Volume 20

Great Northern Railway D3 4-4-0 No.2000 at Grantham in June 1948 as repainted in LNER apple green livery, with company coat-ot-arms on the tender, tor hauling officers' specials.

(J. M. Jarvis/Colour-Rail NE36)

Published by Pendragon, Easingwold, YO61 3YS

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Number 1 (January)

Eat, drink and be wary. Michael Blakemore. 3
Sponsorship and the delights of drinking whilst travelling (which the nanny state is threatening).

On the Midland South of Manchester. Alan Tyson (phot). 4-6.
Colour photo-feature: 45705 Seahorse with Buxton express waiting to depart from within Manchester Central Station on 29 June 1965; Class 4 2-6-0 43047 festers in Platform 9 on 10 May 1966; 8F 48324 drags freight up 1 in 90 towards Chinley North Junction on 21 January 1967; DMU at Buxton on shuttle for Millers Dale; 8F 48673 heading towards Manchester with coal train at Buxworth on 30 April 1966; 48189 on mineral empties at Chinley on 24 March 1962.

Groome, Brian with Anthony R.P. Vent. Guard Groome and the 'Wall of Death'.  7-11.
Memories of life as a guard on Southern Region electric multiple units and on freight trains during the 1950s. Working days could be very long, especially as his home was at Polegate in East Sussex. The Wall of Death was the Sutton to Wimbledon line and presumably related to the curve at Sutton. One of his most bizarre episodes was the use of his wooden paddle to clear the third rail from snow to keep the multiple unit running on the climb to Crystal Palace. Southern England was still remarkably rustic: loading boxes of mushrooms at Amberley into a steam-hauled freight, for instance. Earlier memories were in Volume 18 page 626 et seq.

Williams, Sitwell.  A fleet review [Naval names applied to LMS 5XP Jubilee class]. 12-17.
Names of naval battles; admirals, ships. especially battleships, battlecruisers, aircraft carriers (Glorious, Furious and Courageous), gun cruisers, destroyers (Express and Fearless), one submarine (Seahorse), Vindictive (a training ship), Defiance (a torpedo school ship) and Nelson's Victory. The author cannot explain the connection between the LMS and the Royal Navy (but many of the names may have been recycled from those used by the LNWR). Only 5706 Express carried a badge. Bibliography.

Snow Hill revisited. 18-20
Colour photo-feature: No. 6002 King William IV with 07.20 Pwllheli to Paddington on glorious 12 August 1961 (Michael Mensing); 6861 Crynant Grange approaching with transfer freight in November 1957 (T.J. Edgington); 6016 King Edward V on up Cambrian Coast Express on 2 December 1961 (MM); GWR railcar W14W in carmine & cream livery in station in 1955 (TJE); GWR parcels car No. 17 (in very odd livery or light) on 12 October 1956 (TJE); class 116 DMU on Great Malvern working in 1957 (TJE) and Coronation class 46237 City of Bristol with up train from Birkenhead (which 46237 presumably had joined at Wolverhampton) on 28 April 1955 (train in carmine & cream), steam emerging from top-feed. (TJE)

Mann, John D. Services not suspended. 21-3.
The remains of the Stour Valley line which used to link Marks Tey with Cambridge and still offers One DMU service to Sudbury plus the activities of the East Anglian Railway Museum.

Hill, Keith. A journey by design. Part one. 24-31.
Railway station architecture: text plus some wonderful luminous colour photographs by the author: Needham Market, Stowmarket, Downham Market and Bury St Edmunds. The survey is broken down by style and archtect then by individual stations (where illustrated these are shown in bold): Philip Hardwick's Euston, including the Doric Arch (29 September 1961); and Great Hall (Christmas 1960), and its lavatorial replacement (1980). Text includes their demolition and the involvement of luminaries, such as Betjemman, against the corrupt Minister of Transport. James Pigott Pritchett's Huddersfield and John Dobson's Newcastle remain, but the an attempt was made in the 1970s to demolish this and replace it with some sort of bus sheltert. Thomas Prosser's York is described as being without equal as a large through station. Smaller classical revival stations include Canterbury West probably by Samuel Beazley and at Newark Castle and Lincoln St. Marks on the MR. Augustus Pugin was not directly involved in station building, but his Gothic revival style is evident in Tudoresque Carlisle Citadel, the work of William Tite and aat Perth (same architect); Windsor & Eton Riverside and on the MR at Thurgarton. Frederick Barnes fused the Jacobean and Tudor styles on the Ipswich and Bury St Edmunds and some of the glory of these is reflected in the author's colour illustrations. Another East Anglian massterpiece is at Downham Market. Jacobean styling, or should it be style, is evident at Worksop and at Brockleby on the MSLR. Battle station was the work of William Tress, who also designed the station at Rye. David Mocatta's station at Brighton is described but not illustrated. Likewise Francis Thompson's Italianate work is described but not illustrated, but the Italianate work of Thomas Penson at Gobowen and the anonymous? Italianatte work at Cupar is recorded as being the most important stion in Scotland in terms of completeness and architectural distinction.

