engineering Co. in Loughborough. In 1897 he became chief assistant engineer to S.V. Clirehugh, a Partner in Lacey, Clirehugh & Sillar, who were consultants to electrical undertakings in Belfast, Blackburn, Rochdale and Salford and in some cases to their tramway operations. In 1906 he became Consul to Panana in Manchester, and in 1909 an adviser to the LNWR and reinforced his relationship with the company by marrying Dorothy Humbert, step daughter of Robert Turnbull. Appointed Electrical Engineer on LNWR in 1911 and responsible for electrification from Broad Street and  Euston to Watford (M.C. Reed). This included the construction of Stonebridge Park power station. The rolling stock was supplied by Siemens and by Oerlikon which was noted for its comfort and form of semi-automatic control. Services from Willesden to Earls Court started on 22 November 1914, but WW1 caused delays to implementing the rest of the system and the line to Croxley Green did not open until 1922.  The merger with the Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway created a problem in that O'Brien was appointed Chief Electrical Engineer over him, but this was resolved by the O'Brien cause célèbre which led to Cortez-Leigh becoming Chief. Hennessey contributes much to the O'Brien's enforced resignation including the unhelpful comments upon his paper made by F.W. Carter, Sir Philip Dawson and F. Gill. Cortez-Leigh was a member of LMS party who visited North America in 1930 and one whom visited Italy with Hartley and Lemon to inspect its electric railways in June 1931 and concluded that main line electrification could not be justified in Britain. Cortez-Leigh was involved in three LME electrification projects: the extension of the District Line services to Upminster, where the track, the stations and much of the rolling stock was owned by the LMS, although it conformed to District Line standards; the joint Manchester, South Junction & Altringham line electrified at 1.5 kV DC where Henry W.H. Richards represented the LNER intrerest in the project and the Wirral system where Cortez-Leigh had wanted to implement further 1.5 kV, but was thwarted by Joshua Shaw of the Mersey Railway, although the LMS insisted on 3-rail system with an automatic switch to 4-rail at Birkenhead Park. See also letter from Colin Divall on page 701 (comment on Manchester University)..

Cambrian holidays. Alan Tyson (photographer). 462-5.
Black & white photo-feature: 2251 class 0-6-0 No. 2287 on freight at Morfa Mawddach on 24 August 1961; passenger trains cross at Dyffryn Ardudwy — No. 2251 with express headlamps bound for Dovey Junction and No. 7821 Ditcheat Manor heading for Pwllheli also on 24 August 1961; 43XX No. 7310 taking water at Llangollen with Chester to Barmouth train on 3 March 1962; 43XX No. 6306 on freight at Dolgelley waiting road on 4 August 1961; 43XX No. 5399 with passenger train from Chester (note horsebox as leading vehicle) at Morfa Mawddach on 24 August 1961; passenger trains crossing at Harlech — Class 3 2-6-2T No. 82000 with 10.25 Pwllheli to Dovey Junction passenger train and 2251 0-6-0 No. 2294 on northbound freight on 24 August 1961; No. 7810 Draycott Manor with early morning train from Aberystwyth approaching Bow Street on 12 August 1960; 43XX No. 7334 at Aberystwyth with 11.55 departure for Carmarthen on 12 August 1960; No. 7812 Endestoke Manor at Dovey Junction with 12.35 Aberystwyth to Shrewsbury and Crewe on 24 August 1961 and 57XX 0-6-0PT No. 3630 with single coach at Bala on 08.30 to Bala Junction on 25 August 1961: see also letter from Robert Darlaston on page 638 on travel to or via Bala Jumction and Dovey Junction.

Howard Burchell. Some railway recollections 1900-1914. Part One. Lecture to the Cambridge University Railway Club on 24th November 1949 by the late Mr. R.E. Charlewood. 466-72.
R.E. Charlewood was born in Manchester in 1880 and died in 1950. He attended Trinity College, Glenalmond, near Methven and then went up to Oxford University in 1898. For a time he was Honourary Secretary of the Railway Club, wrote fairly regularly for the Railway Magazine and on the death of Charles Rous-Marten he briefly continued the series of articles in the Railway Magazine on locomotive performance, but handed over to C.J. Allen relatively soon. He jhoined the Midland Railway in 1907, eventually becoming assistant to the Superintendent of Passenger Services. He retired due to ill-health in 1934. His papers passed to Gerald Aston, a professional railwayman who had also worked for the LMS and who died in the year 2000: he was Harold Burchell's father-in-law, and the papers passed to him including this lengthy (15,000 words) address to the CURC. Burchell has not brought the dates up to date and "now" may refer to 1949, but the journey time from London to Norwich has not changed very much since then. In the period under review central train control was introduced by Cecil Paget on the Midland Railway and by C.H. Stemp on the North British. Under the dynamic management of Thornton H.W. Firth introduced the Radical Alteration on the Great Eastern in October 1914. Charlesworth seemed to regard through services from north of the Thames to the South Coast as something of a fad. He noted the impact of the various working agreements: LNWR with L&YR; GER/GNR/GCR; and the LNWR with the Midland Railway. Similar moves to lessen competition between the Caledondian and North British were noted, although that between the GWR and LSWR appeared to be limited to honouring tickets on each other's services. Considers the operating problems that were manifest at the time: automatic signalling was starting to be introduced: on the LSWR at Grately, on the GWR at Basildon and on the Midland between Skipton and Hellifield. On the other hand the Settle & Carlisle line had been constructed without loops. The LNWR introduced a policy of splitting trains if they exceeded 17 vehicles (but vehicles had to be defined). Cecil Paget on the MR and H.A. Watson on the NER improved operating methods. The LBSCR staged record runs to and from Brighton on 28 July 1903 to counter interest in a proposed electric railway. The Norfolk Coast Express was timed to reach North Walsham in 158 minutes (from Liverpool Street) and the Great Western began its policy of building cut off lines initially with Wootton Bassett to Filton and Pilning; to the West of England via Westbury, to Fishguard (where the Financial Times noted the "only doubt we have is whether it will pay") and ultimately to Birmingham in 1910. The opening of the Great Central to Banbury encouraged the GWR to encourage traffic via this route, but both the LNWR and Midland speeded up their services to Bristol. There were excursions from Manchester to Plymouth via Banbury and "day excursions" from Paddington to Killarney. Illustrations: L&YR 4-6-0 on Newcastle to Liverpool express c1910 (colour: Locomotive Publishing Co.); Billinton B2 class 4-4-0 No. 320 Rastrick in experimental green livery in June 1905; GCR Class 11A 4-4-0 No. 871 on Liverpool to Manchester express passsing Flixton; L&YR 4-4-2 on Liverpool to Leeds express passing Middleton Junction; Webb four-cylinder compound (Alfred the Great class) No. 1949 King Arthur on Bushey troughs hauling 12.35 Birmingham express; GWR de Glehn compound No. 103 President with Swindon boile; Cardiff to Newcastle express passing Hook Norton formed of GCR stock hauled by Bulldog No. 3341 Blasius in May 1900; Precedent 4-4-0 on Bushey troughs c1908 (colour: F. Moore type); Saint class 4-6-0 on Paddington to Fishguard expres passing Acton; Saint No. 2902 Lady of the Lake on up Birmingham express near Ruislip (colour F. Moore painting). Part 2 see page 656.

Jeffrey Wells. Manchester to Bury in 1846 and 1879. Part Two. 473-8.
Part 1 see page 432. The Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway received the Royal Assent for its Prestwich branch on 18 July 1972, although progess on it was partially affected by the construction of the Manchester Loop and the northward extension of Victoria Station which in turn was influenced by the tardy behavior of the Manchester Workhouse to move its premises. The acquistion of land at Collyhurst delayed progress on the Loop, but it opened on 1 August 1878. The contractor for the Prestwich branch was Thomas S. Waller. Quicksand was encountered during the construction of Cheetham Hill Tunnel. Illustrations: Crumpsall station — platforms and entrance; 2-4-2T No. 10 at Crumpsall station; Heaton Park Tunnel with BR EMU entering on 30 September 1972; Heaton Park station platforms in 1957; Whitefield station — exterior, platforms with four-rail electrified track and with ex-L&YR EMU c1950; Radcliffe Viaduct; 2-4-2T No. 50648 at Whitefield station with push & pull service for Bolton on 13 June 1953; and ex-L&YR EMU at Bury Bolton Street in June 1959 (colour: R.K. Greenhalgh)

Banking bonuses [banking trains on inclines]. 479.
Colour photo-feature (banking trains used to be fairly routine in the days of steam): 3F 0-6-0T No. 47308 and 94XX 0-6-0PT at rear of passenger train at Vigo on Lickey Incline on 20 June 1959 (T.J. Edginton); BR Class 4 No. 80111 leaving Beattock at rear of freight train on 30 August 1966 (Brian Magilton); BR Class 5 No. 73111 banking passenger train from Weymouth through Brincombe Tunnel on 26 March 1966 (Paul Strong).

Moguls of the LMS. 480-2.
Colour photo-feature: Hughes Horwich 2-6-0 No. 42737 on interesting (three vehicles including buffet/restaurant car with steam heating on) at Biggar on 29 March 1964 (David Idle); Stanier Class 5 2-6-0 on down express freight north of Lancaster (Derek Penney); two Ivatt Class 2 2-6-0s Nos. 46426 and 46458 in superb external condition on excursion at Carlisle; Ivatt Class 4 2-6-0 No. 43066 with Midland & Great Northern? token exchanger on tender at Oxenholme with Kendal freight on 30 July 1965 (KPJ: seems a long time for "unused" token equipment to be left in situ) (David Idle); No. 43007 on a cement train (Presflo wagons and vans) from Tring to Willesden at Berkhamsted on 29 July 1963 (masts in place for electrification) (David Idle); Hughes Horwich 2-6-0 No. 42739 at Glenburn Colliery in Ayrshire on 16 April 1965 (David Idle); Stanier 2-6-0 No. 42953 (with early cylinder pattern cylinders) on express freight near Lancaster in September 1964. See also front cover.

Alistair F. Nisbet. An unenviable reputation for accidents. 483-9.
The stretch of the East Coast Main Line near Goswick in Northumberland has been the location for several accidents. On the night of 27/28 August 1907 the late running 23.22 up freight hauled by Worsdell 4-6-0 No. 2005 derailed at the entrance to a loop line due to the failure of the driver to observe the signals. Driver Thomas Brown and Fireman Hugh Nicholson, both of Tweedsmouth shed, were killed in the accident in which the locomotive overturned: presumably neither expected the train to be looped so soon. BoT Inspector Von Donop blamed the unfortunate driver for the accident, but was also critical of the signal nomenclaure at this location. On the morning of 18 May 1916 the tender behind a North Eastern Railway 4-4-2 became derailed at Scremerston at about 06.00 wheen hauling a down sleeping car express. Driver Henry Pennington brought the train safely to a stand: there was damege to most of the vehicle and the track. Von Donorp considered that the strength of the tender springs should be improved. On 6 March 1922 the up Flying Scotsman ran into stray cattle near Goswick. The locomotive, probably an Atlantic was partially derailed but remained upright and the train was safely halted by Driver John Baird and Fireman William McFall. The passengers were taken forward in a replacement train. The information was obatined from the Berwick Advertiser. On 16 February 1924 a down freight ran through the catch points at the end of the independent line and derailed at about 02.00: Driver Ralph Davidson was involved. On 21 November 1941 a passenger train and the station were bombed and machine gunned by a German aircraft. Six people were hurt including four on the station. They were treated in Berwick Royal Infirmary. The station remained closed until October 1946.
On Sunday 6 October 1947 the up Flying Scotsman, hauled by A3 No. 66 Merry Hampton was derailed as it was diverted onto the loop due to engineering work on the main line. The death toll was high: initially 21 but increased to 27. 75 were injured: only four of the carriages remained on the track: eleven vehicles derailed and suffered severe damage. Professor John Masson  Gulland, an FRS and biochemist, was amongst those killed (confirmed by obituary on Internet). Pathé newsreel footage is also available (but no illustration is contained with article). The railwaymen involved were the signalman, Thomas White, who lowered his home signal as the train approached, but the Driver Thomas Begbie had clearly missed the distant signal which was set at danger (one also suspects that he had failed to read the Special Traffic Notice (STN)). The fireman William Baird had not read the notices which stated that the train was to be switched off the main line and there was an unauthorised person on the footplate: a Royal Navy Leading Stoker  Thomas Redden. The Inquest was conducted by Hugh Percy at Berwick and the Board of Trade Inspectors were A.C. Trench and Wilson: the latter stated that Begbie made "a very fragrant breach of regulations". See also letter from John Macnab on p. 637 who comments both on the locomotive and the damaged train. 
On 29 October 1953 the overnight 21.15 Glasgow Queen Street to Colchester train derailed at Goswick due to a mechanical failure on A2/1 No. 60509 Waverley; Col. W.P. Reed conducted the MTCA inquiry which opened at Berwick on 2 November. No.60509 had worked 5,309 miles during October, daily totals varying from 120 to 240 except for the 26th when it did 326. The total was 1,765 in the week preceding the accident. The bottom eccentric strap bolt was made of carbon/manganese steel and differed appreciably in its chemical composition and mechanical properties from those used at Darlington – this one had been made at Doncaster. Metallurgical tests showed no evidence of fatigue or creeping crack before it had fractured and failure was the result of tensional overload. The Inspector checked similar locomotives at Doncaster on 26 November and concluded that "the nuts on the top bolt holding the two halves of the Eccentric Strap together in the centre cylinder valve motion had become unscrewed and had fallen off, thus allowing the strap to fall and catch in the facing point stretcher bar. The nuts were able to unscrew because the split pin did not fit properly and had probably fallen out on the journey". He hinted that overload of work at Haymarket shed may have "affected the availability of supervising staff to check the thoroughness with which the examining fitters did their duties and induced a less critical attitude towards the fitting of split pins". A standard examination had been delayed and he did not think this was really due to "a heavy pressure of work on Haymarket shed or to the need for engine power". On 22 October the centre eccentric strap top nuts were found to be very loose and moved when hit by a hammer. The fitter who attended to the work found the lock nut "slackened back sufficiently to 'curl' the split pin", so he tightened up both nuts in turn with the hammer and key, removed the split pin and fitted a new one which was a snug fit to the lock nut and had to be tapped home. Col. Reed said it was a pity he had not been told all this when he visited Haymarket shed. The Scottish Region's Motive Power Superintendent rejected Col. Reed's view that the lack of supervisory staff was caused by overload. The official report mentions a similar derailment at Brownhill Junction, Dalry, on 17 September which was caused by fitting an undersized split pin when adjusting the tender brake gear.
On 10 January 1956 an up freight suffered a broken coupling and divided: the breakaway portion ran into the rear of the first derailing most of the wagons. Driver, fireman and guard were hurt. See also letter from Editor on page 573 concerning picture credit..

More Western branch line wanderings. 490-2
Colour photo-feature: 4575 Class 2-6-2T No. 4588 leaving Yelverton with 10.15 Launceston to Plymouth in February 1962 (P.W. Gray); 74XX 0-6-0PT No. 7431 entering Llangollen from Ruabon (Derek Cross); 2251 0-6-0 No. 3200 at Pencader eith Carmarthen to Aberystwyth service in August 1963 (C.J. Gammell); BR Class 2 2-6-0 No. 72008 shunting at Shipton-on-Stour in April 1960 (C.J. Gammell)  see also letter from Howard Burchell on pp. 637-8 on Shipston-on-Stour branch; near Brentor 4575 Class No. 5531 on 10.15 Launceston to Plymouth passing near T9 4-4-0 No. 30712 on 09.50 Plymouth to Okehampton in August 1957 (C. Hogg); Ivatt Class 2 2-6-0 No. 46508 at Boughrood & Llyswen on Mid-Wales line in August 1962 (C.J. Gammell); 57XX No. 9639 at Much Wenlock alongside engine shed, but attached to two coaches (J. Phillips); 4575 No. 569 leaving Horrabridge with train for Plymouth in April 1962 (C.J. Gammell).  

John W.E. Helm. Track record: a financial history of British Railways 1948-1954: the steam railway - Part Two. Financial results. 493-500.
Part 1 began on p. 367. Tables list gross receipts, working expences and net traffic receipts; the breakdown of working expences by movement, rolling stock, terminal, infrastrucure and general categories expressed as changes on an annual basis. Graphs show cost breakdown and British Railways profits. Further tables show net cash flow, size of the workforce, route mileage and station closures. Illustrations: No. 6007 King William III with double chimney at Leamington Spa (note observes that this was a replacement locomotive for the one lost through the Shrivenham accident of 1936); 0-4-0T No. 30089; E1 0-6-0T No. 32694; Patriot No. 45513 on sothbound express at Nuneaton in 1953; A4 No. 60028 Walter K. Whigham leaving King's |Cross with The Talsiman; No. 46238 City of Carlisle passing Willesden Junction on The Caledonian; A2/3 No. 60522 Straight Deal passing Norton, near Stockton-on-Tees; BR Class 5 No. 73089 at Leamington Spa; and North British Locomotive Co. Bo Bo No. 10800 diesel electric. Part 3 see page 584..

Rolling stock focus: GWR auto coaches; photographs from the Whittaker Archive, notes by Mike King. 501
Colour photo-feature: W173W at Pontypool Road in crimson (faded to pink) livery in late 1950s (where it worked a Saturdays only service to Abergavenny and W231W at Wrexham with 13.30 to Ellesmere on 12 April 1962 (car looked smart in lined maroon livery)

David Andrews. Engine revolutions. 502-5.
Considers diesel engines in relation to operating speed in terms of duraability and reliability, first cost, and operating costs. Hydraulic transmissions demanded higher engine speeds. The higher rotating mass assisted acceleration on the level. Diagrams: cross-sections of Sulzer 12LDA28 and Maybach MD870 on same scale and comparison of Western diesel hydraulic with Class 47. Illustrations; Hymek No. D7003 outside Swindon Works on 30 July 1961; two English Electric Type 3 (D6748 leading) with track panels on Woodhead route near Penistone in May 1965;

Peter Tatlow. Blanketing track formation. 506-8.
Clay soils lead to permanent way problems especially in cuttings and under bridges and leads to pumping of the clay through the ballast. Improved drainage helps, but it is sometimes necessary to lay sand or fine stone particles (Meldon dust) to act as an impermeable layer between the clay and the ballast. This is an expensive and time consuming operation as total possession is required. Operations near Winnersh Haalt on the Southern Region line to Reading are described and illustrated with diagrams and photographs taken at the time: latter: Class 4 2-6-0 No. 76061 at Winnersh Halt on 7 July 1959; S15 4-6-0 No. 30508 on freight from Reading to Feltham near Wokingham on same day; blanketing work near Winnersh on 30 October 1960.