Lucky dips [troughing]. 32-4.
Colour photo-feature of activity on water troughs: class 5 44873 hauling former Southern Railway (Region) corridor stock (not as stated in caption) picking up water from Castlethorpe troughs in August 1958 (T.B. Owen): Michael Bland and George A. Davidson (on page 126) both note the nature of the rolling stock, the former even noted that it was a regular Birmingham to Hastings working; class 5 44882 on up freight passing over Moore troughs (without troughing) in August 1966 (water softening plant and storage tank clearly visible) (Paul Riley); Princess Royal 46211 Queen Maud on Whitmore troughs with up Manxman in 1959 (M.G. Paine); Caprotti BR class 5 No. 73140 on Ruislip troughs in August 1962 with tender overflowing; 46207 Princess Arthur of Connaught (red) on up Merseyside Express picking up water from Castlethorpe troughs in August 1958 (T.B. Owen); 6959 Peatling Hall with up fast freight picking up on Goring troughs on 27 July 1963 (R.C. Riley) and 45686 St Vincent crossing Castlethorpe troughs with water cascading from tender of up express in August 1958 (T.B. Owen)

Great Northern [locomotives]. 35-7.
Colour photo-feature: LNER C2 (GNR C1) small Atlantic No. 3252 (in LNER lined black) at Hitchin in 1937; C1 No. 3274 departing Platform 15 on outer suburban working (lavatory articulated twins) in November 1939 (still in clean apple green); J6 No. 64253 heading breakdown crane past Wood Green on 13 September 1958 (support vehicle GNR clerestory bogie vehicle painted black? final remains of LNER dark blue?) (R.C. Riley); J52 No. 68824 with fully lined 68846 in background at Hornsey mpd (R.C. Riley); J50/2 No. 68922 (badly burned smokebox) outside Ardsley shed in 1962 (Historical Model Railway Society); GNR J22 class 0-6-0 No. 64239 at Grantham in 1959 (Derek Penney) and C12 No. 67352 shunting a Southern Region van onto or from a DMU at Grantham on 25 June 1958 (R.C. Riley). 

Vernon, Tony. The Yorkshire Engine Company: the Sturrock and Sacré years. 38-43.
Company was formed in 1865. W.G. Eden, a former diplomat was the first Chairman, although he was replaced in that role by Archibald Sturrock in 1867 who performed that role until 1870, but he remained a Director until May 1871 when he resigned to leave himself time for congenial pursuits". Alfred Sacré and Charles Sacré (Locomotive Superintendent of the MSLR) were also involved with the firm. Alfred Sacré left in 1870 to join Avonside. It should be noted that the Great Northern Railway was a customer for the firm's locomotives. Alfred Sacré was responsible for obtaining Russian orders for the Company. These included the Tambov-Koslov and strategically significant Poti-Tiflis railways. Edward Sacré ran the firm between 1871 and 1877. Fairlie locomotives were built beteen 1874 and 1877 including for the Mexican Railway. Major losses were made on supplying Perkins engine to the Admiralty. Tramway engines were developed but failed to sell well: two to Sheffield Corporation and two for Barcelona.In May 1880 the firm went into voluntary liquidation. See also letter from Edward Barnes (p. 190) on errors in works numbers of locomotives supplied to Spain..

Gregson, Keith. "One of the handsomest stations in existence" [Monkwearmouth]. 44-5.
Opened in 1848 now home of a small transport museum

Rutherford, Michael. Railways around Whitby (Railway Reflections No.117). 46-57.
An historical survey of railways which serve/d Whitby including the Whitby & Pickering Railway with which George Stephenson was associated and which in its genesis Rutherford calls an anchronism. The ferocious gradients on the lines aproaching the port led to two specific locomotive designs: the Whitby bogies (No. 1809 is illustrated in the Whitby shed yard c1890 and the W class 4-6-0Ts known as the Whitby Willies (No. 695 is illustrated in workshop official and as a 4-6-2T on a freight at Sleights c1920).

Signalling Spotlight: Great Western type 7 signal boxes. J.S. Beckey (phot.) and Richard D. Foster. 58.
Stourbridge Junction Middle (May 1986); Droitwich Spa (8 January 1994) and Malvern Wells (2 May 1993): see also letter (p. 190) from Russell Maiden concerning box at Droitwich Spa.

Crosse, J. Barry insight. 59-62.
Examination of some of the still extant locomotive maintenance records from Barry Works in the 1950s. See letters from Terry McCarthy and Ian Simpson on page 254: former observes that Barry Railway did not construct its own locomotives (all were supplied by outside manufacturers); latter makes observations about piecework. See also letter from Anthony Warrener on p. 190 concerning other locomotive works near Cardiff, notably those of the Rhymney Railway at Caerphilly and the Taff Vale Railway works in Cardiff..

Readers' Forum. 62
In the mountain greenery. John Macnab.
See 19 page 645 middle: the articulated twin (TSO E13162/3) formed part of the original tourist sets of 1933
Chessington and Elliot Junction. Alistair Nisbet.
See 19 page 557: Wimbledoon Chase was on Sutton line and station at platform level was unlike Chessington line stations; also in response to letter from John Macnab (19 page 574) concerning platform at Elliot Junction for Carmyllie Light Railway and location of quarries at Redford.
Railway golfing posters. Arthur Chadwick.
See feature in 19 page 634 golf course at Cruden Bay is very highly regarded and forms part of rounds of many American visitors, also special first class fares for golfers (no business permitted) provided by North Eastern Railway.
Tosh at King's Cross. Editor.
Editorial slip:
GWR '45XX' class. Roger Taylor
Location of lower picture on page 676 (Vol. 19): Fowey not Loswithiel
Loughrea. Stephen G. Abbott.
See feature on page 689 of V. 19 use of electric storage heaters to save the little Deutz locomotive from excessive effort, also the substantial number of passengers and quantity of freight on the train in 1967.
LNER Study Group. J.B. Sykes.
Addresses of authors (snailmail)
LNER racehorse names. John C. Baker.
See original feature page 333 and notable correspondence from Geoff Hughes on page 695 of Vol. 19: the names Lemberg and St. Simon..:
The 'Bournemouth Belle'. Peter J. Townsend.
See feature in 19 p. 740:
The 'Bournemouth Belle'. Geoff Skelsey.
See feature in 19 p. 740:
The 'Bournemouth Belle'. Lewis F. Cobb.
See feature in 19 p. 740:: Christchurch Priory not Abbey and some of Castleman's Corkscrew is still extant: Lymington Junction to Northam Junction.

Remains of the day at Chinley.Alan Tyson. rear cover.
8F 48324 climbs towards Chinley North Junction on 21 January 1967.

Number 2 (February)

The driver of LMS Horwich 2-6-0 No.42707 backs his locomotive through Willesden shed yard on 26th April 1963. (Geoff Rixon). front cover

Wasted on the young. Alistair Wasey. 67.
Guest editorial written by a twenty-year-old trainee chemical engineer who argues strongly that Backtrack should remain on its excellently maintained tracks and should not wander off in the ill-conceived directions which have been followed by some of its contemporaries.

The Southern's Q engines. 68-9.
Colour photo-feature (all by Roy Hobbs, except one by R.C. Riley): Q class 30543 with snowplough attached at Redhill shed in February 1964; 30547 at Southwater shunting loaded coal wagon of a freight; Q1 class: 33003 on Hither Green shed on 6 June 1959 (R.C. Riley); 33006 at Hook in DEcember 1965 on paermanent way train (in connection with Bournemouth electyrification); 33015 and another Q1 class 0-6-0 with an engineers' train at Guildford on 4 October 1964.

Brooksbank, B.W.L. Railway damage and disruption in World War II: Merseyside. Part 1. 70-6.
This Part is restricted to a detailed description of the railways which served the docks and industries of Liverpool and Birkenhead at the outbreak of WW2 together with an analysis of their limitations, especially the lack of connectivity between tthe lines which had been built in competition with each other. The lines had been constructed by the LNWR, L&YR and CLC north of the Mersey. The Liverpool Overhead Railway was restricted to passenger traffic, but the Mersy Docks & Harbour Board operated railways into most of the Liverpool Docks. In Birkenhead the LNWR and the GWR were the main operators, but the LNER was also present. The Mersey Railway, like the Overhead, was a passenger railway. This part also discusses the severe winters of 1940, 1941 and 1942 which caused severe disruptions to railway services. Train services, both passenger and freight, are also described in general terms. See also letter from David Catton (page 190) who questions stated location (Seaforth) of maintenance depot for Southport/Ormskirk electric multiple units (rather than Hall Road and Meols Cop)