Readers' Forum. 509-10
Metropolitan electrics. Nick Ridge
No. 12 Sarah Siddons incorporates some components from the static exhibit No. 5 which is housed in the London Transport Museum.
Metropolitan electrics. C.L. Horsey
The first photograph of locomotives under construction in the Vickers Works may have included all the locomotives (comparison with not published Image No. 19880 Inventory 1998/62384). The name of No, 14 George Romney reflected a man who was born in Dalton-in-Furness

1960s railtouring. Jeremy Clarke.
The problems faced by Bert Hooker with water supplies on the Settle & Carlisle line with his Merchant Navy Pacific were severe as the tender was empty by the time they reached Settle Junction with the Solway Ranger: see Hooker's Legendary Engineman
1960s railtouring. Leonard Rogers.
See letter from David Myers on p. 382 and original feature on p. 314 et seq. Date quoted in caption is incorrect: it should have been 10 April 1965: cites Six Bells Junction website. J36 No. 65234 worked SLS/BLS railtour on 29 August 1964 visited Leith Citadel, Penicuik and Haddington branches

Swindon's acquaintance with rotary came valve gears. Allan C. Baker.
See article by Summers on pp. 347 and 437: in the first part tthe author is incorrect in a few of the statements made. Additionally, Baker suggests Summers' opening statement that valve gears are easy to explain but hard to understand, is an understatement to say the very least. Certainly, I have not found this the case in well over 50 years study of them' He misses the fundamental difference between radial valve gears and link motions and does not make clear that Walschaerts valve gear is in fact a member of the radial gear family. Radial valve gears are those that obtain from some rotating or reciprocating part of the motion, by an arrangement of linkage, a point that will describe an oval curve. By altering the axis of the curve, reversal of the engine is achieved. This is one of the reasons why they are so called. The geometry of link motions is quite different. The differences are nothing to do with being driven by one small eccentric as the author alludes – it's all about the geometry – eccentrics, as in any valve gear, are but one of the means of converting a rotary movement to a reciprocating one. As he illustrates, David Joy used a completely different method but he achieved the same geometry as Walschaerts.
In connection with the French compounds the author states that with the four sets of valve gear these engines had, each outside cylinder could be operated separately or in tandem with its nearest inside neighbour. This is confusing to say the least. In the De Glehn arrangement of cylinders and motion these engines were fitted, the high pressure cylinders were inside the frames driving the leading coupled axle while the low pressure cylinders were outside driving the trailing coupled axle. Each cylinder had its own set of valve gear and it was the low pressure and high pressure sets of gear that could be operated together and independently of each other. See also leter from L.F.E. Coombs on p. 637 (concerning PLM arrangement). Therefore, the driver could adjust the high and low pressure cut-offs separately. Mention that the use of four cylinders and equal length connecting rods made the engines a pleasanter place for the enginemen, while true, it was not these features that in themselves made the improvement. The use of four cylinders, with both the high and low pressure cranks set at 90° and the low pressure crank on each side of the engine at 180° to its respective inside high pressure one, resulted in a reduction and in some locomotives the elimination of any reciprocating balance. It was this that provided the improvement in the ride as there was little or no hammer blow on the track. The Swindon so-called Scissors gear, incidentally, is a radial gear on the Walschaerts principle. The author would lead one to believe that wiredrawing is leakage of steam past the pistons. It certainly is not. Such a defect – leakage of steam past the pistons – is one of either bad design or bad maintenance. Wiredrawing is an engineering colloquialism when steam has to pass through a very small aperture. In such a circumstance it looses pressure and therefore temperature, resulting to a greater or lesser extent in condensation.
In a steam locomotive it becomes a critical issue with small and/or rapid opening and closing of inlet ports as the cut-off is shortened. Like much of engineering, it's a compromise in design. Designers want to achieve an engine that will run at short cut-offs, thereby maximising efficiency by getting the full expansion properties from the steam. Establishing where the plots cross on the classic crossing of the lines on a graph, between the size of the port opening, speed of opening and closing, pressure and temperature drop and the best possible expansion of the driest steam, is the designer's conundrum. This issue is all about thermodynamics and the properties of steam. There is no straightforward answer and some achieved better results than others in this respect!
Incidentally, there were many three-cylinder locomotives around the world with the so-called Gresley conjugated valve gear and not only the New South Wales D57 Class the author mentions. To give a few examples, the New Zealand Garratts, the Brazilian Paulista Railway 4-10-2s built by Henschel and at one period the American Locomotive Company used it extensively on three-cylinder locomotives it designed and built. For example, the Southern Pacific '4102' Class 4-1O-2s and the Union Pacific '4122' Class 4-12-2s. In all ALCO used the gear on about 250 locomotives it built. There were also engines thus fitted in Japan, the C53 Pacifies and in China, on the South Manchurian Railway, along with other Australian Railways to name a few.
The author tells us that the second of the six LNER Gresley P2 Class 2-8-2s had conventional rotary gear in the same paragraph where he refers to rotary cam gear, so it's by no means certain what he means by this. He then goes on the say that the last four of this class along with, eventually, the original engine, had Walschaerts gear. In fact, apart from the first engine, Cock o' the North, all the other members of the class were built with Walschaerts valve gear with the conjugated arrangement for operating the valve of the inside cylinder derived from the two outside valve motions. Not be it noted, from one of them, as the author alludes. Cock o' the North was later, as mentioned in he article, converted to conform.

On a need to know basis. David Fairgrieve.
The Glasgow Museum of Transport is an award-winning building designed by Zaha Hadid yet it is unsuitable for displaying the locomotives and ship models formerly housed in Kelvin Hall: it is the wrong shape.

The Bennie Railplane. Walter Rothschild. 510.
The Old New Land, a novel by the Viennese writer Theodor Herel in 1902 envisaged a Palestine of 1922 wherein there were electrified railways with connections to neighbouring countries who live in a state of peace. This includes a description of an elevated monorail system in Haifa; thus reflecting the Elbenfeld & Barmen (later Wuppertal system). Eisenbahn Geschichte includes a contribution by Christoph Meyer on experimntal propeller driven trains which were introduced to study aviation.

Book Reviews. 510
George Townsend Andrews of York – 'The railway architect'. Bill Fawcett. NERA. GBS *****
From review it is obvious that this is a superb book, of the sort only purchased by libraries north of the Humber. The reviewer congratulates the publisher on the excellence of its output. Andrews associated with Hudson and designed early stations at Gateshead, York and Hull.

Off to the Cup Tie. Brian Magilton. rear cover
Class 40 No. 40 027 passing Hadfield with train of Liverpool supporters ttending match against Arsenal at Hillsborough stadium, Sheffield, nearest station Wadsley Bridge on 12 April 1980

Number 9 (September 2012) Issue No. 257

Two BR Class 76 electric locomotives Nos.76 028 and 76 026 double head eastbound coal empties over the Woodhead route near Torside on 26th August 1980. (Hugh Ballantyne). front cover
See also p. 556

Watch with mother. Michael Blakemore. 515.
Editorial on observations of trains in Bury made from the perambulator created a life long love of trains.

Peter Tatlow with colour transparecy photographs by Stephen Townroe. Falling by the wayside [rerailing Class 4 2-6-0 which had fallen into River Test]. 516-18.
Two derailments on the the Oxford, Newbury & Southampton line at Whitchurch, one on 23 September 1954 and the other on 12 February 1960, involved Standard Class 4 2-6-0s Nos. 76017 and 76026. Both involved the Eastleigh breakdown crane in association with those based at Fratton, in the first and Salisbury in the case of the second; the photographs were taken by the District Motive Power Superintendent.

W.V. Benson. Early recollections from West Yorkshire 1946-57. 519-24.
Author was born in Keighley. His grandfather had been a signalman at Blea Moor, but had moved to Thwaites Junction. The author's father introduced him to Skipton motive power depot at a very early age and he developed his interest in railways through being taken on summer excursions to the country and to the seaside. The latter included Morecambe, Silverdale, Arnside and Grange-over-Sands as well as Blackpool and Southport normally reached via Skipton and Colne, but once via GN Junction off the Worth Valley line, Holmfield, Queensbury, Halifax and Copy Pit which involved very steep gradients. The typical stock consisted of five coach sets with limited lavatory accommodation built by the Midland Railway for excursion traffic hauled by a 4F 0-6-0. The 6000V ac electric system was seen at Morecambe and appeared to be very old-fashioned. Once No. M3016, an Ivatt Class 4 2-6-0 with double chimney, was used and the performance was extremely poor. On the Blackpool and Southport excursions Manningham mpd's solitary Horwich 2-6-0 ("Crab") was used. On one infamous occasion a return excursion from Blackpool Illuminations took from 21.30 from leaving Blackpool until 01.15 to reach Preston. One 4F 0-6-0 ran from Keighley non-stop to Morecambe in 68 minutes, but No. 43944 had to stop with its blower hard on to raise sufficient steam to reach the summit beyond Bentham then ran extremely fast down the stretch to Hellifield and thence to Keighley. Due to a great influx of passengers No. 76084 added the Worth Valley push & pull set to its load, climbed noisily towards Skipton where yet further coaches were added bringing the total to fourteen which the footplate crew found difficult to start and stop and it took four hours to reach Morecambe.  Illustrations: Keigley station c1905; rebuilt Scot No. 6133 The Green Howards leaving Skipton with down Thames-Clyde Express in 1946 (Eric Treacy); Class 4 2-6-0 with double chimney No. 43011; Horwich 2-6-0 No. 2762 on freight; Fowler Class 4 2-6-4T No. 42317 leaving Preston with train of corridor stock for Blackpool; Clapham station on 14 April 1952; rebuilt Scot No. 46167 The Hertfordshire Regiment at Hellifield with a Carlisle local; 4P compound No. 41060 at Keighley with train for Morecambe in 1956; 4F 0-6-0 No. 4406 on excursion train; LMS handbill for Blackpool evening excursions in August 1939 (colour); Jubilee 4-6-0s Nos. 45581 Bihar and Orissa and 45565 Victoria at Blackpool North with return excursions to Leeds and Bradford on 29 May 1966 (colour: J.S. Gilks)  

Wrexham and Brymbo: M.H. Yardley colour photographs. 525.
16XX No. 1628, part of No. 6697 and Class 5 No. 45344 in the purgatory of Croes Newydd shed on 28 December 1965; 57XX 0-6-0PT No. 9630 on Minera branch from Brymbo with empty wagons on 1 June 1966; and 9F No. 92125 on Brymbo branch on 25 July 1966.

Alistair F. Nisbet. The Montrose to Bridge of Dun and Brechin branches. 526-33.
The first stretch of the Aberdeen Railway to be opened reached from Friochein on the Arbroath & Forfar Railway to Dubton with branches from Bridge of Dun to Brechin and from Dubton to Montrose. The Brechin branch ws inspected by Captain Laffan on 4 and 6 December 1847 and the Montrose terminal by Captain Wynne before it opened on 2 February 1848. In October 1848 the Royal Yacht was diverted off its southward voyage from Aberdeen to Montrose due to bad weather where a royal train was assembled for the journey onwards departing from the Aberdeen Railway station. Train services, both for passengers and freight, are outlined. Motive power in LMS days was dominated by CR 0-4-4Ts, but after Nationalisation the ex-NBR J37 0-6-0s dominated residual freight haulage. Rationalisation followed nationalisation. Major General Hutchinson had not been happy with the steep gradients on the Montrose section and had demanded extra safety measures implemented in 1881. Several accidents are recorded. Illustrations: Brechin station afetr closure to passenger traffic on 14 October 1961; Montrose station in the 1930s following transfer of traffic to the LNER station; LMS train at Montrose LNER station; Brechin station exterior on 22 April 1962; Bridge of Dun with J37 No. 64547 with freight from Montrose; J37 No. 64619 at Brechin on 5 September 1960; CR 0-4-4T No. 55200 at Bridge of Dun with Brechin branch train; J37 No. 64602 at Brechin with short freight; J37 No. 64587 near Bridge of Dun on freight on 4 March 1961; J37 No. 64619 at Brechin on 5 September 1960; J37 No. 64602 leaving Bridge of Dun on freight on 19 May 1966. See also p. 637 for note on correction to caption. See also letter from Bob Drummond on page 701 on residual summer through service from Glasgow to Montrose in 1948.

Robert Emblin. Putting on the style: the station façades at Nottingham Victoria, Leicester Central and London Marylebone. 534-8
The architectural qualities, or lack of them, are examined. Nottingham Victoria was designed by the local architect: Albert Edward Lambert and was notable for its tower, which like that of Imperial Institute (designed by Thomas Edward Collcutt NB spelling not Collcott) is still extant, although in both cases the other original buildings have been destroyed. Leicester Central was designed by Edward Parry, the engineer for that section of the Great Central and Marylebone is cedited to Henry William Braddock, although Edmund Wragge and Hobson clearly had a major input to the site and the approach line. Marylebone was the product of rigorous cost cutting due the escalating costs of the London extension and both Jackson's London termini and Biddle's observations on it are quoted. Leicester Central was built on a viaduct and this dictated the form of station adopted.

Edward Gibbins. British Railways and steam locomotives. 539-43.
Asserts that steam traction and its replacement by diesel has had unfair treatment from commentators, such as Wolmar and Henshaw (although latter has little to say on motive power: he is mainly concerned with the excessive closure of railway mileage, such as Hawick to Carlisle which still remains a national scandal and will ultimately affect the unity of the United Kingdom, and Wragg (who clearly knows very little about motive power for instance he refers to a tank engine version of the Stanier Class 5). Excessive emphasis is placed on Rogers' hagiography of Riddles: in retrospect (and in a world where shortages of almost everything dominated life) there was no justification for the twelve non-standard "standard" classes: an exception could be made for the Britannia class, but even there an existing boiler design should have been used. The author fails to mention coal shortages, the problem of smoke pollution, and the poor working conditions associated with steam, and the urgent need for suburban electrification north of the Thames, in Glasgow and probably elsewhere to improve the social environment (which the Attlee Administration was utterly sympathetic to). Illustrations: Modified Hall No. 7900 Saint Peter's Hall leaving Chester with 09.56 to Bournemouth on 11 February 1961; No. 70001 Lord Hurcombe on 16.15 to Llandudno at Manchester Exchange on 28 July 1963; 2-6-4T No. 80153 at Brighton shed on 20 March 1960; No. 73077 approaching Edinburgh Waverley on 2 June 1962; D225 on diverted Royal Scot at Eccles on 12 November 1961; 9F No. 92072 on freight at Oxenholme on 2 September 1961 (all Alan Tyson) . See also letters on page 701 from Keith Chester and Kevin Jones.

Hampshire steam. 544-7.
Colour photo-feature: rebuilt light Pacific No. 34056 Croydon approaching Basingstoke off Reading branch on 12 September 1964 (David Idle); War Department 2-10-0 No. 600 Gordon and 0-6-0ST No. 195 about to depart from Liss Forest Road station on 30 April 1966 (Roy Hobbs}; rebuilt West Country No. 34021 (without name) crossing Worting flyover with 11.00 Southampton Eastern Docks to Waterloo on 9 July 1967 (last day of steam on Southern) (David Idle); BR Class 5 No. 73169 approaching Andover Junction with 12.42 Basingstoke to Salisbury on 4 September 1964 (David Idle); No. 30850 Lord Nelson at Eastleigh in April 1962 (P.J. Hughes); T9 4-4-0 No. 30120 on Eastleigh shed in April 1957; Q1 No. 33018 on down ballast train at Andover Junction on 4 September 1964 (David Idle); 9F No. 92203 (preserved by David Shepherd) leaving Longmoor Downs for Liss on 7 April 1968  (Roy Hobbs}; BR Standard Class 4 2-6-0 No. 76014 near Beaulieu Road in New Forest with 17.50 Bournemouth to Eastleigh on 7 June 1965 (David Idle); unrebuilt West Country No. 34008 Padstow leaving Southampton for Bournemouth  (B. Swain)

Michael B. Binks. Surveying and railways. 548-55.
See also article by Flann in Vol. 19, p. 463 which described work in the Estate Department of the London Midland Region and his training as a Member of the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors  which took place at Euston (in his own time and at his expence). The history of surveying is outlined, including the establishment of a professional body in 1868, the granting of a Royal Charter in 1881 and the granting of "Royal" in its title in 1946. The units used for measurement used to be Imperial, but are now mainly metric. Cahins and tapes are described and the Gunter chain is mentioned. Bench marks for obtaining levels are provided by the Ordnance Survey and are measured in the field by theodolites. Underground railways demanded specialist surveying techniques. Quantity surveying; building surveyors and permanent way surveying. Illustrations: embankment with express freight hauled by BR Standard Class 5; Reversible Level (instrument); theodolite; Micrometer Tacheometer; bridge over River Greta near Keswick; Cannon Street goods depot interior; Cannon Street station (London); B1 4-6-0 No. 61162 crossing River Soar near Loughborough; pedestrian footbridge between Chalkwell and Westcliff; southern end of Blackfriars Bridge in 1970s; No. 46458 hauling Royal Train on bridge over River Greta in 1966; crossing keeper's cottage at Chilham Mill

Under the Woodhead wires. 556-9.
Colour photo-feature: EM1 (Class 76) 1500V dc electric locomotives: No. 26030 (green livery) at Torside on empty coal wagons for Yorkshire in early 1960s; Nos. 76016 and 76010 descending Worsborough Incline on 15 May 1981 (Hugh Ballantyne); No. E26025 (blue livery) at Rotherwood Sidings, Sheffield, in May 1970 (P.J. Hughes) see also letter from Andrew Kleissner on blue livery; Nos. 76009 and 76011 ascending Worsborough Incline at Glasshouse Crossing signal box on 15 May 1981 (Hugh Ballantyne) see also letter from Alan Whitehouse on page 701; No. 26056 Triton (green livery) near Thurgoland on express for Sheffield in November 1968 (P.J. Hughes); No. 76037 on coal empties at Torside level crossing on 26 August 1980 (Hugh Ballantyne): see also letter from Chris Joines-Bridger (p. 701) on train being hauled; No. 26057 Ulysses (blue livery) on Sheffield to Manchester express at Torside in April 1969 (J. Davenport); two class 76 in blue livery at Godley Junction with merry-go-round empties after snowfall on 18 February 1981 (Hugh Ballantyne); No. 26049 (blue livery) in ex-Works condition at Rotherwood Sidings in November 1970 (P.J. Hughes). See also front cover and letter from Ted Gibbins who was station master at Dovecliffe and was associated with the method of working coal trains against the grade on the climb out of Wath.

Tony Robinson. Mouldsworth and the Helsby Branch of the Cheshire Lines Committee. 560-3.
Opened 1 September 1869 as West Cheshire Railway. Chester Northgate closed in 1969 and services were diverted to Chester General via a new connection at Mickle Trafford with tokenless black working from Mouldsworth. Illustrated by photographs taken by Norman Jones of Warrington who died in 2003: Helsby & Alvansley station; Mouldsworth Ship Canal Sand Co. narrow gauge railway for handling moulding sand; O1 2-8-0 at Mouldsworth with freight for Dee Marsh c1959; Class 3 2-6-2T No. 40126 with Manchester Central to Chester Northgate evening train in 1958; interior Mouldsworth signal box showing single line instrument for Helsby branch; indicator board for tokenless block working to Mickle Trafford; D11 No, 62664 Princess Mary heading west from Mouldsworth; J39 No. 64717 and 8F No. 48340 coming off Helsby branch and heading towards Northwich; WD No. 90393 coming off Helsby branch with train of fitted ICI 20 ton salt wagons.

Multiple unit memories. 564-6
Black & white photo-feature: two 1500V dc units crossing Broadbottom Viaduct over River Ethrow on 2 September 1954; Lancaster Green Ayre station with former LNWR multiple unit built for Willesden Junction to Earl's Court service modified for high voltage with group of officials on platform in 1953; Derby lightwight  DMU leaving Leeds Central passing A1 Pacific H.A. Ivatt on Queen of Scots Pullman in 1954 (Eric Treacy). Glasgow Blue Train driving trailer No. SC 75591 on exhibition in Marylebone goods yard in 1959; Cravens Railway Carriage & Wagon Co. DMU on RCTS special working at Doncaster (interesting Gresley inspection saloon? in background); interior of luxurious first class saloon in Trans-Pennine DMU; Class AM10 (later Class 310) at Rugby c1965. (KPJ: almost startling juxtaposition of modernity, sliding doors, automatic couplers and rounded fronts with features from the stagecoach era).  