A small Scottish ragtime band. 77.
Colour photo-feature: K2 Ragtimers with side window cabs and names: 61764 Loch Arkaig at Glasgow Eastfield mpd in June 1960 (Gordon Green: Colour Rail SC1293); 61791 Loch Laggan assisting ailing K4 61995 Cameron of Locheil out of Glenfinnan station in March 1956 on Glasgow to Mallaig train (J.M. Jarvis Colour Rail SC737); 61783 Loch Sheil [sic] at Craigellachie on local freight in April 1956 (J.B. McCann Colour Rail SC916)

South Wales Class 37s. Tom Heavyside (phot.). 78-9.
6918 passing 6922 at Radyr on 25 May 1973 (both on loaded coal trains); 6922 on up coal train passing Crumlin on 21 May 1973; 37 225 passing Ebbw Junction, Newport with coal train for Cardiff on 26 March 1976; 6976 passing Celynen North Colliery with empties for Aberbeeg on 21 May 1973;  37 224 arriving at Tondu with loaded coal train on 25 March 1976.

Wells, Jeffrey. Concrete progress: the railways and reinforced concrete. 80-5.
Mainly excavated from the Railway Gazette (does not cite recent contribution by Nigel Digby in Railway Archive (2005 (11) 77 et seq which notes pioneering work performed  in North Norfolk by William Marriott). The illuustrations trace most of the story, but textual references include a bridge in mass concrete designed by Henry Fowler near Gloucester Road in 1867 (this had a brief life); structures on the West Highland's Mallaig Extension by Robert McAlpine, notably Glenfinnan Viaduct. The Hennebique system was applied in works for docks at Bristol and Swansea by the GWR and by the GCR at Immingham.

Hill, Keith. A journey by design. Part Two. 86-93.
The quality of the excellent illustrations is drained by the shocking pink used as a background to the text (which also makes reading difficult). Text mentions the cottage orné style adopted at Machynlleth and between Bedford and Bletchley (to reflect the proximity of the Duke of Bedford's Woburn Estate). The majestic Gothic style is evident at Bristol Temple Meads and at Paddington. A digression notes how Brunel sketched out his initial station diesigns and how these were translated into plans on steel engravings. Sir Matthew Digby Wyatt was responsible for most of the extant work at Temple Meads and for the decorative work at Paddington. The trancepts and the adjacent oriel windows on the Eastbourne Terrace side receive special attention as does the fine hotel; the work of P.C. Hardwick. Sir George Gilbert Scott's hotel and offices togetther with William Barlow's superb roof at St Pancras are examined at considerable length and this includes Sir John Betjeman and Nikolaus Pevsner's endeavours to ensure Grade I listing. Edward Wilson's Gothic frontage to Liverpool Street is also commended. Lesser Gothic structures were at Middlesbrough, Suinderland and at Knighton. John Wilson and W.N. Ashbee's free Renaissance style produced the lavish and colourful Norwich Thorpe (which is reduced to corner shop catering after the city's early curfew: the extravagant exterior demands a more loved interior); Bolton Trinity Street and Wemyss Bay exemplify the worst and best in early twentieth century stations. James Miller and Donald Mathieson were responsible for Wemyss Bay and for Glasgow Central.Stirling was also improved by Miller. The magnificent Waterloo was praised by Pevsner and the Victory Arch adds a poignant quality worthy of its lately acquired and brief International status. Praise is heaped upon Exeter Central; Doncaster's new building is noted. Brickbats are hurled against Euston and New Street, but building conservation in recent years receives commendation..

Merritt, Keith. By train to Ascot Races. 94-5.
Illustration of Ascot station on 7 June 1956 (photo: J.S. Gilks) sets the pattern for a very brief account of the peculiar needs of racegoers to Ascot; notably a ready availability of return trains once the races are over; a great demand for first class accommodation and the special fascilities provided as part of electrification in 1938.

The pride of Horwich. 96-7.
Colour photo-feature: Hughes/Fowler class 5 2-6-0: 42827 on fitted freight at Acocks Green heading towards Leamington Spa on 31 October 1958 (Michael Mensing); 42789 on shed at Farnley Junction on 1 June 1962 (Gavin Morrison); 42863 hauls empty stock out of Bradford Exchange in May 1963 (D.J. Mitchell Colour Rail BRM 2247); 42732 at Lancaster Green Ayre shed in September 1962 (Geoff Rixon); 42928 arriving Hellifield with slow Morecambe to Leeds passenger on 14 October 1961 (GM). 