Mairead Mahon. Charles Dickens and the railways. 567. illustration (portrait).
Considers both his writing about, and his reaction to, railways. His earliest writing took place before he became a railway traveller. Dombey and Son portrays the effect of the construction of the railway on the residents of Stagg Gardens: in the fiction the residents are skeptical of the benefits claimed, but Dickens wrote privately that this portrayal was at variance with his own view. Both The Flight and Fire and Snow portray railways: the latter included a railway journey to Wolverhampton. His brother, Alfred, was an engineer on the Malton & Driffield Railway and was based at York. Dickens was a Great Western Railway shareholder. Mugsby Junction, with its dreadful refreshment room was based on Dickens' expereinecs suffered at Rugby. Dickens was a passenger on the train involved in the Staplehurst accident of 1865 and this led to The Signalman — a short story about a ghost

Peter Butler. All change at Bedford. 568-71.
Main theme: recording the railway with photographs prior to the major station and signalling rebuilding which took place in the late 1970s, following an announcement in November 1976. This was a prelude to electrification: electric train services began on 11 July 1983 following a long dispute over single-manning. The article looks forward to the full electrification of the Midland main line in the future. The first railway to serve Bedford was the LNWR branch from Bletchley opened on 17 November 1846. This was followed by the Midland Railway's southward extension from Leicester to Hitchin which opended on 8 May 1857. This attempted to use the LNWR station, but this was complex to use and the Midland constructed its own station which opened on 1 February 1859. In 1868 the Midland opened its London extension and in October 1894 opened an avoiding line for fast trains. Illustrations: first Midland Railway station; MR 2-4-0 No. 20216 with set of clerestory stock c1939; several pictures by author of station just prior to, and during, reconstruction. Rory Wilson (letter page 638) notes that temporary signal box did not come from Cannon Street, but the power frame which had originally been intended for Preston prior to WW2 was used following the Cannon Street fire in 1957...

Sign here. 572.
Colour photo-feature (railway signs): North British Railway enamel sign photographed at Kilconquhar station on 16 June 1966 for Station Hotel in Glasgow (Roy Hobbs); Tespassers will be prosecuted at Ryde St. John's Road on 25 June 1957 (R.C. Riley); Todmorden Joint Omnibus Committee emblem which incorporated Corporation's Coat of Arms and LMS device photographed on bus in October 1966 (Roy Hobbs); Great Central Railway cast iron signs at New Barnetby level crossing in May 1982 (J.S. Gilks); Midland Railway iron 253¾ milepost near Dent station (J.S. Gilks); cast iron LMS/Great Western Joint Line at Llandovery Private Road notice photographed in August 1972; London, Brighton & South Coast Railway cast iron notice on Newhaven Harbour branch in July 1963 (Roy Hobbs)

Readers' Forum. 573-4.
Goswick – an unenviable reputation for accidents, Ed.
The photograph of Goswick signal box on p489 of the August issue was taken by John Hinson (of The

It began with 'Turbomotive'. Doug Landau. 
A number of drivers, including Camden men Laurie Earl and Bill Starvis, regarded the 'Turbo' as the best engine on the line. Apparently it was almost impossible to make No.6202 slip. According to a friend who worked with Stanier during his stint at Power Jets, the ex-CME saw it as the future for steam and would have liked to have built 50, confident that a high degree of reliability could be achieved. Part of the reason for the rebuilding was the excessive time taken for major turbine overhaul work, which had to be carried out at Metropolitan-Vickers works. Given a large fleet, Crewe would have acquired the expertise to carry out the work in house.
Perhaps David Cullen's reference to No.71000's "wrongly proportioned ashpan dampers incapable of supplying the fire with sufficient air" was written before my letter published in Backtrack 23, page 124 (February 2009). Suffice it to say for the moment, that No.7l000 is currently fitted with an ashpan and damper arrangement identical to the one as fitted when tested at Swindon in 1954/55 and up to the 'Duke's' one and only general overhaul in 1957. The inadequate damper area theory is a popular red herring that seems to have achieved everlasting life.

It began with 'Turbomotive'. Robin Leleux.
It was a nice piece of editorial planning that two articles should appear in the July issue, covering inter alia the origins of the BR 8P Pacific Duke of Gloucester. L.A.Summers (p. 440) says "there can have been little real justification for its construction", opining that if a replacement express locomotive was necessary then a further Ivatt 'Duchess' would fit the bill, and by implication more rapidly. David Cullen (p. 406) sees the operational need for BR to fill the gap in its heavy passenger engine fleet, thus giving the go-ahead to the construction of Riddles's long-held dream. At this time of course, unlike later in the decade, there were no surplus LNER/BR(E), Bulleid or 'Britannia' Pacifies to fill the gap and the diesel Class 40s, which ultimately did for the LMS Pacifies, were just a designer's dream. But this has always led me to wonder just why Princess Anne was scrapped.
There were, of course, two heavy Pacifies involved in the disastrous Harrow & Wealdstone collision: Princess Anne and the 'Duchess' City of Glasgow, together with the lighter 'Jubilee' 4-6-0 Windward Islands. As is clear from photographs, this latter engine was totally wrecked by the collision; it is a wonder how it was ever towed to Crewe for scrapping rather than being cut up on the spot. Other photographs show City of Glasgow to be devoid of its smokebox and with other serious front end damage, being "hardly recognisable as a locomotive any more" (J.A.B. Hamilton: Trains to Nowhere p82). Curiously the only photographs which seem to have been published of Princess Anne show it on its side where it came to rest, but apparently intact. Was its damage more fundamental? It was obviously fit to be taken to Crewe and seems to have lingered there for many months while a decision was being made. So why was the badly damaged City of Glasgow repaired (or 'rebuilt', perhaps like the LNER Pacific Grand Parade after the Castlecary collision of 1937 which resulted in virtually a new engine appearing) while the newly-outshopped Princess Anne was condemned.

British Railways Network for Development and Discourse on diesel multiple units. John Macnab. 
In the above article (May issue) Author infers that this was 'Part I' of the initial 1963 Plan – it should have read 'Part III' as there was also, intermediately, the 'Development of the Major Trunk Routes' that should really be 'Part II' and, if it had been implemented as far as Scotland was concerned, little would have remained north of the central belt. This was not acted upon as such, an election in the autumn of 1964 having a bearing on things with a change of political power. Not that that stopped closures per se!
Re Inter City DMUs: have since learnt the reason for sending TF No.79470 of the initial Swindon-built Inter-City DMUs to Vitry in France in April 1957. As stated in article, this type of stock was basically BR Standard Mkl coaches turned out as DMUs, but concerns were raised that they would be built without underframe trussing to house such as power equipment; to prove the basic design structure and to meet all specifications trailer first car No.79470 was sent to the SNCF test base at Vitry. Here it passed the tests undertaken to the satisfaction of all concerned.

Discourse on diesel multiple units. Leonard Rogers
The author remarks that he does not know if it was intended that the initial allocation of the Inter-City units be split between the WR and the ScR. Both Stuart Mackay, in his British Railway First Generation DMUs for the modeller and historian (Ian Allan, 2006), and Alan Butcher, in his The Heyday of the DMU (Ian Allan 1994), seem to indicate that the split was deliberate. They may both be drawing on the same source, of course. Incidentally, to complicate matters, the majority of the WR sets, which were the first built, seem to have spent at least part of the first year of their operational lives, in 1956/57, on loan to Leith Central for the E&G service, or possibly just driver and fitter training (see Jim Grindlay's book, below). What is clear is that, after a few years, the WR units were replaced on the Birmingham-South Wales service by Cross-Country units and then transferred to Leith to join the rest of the bunch. It probably made sense both in operational terms and from a maintenance point of view not to have a few cars with an odd (white circle) coupling code on the WR when the majority were in Scotland.
John Macnab mentions Nos.79083/5 working 'on loan' from Ayr and suggests that there may have been others similarly employed. Jim Grindlay, in his British Railways motive power allocations 1948-1968, Part Seven - diesel railcars and multiple units (Ayr: Transport Publishing, 2008), lists allocations of these cars for the first days of the years 1962, 1965, 1966, 1967 and 1968. In that book, having been at Leith in 1962, No.79083 is shown as allocated to Ayr in the years from 1965 to 1968. No.79085 is shown as at Ayr from 1962 to 1967 but at Leith in 1968. In addition, No.79099 is shown as at Ayr in 1967 and 1968

The Forfar & Brechin Railway. David Ferguson 
Re Southern Railway engines in the Forfar area during WW2: H Class 0-4-4Ts Nos.1177/84 and 1259 all left Cricklewood LMS on a northbound goods behind No.7982 on loan to the LMS. Railway Observer March 1943 Nos.1177/84 and 1259 are all classed 2P and allocated to Forfar for working locals to Arbroath. Apparently they replaced Caledonian Railway 0-4-4Ts Nos.15126, 15212 and 15232, which all transferred to Dawsholm (31E) shed on arrival of the Southern locos. 02/1943.
Railway Observer October 1943 No.1259 noted working Brechin-Montrose service on 03/08/1943, while Nos.1177/84 noted dead on shed at Forfar and SR No.2229 shunting in the yard. Elsewhere SR No.2699 was noted at Inverness, with SRNo. 2358 suggested as deputising for a failed 0-4-4T on a local service.
Previous to all this the Railway Observer notes on 18/04/1942 SR 0-8-0T No.956 being hauled north minus its coupling rods, but in ex-works condition, as part of a train worked by J39 No.2971 on the main line in the North East region. No.956 is next noted in July 1942 as being seen shunting near Shandon, which lies between Helensburgh and Garelochhead on the West Highland Railway, in company with Great Eastern 0-6-0T.
Hopefully this will be of interest to John and others and maybe helps demonstrate how the 'Big Four' transferred engines and rolling stock around the various regions to fill in for either unavailable stock or perhaps covering for stock moved elsewhere to meet the demands of the war effort. I would just like to end by saying how much I enjoy reading Backtrack each month and maybe also an appeal. I discovered the above information by accident whilst researching for information on the railways around Crieff in Perthshire and would therefore very much appreciate if anyone has any information/anecdotes/photos etc regarding the Crieff lines if they could contact me via my email address: ,

Class 73 livery. David Stewart-David. 
Photograph of No.E6003/73003 on p416 suggests that the locomotive was painted in SR malachite green when new. In fact the first electro-diesels were painted in Southern Region coaching stock green, with coaching stock circular totems. Malachite green is an altogether more vivid shade, as one can currently see on 'Schools' Class No.925. The only BR era locomotive I saw in regular service painted malachite was M7 No.30241 (KPJ: there were a great many).

'Warship' review. Leonard Rogers. 
Wholeheartedly concurs Gerald Goodall (p. 446) in his comments regarding extended picture captions and also about Backtrack caring about details. Concerning Trevor Owen's photographs of 'Warship' diesels (pp. 324-5): photograph of the Mayflower is actually of the down train, so it's on the fast line, as might be expected. The photograph at the top of p325 is taken from the same bridge, looking in the same direction, and shows a freight train running on the slow line, as might also be expected. This latter is definitely a down train - the 'C' in the headcode indicates a train bound for the Plymouth Division, away from London. A further photograph taken by Trevor Owen from this same bridge (Colour-Rail ref. DE767) was published in Colin Boocock's book British Railways in Colour 1948-1968 (Ian Allan, 1988). This photograph, which incidentally also shows a 'Warship' on a down parcels working and was also taken in August 1959, was probably taken from the centre of the bridge - it includes the buildings at both sides of the line alongside the overbridge in the background, confirming that both the photo on p324 and that on p325 are looking towards London and show down workings.
The photograph at the foot of p325 was previously published on p33 of Hugh Dady's Rail Portfolio 10- The WR Diesel-Hydraulics (Ian Allan, 1989). The caption there informs us that it was taken at Pirbright and shows the 11.00 Waterloo-Exeter. It also confirms Gerald Goodall's suspicion that a rare livery variant is illustrated. Hugh Dady's caption runs as follows: "D831 was one of only two 'Warships' to receive blue livery with small yellow warning panels. The other, No.D830, quickly had full yellow ends added, leaving (D831) easily identifiable, particularly with its numbers behind the cab doors." I take the last comment to mean that there were numbers behind both cab doors. This then leads me to mention a real puzzle which arises when comparing Trevor Owen's photograph of No.D831 in its two published versions, in Rail Portfolio 10 and in Backtrack. Your correspondent, like me, clearly sees it bearing "number only at one end" in the Backtrack version. However, in the Rail Portfolio version there are numbers clearly visible behind both doors. What happened to the second number between 1989 and 2012? Has it been 'airbrushed' out? If so, why? (Not by us. Ed.) (KPJ: the red Route availability is in situ at both ends!) That the locomotive was carrying numbers behind both cab doors in 1968 is confirmed by a second photograph, on p42, in Rail Portfolio 10. This is by Peter Gray, taken on 3 September 1968 and with numbers clearly visible behind the cab doors at both ends of the locomotive.

Swindon and valve gears. David Andrews. 574
Les Summers asked why Churchward favoured inside valve gear on the 'Stars'? Holcroft gave the following reasons: There was not space in the loading gauge for adequate scantlings and bearing widths. (Perhaps the LMS was able to find space on its later Pacifies because they were less concerned about valve gear stiffness and bearing areas, or perhaps the GWR semi-plug valves were heavier and so required more substantial valve gear.) The eccentric rod and return crank would have to be dismantled every time a connecting or coupling rod had to be come off. The rocking lever would have to be on the tail end of the outside valve and so subject to thermal expansion. The rocking lever and its connecting link would have to be taken down before the outside piston valve could be withdrawn. So it is unfair to say that Churchward had a blind spot, rather that he favoured reliable, accurate valve gear and simplicity of repair. For all that is written on this subject I suspect that a change to outside valve gear would have had little effect on operational efficiency or profitability and that Swindon was right not to fiddle with a reliable design.

Metropolitan Electrics. Michael J. Smith.
Apology for an error in piece on Metropolitan Railway electric locomotive names: in list of machines which had their names restored in the 1950s (p345) George Romney was correctly included, but incorrectly given the number 9 instead of 11. As made clear in the following paragraph, No.9, formerly John Milton, never had its name restored.

Book Reviews. 574
Sir Ernest Lemon, a biography: the production engineer who modernised the LMS railway and equipped the RAF for war. Terry Jenkins, Railway & Canal Historical Society, 2011, 272pp, PT *****
Did you know that without the efforts of a Vice-President of the LMS, the Royal Air Force might have been unable to put up the gallant defence of the country it did during the Battle of Britain? Remainder of review reproduced with other reviews of this excellent book..

Bashers, Gadgets and Mourners – the life and times of the LNWR Coal Tanks. Peter W. Skellon. Bahamas Locomotive Society, 256pp. DWM *****
Once the reader has negotiated its rather esoteric title then this splendid book really is 'all you wanted to know about the LNWR's 'Coal Tanks' but were perhaps a little reluctant to ask'! Based around the preserved 'Coal Tank' No.1054, the author has drawn together a veritable treasure trove of information about this functional and successful class of locomotive which rarely sought the limelight but which owed the company nothing at the end of their long career.
The book is strong on engineering detail. It chronicles the development of the class into service, the modifications applied as experience was gained and even goes as far as a pseudo 'operator's manual' for the class in conclusion. It is strong on operating detail too, both in terms of duties performed and spheres of activity. The transition of No.1054 from service to preservation gives some fascinating insights into that era and throughout the book is brilliantly illustrated with appropriate diagrams and classic photographs.
Your reviewer was particularly taken with the amount of personal recollection and biographical interest contained in the book. It is a technical story without a doubt but sight is never lost of those who worked on the 'Coal Tanks', whose affection for them caused one particular example to escape the cutter's torch and those who, in more recent years, have overseen the return of a piece of Victoria's England to today's preserved railway scene. A really fine touch is the provision of a 55-minute audio documentary CD – all within the cover price – which features interviews with some of those who have contributed their recollections, recollections which in their printed form go a long way to making this such a vibrant publication. A comprehensive bibliography and an extensive index also add further value.
Your reviewer sometimes wonders how much scope there is for 'yet another' railway book. The author and the Bahamas Locomotive Society have answered his question – as long as the book is of this style and quality then we are nowhere near the end of the line! This book is an absolute treat, amazing value and cannot be too highly recommended! KPJ: have since glanced at book in Robert Humm's Stamford emporium and was highly tempted to make a purchase.

The Times mapping the railways. David Spaven and Julian Holland. Times Books.304pp. RH *****
More a fine tome than a mere book, this work suggests that in spite of current fears about the future of printed literature, for some purposes it remains unbeatable.
The British have for long set world standards in maps and charts, often raising the science of cartography to high art, witness for example the magnificent OS map of the Lothians and their railways (1858), here reproduced in its pristine splendour. Railway maps, produced for one reason or another (for tourists, journey planners, railway operators, Parliament, etc), are almost coeval with the railway age. Each form is reproduced here, set in a clear, chronological framework. The general pattern is to print the full map, leading in some cases to slight congestion, immediately offset by offering double-page extracts that demonstrate the full quality of the original.
The text runs two themes in parallel: first, the development of railway maps from mere overprints of the county maps popular in early times, through a series of step changes, such as the coming of the Ordnance Survey or helpful guides offered by Bradshaw, Airey or W.H. Smith, to the more diagrammatic forms of our own day. In the course of this journey the reader is offered a wide range of individual examples: NBR tourist maps, the famed NER ceramic maps, many happily still with us, highly detailed maps produced for the RCH, or for historians – like those of Alan Jowett, and Bartholomew's half-inch coloured relief maps that explained at a glance why railways took this route or avoided that one.
Full justice is done to one of the UK's singular contributions to interpretative mapmaking, the diagrammatic system map often ascribed to the talented Harry Beck of London Transport but, as the authors make clear, really the invention of George Dow working for the LNER.
The second theme is a running commentary on the history made visible by these maps and diagrams, a refreshingly unusual approach to the subject. The story is brought well into our own times with highly detailed track diagrams of some London termini and schematic National Rail layouts.
The production standards of the book are excellent with fine printing, a thorough index and a bibliography (albeit a short one). For all its undoubted strengths, there are some curious omissions, particularly in the field of railway historiography – for example, not including the Ian Allan Pre-Grouping Atlas and Gazeteer, surely amongst the best-known and most heavily thumbed works of its kind. The once-popular 'Mile by Mile' series of strip maps by S.N. Pike are largely absent, as are the kind of neat supporting maps once familiar in the Railway Magazine or standard railway histories. Some of the painstaking and knowledgeable past map-makers, like the late J C. Gillham, might well have been given their place in the cartographic pantheon.
In spite of these omissions, The Times has given us a large and massively detailed addition to an unduly neglected part of railway history, most attractively produced and decidedly good value these days of vertiginous prices.

Wrexham local. Michael Mensing. rear cover
No. 1438 and auto-trailer forming 17.03 Wrexham to Ellesmere on 18 April 1960.

No. 10 (October 2012) Issue 258

GWR 'Castle' 4-6-0 No.7026 Tenby Castle passes Knowle & Dorridge with the 3.20pm semi-fast from Wolverhampton Low Level to Paddington via Oxford on Sunday 29th April 1962. (Michael Mensing). front cover

There's no business like show business. Michael Blakemore. 579.
Editorial prompted by the excellent survey of the Liverpool & Manchester Centenary celebrations, noting en passim other, mainly more recent, railway carnivals (KPJ: they seemed to last all summer in Sheringham mainly in pouring rain!)