Along the Pennine ways again. 98-103.
Colour photo-feature: previous feature under this title Vol. 19 page 610: 45565 Victoria leaving Horsfall Tunnel on Leeds to Blackpool excursion in May 1966 (Roy Hobs); 44767 (with outside Stephenson link motion and single chimney) at Halifax with express for Liverpool on 28 August 1961 (Gavin Morrison); Birmingham Railway Carriage & Wagon DMU designed for Calder Valley on Huddersfield to Marsden local on 4 April 1983 (GM); 70013 Oliver Cromwell crossing Nott Wood viaduct at Lydgate on 1 in 65 climb to Copy Pit on 21 July 1968 (Derek Penney); 45647 Sturdee on Copy Pit line with Leeds to Blackpool excursion in May 1966; D45 125 heading downhill through Marsden in April 1987 with Trans-Pennine express formed from Mark II rolling stock some in Provincial Railways livery with Trans-Pennine branding (Brian Magilton); 92205 on freight heading towards Standedge from Stalybridge on 1 May 1965 (David A. Hill); WD 90352 passing Rochdale with mineral empties in 1965 (BM); 70032 (formerly Tennyson) in its decline near Micklehurst on express freight probably not long before closure of the line (Derek Penney); 45593 Kolhapur climbing out of Huddersfield with Leeds to Llandudno train on 8 July 1967 (GM); 47 475 (in Regional Railways livery) leaving Dewsbury on Liverpool to Leeds express on 18 February 1990; WD 90339 entering eastern portal on Nelson tunnel at Standedge on freight on 25 July 19665 (Bruce Oliver); Caprotti class 5 73131 heading towards Mossley on Llandudno to Leeds train in July 1966 (BM) and 44727 passing Trans-Pennine Class 124 DMU near Mirfield in July 1965 (David A. Hill).

Stirling, David. Station masters, guards and grouse moors: staffing the Highland Railway. 104-9.
The mighty LNWR had 17.42 employees per track mile as compared with 5.22 on the Highland: nevertheless, receipts per employee were actually higher on the Highland (the illustrations manage to gather together a large number of this "small staff"). The telephone was not used for long distance communication until WW2 and reliance was placed upon the telegraph. Terminology tended to differ from other railways: station masters were sometimes known as "agents" and pointsman, rather than signalman, was used for staff who operated the somewhat rarely used points and signals. Only the larger stations had porters or clerks and in many locations the station master was the sole employee of the Company. Similarly the locomotive and permanent way departments had to manage with quite small complements. Some employees were taken or, or promoted, for the summer season when the lines were busier. Sometimes work was found for employees who had been permanently injured whilst working for the Company.

Rutherford, Michael. Railways and iron and steel developments around Teesside (Railway Reflections No.118). 110-16.
The primary thrust of these Reflections is the development of coal movement from the Durham coalfield to the North Sea for carriage by collier or for use in the iron and steel industry which was able to exploit iron ore deposits in the Cleveland Hills. Railways associated in this activity included the Stockton & Darlington Railway (although Rutherford directs the reader to more extensive sources of information, notably Tomlinson and also Maurice Kirby), the Clarence Railway, the Stockton & Hartlepool Railway (not authorised by Parliament until after its opening); the Hartlepool Dock & Railway Co. where the docks suffered from failure of the gates and infilling by sand. This failure led to the creation of the Hartlepool West Harbour & Dock Co. and the creation of West Hartlepool. As George Hudson feared that a competitor to his mainline interests might take over some of these local lines became part of the York, Newcastle & Berwick Railway from 9 July 1847. This part also describes the beginnings of Port Clarence and of Middlesbrough

Nisbet, Alistair F. Punch's Railway and the Winkle Railway. 117-21.
West London Railway provided/provides a route between the WCML and the Great Western mainline with the Southern lines at Clapham Junction via Kensington Olympia across the Thames (see Backtrack

A Northern excursion. Geoffrey Skelsey (phot.). 122-3.
Colour photo-feature: Alston with DMU about to leave on 18.35 for Haltwhistle on 3 May 1976; Battersby with two Metro-Cammell DMUs reversing and "crossing" on trains for Middlesbrough and Whitby on 5 July 1977; Hayfield with two two-car DMUs (one still in green livery) on 2 September 1967; Rowntree's Halt, York with DMU on 16.37 unadvertised service to Doncaster on 8 September 1977; South Shields with Metro-Cammell DMU on 16.00 to Newcastle on 24 April 1981.

Caledonian coaching stock miscellany. 124-5.
Photo-feature with captions by Jim Macintosh of the Caledonian Railway Association: four-wheel third No. 3054 being hauled by CR 0-4-4T No. 172 (fitted with cow-catchers - partial view) on Leadhills & Wanlockhead Light Railway; third class saloon No. 17 built in 1886 with station master at Dundee West alongside

Readers' Forum. 126
Lucky dips. Michael Bland.
See colour photo-feature on page 32: regular Birmingham to Hastings train with Maunsell corridor stock
Lucky dips. George A. Davidson.