Here come the High Speed Trains. Rodney Lissenden (photographer). 580-3.
Colour photo-feature: dignified corporate livery (blue and grey carriages and yellow & blue power cars): unit at Cowley Bridge Junction, Exeter with 09.30 Paddington to Paignton on 18 August 1981; unit at Ivybridge on 09.25 Plymouth to Paddington on 117 September 1982; 43085 (with name) and branded InterCity 125 on 13.45 Leeds to King's Cross passing Doncaster (full of coal wagons and first signs of electrification) on 4 May 1986; coaches branded InterCity 125 on 13.15 Paddington to Penzance leaving Taunton with semaphore signals on 17 August 1985; InterCity 125 at Wigston South Junction with Sheffield to St. Pancras train passing semaphore signals on 1 April 1983; Inter-City Sector livery (raspberry ripple livery) unit on 10.50 Paddington to Penzance at Rewe near Exeter on 16 August 1986; Midland Main Line unit on 14.30 Nottingham to St. Pancras at Bromham, north of Bedford on 4 April 2003; Virgin Trains unit on 12.05 Glasgow to Bournemouth at Docker on descent from Grayrigg on 9 September 2003; and First Great Western forming 11.55 Cardiff to Paddington at Pilning on 25 October 2002. 

John W.E. Helm. Track record: a financial history of British Railways 1948-1954: the steam railway. Part three: thr assets – capital improvements. 584-92.
Part 2 see p. 493. This part includes traction policy and investment, and in the case of steam traction part of Helm's analysis is quoted in full. Firstly electrification is examined and it mainly concerns the completion of projects initiated by the LNER. The Liverpool Street to Shenfield scheme was inaugurated on 26 May 1949 and full services followed on 7 November 1949. This led to increases of 48.5% in passenger journeys and 40.8% in receipts. In 1953 approval was granted for extensions to Chelmsford and Southend Victoria with completion scheduled for 1956. Approval to electrify the London Tilbury & Southen section was granted in 1950, but implementation did not begin during this period. In 1954 preliminary planning started for electrifying to Enfield, Hertford and Bishops Stortford. The Manchester Sheffield Wath scheme opened its first stage in February 1952 and became fully operational in June 1954. On the Southern Region work started to upgrade the power supply in1952 and approval was given for the Kent electrifications, but the Tonbridge to Hastings section was left in abeyance. The traction experiments on the Lancaster to Morecambe and Heysham began in 1951 and in 1953 consideration was given to electrifying the Glasgow suburban lines.
In 1948 Hurcomb established a joint committee with the Railway Executive to consider diesel and electric traction, but this did not report until October 1951. It is noted that a "standard" steam shunting locomotive was not contemplated and that diesel-electric shunting locomotives were standardized, based mainly on an LMS design. Most were built in British Railways workshops. Lighter shunters for working in docks, etc were mainly standard industrial products. Contrary to most commentators Helm has something positive to state about main line diesel locomotives noting that the Type 40 introduced in 1958 evolved from the Southern Region No. 10203 with its 2000 hp engine and this had been introduced in 1954 as an extension of a programme initiated by the Southern Railway. Sadly, the section on diesel railcars suffers from being slightly over-compressed. The Bradford-Leeds-Harrogate system approved in 1952 and initiated in June 1954 was a huge success with passenger receipts increasing by 400%, but the Leyland engine and hydro-mechanical transmission were obsolete when introduced. Construction had already started on a huge expansion of this form of vehicle to be introduced in the subsequent period and this included the inter-city Edinburgh to Glasgow units. A brief mention is made of the dead end of gas turbine locomotives: the two normal locomotives ordered by the GWR and the incomplete coal powered gas turbine instigated by the Ministry of Fuel and developed in part by the North British Locomotive Co.Steam Traction: BR inherited over 20,000 steam locomotivess upon nationalisation in 1948, but it would be another three years before the new standard designs emerged. In the interim, 'Big Four' types were perpetuated to plug the gap. In fact, there were considerably more of the latter than the former (1,538 engines as against 999). The Railway Executive took much criticism in later years for producing the twelve Standard classes but it is all too easy to make snap judgements of this sort with the benefit of hindsight. In the austere post-war world difficult decisions had to be taken and - to the administration in power - transport was not a priority. The RE's preferred option would have been electrification, but that was too costly and thus ruled out.
While there was limited scope for dieselisation (in the shunting yards and for secondary services), the RE had little experience of main line traction. The first examples were underpowered, unreliable and expensive. They also used imported oil, and the country had foreign exchange problems (and the same went for the early coal-oil steam conversions as well). Electric trains at least had the advantage of using current generated by British coal.
Remaining with steam therefore seemed to be the cheapest (if not the best) option at the time. However, there were 448 different classes then in existence and, compared with other state owned systems across the Channel, that was a very large number indeed. Standardisation and rationalisation (on twelve new designs) was expected to realise large savings. It made common sense. This section which justifies Riddles' policy is available in full elsewhere on this site.
Riddles and his team were not clairvoyant and could not have envisaged the funds unleashed by the Modernisation Plan a few years later. Further, the worsening coal situation and the availability of cheaper fuel oil gradually began to tip the balance in favour of diesel traction as the decade wore on.
When the first Standards arrived in 1951, steam was expected to be around for many years. Modernisation speeded things up, but the rapidity of the subsequent steam demise was unexpected. When Herbert Walker electrified the Southern in the inter-war years it was done on an orderly and phased basis spread out over many years (and there were still large steam-worked areas around in 1939). He did not try changing things overnight or go for crash conversion: evolution, not revolution, was the name of his game. The RE probably thought modernisation would follow a similar pattern. The Southern Railway spent its hard-earned money wisely and there was little wastage, though the same could not be said of the BTC.
Steam locomotives had a book life value of thirty years, but some Standards lasted barely five – a great waste of resources involving massive write-offs. In a privately run company such incompetence would probably have constituted good grounds for dismissal, though it's unlikely that any BTC bureaucrat or BR manager suffered this fate. The Modernisation Plan was published in early 1955, yet steam construction continued right up to 1960. Over 500 new locomotives were added to stock long after the decision had been made to cease using this form of traction. One could be forgiven for thinking that the left hand did not know what the right hand was up to. Moreover, had the Government been less generous BR might have invested more wisely. Some of the subsequent – and largely self-inflicted – financial wounds could have been avoided. At the end of the period some modern wagons were built for the Tyne Dock to Consett iron ore traffic: 56 ton wagons with automatic brakes and powered side discharge and 36 42-ton capacity wagons were built for conveying coil strip from Port Talbot. Passenger rolling stock was characterised by the Mark I coaches which featured all-steel construction, buckeye couplers and pullman gangways: 7000 vehicles were constructed. 700 suburban coaches were also built. Flat bottom rail was standardised and Matisa tamping machines were introduced. Modern power signalling was introduced at Doncaster, York and Newcastle and colour light signals were installed at Euston and on the Southern Region. The adoption of Automatic Train Control (AWS) was tragically slow. Major capital projects included the Ocean Terminal at Southampton, mechanisation of the Toton marshalling yard, the Potters Bar widening, a link to Calverton Colliery in Nottinghamshire and expenditure on motive power depots. Declining profitability is recorded nad there is a waelth of statistical data.
Freight rolling stock was an equally depressing story. Over 500,000 private owner wagons were compulsorily acquired at a cost of £42 million: most were old, obsolete and 200,000 lasted less than five years. See also earlier commentaries by same author in Volume 13 p. 352 et seq and in Volume 25 page 36 et seq. KPJ was astounded by the statement about the wagon purchase, as he thought he knew how chaeply the railway companies built them, and in 1948 he was only conscious of Hornby Dublo wagons. At first he thought that a decimal npoint might have been missed, but no the figure is correct and is discussed by Gibbins and Joy.

Alistair F. Nisbet. The white ghost [refurbished diesel multiple units painted white with blue stripe]. 593-7.
The main thrust is a description of the refurbishment of the Metropiltan-Cammell diesel multiple units from 1974 with improvements to the interior and an external livery of white with a blue stripe. These units had been introduced in the late 1950s and were formed mainly as three-car sets and included first class accommodation and lavatories. Some attempt was made to establish passenger reaction to the improvements and surveys were conducted on Glasgow to Oban services and Edinburgh to Cowdenbeath and Dundee services in 1975. Illustrations (by author unless noted otherwise: all in white/blue stripe livery): three-car unit at Leuchars on Edinburgh to Dundee working (colour); three-car unit leaving Helensburgh Upper with 10.35 ex-Queen Street for Oban train on 18 July 1975 (W.A.C. Smith); three-car unit at Horton Road, Gloucester on 25 May 1978 (colour); Derby Class 108 on 13.08 leeds City to Ilkley at Guisley on 22 June 1976; Class 101 at Droitwich Spa on 13.00 Birmingham New Street-Kidderminster-Worcester on 20 October 1978; and Class 101 on 12.43 Moor Street to Shirley at Bordesley Junction on 24 February 1979 (colour: last three Michael Mensing). See informative letter from Leonard Rogers on p. 765 which gives details of the composition of the Class 101 in terms of power and trailer cars; further details of the liveries applied in bterms of blue band widths, etc; classes so-treated in England and Wales; and where and when prototypes exhibited. See also Rly Archive, 2012, (37) p. 17 lower..

Camden Bank and Shed. 598-601.
Black & white photo feature: down Coronation Scot hauled by streamlined No. 6221 Queen Elizabeth (painted blue with white stripes) on Camden Bank passing Jubilee class No. 5563 Australia backing out from Euston on 23 Sreptember 1938 (E.R. Wethersett); Nos 45673 Keppel and 46142 The York and Lancaster Regiment (unrebuilt Scot) with ash plant at Camden shed; Patriot class No. 5985 on turntable at Camden shed c1933; Jubilee class No. 5554 on Camden bank with five coach Birmingham express in 1934 caption to this illustration led to informed response from Harry Jack on page 765; rebuilt Scot No. 46114 Coldstream Guardsman on a Euston to Manchester express climbing bank in 1950s; No. 46247 City of Liverpool backing down bank with a The Ulster Express headboard passing Class 5 No. 45256 c1960 (Eric Treacy); No. 46204 Princess Louise under coaling tower on 20 March 1955; and Class 4 4-6-0 No. 75038 on 18.06 Euston to Northampton service on 22 July 1962 ascending Camden bank.

Jeffrey Wells. The Liverpool & Manchester Railway Centenary Celebrations of 1930. 602-6.
These were organized by the City of Liverpool and the London Midland & Scottish Railway with the main event taking place on 15 September 1930 which happened to be very wet. In Liverpool there was a major exhibition at St. George's Hall and a pageant at Wavertree Playground: the latter had been opened on 7 September 1895 and had been given to the City by an anonymous donor. A large collection of locomotives was assembled at the Playground, both from the LMS and the other mainline railways and there was a circular railway on which the historic Lion hauled a set of replica coaches assembled from redundant vehicles and a replica of Northumberland hauling a brass band and a replica of the Duke of Wellington's coach. In addition a triumphal was erected outside Lime Street Station. St. George's Hall exhibited Rastrick's Rainhill notebook, timetables and Frith's The railway station. There was a large electric gauge 0 model railway upstairs. Lectures were prsented in libraries and museums including ones by C.F. Dendy Marshall and C.J. Allen. The large exhibits included replicas of the Rocket and the GWR broad gauge North Star; LNWR 2-2-2 Columbine and Cornwall; ex-Midland Railway "4-4-2" No.  118; LMS 0-8-0 No. 9599; LMS Beyer-Garratt No. 4972; .No. 6161 The King's Own; GWR No. 6029 King Stephen; SR No. E850 Lord Nelson; a Hunslet 0-6-0ST built for the Haifa Railway; metre gauge 2-6-2T for Tanganyika Railways; metre gauge 4-6-0 for Assam Railways; Bagnall 2ft 6in gauge 2-6-2T for Sengri Tea Gardens Railway and both freight and passenger rolling stock including two Southern Railway vehicles. The exhibitions lasted longer and appeared to have enjoyed some sunshine. The closing ceremony on 20 September included fireworks. Many of the large exhibits were taken to Manchester Victoria for further exhibtion from 3 to 11 October. Illustrations (all black & white): Lion with its replica train (two views); Lion and LNER No. 10000 (high pressure compound locomotive); No. 10000 at Grantham on an express; reeplica Northumberland, brass band and Duke of Wellington's coach in pouring rain; No. 6161 The King's Own; Sir Josiah Stamp with Lord Mayor of Liverpool inspecting replica Rocket; and 0-8-0 No. 9599; LMS Beyer-Garratt No. 4972; .No. 6161 The King's Own on sunny day with visitors. Perhaps, it is strange that the Author did not mention Eric Mason's (Rivington) My life with locomotives as he was a visitor to both the Stockton & Darlington and the Wavertree celebrations, and was involved in positioning the exhibits at Manchester Victoria from Agecroft shed..

Pitsford and Lamport Ironstone: [colour] photographs by Roy Hobbs and notes by John Scholes of the Industrial Railway Society. 607.
Northamptonshire ironstone mines: standard guage line at Pitsford with Avonside 0-6-0ST WN 1917/1924 Pitsford on 30 October 1962 and narrow gauge (3ft) Peckett 0-6-0ST WN 1316/1913 Scaldwell with polished brasswork.

'Castle' country. Michael Mensing (photographer). 608-11.
Colour photo-feature: No. 5057 Earl Waldegrave on up Cambrian Coast Express passing Acocks Green & South Yardley on 4 October 1962; No. 5072 Hurricane on 30 August ? with train of carmine & cream rolling stock possibly on Kent Coast to Birkenhead through train passing Tyseley; No. 7029 Clun Castle with double chimney picking up water at Lapworth water troughs with 13.10 Paddington to Wolverhampton on 29 July 1962; No. 5034 Corfe Castle on 16.05 Wolverhampton to Oxford slow at Lapworth on 18 September 1961; No. 7012 Barry Castle working tender-first hauling empty stock past Birmingham Moor Street (stock had formed football special for Fulham fans at Villa Park for FA Cup semi-final) on 31 March 1962; No. 5088 Llanthony Castle with double chimney between Solihull and Widney Manor with 07.00 Wolverhampton to Reading on 12 August 1960; No. 7009 Athelney Castle at Bentley Heath on 14.35 Birkemhead to Paddington on 17 August 1961; No. 5031 Totnes Castle on down Cornishman formed of chocolate & cream livery coaches (Wolverhampton to Penzance) passing Solihull on 2 December 1961; No. 5026 Criccieth Castle on down Cornishman formed of chocolate & cream livery coaches between Olton and Solihull on 29 August 1961.

Michael B. Binks. Newhaven – the railway port. 612-18.
The port pre-dated the arrival of the London, Brighton & South Coast Railway in 1847 which developed it as a packet port for services to Dieppe. It is located at the mouth of the River Ouse and the original town was known as Meeching which constructed tidal mills for milling grain. The Newhaven to Dieppe route could be promoted as the shortest route between London and Paris, but this required fast vessels for the longer sea crossing and the LBSCR instigated improvements in paddle steamer design. The London & Paris Hotel opened in 1848 formed part of this strategy: it closed in 1958, Improvements were made to navigation which led to the Cut and Denton Island. The port was of considerable strategic significance in both WW1 and WW2. For a time Motorail services were provided to Newhaven, from as far away as Stirling. The Channel Tunnel has changed the pattern of shipping through the port. The article concludes with a description of the huge Sheer Legs which for a long time dominated the scene. Illustrations: aerial view of Newhaven Harbour c1932; maps of Harbour and railway from Lewes; D1 0-4-2T on Seaford train at Newhaven Harbour c1930 (NB hydraulic tower); Terrier 0-6-0T crossing old swing bridge with freight train including oil tanks; No. 32635 Brighton Works painted Stroudley yellow about to cross swing bridge; aerial view of Newhaven Harbour showing 'The Cut' looking out to sea c1932; Atlantic No. 2038 Portand Bill at Newhaven Marine station in 1930s; troops embarking for Normandy just after D-Day during WW2; Terrier shunting in Newhaven Yard in 1963 (reproduced from colour print); new swing bridge prior to opening c1973; 2-4-0 locomotive being loaded via sheer legs onto Cross-channel vessel en route to Paris exhibition. See also letters  on p. 765 from Stephen Abbott on dates when electric se4rvices started, and from Peter Swift and Edward Barnes on the 2-4-0 locomotive suspended from the sheer legs.

The View from the Tower [Blackpool Tower]. John Spencer Gilks (photographer). 619.
Colour photo-feature: on depressingly dull 28 May 1967 showing squalid resort with railway torn from its Central station and its approaches being used for car and motor coaches painted in ghastly colours and remoter North station barely visible in the gloom.

Geoffrey Skelsey, 'Where trains meet planes': aan outline of rail links to Britain's airports. 620-9.
It is claimed that Shoreham Airport was the first in Britain to have its own railway station albeit one renamed from Bungalow Town Halt; although the Airport terminal building survives the station closed in 1940 and has not been reopened. Croydon Airport was never rail connected although this was the London base for Railway Air Services Ltd (see Volume 21 p. 370 for LMS involvement): quotes the words of P.A. Harverson, Assistant Passenger Manager of the LNER on the desirability of the railways becoming involved in airlines, but the LNER could not afford to join the consortium formed by the other three main line companies in the mid-1930s and Skelsey argues that this decision can still be detected in the British pattern of internal air services. Prior to the Second World War sites for a new airport for London were  investigated. Fairlop was favoured by the Corporation of the City of London. Lullingstone was an ambitious plan to locate a new airport above the Darenth Valley. This was a fog-free location and the Southern Railway built a substantial station to the south of Eynsford Tunnle to serve as a junction for a branch to the airport and for proposed housing: neither project survived WW2 and the station was demolished in 1955.  Illustrations: Lullingstone entry from ABC Timetable for February 1940 showing ticket prices for travel to London stations; 1930s map of Gatwick race course, but with airport omitted for security reasons; schematic map showing rail-air links to Heathrow. Other pre-WW2 developments included the development of flying boat services from Southampton Water to South Africa and the Far East, These were served by through carriages from Waterloo, but from 1938 by special trains from an Imperial Airways Terminal adjacent to Victoria Station. WW2 interupted these services, although some trains served special flights from Poole Harbour. Pre-WW2 plans included proposals for Bennie monorail links from Central London to the airports at Croydon and Heston. Post-war sites for the main London and subsidiary airports continue to arouse interest, but the main site has been at Heathrow which was slow to attract rail access. The link to Melsbroek Airport to Brussels opened in 1955 may have assisted British thinking, but the Piccadilly Line extension from Hounslow did not open until December 1977 (KPJ: incidentally the cut & cover section along the Great West Road incorporates rubber bearings to limit noise and vibration to the adjacent housing) . Further extensions were required to link to Tertminals 4 and 5. In 1998 Heathrow Express began to operate from Paddington via a new branch from Airport Junction near Hayes. So far rail links to the lines south of the Airport near Feltham and to Reading have failed to materialise: the latest was known as Airtrack. London City Airport is linked to the Docklands Light Railway.. Manchester Airport has train departures for a wide range of destinations, a feature it shares with Birmingham. Other regional airports are less well served: Scotland has had to shelve projects to link Edinburgh and Glasgow airports to the railway network due to the parlous state (financial and structural) of the Forth Road Bridge. On the other hand Sothend has succeeded at long last to link its air-strip to the adjacent railway line.
Illustrations: Gatwick Airport station c1939; Gatwick Racecourse station c1934; map RAS services (colour: NB absence of services in Eastern England); Gatwick Airport station in 1958; Lydd Town station adjacent to Ferryfield Airport for flights to La Touquet; Southampton Airport station in 1967 (caption notes on site of Atlantic Park Hostel); Tees-Side Airport station in 1972; Fairlop station in 1956; Gatwick Express powered by Class 73 208 Croydon 1883-1983 in InterCity livery with train in Gatwick Express livery near Coulsdon in 1998 (J.D. Cable: colour): Class 73 No. 6006 painted blue with flashes off pick-up shoes hauling Pullman set with Alexei Kosygin en train from Gatwick to Victoria passing East Croydon in February 1967 (C.J. Gammell: colour); Stansted Express liveried Class 323 at Stansted Airport in August 1991; Class 317 on up Stansted Express working at Bethnal Green in September 2000 (J.D. Cable: colour): light rapid transit system Tyne & Wear Metro car at Newcastle Airport in Aproil 2000; Shoreham Airport terminal building in 2011 (John Haggar); entry for Lullingstone station from ABC Timetable for February 1940; map from 1930s not showing Gatwick Airport for security reasons; diagram of railway stations with bus links to London airports. See also excellent series on original terminal buildings at Gatwick in Archive Nos. 9 and 10 (both by John King). See also letter on page 701 from W.M. Tollan on Paisley tram link to Abbotsinch. Stephen G. Abbott letter on p. 765 adds two further rail-linked airports (Belfast City and Ronaldsway) and notes that the north east spur to Stansted Airport was reduced to a statutory train between 1993 and 1998, but is now served by an hourly service to Birmingham (and hopefully a future service to Norwich KPJ).

Ken Livermore. To Scotland for steam – August 1962. 630-6.
Essentially a departure for Backtrack in that this is an account of a shed bashing trip made mainly by bicycle and staying in Scottish Youth Hostels. He acknowledged that they were fortunate to obtain shed permits from the Scottish Region for almost of the sheds visited (KPJ: probably initialled by my Dad). They were too late to find any steam engines at Inverness and there were only two remaining at Oban. Certain locomotives were seen more than once as the two fifteen year olds made their way around Scotland. Trains were sometimes used to reduce the nileage to be cycled: Tyndrum to Oban and from Langholm to Carlisle. The return journey between Euston and Carlisle. Illustrations (not taken on jaunt): Jubilee No. 45661 Vernon on Glasgow to Carlisle stopping tain at Abington in August 1962 (colour); BR Standard class 5 No. 73107 at St Rollox shed on 26 July1962 (Michael G. Harvey); Horwich 2-6-0 No. 42751 and 4F 0-6-0 No. 43893 with tender cab at Carlisle Kingmoor in June 1962 (colour); J36 No. 65288 with minimalist freight at Saughton Junction, Edinburgh in 1962; No. 72005 Clan Macgregor under coaling tower at Perth in June 1962 (colour: Hugh Ramsey): Class 4 2-6-4T No. 80126 with 09.56 Killin to Killin Junction in August 1962 (colour); Biringham RCW Type 2 No. 5357 with passenger train at Ballachulish on 10 August 1962; N15 0-6-2T No. 69204 outside Thornton Junction shed in April 1962; No. 60034 Lord Faringdon levaing Forth Bridge with nortbound fitted freight.

Readers' Forum. 637-8.
Montrose to Bridge of Dun and Brechin. Editor
Photograph p532 lower depicts Montrose East station in 1960 (courtesy Stations UK), not as captioned.

An unenviable reputation for accidents. John Macnab
The Goswick accident on 26 October 1947: the locomotive LNER A3 Pacific No.66 Merry Hampton was the same locomotive, as No. 2565, derailed at Cramlington a few miles to the south by striking coal workers on 10 May 1926. Both trains involved happened to be Flying Scotsman services. Amongst the carriages destroyed in the 1947 accident was LNER articulated triple dining cars Nos. 1419/20/21, RF/Kitchen/RT, built in 1928 as one of two similar sets in what was known as the 'Louis XIV' style (or 'White Allom' after the designer Sir Charles Allom) and put into service on the Flying Scotsman workings from October of 1928 until the outbreak of WW2 in 1939.

Swindon and valve gears. L.F.E. Coombs 
A.C. Baker mentions, in his letter on rotary cam valve gears the de Glehn compound system. It should have been written that the de Glehn arrangement placed the low pressure cylinders inside and the high pressure outside. This was the more usual disposition of the cylinders; particularly in France. However, the PLM went its own way and placed the LP cylinders outside.

William Hedley and the Wylam Waggonway. Mike Zanker 
The drawing of the Wylam 'Grasshopper' on page 424 seems to differ from the description in the text, which states that it was a single cylinder machine, whereas the drawing appears to show two cylinders. The source of this drawing is not given; however, an identical illustration appears on page 11 of The Evolution of the Steam Locomotive by G. A. Sekon (1899) which can be downloaded from drawing is titled "Hackworth's 'Wylam Dilly' Generally Known as 'Puffing Billy'." Incidentally, the commonest explanation of the term 'Grasshopper', as used in many locomotives and beam engines, appears to refer to the beams resembling a Grasshopper's hind legs, rather than the jerky motion of the engine as described in the article.

It began with 'Turbomotive'. Joseph Cliffe 
Writer knew Stanier when Stanier was chairman of Power Jets Ltd., where writer was working on gas turbine design in the 1960s. Stanier was delighted that among the Farnborough 'technocrats' there was someone who knew who he really was and of his work on the LMS. Stanier strongly believed that the 'Turbomotive' was the way forward and he told me he would have built 50 more of them given the chance and reorganised Crewe Works to deal with the turbine repairs.
The steam turbine could take full advantage of higher pressures and temperatures without the condensation losses inherent in reciprocating drives and were superior to compounding and poppet valves in this respect. One secret of the LMS 'Turbomotive' was in having a 15 stage reaction turbine, with high efficiency over a wide speed range. Other turbine locomotives had used impulse turbines with a limited speed range, including the later PRR 6-8-6 locomotive No.6200, which proved to have a very high steam consumption at low speeds with a Westinghouse 5 stage impulse turbine.
A future 'Turbomotive' would not have had a reverse turbine, the Achilles heel of turbine locomotives; instead a reversing shaft, with synchronised splined coupling to engage reverse gear with the main turbine, would have been adopted. Thus full power in reverse would have been available. This is similar to that fitted to the later GT3 gas turbine locomotive. Much of its drive gear was otherwise based on that of No. 6202. Large diameter coupled wheels are not necessary with a geared turbine drive and no more than 5ft wheels would suffice as an eight- or ten-coupled locomotive. Additionally it would have had perfect balancing with no hammer blow.
Latter-day BR opinion, however, favoured Caprotti valve gear, mainly on account of much reduced valve examination periods rather than thermodynamic advantage. A disadvantage with poppet valve gears is the higher clearance volume due to the less direct steam ports and passages resulting from the valve disposition. This also applies to the Lentz gear and is a reason for the restricted passages on GWR No.2935 mentioned by Summers in his 'Rotary cam gears at Swindon' article in the same BT issue. Poppet gears can run at lower cut-offs due to high clearance volume but whether this results in better efficiency is debatable.
The Rugby plant tested a 'Crab' 2-6-0 No. 42824 in 1954, fitted with RR infinitely variable rotary cam gear, and in comparison with the piston valve No.42725 It was found there was no economy in coal or water with the RC gear; in fact they were somewhat worse.
A similar conclusion was reached at Rugby with a D49 No. 62764 also with RR gear, despite having a delayed exhaust valve opening, a feature which No.71000, now with an extra cam, is said to have. The very low steam consumptions measured on No.71000 at 90mph are dubious. Tony Sterndale, a member of the Swindon test team, told me that the figures were based on sand, as the high speed powers were obtained by untrustworthy heat drop measurements and not by indicators. At similar steam rates, temperatures and exhaust pressures there was little advantage over the BR Class 7.

It began with 'Turbomotive'. Allan C. Baker
The photograph captions are misleading where they refer to the casing on the left-hand footplate housing the forward turbine. It is the casings below the footplating that housed the turbines. On the left-hand side where the forward turbine was located, the circular aperture seen in the casing is the cover over the main turbine's outer bearing. The author is incorrect in claiming that the reverse turbine drove via a separate gear train – it did not. There was. however, an additional reduction gear between that turbine and the main drive chain, the latter serving both turbines. This was in view of both the smaller power output of this turbine and the lower speeds required for the locomotive in reverse. There was an interlocking arrangement to ensure that steam could not be applied to the forward turbine, once the reverse one was engaged, via the dog-clutch arrangement the author mentions. Unlike forward running, in reverse drivers were instructed to open all three of the steam valves and drive the locomotive on the main regulator. The final drive ratio for the forward turbine was 34.4 to 1 and the reverse 77 to 1. The forward turbine had sixteen stages, a combination of velocity compounding, impulse and reaction stages while the reverse one was an straight forward impluse turbine. The reverse turbine gave a lot of trouble in the engine's early days and there were several failures. Between September 1935 and May the following year several modifications were undertaken and in view of complaints about the engine's difficulty in, for example, propelling its empty train out of the platforms at Euston and up Camden bank, its power output was increased. One can hardly liken the oil provision in the turbine gear drive casing with the Bulleid Pacifies' inside chain driven Walschaerts valve gear, as any turbine driving through a gear train will have such an arrangement, as indeed will any gearbox – just like a car! Mention is made that the boiler produced steam at a maximum of 250psi and a temperature of 650° This is not strictly correct as the laws of thermodynamics are such that steam pressure and temperature are directly linked, such that at 250psi the temperature would be 402.6° F. It was the superheater that increased the temperature. The same laws tell us that it is impossible to raise the temperature of steam above a predetermined level unless it is removed from its source – water. Likewise, it is impossible to increase its pressure once it has been removed from its source. Superheaters, while raising the temperature of steam, will also see a drop in its pressure. With the later 40 element triple flow superheater, the average temperature when the engine was working hard was around 680°F.
The term rapidly whirling components in connection with the running gear is hardly a suitable engineering term and mention that the design of the engine all but eliminated hammer blow is incorrect. It is the out of balance forces in the wheel sets when balancing of the reciprocating parts that causes hammer blow on the track and with no reciprocating parts and therefore none to balance, this locomotive delivered no hammer blow on the rails at all.
Incidentally, during my apprenticeship at Crewe North MPD I worked with several fitters who had been involved with the locomotive in one way or another. I never once heard it referred to as 'The Turbomotive'; they always referred to its as either 'The Turbine' and just 'The Turbo'. This led me to believe that the term 'Turbomotive' was one used predominantly in enthusiast, rather than professional, circles. It was the practice for a fitter to travel with the engine at all times. There were several reasons for this, not least that if there were perturbations in the service for whatever reason and the crew had to be relieved, there was the possibility of untrained men having to be used. There was also the need to keep the oil circulating pump for the turbine running after the engine had arrived on the shed to allow for the oil to cool down. Fitters were not subject to such strict hours of duty as footplatemen! ,One of the fitters I worked with, Tiggy Brearton (I never did know his Christian name, but he was always known as Tiggy!), although a Crewe man where the engine was never allocated, was one of a few men trained at other depots on the engine's regular route, to be available to cover any out of course eventualities, annual leave, sickness and the like. He told me his most outstanding memory was the oil consumption of the forward turbine and gear case and the need to top it up at the end of each journey and for this reason a supply of the correct grade of oil was kept on the footplate. Photographs do exist showing this process being undertaken while the engine was standing at Euston and Liverpool Lime Street!
Incidentally, the Ljungstrom-type turbine locomotive to which the author refers operated by the LMS on the Midland main line in 1926-1927 (not 1928 as the author states), was a private venture between the Swedish manufacturer of the turbine and the Manchester-based locomotive builder Beyer, Peacock & Co. The LMS did no more than provide on-line testing facilities although the locomotive did haul revenue-earning trains.

More Western branch line wanderings. Howard Burchell 
I was interested to see the photograph on p491 of the August 2012 issue of No.78008. The caption says that the locomotive "shuffles along the sidings at Shipston-on-Stour". With my brother I spent many family holidays with at Shipston when I was a boy. Watching the train on its two visits per week, and chasing it on our bicycles on its journey back to Moreton, was one of the highlights of our stay there. There were nine level crossings on the nine-mile branch, all operated by the train crew, so the train made slow progress and we could see it several times on its journey and help open and close the gates at some of the crossings. The train in the photograph has just arrived from Moreton-in-Marsh, The line in the right foreground leads behind tlie photographer to the former passenger platform, the one on the left to the run-round loop and two goods sidings. The train has stopped on partial entry to the loop and the locomotive has been uncoupled and is running forward – the buffer head of the first van in the train is clearly visible. The train crew and shunter will next have made use of gravity to begin the shunting of the train, as the line fell at about 1 in 120 towards the buffer stops, without using the other end of the run-round loop. The locomotive will have run into one of the sidings and the train of wagons been allowed to roll into the loop line or the other siding. The brake van will have then rolled into the platform line. Next the locomotive will have pulled wagons out of the sidings and they will have rolled back by gravity either on to the brake van to form the outgoing train or into the sidings as required. On the one occasion when I travelled on the train, with the Oxford University Railway Society on 11 February 1960, an extra brake van was added to the train for the Society's use, an inspector came with us and it was snowing. On that occasion the train ran into the platform line on arriving at Shipston and the locomotive ran round the train in the more conventional way.

Cambrian holidays. Robert Darlaston 
The popular misconception that Bala Junction station was only an interchange platform was no doubt encouraged by its absence from published timetables save for the footnote ''Passengers to and from Bala change at Bala Junction by most of the trains". But the Junction was accessible on foot and tickets were issued to the station. Writer has a second class single from Bala to Bala Junction, issued by BR(M) (ie printed after January 1963) with serial number 4970, suggesting that there was a fairly brisk demand. The fare was 3d. A curious feature of the service between Bala and the Junction was that the single carriage was sometimes propelled in one direction even if neither locomotive nor carriage was auto-fitted (as presumably 57XX photograph August issue, p465). Writer commented on the method of working and was told that it was permitted. From Bala Junction to Bala was only 55 chains – much the same as the current length of the Stourbridge Town branch. Dovey Junction station, an isolated spot surrounded by tidal marshes, has public access by a footpath running for about half a mile alongside the line from the A487 road near the site of Glandyfi station, but one doubts if it sees much use by bona fide passengers. A few years ago the National Rail website suggested an overnight wait at Dovey Junction if one sought an evening departure from, say, Birmingham to Barmouth. Sensibly, the web page now suggests the prospective passenger should wait at Machynlleth where the nocturnal amenities are somewhat superior!

August editorial – Going Digital. A.J. Mullay 
Sandy points out the dangers to authorship: full letter reproduced on separate page. Main thrust is the downside to digital publishing which makes publishers less likely to sponsor revised editions and exploit POD (print on Demand) instead. Also the danger of deflamatory views being published on Wikipedia.

August editorial – Going Digital. Michael R. Bailey
Full letter reproduced in on separate page. Writer notes that some books from the early railway era are now being digitised and made available free on line. There is now a vast amount of reference material available on line including the British Library's newspaper archive. Although archival material in national and County archives has to be researched at first hand, the availability of detailed catalogues on line is so very helpful in pursuing particular lines of research. The extraordinarily helpful Transport Archives Register (, which has been painstakingly assembled by the Railway & Canal Historical Society, may be used alongside the national Access to Archives (A2A) online catalogues for local collections around England and Wales, and the SCAN listings for Scotland. These sites have transformed research habits in recent years. Writer also refers to the Newcomen Society, its Transactions and a wide range of its activities.

Bedford North signal box. Rory Wilson.  
It was only the power frame at Bedford North signal box that came from Cannon Street, not the box structure; the frame had been part of an LMS order for work at Preston that did not proceed due to World War II. In 1957 it was in store at Crewe, but was loaned to the Southern Region following the fire at Cannon Street, being returned when Cannon Street signal box closed.

Book Reviews 638
The Original Bulleid Pacifics. John Scott-Morgan. Haynes Publishing, CPA ****
It is now more than 70 years since Oliver Bulleid's Channel Packet made its necessarily obscure debut eighteen months into the Second World War, but his 4-6-2s collectively, particularly in their original unorthodox, 'air smoothed' form, as covered by this book, still continue to generate new literature. This book competently tackles its subject from a purely practical point of view and does not seek to stir up further controversy, including first-hand accounts contributed by a former driver and fireman. It is particularly well illustrated with a fine choice of archival photographs, even including some rare 1940s colour. Some of these confirm the reviewer's long-held suspicion that aesthetically speaking the Bulleid 4-6-2s in their original 'brick-like' form lost something post-1947 following the suppression of the circular red 'Southern' plates on their smokebox doors, and the change from Southern to Great Western green with the attendant abandonment of the attractive triple yellow stripes which had run the length of the boiler casing. However, an ex-works 'Merchant Navy' in the short-lived and somewhat maligned British Railways dark blue livery must certainly have been a sight to behold.
Speaking of the boiler casing, it is surprising that no mention is made in the text that in the third to tenth 'Merchant Navies', in order to reduce their excess weight (over and above the original approved estimate), instead of sheet steel this was fabricated from asbestos board, which could be distinguished by horizontal beading which ran the length of the casing just above tire nameplates. This is clearly apparent in several of the illustrations without comment. It is also surprising that no reference is made either to the experimental fitting of a mechanical stoker to No.35005 Canadian Pacific, in 1949, which constituted a first on a domestic British steam locomotive. The stoker actually proved to be extremely wasteful and although brief mention is made of the 1948 Locomotive Exchanges, some resulting data showing how the coal consumption etc of the participating Bulleid 4-6-2s compared with that of their ex-LMS, LNER, and GWR counterparts would have been welcome.
This book covers the 30 'Merchant Navy' and 110 'West Country'/'Battle of Britain' 4-6-2s as originally built between 1941 and 1951. A sequel is in prospect which will study the 90 4-6-2s which were rebuilt from these between 1956 and 1961, which is awaited with interest.

Noted at Newport: the 1.35pm Bristol Temple Meads-Cardiff (General) at Newport High Street on 7 July 1962. (Paul Strong). rear cover
Number of ash-coloured Hall not recorded

No. 11 (November 2012) Issue 259

The fireman of LSWR 02 0-4-4T No.22 Brading prepares to collect the single line token at Smallbrook Junction. (David Idle). front cover
The 16.10 Ryde-Ventnor on 1 August 1964; the signalman has placed his chair on the platform to enjoy the summer air between duties.

Jeffrey Wells. Prestigious schemes and public aversion. 643.
Guest Editorial. Concerted opposition to HS2 Ltd by the affluent southerners who do not wish the impoverished northerners better access to the capital

Oxford Gaudy. Dick Riley (photographer). 644-6.
Colour photo-feature: No. 4903 Astley Hall (plain black livery except lining on cab and splashers) on up express on 29 September 1956; No. 7007 Great Western at north end of station in May 1956; G2 0-8-0 No. 49287 on Bletchley to Hinksey freight on 29 September 1956 (note timber frame on leading open wagon): letter from Allan James (Vol. 27 p. 60) gives details of the working from Oxford South Yard to Fletton's Sidings; King Arthur class No. 30782 Sir Brian with through train to Southern Region with carmine & cream Gresley corridor coach at front on 29 September 1956; No. 6974 Bryngwyn Hall (lined greeen) on 17.35 to Paddington on 19 April 1956 (note first series streamlined railcar in carmine & cream livery in distance), and 2884 class No. 3803 on down freight at Hinksey South on 15 August 1959.