See colour photo-feature on page 32: Birmingham to Hastings train formed of Maunsell corridor stock cites Gould
Railway golfing posters and Elliot Junction. W. Tollan.
See feature (19 p. 634) on golfing posters: notes that the GSWR built a coastal railway line to serve the great golf course at Turnberry: this was a beautiful railway which gave romantic views across to the Isle of Arran and down the Firth to Ailsa Craig. Noting the reference to the Carmyllie Railway and Elliot Junction (19 page 455 et seq) it is noted that fine marble quarried at the Carmyllie Quarries was used in Cologne (Koln) Cathedral: see also further letter (on stone for Cathedral and platform at Elliot) from John Macnab (p. 254)..
The 'Bournemouth Belle'. Charles Long.
See feature in 19 p. 740:: Note the rolling stock used for the Pullman service, much of it timber-bodied and on fire risk of rubber floor tiles and the far greater risk from canvas in roofs and gangways
The 'Bournemouth Belle.. Nick Wellings
See feature in 19 p. 740:: name of 21C19 French Line C.G.T. (la Compagnie Générale Transatlantique). 
F.W. Hawksworth. Robert Barker
See feature in 19 page 660: this includes an anecdote about Hawksworth's limited driving skill as exhibited during the General Strike.

Tracking through West London. J.S. Gilks. rear cover
Class 2 2-6-2T No. 41292 passing Earls Court Exhibition Hall on 16.45 Clapham Junction to Kensington Olympia train on 3 August 1960.

Number 3 (March)

The last BR steam locomotive 9F 2-10-0 No.92220 Evening Star. front cover.
stands at Bath Green Park shed in September 1962 whilst working on the Somerset & Dorset line. C. R. Gordon Stuart/Colour-Rail SD413)

I read it in the Papers. Michael Blakemore. 131.
Editorial based on historical extracts (100 years ago, etc) reproduced in Yorkshire Evening Press: newspaper based, like North Eastern Railway, in York: thus contains items of railway interest: Items noted included 4CC compound Atlantics, Travelling Post Offices, and a yob firing a pisto; from a train and fined 7/6 at Knaresborough Police Court in 1905.

Via Whitchurch. Eric Saunders (phot.). 132-3.
Colour-photo-feature: 47 079 G.J. Churchward (corporate blue livery) passes Nantwich with excursion on 3 September 1980; Sulzer 25 219 near Market Drayton Junction on one the smartly-timed Crewe to Cardiff semi-fasts on 15 April 1981; 40 035 with a stone train (bogie hoppers) near Nantwich on 3 September 1980; interesting DMU calls at Whitchurch on 2 July 1976 (much of former outpost of Cambrian Railways still visible); 47 089 Cyclops with short freight on 23 August 1980.

Smith, Michael J. "To this company's advantage...". 134-41.
Transfer of London Transport (ex-Metropolitan Railway) steam locomotives to LNER from 1937: Illus.: Metropolitan Railway G class 0-6-4T no 94 Lord Aberconway in photographic grey in 1915; Metropolitan H class 4-4-4T No 103 when new in 1920 (with maker's plate: Kerr Stuarts London); No 103 waiting to leave Verney Junction in 1935; LNER M2 0-6-4T 6157 Brill (Met G 97) at Chesham on 27 May 1939 (H.C. Casserley); Metropolitan Railway corrugated iron shed at Neasden on 11 July 1936 with E class 0-4-4T No. 80 visible and ghostly images of otheres (HCC);  E class L44 and L47 inside and outside their posh new 1930s style LPTB shed on 14 July 1939 (HCC); LNER Class L2 2-6-4T 6163 at Stratford after withdrawal from service on 4 August 1945 (HCC); H2 6416 pauses at Edwinstowe on 8 May 1946 (HCC); M2 No 9077 Charles Jones at Stratford on 4 June 1947 (HCC), and L2 9070 at Neasden. on 23 June 1948 (HCC). See letters in June Issue (p. 381) from Robert Barker (origin of name Brill, more info about Charles Jones and use of abbreviation Met by LPTB), Albin J. Reed (lined black livery applied by LNER) and Richard Hardy (retention by former Metropolitan Railway footplatemenn of distinctive overalls and caps) .