Jeffrey Wells. The Railways of Alnwick and Alnmouth 1845-1906. 647-55.
Based mainly on contemporary sources particularly newspapers published in or for Northumberland, Edward Churton's The railroad book of England published in 1851 (Ottley 7919); John Griffiths Alnwick published in 1897; G. and F. Bettes The story of Alnmouth and two relatively recent "railway books" Bartle Rippon's The Alnwick branch (Kestrel Railway Books) and Addyman and Mallon's The Alnwick & Cornhill Railway (NERA). The Newcastle & Berwick Railway had to contend with opposition from Earl Grey who sometimes resided at Howick Hall, but the Royal Assent was given on 28 June 1845 and this included a branch line to Alnwick: the difficult terrain precluded the main line from getting nearer than Alnmouth. Lesbury station, on the main line, opened in August 1847 and provided Alnwick with its initial access to the railway. The collapse of the Hudson financial empire delayed the opening of a branch line to Alnwick until 18 August 1850. Queen Victoria's train which was en route between the formal openings of the bridges across the Tyne and the Tweed stopped at Lesbury station on 31 August 1850 where she spoke to Earl Grey. The Alnwick & Cornhill Railway was engineered by T.E. Harrison and was supported by the Duke of Northumberland. A new station was constructed in Alnwick to accommodate the new line. Cornhill later became Coldstream. Illustrations: K1 No. 62011 at Alnwick prior to working 16.32 to Alnmouth on 12 March 1966 (colour: J.S. Gilks); interior of Alnwick station c1887; first train to Cornhill hauled by Fletcher? 0-4- 4T; D20 No. 62355 at Alnwick with 18.58 to Alnmouth and at Alnmouth with 19.14 to Alnwick on 9 September 1955 (H.C. Casserley); V2 No. 60836 at Alnwick on 19 May 1966 (colour: J.S. Gilks);

Howard Burchell. Some railway recollections 1900-1914. Part One. Lecture to the Cambridge University Railway Club on 24th November 1949 by the late Mr. R.E. Charlewood. 656-60.
Part 1 see page 466. Turns to Midland Railway Anglo-Scottish services which had been accelerated doue to the infuence of the Board member Lord Farrar of Foxwell and Farrar. The North British Railway demanded a form of financial guarantee for running non-stop services from Carlisle to Edinburgh to connect into their services which linked into services provided from King's Cross to Aberdeen. The GSWR did not attempt similar competion with the Caledonian Railway. The Great Central Railway introduced new competition, especially from 1903. It captured most of the traffic between Sheffield, Nottingham and Leicester  and attempted to capture some of the London to Leeds traffic via its three hour expresses from Marylebone to Sheffield which demanded higher speeds than had been timetabled before. Internal Scottish services were also accelerated as with the NBR Edinburgh to Aberdeen three hour timings. In late 1914 the Great Eastern Railway introduced a new timetable which attempted to compete with the Cambridge traffic from King's Cross by running fast services from St. Pancras. Illustrations: MR 4-4-0 Nos. 444 and 430 on southbound Anglo-Scottish express at Armathwaite c1910; Experiment 4-6-0 No. 1987 Glendower on 14.00 ex-Euston near Watford; Compound No. 1018 departing Manchester Central for St. Pancras on 30 June 1911; 140 Class (Dunalastair IV) 4-4-0 No. 923 departing Edinburgh Princes Street on 14.00 up Corridor; GCR 11A class 4-4-0 No. 852 on Neasden shed: colour (from postcards): Midland Railway St Pancras station interior; GCR Class 8B Atlantic on down express near Denham (F. Moore/LPC); T19 4-4-0 crossing Trowse swing bridge on express (LPC): see letter from Adrian Vicary on page 60 of next Volume: swing bridge at Oulton Broad not as stated.

Paul Joyce. Memories of the 'Lord Nelsons'. 661-7.
Footplate crews difficulties with firing long narrow grate: if not kept fed at front cold air came up through fire bars and entered tubes Bulleid's fitting of Lemaitre multiple exhaust. Driver Arthur Kemp and Fireman Len Holloway took over a Lord Nelson at Eastleigh with a black fire and had to stop at Micheldever for a blow up. Rodney Tizzard (see Backtrack, 19, 390) liked to work with Lord Nelsons. The rough riding locomotives tended to steam better, probably due to the coal being disturbed on the grate, Illustrations: No. E853 Sir Richard Grenville (with six-wheel tender) passing Orpington on 14.00 Victoria to Dover Marine boat train in 1929 (possibly with fireman Sammy Gingell looking out) (F.R. Hebron); No. 853 Sir Richard Grenville (with eight-wheel tender and smoke deflectors) passing Chelsfield on 16.00 Victoria to Dover Marine boat train in 1930/1 (F.R. Hebron); No. 858 Lord Duncan on down Dover boat train (H. Gordon Tidey); No. 850 Lord Nelson arriving Birchington on Sea in 1938 (H. Gordon Tidey); No. 852 Sir Walter Raleigh leaving Victoria with 14.00 boat train for Dover Marine on 11 July 1937 (John P. Wilson); No. 856 Lord St Vincent (with large diameter chimney) on down boat train; No. 850 Lord Nelson departs Waterloo with Basingstoke train in June 1954 (J.D, Mills); No. 863 Lord Rodney departs Bournemouth West with up parcels train on 30 August 1958 (K.L. Cook); No. 857 Lord Howe (with 5000 gallon flat-sided tender) at Stewarts Lane shed on 2 November 1931 (O.J. Morris); No. 30860 Lord Hawke ear Tilehurst station on inter-Regional train to South Coast.

Alistair F. Nisbet. Tea on the train. 668-71.
Tea as a meal has mixed connotations. In Scotland it is a substantial affair frequently accompanied by alcohol and served in the late afternoon and is often known as high tea. In England tea, usually prefaced by afternoon, was served mid-afternoon and is associated with cricket, nice cafes, and expensive manifestations in hotels in Central Lodon. It might involve sandwiches, toasted teacakes, scones and portions of cake or individuaL pastries. Restaurant cars working within Scotland served high teas. Elsewere, including on Anglo-Scottish services afternoon tea was served after lunch had concluded. The Nesbit family, like the Jones family, usually had sandwiches brought with them for lunch and went along to the dining car for afternoon tea which was modestly priced. Young Nesbit, like Kevin, found that the crew could be generous in the provision of cake to boys. Illustrations: A4 No. 60031 Golden Plover of Haymarket shed at King's Cross on down The Elizabethan (Derek Potton); triplet articulated restaurant car Nos. E1401, E1402 and E1403 at Doncaster on 30 May 1959; west end of Edinburgh Waverley viewed from The Mound with A4 moving to take up southbound working (Brian Connell) see letter from George Moon on p. 60 (Volume 27) which deduces that locomotive was No. 60034 Lord Faringdon; J83 No. 68474 at east end of Edinburgh Waverley (actoing as station pilot) (Brian Connell); Gresley kitchen/restaurant car at Oxford on Newcastle to Bournemouth working on 3 May 1957 (R.M. Casserley); down The Elizabethan approaching Peterborough North hauled by No. 60011 Empire of India (Eric Sawford); table set for luncheon on Severn Valley Railway (former LMS vehicle!). W.M. Tollan (Volume 27 page 60) records that the main hotel in Forres used to serve high tea which was very popular with airman recruits from RAF Kinloss. John Macnab (Volume 27 page 60) comments on the rolling stock used for the non-stop workings and on the Gresley kitchen/restaurant car photographed at Oxford. See also letter from Mike Whitley on 125 of next Volume.

High Season on the Isle of Wight. David Idle (photographer). 672-4.
Colour photo-feature (all O2 class as modified for Isle of Wight operation): W30 Shovell near Smallbrook Junction with 10.42 Ryde to Ventnor on 1 August 1964; W18 Ningwood leaving Wroxall with 14.25 Ryde to Ventnor on 2 August 1964; W20 Shanklin banking train out of Cowes on 3 August 1964 (Editor notes that locomotive was unseen train engine and the banker was  No.W24 Calbourne); W38 Bonchurch leaving Ventnor on 10.40 to Ryde on 31 July 1964; W16 Ventnor 14.40 on coal train from Medina Wharf to Ryde motive power depot on 30 July 1964; W30 Shovell leaving Ashey with 18.30 Ryde to Cowes on 30 July 1964; W22 Brading at Smallbrook Junction with 16.10 Ryde to Ventnor on 1 August 1964.  

Mike Beale. The summer of '62: commemorating the 50th aanniversary of the final express passenger services over the Somerset & Dorset Railway. 675-80.
1962 marked the end of through trains from the north to Bournemouth and other destinations over the steeply graded route from Bath over the Mendip Hills. A table on the concluding page attempts to record all of these Saturday workings and the motive power, or motive power combinations used. For the final weekend 9F No. 92220 Evening Star was borrowed from Cardiff Canton. Driven by Peter Smith and fired by Aubrey Punter it hauled 426 tons unassisted on the nortbound working and 423 tons on the southbound Pines Express when driven by Peter Guy and fired by Ron Hyde. It was worked so hard up the 1 in 50 to Combe Down Tunnel that the fire doors jammed, but arrival at Evercreech Junction was 9 minutes early.  Alan Hireson (letter Volume 27 p. 60) points ot an error in the fianl part of the text No. 44659 not 44859 worked final northbound Pines Express out of Bath Green Park. Illustrations (all colour by J. Woods): 2P No. 40563 and West Country No. 34041 Wilton at Evercreech Junction on 25 July 1959; Class 4 4-6-0 No. 75033 and No. 34043 Combe Martin on southbound Pines Express leaving Chilcompton Tunnel on 25 August 1962; 7F 2-8-0 No. 53809 climbing 1 in 50 between Radstock and Midsomer Norton with 07.35 Nottingham to Bournemouth West on 25 August 1962; 7F 2-8-0 No. 53806 and Class 4 4-6-0 No. 75009 on 07.00 Cleethorpes to Exmouth at Morewood Sidings on 25 August 1962; 9F 2-10-0 No. 92210 passing Evercreech New signal box with 08.40  Bournemouth West to Derby on 4 August 1962; BR Class 5 Nos. 73054 and 73052 working 09.08 Birmingham to Bournemouth West on 1 in 50 gradient between Radstock and Midsomer Norton on 25 August 1962; BR Class 4 4-6-0 No. 75009 and 9F No. 92001 on 09.45 Bournemouth West to Manchester passing through Radstock North on 25 August 1962; 9F No. 92220 Evening Star on Bournemouth West to Bath local at Evercreech Junction on 8 September 1962

Gobowen. Steve Burdett (photographer). 681
Colour photo-feature: Sprinter unit No. 150 136 on Chester to Shrewsbury working on 6 May 1986 (note semaphore signals and coal traffic in yard); No. 31 271 on empty hopper wagons returning to Blodwell Quarry via Oswestry also on 6 May 1986; Exterior of station on 21 May 1980

A.J. Ludlam. Mablethorpe at War. 682-3.
Brief notes on the involvement of Mablethorpw in both WW1 and WW2. During WW1 Lincolnshire was subject to Zeppelin attacks and on one such raid the searchlight caught the airship in its beam, but the gunner refused to fire due to the absence of his commanding officer in the pub. During WW2 pupils from Louth Grammar School were permitted to travel on the 15.47 to London as far as Willoughby. A hit and run German aircraft machine gunned the 08.20 ex-Mablethorpe, but this did not cause any injuries. No locomotives were stationed at Mablethorpe as it was considered to be too vulnerable and all had to return to Boston. Illustrations (none of which relate to either war): arrival of train which appears to be composed of six-wheel carriages with crowds of holidaymakers during LNER period; D2 No. 4371 with passenger train at station (pre-1932): postcard view; A5 No. 69803 with former GNR articulated set arriving from Louth on 13 September 1954; DMU on 13.20 to Boston on 16 May 1970; Class 4 2-6-0 No. 43142 with train from Louth and schoolgirls alighting.

North Eastern. 684-7.
Black & white  photo-feature: North Eastern Raven Pacific No. 2400 at King's Cross in June 1923 whilst on tests against Gresley Pacific (note large gauge on smokebox); G5 No. 67250 leaving Selby with push & pull service to Goole in October 1948 (note 12-wheel driving trailer – auto-trailer); Class Y (A7) 4-6-2T No. 69771 (lettered BRITISH RAILWAYS) at Darlington shed in June 1948; J21 0-6-0 approaching Eden Valley Junction with 09.30 ex-Penrith for Darlington on 14 June 1950 (Eric Bruton); ; Z class No. 2196 leaving York for Newcastle in September 1923; Q6 (not Q7 as per caption) 0-8-0s Nos. 63345, 63418 and 63427 on Consett shed on 20 May 1961 (Alan Tyson) see Editorial comment on Q7/Q6 recognition; J25 No. 65685 with a trip goods at York in 1950s; J72 No. 69016 (built under BR) on station pilot duty at York on 6 August 1960; A6 No. 69796 on level crossing at Botanic Gardens, Hull c1952 (note cyclists and trolleybus wiring). 

Keith Hill. Rails beneath the Solent. 688-91.
See also earlier feature on Lymington branch by same Author. Proposals for a railway tunnel under the Solent began with a Charles Vignoles in 1871 when trial borings were made. A shaft was sunk at Stone Point and in 1878 Hamilton Fulton proposed a two mile long tunnel to Gurnard Bay, west of Cowes. In 1886 there was a proposal to construct a tunnel from Stokes Bay to Ryde. Frank Aman wished to develop Totland Bay and advanced the South Western & Isle of Wight Junction Railway from a junction off the Lymington branch to a Y-junction with the Freshwater Yarmouth & Newport Railway. This included a two-mile long tunnel and the Royal Assent was granted on 26 July 1901; subsequently time extensions were granted. The engineers were P.W. & C.S. Meik. Aman persisted with the proposed tunnel after WW1 and the author notes Fred Turton's book A Solent Tunnel? (see Ottley entry 1899) and notes "proposed tunnel" on Ordnance Survey maps. C.F. Dendy Marshall proposed a form of atmospheric railway (no reference given). Linkland plc made a more recent proposal, but the concept now seems dead. Illustrations: Souther Railway paddle steamer Whippingham on Portsmoth to Ryde service on 19 August 1937 (colour: Sydney Perrier); LSWR advertisement for Lymington route; Lymington Pier station on 3 September 1952 (H.C. Casserley); Lymington harbour with Pier station on 19 May 1963 (colour: J.S. Gilks); Lymington Pier station with MV Cenwulf and slam-door EMU in May 1992 (colour: J.S. Gilks).

Irish 0-6-0s. Roy Coles, photographs; captions by David Mosley. 692-3.
Black & white  photo-feature: rebuilt 101 class with superheated Z-type boiler leaving Limerick with freight train for Mungret branch; preserved rebuilt 101 class No. 186 at Ballymena on first outing in preservation in May 1967: see letter from J.A. Cassells on p. 60 of next Volume; No. 229 in original condition leaving Limerick with 11.15 mixed train to Foynes; GS&WR 257 Class No. 258 at North Wall in Dublin in June 1961; 249 class No. 250 on express friom Cork at Youghal; 249 class No. 351 at Wexford on 21 June 1958: see also letter from J.A. Cassells on p. 60 of next Volume.  

Adrian Tester. An introduction to steam locomotive testing. 694-9.
Traces the origins of what was to become thermodynamics from its origins through Carnot to the Rankine cycle via Benjamin Thomson (later known as Count Rumford), James Prescott Joule and Gustave Hirn. Makes it clear that early engine builders were unaware of the theory which was developing around them and that empirical advances were introduced by Trevithick and other Cornish engine builders to increase power and reduce the consumption of expensive fuel. Aleksandr Borodin was probably the first to test a locomotive on a stationary plant.
Nevertheless. for several decades it was believed that the necessary data could only be obtained from one of the various methods of road testing. Hence the validity of Mr. O. Bullied's observation: "On the general question of testing locomotives, he had always been entertained by the fact that in France there were two completely hostile schools. There were the engineers in charge at Vitry, who were convinced that Vitry provided the only way in which to carry out tests, and there was M. Chapelon, who was quite certain that the results with the Vitry plant were most misleading and deceptive. When, therefore, the testing plant at Rugby was finished, the best thing would be to have Rugby plus the counter-pressure, and, probably better still, the electric braking agent, complementary one to the other." The fact that scientific-based road testing avoided the need for an expensive and sophisticated testing station was no doubt an additional spur, although a surprising number of stationary plants were built, albeit the majority were in America. Then, near the very end of steam traction, in its twilight years, it was found that the two methods were more complementary than rivals. Nevertheless, some of the suspicions about the suitability and accuracy of the two methods remained in some quarters at least, until the very end. The author does not state where O.V.S. Bulleid made the quoted comment..

Mairhead Mahon. Poets and railways. 700.
William Wordsworth and John Ruskin were the greatest critics of railway construction, especially in the Lake District. Alexander Anderson is known as the Railway Poet and there is a plaque in his honour at Kirkconnel station where he worked as a railwayman. Adlestrop by Edward Thomas is famous, but the station is no longer there. The poem was the subject of a Backtrack article in 2000, Vol. 14, page 609 (and letters based thereon) and an article by Mike Christensen in Railway Archive (Number 22 page 47) described and illustrated the station. Thomas Hardy wrote several poems inspired by railways: The Levelled Churchyard" relates to the period when he was overseeing the removal of bodies for the construction of St Pancras Station; Faint Heart in a Railway Train is also mentioned, but there are also several others. John Betjeman wrote many railway poems, but this brief article notes one short documentary on the pleasures of a journey frpom King's Lynn to Hunstanton. Illustrated with a portrait of Thomas Hardy and the John Benjeman statue at St. Pancras. List of some anthologies which include poetry. Letter from Robert Emblin (next Volume page 60) notes Wordsworth's double standards when applied to railway investment.

Readers' Forum. 701.

British Railways and steam locomotives. Keith Chester
The oft-repeated story of a frustrated Riddles pushing through a huge programme in order to be able to design his own steam locomotives never quite rang true and thanks to Gibbins we now have a more than plausible account of what really happened, a story placed into its historical context, with its facts well marshalled and analysed. This is what railway history should be.
Perhaps somebody could elucidate in similar vein on something which has long puzzled me and that is why BR rid itself so wantonly and abruptly of its steam fleet. Not only were modern locomotives of sometimes no more than five years' service sent, highly uneconomically, to the scrap yard but, as Mr. Gibbins indicates, the replacement diesels were all too often not up to much. And why did BR not follow the path taken by most of its nationalised counterparts in Europe: retaining steam, often in firstclass main line service, until the electrification of the key main and secondary routes could be funded? The use of the Bulleid Pacifies on the SR until the 1967 seems to have been the UK exception to the Continental rule.