Grayer, Jeffery. Gone to the dogs! 142-7.
T9 class nicknamed Greyhounds: preservation of one locomotive (and how this locomotice came to be selected) and final days of working mainly in North Cornwall. Illus: 30709 at Exmouth Junction shed in 1956 (colour: Colour-Rail); 716 passing Havant with ex-SECR Royal Train on 19 May 1937 (Royal Navy Review?); 30709 pulls out of Okehampton with train for Plymouth on 4 May 1959 (colour: T.J. Edgington); preserved 120 on turntable at Eastbourne on Sussex Coast Limited Rail Tour on 24 June 1962 (colour: David Idle); oil burning 713 (electric lighting also clearly visible) at Fratton with train for Portsmouth & Southsea on 30 June 1948 ; 30313 waits at Wadebridge on 15 August 1960 (Alan Tyson); preserved 120 on a scheduled service at Berrylands on 30 June 1962 (colour: J.S. Gilks); 30709 waits at Padstow on 15 August 1960 (Alan Tyson) and 30717 also waits at Padstow on 5 May 1959 (TJE) (and not one bicycle visible)

Alexander, David. Arturo Caprotti and rotary camshaft valve gear. 148-54
Short biography of Caprotti which shows his close relationship with automotive industry; application of valve gear extended to marine applications as well as to locomotives; British applications; other rotary cam systems: Lentz and Reidinger and their application. On page 149 it is incorrectly asserted that Caprotti valve gear was fitted to a "few of the Prince of Wales 4-6-0s": David Hunt refutes this on page 573.Illus.: Claughton 5948 Baltic rebuilt with larger boiler and Caprotti valve gear in 1928: see letter from D. Lorriman (p. 318) which states that 5946 Duke of Connaught and not as stated; Arturo Caprotti (portrait); LNER B3/2 6166 as fitted with Caprotti gear in 1929; LNER D49/3 318 Cambridgeshire as fitted with Lentz oscillating cam valve gear leaving Darlington on express with GWR through coaches; LMS Hughes 2-6-0 13124 fitted with Lentz rotary cam poppet valve gear; LNER D49/3 328 The Puckeridge as fitted with Lentz rotary cam valve gear at Newcastle Central; first LNER P2 2001 Cock o' the North with Lentz rotary cam poppet valves at Doncaster in May 1934: remainder show locomotives fitted with Caprotti valve gear: Class 5s 44752 on Willesden mpd; page 152 (lower) 44755 with double chimney and roller bearings passes "Wernside" in 1948 — See Editorial grovel: Lost in Pennines: Penyghent not Whernside; 44687 with modified Caprotti valve gear, roller bearings and double chimneys and very high running plate at Derby in 1952; Standard class 5, 73127 with British Caprotti valve gear on turntable at Patricroft mpd (Alan Tyson); 71000 Duke of Gloucester at Llandudno Junction on 14 June 1962 (Alan Tyson). See also lengthy letter from J.T. van Riemsdijk on page 318 Walschaerts valve gear provides a greater range of cut-off settings than the Caprotti system which does not give greater exhaust dimesnions. Rotary cam valve gears suffered from compression at low speeds and made locomotives fitted with it weak on severe gradients. Kenneth Cantlie had stated that 71000 could operate at 3% cut-off, although this was of questionable practical value (Cantlie worked for he British Caprotti Company). Writer responds to the steam consumption data for 71000 noting that comparable figures were attained on French locomotives. Cites Phillipson's Locomotive design, data and formulae. The advantages of poppet valves included the separation of the steam and exhaust passages and the power required to operate the valves was less. The greatest improvement was when poppet valves were actuated by Walschaerts gear. Further extensive letters on page 381 from Philip Atkins who mentions that Hugh Phillips had shown him documentation which indicated that British Railways showed tentative interest in fitting King, County, Merchant Navy and (new) 9F  locomotives with Caprotti valve gear; Franklin poppet valves fitted to Pennsylvania 4-4-4-4s; applications of Caprotti gear in France and for Great Indian Peninsular Railway and Central Argentine Railway and decrease boiler efficiency of Pennsylvania 4-4-4-4s and No. 71000 and letter from Richard Hardy on LNER B3 class which were "fast, economical and comfortable".Also highly informative letter on page 702 from W.T. Scott on two GSR 400 class 4-6-0s fitted with Caprotti valve gear in 1930. .

Beattock. 155-7.
Colour-photo-feature: Class 5 45490 hauling and Fairburn class 4 42147 banking train of limestone for Colville's steel works on 3 July 1954 (road traffic on A74 is also of interest especially coach with perspex roof panels) (Michael Mensing); Jubilee 45738 Samson with alleged 00.10 sleeper from Euston (more likely a relief to it) with volcanic exhaust from both ends of train in July 1963 (M. Smith); southbound freight hauled by Class 5 45047 approaching Summit in August 1962 (M. Smith); Northbound 46165 The Ranger (12th London Regiment) passing summit unbanked in July 1963 (M. Smith); 46201 Princess Elizabeth passing Harthope with 11.00 Euston to Aberdeen in August 1962 (M. Smith); Class Five 44719 on 07.12 Lockerbie to Glasgow on 16 August 1963 (David Idle); Class 5 44788 with a heavy express and no banker near Harthope in July 1963 (returning Glasgow Fair traffic?) (M. Smith).