British Railways and steam locomotives. Kevin P. Jones
Gibbins, like many lovers of the steam locomotive, questions its rapid demise. Nevertheless, he fails to note several key factors: the severe coal shortage, the growing intolerance of smoke pollution in cities and the dreadful working conditions (as shown in the colour photograph of Croes Newydd shed in the same issue). Although Wolmar relies heavily upon Terry Gourvish it is perhaps relevant to record what Gourvish actually wrote in his official history of British Railways.
It is quite clear that Riddles carried his enthusiasm for steam much too far. First, his decision not only to persist with this form of traction but to embark on a series of completely new designs made little sense when the locomotive exchanges of 1948 had demonstrated the flexibility of many of the existing company types. Second, it seemed illogical to allow the Western Region to continue its acquisition of steam shunting locomotives when the case for diesels was universally accepted. No fewer than 293 were added to stock in the years 1948- 53 and a further 50 were introduced in 1954-6. Finally, the decision not to proceed with a full-scale trial of diesel traction may be questioned. Almost immediately after taking office the Executive abandoned the LNER's plan to introduce 25 1,600hp units for trials on the King's Cross to Edinburgh service, an idea which was taken up subsequently by the Executive's own committee on alternative forms of motive power in 1951 and endorsed by Hurcomb and the Commission.
The Executive was quicker to investigate the feasibility of using lightweight diesel units on branch lines and cross-country services. With the encouragement of Pope and Elliot a special committee was appointed in August 1951, but the combination of a lack of enthusiasm in railway circles and a disagreement with the Commission over the selection of test areas delayed the project. Riddles's attitude was demonstrated by his request for a concurrent experiment with steam push-pull units. It was not until the last months of the Executive's life that firm plans were established for the introduction of diesel units in specified areas. Undoubtedly, the effect of the general procrastination was to shift most of the costs of technical transition into the years of the Modernisation Plan. NB a longer version of the extract from which this was taken is available on the Riddles page.
My father, Frank Jones, who worked in Public Relations on the Scottish Region, considered that it was the Royal Household which wished No.46202 to be eliminated as the association of Princess Anne with the dreadful accident at Harrow & Wealdstone was unacceptable.

Under the Woodhead wires. Chris Jones-Bridger.
Picture on p558 of No.76 037 hauling eastbound freight at Torside on the Woodhead route: caption refers to the train being formed of empty coal hoppers. This is not so as the vehicles were covered hoppers or 'Covhops'. The formation and condition of the vehicles would indicate the service being 8E08 TFO Oakleigh ICI (Northwich) to Barnby Dun (near Doncaster) conveying soda ash for Rockware glass. Following the closure of the Woodhead Route the service was diverted with through diesel haulage via Diggle. In turn this traffic on this block service was conveyed as part of was a daily Speedlink working (6E26) routed via Ashburys, Healey Mills and Knottingley to Doncaster Belmont when the 'Covhops' were replaced by air-braked tank wagons.

Under the Woodhead wires. Andrew Kleissner.
Questions whether No. E26025 at the top of p557 is really painted in 'rail blue' livery? A comparison with No. E26027 behind suggests that it is a slightly lighter shade; and I would question whether 'rail blue' would be used together with the older styles of BR logo and numbers.
One suggestion is that the locomotive might, in fact, be painted in the 'electric blue' shade (as applied to the AL Class electrics on the West Coast Main Line). However, an interesting discussion on the '' website includes this comment by a contributor, apparently with local knowledge: "I was told by Joe Metcalf, ex Shift Foreman at the depot, that the painter 'Mixed his own colours'. Later, though, I was told it was an adaptation by Reddish of the Nanking Blue from the Blue Pullmans; these were based at Reddish at that period. If you study lots of photographs there seems to be a difference in the colours between BR Blue & the Reddish Blue then adopted."

Under the Woodhead wires. Alan Whitehouse.
Severity of gradient at Glasshouse Crossing: the gradient there was no more than around 1 in 100. It was almost three miles further along, at Wentworth Junction, that the gradient steepened to 1 in 40 that was sustained for over two miles and included two tunnels on a severe curve. It was at this point that the two banking engines just visible at the far end of the MGR train in Hugh Ballantyne's picture became necessary. Of equal interest is the diminutive Glasshouse Crossing box: two people inside it constituted a crowd and a signalman of my acquaintance once remarked that if you knitted sleeves into it, you could wear it! It is always good to see new images of this pioneering electrification scheme, particularly of the more neglected Wath branch of the system where overhead line equipment, semaphore signals and manual, gated level crossings created a unique piece of railway.

Where trains meet planes. W.M. Tollan 
Scotland had a little curiosity of its own: Paisley and District Tramways had established a single line electric tramway from Paisley (County Square), via Old Sneddon Street, Love Street and Inchinnan Road to Abbotsinch. This service, and system, were acquired by Glasgow Corporation Tramways in 1923. The history of the present Glasgow Airport goes back to 1931 when the site at Abbotsinch, between the Black Cart Water and the White Cart Water, near Paisley was opened. The Royal Air Force 602 Squadron (City of Glasgow) Auxiliary Air Force moved its Wapiti IIA aircraft to Abbotsinch from nearby Renfrew in January 1933. The service to Abbotsinch was provided by a one-man operated ex-Paisley electric converted horse car single-decker No.72 until 1933 when it was replaced by double-deck buses. So can Scotland claim the United Kingdom distinction of once having an airport served by electric tramway? Even if for only those two years? In recent times there have been suggestions that Glasgow's busy airport might be reconnected by heavy rail, but that plan was rejected as being too expensive and a light rail link to Glasgow Central station and perhaps on to Queen Street station has been mooted. See further letter in next Volume page 60 from Robert Bushby on tram connection to Squires Gate for Blackpool Airport: this lasted until 1961, but the airport is still railway-served.

Montrose to Bridge of Dun and Brechin branches. Bob Drummond 
Alistair Nisbet expressed surprise in finding two Saturday lunchtime trains in summer 1948 branch timetable which ran non-stop between Montrose and Bridge of Dun. The full story of these workings becomes apparent, however, if the main line Glasgow-Aberdeen section of the timetable is consulted. The earlier train into Montrose was an Edinburgh Princes Street to Perth working which on Saturdays only was extended beyond Perth to Montrose, stopping at principal stations. On arrival in Montrose the stock formed the other train noted which ran in the reverse direction to Glasgow Buchanan Street, again stopping at principal stations. These trains were the remnants of a more extensive service which operated in pre-war years.

An Inca at Euston. Colin Divall. 
Hennessey slipped up slightly in describing F. A. Cortez-Leigh as a "graduate of Manchester University". Owens College became the first constituent of the federal Victoria University in 1880 (the other colleges being in Leeds and Liverpool), while the Victoria University of Manchester only emerged as an independent institution in 1903 (disappearing just a few years ago when it merged with UMIST to form the University of Manchester). The Institution of Civil Engineers' obituary was thus quite sensible, if strictly speaking wrong, to describe Cortez-Leigh as a graduate of Owens.

Taking the West Highland line. Tom Adam 
The Rannoch Moor is a 'wild and lonely place', indeed it is. In this case (July issue) it appears to have affected the caption writer's sense of direction! The signalwoman is not in any way a 'porter' This was a man and wife job. Jimmy and Helen Michie arrived from Glasgow around 1937 and along with various station masters manned Rannoch until the 1970s. Jimrny did the night/early turns and the station master filled in until Helen started about 1.30pm. Jimrny and Helen have  died, but are survived by their son who, is believed to live in New Zealand. The tablet she is about the exchange is for the section Rannoch-Currour (not Rannoch-Gorton). This is a posed shot because we normally exchanged the tablets outside the doors of the station building on either platform, under the canopy.

Book Reviews. 702.

Ferry Boat de Nuit 1936-1980 (Night Ferry 1936-1980). Chris Elliott and Eric Duvosleldt in co-operation with other named contributors, softback. International Railway Preservation Society, DWM ****
Text is in French and English in parallel columns down the page; captions to photographs are also bi-lingual. Gives a good, concise history of the Night Ferry – a subject which has received scant attention in recent years – and this history is illuminated by the recollections of some of those railwaymen who worked on the train. There is a thumbnail sketch of the history of the service, followed by descriptions of the motive power and carriages for the Night Ferry on both sides of the Channel, the ships and the harbours, particularly at Dover and Dunkerque. There are also memories of some of those who served or travelled: a second man working out of Dover, a customs officer, a Wagons-Lits attendant, an engineer who served on the Twickenham Ferry and the Chartres and recollections by those who used the service. The book is splendidly illustrated in both colour and black and white, there are plans and posters a-plenty and the photographs of the maritime portion of Night Ferry activities are particularly well produced and appropriate. This is a well-produced if somewhat quirky book but the International Railway Preservation Society, at its base at the Nene Valley Railway, deserves success in its efforts to revive and restore the memory of the Wagons-Lits Company

LMS power – the 'Coronation' Class. Edward Talbot. Author. MB ***** .
This work is published as a companion to the author's The Coronation Scot, the streamlined era on the LMS (2002) and is presented as an illustrated survey of the 'Coronation' streamlined Pacifies; the non-streamlined ones and the post-war de-streamlined versions do not feature. After an introductory historical summary we get stuck into the pictures and what a superb collection they are, many new to this reviewer. The route from London to Glasgow is covered and all the well known locations are featured: Bushey troughs, Shap, Beattock et al. There are also many less familiar spots including the little-photographed Newbold and Moore troughs and a vantage point at Hest Bank, where the West Coast Main Line actually meets the West Coast for the only fleeting time, with the sea actually in view! There are some shed views, some demonstrating that while the streamlined casing might have looked 'flash' to the general public, it did make servicing more difficult for long-suffering fitters, some Royal Train duties and some excellent coverage of the Coronation Scot tour to America for the New York World's Fair in 1939. Amongst a few misadventures depicted, one illustrates a derailed No.6223 being pulled back on to the track by the combined efforts of no fewer than three engines - two 'Black Fives' and a 'Super D'! The author In his Introduction dismisses those who would criticise the shape of the LMS stream liners and suggests most observers would have said they still found them impressive even in plain wartime black. There I would take issue with him; whilst I concede that in blue and silver or red and gold they would certainly been eye-catching, evidence from the 'Wartime' section suggests to me that the streamliners looked pretty awful actually, especially in the customary grime of the period! Which brings us to the case of No.6229 Duchess of Hamilton, now preserved at the NRM as a red streamliner. This was the engine which (as No.6220 Coronation) toured the USA and stayed there until brought back in 1943. Talbot has noted that before its departure it only ever ran for a few weeks in this country and did so in 'photographic grey' livery in its correct identity. On its return, after a while it regained its original name and number, still in its pre-war red, and a photograph reveals that by then it was in pretty poor external condition. The locomotive as now exhibited thus bears no relation to what it appeared like at any point in its working existence! A little extra decoration on the icing comes in the form of eight pages of colour, offering the opportunity to present some superb colour paintings of both blue and red streamliners by such fine artists as Gerald Broom, Tom Connell and Barry Price. What more to say if, like me and the author, you appreciate the LMS Pacifies? A great Christmas present to give and to receive.

The Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway in Salford. Tom Wray. Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway Society. MB ****
The reviewer's grandfather was a staunch Salford man who always upheld its independence as a separate city which was not just a part of Manchester. In fact, as a place of substance it's actually older and Manchester was once a small hamlet adjacent to it; in railway terms it was in at the very start of the age. Salford underwent a massive growth in industry and population in the nineteenth century and under the LYR and its constituents an intensive railway network grew up to service its needs. There was a passenger station, of course, and others on the periphery but a great deal of Salford's rail activity came in the busy form of goods sidings, warehouses and a branch to the Manchester Ship Canal and the Trafford Park estate. The development and working of all these facilities in well described in text and in informative captions to a wealth of excellent photographs which capture the industrial intensity of the area. With such a profusion of lines, not surprisingly Salford was well furnished with signal boxes and a chapter deals with their workings, while another revealing section makes the point that in clearing property and often poor quality housing to make space for railway expansion, the L&YR provided a considerable amount of better houses and tenements ("artizans' dwellings") to replace them. Salford in general suffered decline in the 1960s and its railways were marked by a continuing closure of yards and depots. But in the 1980s things were on the up: the new Windsor Link was built to enable more trains to use Piccadilly station rather than Victoria; a new Salford Cresecent was opened at the interchange and the venerable Salford station 'proper' was refurbished imaginatively to emerge as 'Salford Central' while still combining some of the better architectural features of the L &R original. Reviewers have commented before on the excellent standard of many publications produced by some of the specialist railway societies and I can only echo that commendation.

Those railway people. G.T. Smith. Matador. RH **
Series of biographical essays covering railway history, c1820-today. Drawn in part from previously published items, uneven in treatment and quality. The approach can come off well, as in the chapter on Branwell Bronte, brother of the famous sister novelists, a station master whose sad decline and fall, fuelled by alcohol and drug abuse, reads like one of those sombre Victorian warning-tracts. The much-recorded West Sussex Railway appears twice, demonstrating the structural imbalances well. The better essay describes the life and work of a WSR family chiefly responsible for operating the drawbridge over the Chichester Canal. On the other hand, the chapter on Colonel Stephens, viewed through the prism of the WSR, is flat: the Colonel has but a walk-on part in spite of the rich seam of scholarship on the man now available to historians. Dr. Beeching's work gets a lambasting, although the man himself is another cardboard cut-out, briefly treated; his appearance rather inappropriately likened to Captain Mainwaring of Dad's Army: not so, Beeching was massively portly – and in spite of his quirks and errors, blessed with an unusually lucid, analytical mind. A pity that the rather juicier saga of the slippery Ernest Marples goes by default. There are other chapters also where the 'Railway Person' is rather lost behind detailed commentary, like that of Samuel Sidney, author of railway itineraries. Some of the subjects chosen are well known, eg Robert Stephenson - whose complex character nevertheless fails to make much of a mark in an otherwise neat chapter on the Stanhope & Tyne Railway. The author, a loyal son of the Hartlepools, describes the life and works of Thomas Richardson, locomotive builder on a small scale, but also pioneer of foundry work, shipbuilding and much else: Richardsons Westgarth was one of those names synonymous with heavy manufacturing in the days the UK did such things. Also, Charles Tennant early railway entrepreneur and thorn in the side of the Darlington Quakers, gets a welcome airing, although he is the subject of unwarranted speculation: he may have been a homosexual (he lived with his mother); his sexual orientation may have offended the Quakers, who therefore made life hard for him – but where is the evidence? The plain facts are quite engaging enough. A map would have greatly enhanced the many references to the early lines of Teesside and helped the pattern to cohere in a reader's mind. Some of the mis-spellings suggest uncertain editing or grasp of material: Consent (sic) Iron Company, Berkhampstead – possibly forgivable slips, but it was Richardsons (plural) Westgarth – and repeated references to Isombard (sic) Kingdom Brunel? The footnotes are clear and helpful and there is a short bibliography, although no index. A reasonably priced read which may introduce its purchaser to some fresh or thought-stimulating material but like the Stanhope & Tyne, of decidedly uneven structure. KPJ: not good enough to cite in biographical section.

Colour-Rail Catalogue No.20 MB
The Colour-Rail archive will need no introduction and its historic colour pictures will be familiar in the pages of Backtrack pretty well every month. Catalogue 20 has now been issued and continues to add to the wonderful availability of railway colour photographs. The catalogues grow in content with each issue and there are around 450 new slides made available in the latest 120 pages. It remains a source of both amazement and pleasure that new historic material continues to appear and the latest catalogue benefits in no small way from the work of one of the top colour photographers from the steam era, Trevor Owen, whose collection was recently acquired by Colour- Rail. Inevitably as time passes 'modern' traction features more and more but much of this has become soberingly historic. We should continue to be grateful to the previous and present owners of Colour-Rail for their mission to make colour photographs available to collectors and publishers, by now on a remarkable scale, on an affordable and user-friendly basis and as always the catalogue is thoroughly recommended.

Manoeuvres at Nottingham. Tommy Tomalin. rear cover
WD No. 90002 running round its coal train at Nottingham Victoria: view looking north into Mansfield Road Tunnel and Victoria North signal box.

Number 12 (December 2012) Issue No. 260

LNER V2 2-6-2 No.60883 is impatient to be on its way from Hawick with a southbound express freight over the Waverley Route in August 1958. Hawick shed is in the background. (Derek Penney). front cover
See also colour photo-feature pp. 736-9

Raw work at the baptismal font. Michael Blakemore. 707
Editorial comment on station name affixes. KPJ still cannot understand the hair breadth dtistinction between Canterbury East and West: surely North and South would be more appropriate. He was too late to arrive in Norwich when it was Thorpe to shop in Bond's (alias John Lewis). With Michael's northern background he mentions KPJ's still-to-be visited Oldham Mumps, although on bad days he used to exchange stations at Clegg Street for Central, and knew through no fault of his he would be late for school and suffer ths same fate as the late risers on the Oldham line. See also note on error on what Editor actually wrote regarding names of stations in Hastings & St.Leonards (with or without apostrophe?).

'Austerity' Package. 708-9.
Colour photo-feature from new Colour-Rail catalogue (all 2-8-0 unless specified otherwise: none with original WD numbers to confuse the inexperienced spotter): No. 90051 under sheer legs at Grantham shed in May 1962 (P.J. Hughes); 2-10-0 No. 90755 and J36 No. 65306 on Gramgemouth shed in June 1962 (J.P. Mullett0; No. 90006 at Markham on the East Coast Main Line with train of iron ore in September 1962 (P.J. Hughes); No. 90538 on Doncaster shed in September 1962 (P.J. Hughes); No. 90236 near Preston with tran of containers from Blackpool in May 1956 (T.B. Owen). 

Philip Atkins. How long and how far? [steam locomotive life expectancy]. 710-14.
Some 0-6-0 and 0-6-0Ts had extremely long lifes: in contrast the 9F 2-10-0s had their life terminated after a very short time. Locomotive life could be measured both in years, some individual small locomotives existed in service for nearly a century, and in terms of mileage: some achieved nearly 2 million miles in service, notably the original Gresley Pacifics and some achieved high mileages in a relatively short time. Webb's Charles Dickens is noted for achieving 2 million miles in twenty years. The New York Central 4-8-4 types were achieving nearly quarter of million miles per annum. Like Paddy's spade different parts of a locomotive could be replaced, and at very different rates: boilers, cylinders and frames could all be replaced, and many types (notably the Royal Scot class and Bulleid Pacifics) were extensively rebuilt. Most railway administrations had rules for establishing life expectancy, although no documentation has been discovered for that of the Great Western. The North Eastern Railway in a semi-official statement claimed the average life of a passenger locomotive to be 25 years; one year longer for a freight locomotive, and an extra two for shunting locomotives. A Doncaster memorandum dated 27 July 1949 stated that tyre life was 6 years; boiler life 12 years; cylinder life 15 years; frame life 20 years; crank axles 30 years and wheel centres 60 years. Certain Great Western boilers lasted for 40 years. The Lord Nelson class frames and boilers enjoyed long lifes. The London Midland & Scottish policy appears to have been based on the assumption that maintenance costx did not tend to increase with age. A lioke-for-like replacement was still being performed by the GWR at the time of Nationalizaation: vide the 51XX 2-6-2Ts and 16XX 0-6-0Ts, but the same policy was being followed on the remnant of the North Eastern with some J72 class 0-6-0T being delivered after Nationalization. See also letter from Nigel Whitwell expressing admiration for article and surprise on frame fractures in Gresley locomotives and Leader class as a M7 tank.

A.J. Mullay. The Tweed Valley's vanished railway. 715-19.
The Talla Railway was built in association with the construcion of a dam built near the Upper Tweed to serve the City of Edinburgh with potable water. The Talla Reservoir project was instigated in 1895 by the Edinburgh & District Water Trust and included the construction of a standard gauge railway from Broughton on the Caledonian Railway's Peebles branch to bring in materials for construction which included puddling clay from near Carluke, freestone from Craigleith north of Edinburgh and granitre from North Queensferry and white granite from Italy. The contractor was John Young of Edinburgh, but he failed in 1899 and John Best of Leith took over. Locomotives employed included a Peckett 0-6-0 tank Talla; a Hudswell Clarke 0-4-4T named Edinburgh and an 0-4-0ST from Ballchullish. A 3ft gauge called The Duke assisted with the construction of the main aqueducts. The opening ceremony took place on 20 May 1905 when two special trains were worked through from Edinburgh Princes Street to the Reservoir. Illustrations include visiting dignatories conveyed to railway terminus in West Coast Joint Stock (see letter from Philip A. Millard in next volume page 125), still extant remains of the railway; a train at the reservoir in September 1905 with marquees in the background; Peebles station (CR); Symington station

Mike G. Fell and R.A.S. Hennessey. Immingham 100: The port and its technology. Part One. 720-5.
The Humber Commercial Railway & Dock Act was obtained in 1904 as a prelude by the Great Central Railway to enhance its competitive position as a North Sea port especially in the export of coal. The contractor was Price Wills & Reeve of Edinburgh who employed 2500 men and 30 locomotives on the project. The Great Central's Chairman Sir Alexander Henderson was the driving force behind the venture. A power house was constructed to provide both hydraulic power to operate the lock gates and coal hoists and electricity for lighting and to power the Grimsby and Immingham electric tramway. This provided transport for the workers in the docks and new industries at Immingham from Grimsby. The Great Central's electrical engineer Charles Woodward Neele oversaw these works. Illustrations: official opening by King George V on 22 July 1912 and depiction of coal hoists and ships (both colour and work of Fortunino Matania); No. 6097 Immingham as LNER class B4; Sam Fay (colour: caricature by Leslie Matthew Ward — Spy); Alexander Henderson (colour: painting by Sir William Orpen); Charles Woodward Neele (portrait); reproduction from GCR publication Per Rail showing power house; former Newcastle upon Tyne tram car (Hurst Nelson 1901) G&I No. 8 and GCR long car at Corporation Bridge, Grimsby c1950; G & I car No. 4 in Corporation Road; Lancashire boilers in power house; interior of long car; car No. 4 at Cleveland Bridge. (KPJ: one remarkable day, exact one may still be traceable, he travelled via Guide Bridge to Grimsby, out on the tramway in a long car, out to Imminham Pier, across the Humber by the ferry, visited the centre of bomb ravaged Hall, and back to Saddleworth or Greenfield via Leeds?). Part 2 see next Volume page 52..

Rails in the fells. 726-9.
Black & white photo-feature of Settle & Carlisle Line: Horwich 2-6-0 No. 42864 at Ais Gill summit with southbound fast fitted freight (Eric Treacy); Ribblehead station looking north on 9 July 1961 (Alan Robey); Ribblehead Viaduct viewed from track looking south with Ingleborough and double sided lower quadrant distant signal in 1938; 4F 0-6-0 with tender cab being turned on Garsdale turntable; sheep pens and signal box at Horton-in-Ribblesdale; Cumwhinton station looking north in 1954; LMS 3F 0-6-0 No. 3231 near Baron's Wood Tunnel with freight in May 1940 (leading vehicle: bogie well trolley with strategic-looking load of shaped plate steel); Class 3 4-40 No. 720 at Ormsie station with local passengr train from Carlisle with schoolchildren alighting; 8F No. 8177 at water crane in Blea Moor loop with train of mainly private-owner wagons.

Forty days [English Electric Class 40 diesel-electric locomotives]. Michael Mensing. 730-3.
Colour photo-feature: No. D230 Scythia leaving Beechwood Tunnel on 25 June 1961; No. D261 on 07.57 Berwick-upon-Tweed to Edinburgh local on 30 May 1962;  No. D256 entering Berwick with up Talisman on 1 June 1962; No. D236 leaving Manchester London Road with up Lancastrian on 9 April 1960; No. D307 in Roade cutting with 12.35 Northampton to Euston stopping service on Good Friday 12 April 1963; No. D354 hauling down bulk cement train past Beal on 31 May 1962: see also letter from Leonard Rogers on p. 125 of Volume 27 for history of this cement traffic; No. D317 on 10.10 Euston to Liverpool service near site of Shilton station on Sunday 7 April 1963; No. D383 leaving Birmingham New Street  with 13.45 to Liverpool and Manchester on 24 March 1962 (only photograph to show Brunswick green to advantage). See Editorial corrections, not all spotted by KPJ, made to captions (and now implemented in rewrite history above)

Brian Topping. The long day. 734-5.
WD No. 90266 prepared at Bury shed, worked light engine via Newton Heath mpd to Patricroft where they worked a dead class 5 through to Crewe for shopping. Returned to Manchester via new electric service and onward to Bury by electric train.

V2 excellence. 736-9.
Colour photo-feature (all in Brunswick green except for No. 60884: all  Derek Penney unless stated otherwise): No. 60800 Green Arrow on Top Shed, King's Cross on 16 September 1961 (R.C. Riley); No. 60938 on York shed  with coaling tower behind in 1959; No. 60973 leaving Perth station with empty stock in September 1965; No. 60902 with double chimney on express freight near Retford; No. 60884 (with outside steam pipes and black livery with most of train  painted in carmine & cream) on southbound express south of Retford jn December 1957; No. 60800 Green Arrow on Top Shed, King's Cross with A4 with red background nameplate behind (R.C. Riley); No. 60809 The Snapper, The East Yorkshire Regiment, The Duke of York's Own at Gamston with a southbound express; No. 60862 with outside steam pipes and double chimney crossing River Idle at Retford on express freight in winter of 1962/3; and No. 60813 with rimless chimney and small smoke deflector passing Broughty Ferry with northbound express on 6 August 1966. See also front cover.

Michael J. Smith. Suffixes, prefixes, ampersands and brackets [compound station names as used by Metropolitan Railway]. 740-4.
See also Editorial: strictly it should have been parentheses and Editorial apology for scrambled text on  page 742 relating to Amersham. Begins with brief more general survey which notes that ampersand still in use, but that there has been a trend towards the removal of parentheses (KPJ knows of no use of brackets [] or lozenges <>) as in Bristol Temple Meads. Paddington carried the suffix (Praed Street) and on the Great Western platforms (Bishop's Road) — it was owned by the GWR; Kensington bore the suffix High Street, aalthough there waqas a tendency to use High Street on destination indicators; the name Brompton (Gloucester Road) was abandoned very quickly in favour of the former prefixial name; St Mary's had Whitechapel added for a time, then more accurately Whitechapel Road. London Transport tnded to eliminate suffixes. Illustrations: Special train hauled by Metropolitan Railway 0-4-4T No. L44 from Stanmore to New Cross Gate on 1 October 1961 entering Canons Park station (which had Edgware added when opened on 10 December 1932); Westbourne Park station exterior c1900 (sometimes referred to as Westbourne Park & Kensal Green); Notting Hill & Ladbroke Grove (from street) on 9 December 1904; K class 2-6-4T No. L116 on Verney Junction to Harrow freight passing Chalfont & Latimer station on 10 June 1933 (Ken Nunn); H class 4-4-4T No. 103 on 08.50 Verney Junction to Liverpool Street at Amersham & Chesham Bois on 22 June 1935 (H.C. Casserley); N2 No. 4758 at King's Cross & St. Pancras on 4 April 1936 with Moorgate to High Barnet train (H.F. Wheeler); Farringdon & High Holborn on facade above entrance in 1964; Portand Road station exterior (caption notes that in n1923 '& Regent's Park' was added in 1923 and beneath within Met diamond logo 'Alight here for Oxford Street & the Zoological Gardens'); Electric locomotive No. 1 John Lyon passing Kingsbury station on a special train (caption notes that had been known as Kingsbury & Neasden and as Neasden & Kingsbury; Hillingdon (Swakeleys) in 1962

Jeremy Clarke. The Steyning line. 745-50.
The line had a long gestation period: a railway through the Adur river valley. There was competition between the London & South Western and London, Brighton & South Coast Railways to link Horsham with Shoreham, but eventually the LBSCR constructed the link. The line was doubled in 1877-9, electrification was proposed in 1938 and the line closed on 7 March 1966. Illustrations: E4 0-6-2T No. 32566 entering Christ's Hospital with push & pull unit painted in BR carmine livery (colour: S.C. Townroe); M7 No. 30129 at Steyning on 31 July 1955 (A.E. Bennett). See letter fromNick Gilliam on orientation of some of the captions.

Phil Waterfield. The very last steam train on the Cromford & High Peak line. 751-3.
Following the last official day of rail tours in brake vans: that is 30 April 1967 a final run was made on 2 May to retrieve rolling stock, mainly the ancient water tanks, using No. 68006 when black & white photographs were taken by the author. The party which accompanied the author were treated to footplate rides, but the engine crew ran out of water at Parsley Hay and had to throw out most of the fire and coast down to Buxton. Illlustrations; J94 Nos. 68006 and 68012 hauling brake vans up  1 in 14 Hopton Incline on 30 April 1967 (two colour photographs); remainder on 2 May: taking water at Longcliffe; removing water tanks from Longcliffe; No. 68006 and train crossing Minninglow embankment; about to pass under Ashbourne to Buxton road; and crossing A515.

J. Crosse. The 'Micheline' diesel railcars. 754-5.
Invitation from Michelin from its Stoke-on-Trent works to the Passenger Manager of the LNER for demonstration of the pneumatic tyred railcar in the Ascot area of the Southern Railway. Text notes demonstration runs on the LMS. See also Rubber Developments article.

Miles Macnair. Just add more cylinders — simple: the evolution of the British four-cylinder simple expansion locomotive. Part One. 756-61.
The first four-cylinder locomotive was almost certainly the Traveller built by Robert Wilson in 1824. This was subsequently known as Chiitapratt and was viewd by Marc Seguin  (sketch) and by Oeynhausen and Dechen noted in Newcomen Society Transactions during their visits to inspect the work of the Stephensons. Cites Les Charlton; E.A. Forward in Engineer 1940 August and notes that it was considered for the Stratford & Moreton Railway (see Macnair's book on William James). Painting by Robert Barnes of Chittapratt at Stratford. A Horatio Allen 2-2-2-2 of 1832 had only two cylinders, but also had four boilers served by a single firebox. The first three-cylinder locomotive was built to assist balancing, was patented by George (Macnair states Robert) Stephenson and Howe and worked on the York, Newcastle & Berwick Railway achieving speeds up to 75 mile/h. John Haswell designed a four-cylinder 2-2-2-0 which was exhibited at the Vienna International Exhibition in 1862. Henry Shaw followed a similar route with an American 4-4-0 built at the Hinkley Locomotive Works in Boston in 1881. The James Toleman was designed by Frederick Charles Winby, built by Hawthorn Lesley (WN 2226/1892): Robin Barnes described and illustrated this locomotive in Backtrack, 2001, 15, 356. The next four-cylinder design was a Manson 4-4-0 constructed at Kilmarnock in 1897: Macnair cites articles by T.H. Sanders published in the Locomotive Mag. for 1922/3 (unseen as yet by KPJ) for criticism of thie design. Peter Drummond probably fitted this with a larger boiler, but it was Whitelegg who rebuilt this as Lord Glenarthur (partial citing of article by Whitelegg in J. Stephenson Loco. Soc. fuller citation on Whitelegg page). Webb's four-cylinder simple Iron Duke, four cylinder compound Black Prince are briefly considered as his final design the Benbow class, but nothing is added except to note their rapd demise under his successor. Drummond's double singles of classes E7 and T10 for the LSWR are noted, but not illustrated: it is observed that the footplate crews disliked them intensely, but they did survive into the Grouping Era (Bradley describes their attributes and illustrates them in LSWR livery Casserley Locomotive cavalcade p. 62 illustrates No. 372 in Southern livery aawaiting scrapping in 1927). Four-cylinder compounds are deliberatly excluded from the survey. The generally unsatifactory Drummond 4-cylinder 4-6-0s are included and the final version, the T14 or Paddlebox, was good enough to survive to be rebuilt by Maunsell in 1930. Brief mention is made of Holden's Decapod and its slotted connecting rod to obviate crank axles and sloping cylinders and the forged U-bend fitted into the leading coupled axle when Alco adopted Gresley's three-cylinedr layout in 1922. Ivatt's four-cylinder simple 4-4-2 No. 271 is analysed and it is suggested that the design was intended to improve torque at starting. Two Pacific unfulfilled projects are outlined: McIntosh's and Gresley's  which had followed his conversion of Ivatt Atlantic No. 279 to four cylinders. The illustration of the four-cylinder Pacific is taken from F.A.S. Brown Nigel Gresley p. 41. The McIntosh Pacific information is drawn from Atkins' West Coast 4-6-0s at work, Trains Illustrated, 1958, September and Robin Barnes Locomotives that never were Chapter 10 (who cites Allen's British Pacific locomotives p. 227 et seq.). Part 2 and links to correspondence generated

Jeffery Grayer. The Varsity line's missing links. 762-4.
Most of the former LNWR Oxford to Cambridge route closed on 1 January 1968. The exception was the section between Bletchley and Bedford; and parts of the western section have since reopened and the current aim is to restore Oxford to Marylebone services via High Wycombe and start Aylesbury to Milton Keynes services. There is also political pressure to restore a direct Oxford to Cambridge service. Illustrations: Fenny Stratford station with DMU in ealy 1970s (colour); Lord's Bridge station with intrusion of Ryle telescope of the Mullard Radio Astronomy Observatory; Bedford St. John's with DMU presumably in early 1970s (colour); Rewley Road Oxford when in use as tyre service centre; Old North Road station after closure and Sandy with LNWR line out of use but not removed. See letter in next volume page 125 from Brian Ringer on recent developments.

Readers' Forum. 765
North Eastern and Isle of Wight, Editor
On p673 of the November issue the banking engine is clearly No.W24 Calbourne; it was train engine which was No.W20 - mea culpa.
The NER 0-8-0s at Consett shed depicted on p686 of the November issue are of Class Q6 (not Q7). I know this is a misidentification I've made before, for which I apologise. I've put a diagram on the wall, like an enemy aircraft recognition chart, to help me get them right in future. Ed.

Newhaven. Stephen G. Abbott. 
Binks suggested that electric trains ran to Newhaven from 1933, but this was not until 7 July 1935. Except for some relief services to Harbour station, boat trains to Newhaven remained steam powered (hence photograph of the Atlantic). The lines into the Continental platform (Newhaven Marine) were not electrified until 1947 and from 15 April 1949 the principal boat trains began to be worked by one of the three Southern electric locomotives Nos.20001-3 (G. T. Moody, Southem Electric, 1957).With the opening of the Channel Tunnel in 1994 boat trains to Newhaven ceased in January 1995. A token evening local train continues to serve Newhaven Marine, but since August 2006 passengers have been unable to board it due to the unsafe condition of the station roof. The Newhaven-Stirling Motorail train ceased in 1969.

Newhaven. Peter Swift 
The locomotive being loaded on to a ship at Newhaven was one of a large number of outside framed 2-4-0s built for the French Western Railway (Chemin de Fer de l'Ouest) between 1857 and 1888. L.M. Vilain's book on Ouest locomotives (KPJ: possibly La Locomotive a vapeur et les grandes vitesses. by Lucien Maurice Vilain, Paris : Editions Dominique Vincent, 1972) which states that locomotives Nos.671 to 690 were supplied by Neilson of Glasgow in 1882-3. There is a Neilson works photogtraph of No.678 in North British Steam Locomotives 1857-1956 for railways overseas, published by Bradford Barton in 1978. Apart from the chimney, which is hidden by the shearlegs but had probably been removed for transit, and the outside cranks, coupling rods and valve gear, the Ouest 2-4-0 was clearly within the loading gauges of the railways involved in bringing it from Glasgow to Newhaven.

Newhaven. Edward Barnes 
The "unidentified 2-4-0 locomotive" being loaded at Newhaven appears to be one of the large class that formed the mainstay of passenger services on the French Compagnie de l'Ouest. In all there were 277 similar locomotives supplied by various French, British and Belgian builders between 1862 and 1888. The number on the boiler appears to read '690', which would make it the final one of a batch built by Neilson in 1882. Like other later examples, the locomotive was rebuilt as a 4-4-0 in the early years of the twentieth century, in which condition it passed into ownership of the Compagnie de l'Etat. If identification is correct, it is surprising that a locomotive built in Glasgow was shipped via Newhaven. (KPJ: the French company would have been spared the cost of delivery over other French railways and had some share in the ferry service). The type is noted for the accident which befell No. 120-720 when it ran through the concourse at Paris-Montparnasse in October 1895, tumbling into the street outside the station. That locomotive was built by Gouin in Paris and survived its ordeal to be repaired and returned to service. No. 120-624 (built Fives-Lille) was exhibited at a Paris Exposition.

Camden bank and shed. Harry Jack 
The caption on p599 of the October issue repeats the familiar tale about Camden incline: that it became possible to abandon cable-haulage in 1844 because of "the increase in locomotive power". The notion that a stationary engine with rope-haulage was installed at Camden because of inadequate locomotives is one of those undying legends which it seems impossible to kill, although it was denied from the start. One of Robert Stephenson's assistant engineers on the London & Birmingham Railway, Peter Lecount, wrote in 1839: "It is not because locomotives cannot draw a train of carriages up this incline that a fixed engine and endless rope are used, for they can and have done so." It was the L&BR Act of Parliament, he said, which placed restrictions on the use of locomotives between Euston and Camden. Locomotives worked Camden incline successfully before the stationary engine was installed and later whenever the rope was out of action for repairs. And at that time trains were being worked up similar inclines elsewhere, without any fuss or fanfare, by locomotives. The Camden stationary engine and its cable system was designed before any locomotives were ordered, so clearly the rope was not an expedient found necessary because of inadequate locomotives. There was no sudden increase in locomotive power in 1844. No locomotives were added to stock between mid-1841 and February 1845.
Rope-working was ended at Camden simply because of the quite unforeseen increase in traffic on the London & Birmingham. The system had been planned for trains of twelve carriages, but much longer trains socn became necessary, and having to work these trains up the incline in two or three separate sections, with recoup ling at the summit, caused delay. So in July 1844 locomotive haulage was reintroduced – successfully – with Edward Bury's allegedly 'inadequate' four-wheeled engines.

The 'White Ghost'. Leonard Rogers 
Gives details of the composition of the Class 101 in terms of power and trailer cars; further details of the liveries applied in bterms of blue band widths, etc; classes so-treated in England and Wales; and where and when prototypes exhibited; and potential further information sources: photograph published in Modern Railways, December 1974, showing prototype heading through Newbury towards London on 7 October 1974. In this it bears headcode 3020, apparently indicating that it is heading for the Southern Region. A Derek Cross photograph in The Heyday of the DMU (by Alan Butcher, Ian Allan, 1994) shows unit at Ayr station in January 1975 apparently on show and probably towards the conclusion of the tour.

Where trains meet planes . Stephen G. Abbott. 
The triangular junction of the Stansted Airport branch with the Great Eastern main line facilitated the extension, from 8 July 1991, of the hourly Midlands/ North West to Cambridge trains to the airport. However, with the slow growth in air passenger numbers at Stansted, the service was cut back to Cambridge in May 1993 leaving a daily 'statutory' train over the junction north curve. The full service was resumed in May 1998 and is now hourly Birmingham-Stansted and directly and through connections provides a well-used link to the airport from a wide area of the East Midlands and Eastern England. Outside mainland Britain, Belfast City Airport is served by shuttle bus to Sydenham station on the Belfast-Bangor line. Finally, passengers arriving at Ronaldsway Airport in the Isle of Man may walk a few hundred yards to Ronaldsway Halt and – seasonal timetable pennitting – flag down a Victorian "steam train for onward travel.

Index to Volume 26 766

Leven connection. M.H. Yardley. rear cover.
Metro-Cammell DMU forming 11.55 Leven to Edinburgh with Post Office van on platform loading mail on 6 September 1968.