Wham, Alasdair. Thomas Wheatley — father of the Wigtownshire Railway. 158-9.
Period following Wheatley's departure from the NBR when he provided motive power for the Wigtownshire Railway. See also letter from Chris Rouse (page 318) on manslaughter case against Wheatley for collision involving fatality at Wath in 1845..

Ten wheels over the Mendips. 160-5.
Colour-photo-feature: 9F class on former Somerset & Dorset Joint: 92245 on Midford Viaduct with Bradford to Bournemouth train on 25 August 1962 (Roy Hobbs); 92001 on a stopping train at Stalbridge in June 1961 (J.W. Millbank); 92233 with Pines Express headboard at Bath mpd in September 1962 (C.R. Gordon Stuart); 92001 assisted by Class 4 75009 at Wellow with Pines Express on 25 August 1962 (Roy Hobbs); 75023 pilots 92233 with Pines Express in Lyncombe Vale in September 1962 (C.R. Gordon Stuart); 92245 leaving Bath on four-coach stopping train on 5 June 1962 (Hugh Ballantyne); 92220 Evening Star (in glorious condistion) passing through Templecombe Lower platform with Whitaker tablet exchanger extended in August 1963 (P.A. Fry); 92220 Evening Star at Masbury Summit with four coach stopping train on 3 September 1963 (David Idle); 92001 at Midsomer Norton with Nottingham to Bournemough train in June 1962 (P.A. Fry); 92245 waits for the road at Templecombe with express in thundery August of 1962 (J.G. Dewing); 92224 on three coach train leaving Bath Green Park on 14 September 1963 (Hugh Ballantyne).

Vickers, R.L. The London & Birmingham Railway: a short history and gazetteer. 165-70.
Whatsoever the merits of this particular piece it is extraordinary that it does not cite M.C. Reed's The London & North Western Railway (1996), nor Harry Jack's Locomotives of the LNWR Southern Division: London & Birmingham Railway, London & North Western Railway and Wolverton Locomotive Works. 2001 (both of which achieved some of the best reviews ever achieved in Backtrack). On page 169 there is the extraordinary statement concerning Tring station: "In 1927 the station was still two miles from the town" (when KPJ last visited the station in about 2000 neither the station nor the town it serves had changed their relative positions), Map, Illustrations from London & North Western Society Collection: Doric Arch on 26 July 1888; 'Traffic Room' one of the LNWR main offices at Euston on 6 November 1897 (note superb fireplace, table, chairs and paintings on walls); Euston platforms 12 and 13 c1905 with Wyman newspaper boy, carriage watering apparatus and vast numbers of staff not doing very much; platform 6 at Euston in Edwardian times (touching up worthy of Stalinist regime);  Willesden station exterior with road approach and c1900 platform view with Webb-type trains waiting departure; entrance to Wolverton Works c1925/6; Tring cutting under construction in 1836 (Bourne print); Bletchley Station c1910 entrance; Wolverton Viaduct under construction (Bourne print); Birmingham Curzon Street locomotive depot with Jones 2-2-0 (rear driving wheel) Northern Division No. 18; Rugby station with Whale Precursor heading train for Euston.

Corby Steelworks. Dick Riley (phot.). John Scholes (notes). 171
Colour-photo-feature: Stewart's & Lloyd's 0-6-0STs on 30 May 1959: Margot No 8 Peckett (1918); No 14 Hawthorn, Leslie painted yellow loading molten slag; No 7 Andrew Barclay 1268/1912 (both this and Margot painted black)

Binks, Michael B. Railway civil engineering life 50 years ago. 172-8.
Management struction within British Railways Regions: District Engineers; effect of long welded rails on track maintenance and its management; bridge engineers; permanent way engineers; continuous welded rails; effect of hammer blow and hunting oscillations from steam locomotives and damage from unsprung motors on electric multiple units; electrification engineers (notes diversion around Harecastle Tunnel between Kidsgrove and Congleton; new works engineer; heating, lighting & ventilation engineer; architect and quantity surveyor, indoor assistant, District Engineer's organization; track maintenance and renewals; blanketing; ballast cleaning; permanent way planning, concrete sleeps, elastic fastenings and flat-bottom rail, district depots and workshops. See also letter from Tony Huckin (p. 318) who worked as a permanent way engineer on the Western Region during the same period.

Brooksbank, B.W.L. Railway disruption in World War II: Merseyside. Part Two. 179-84,
Battle of the Atlantic: German raids in 1940: damage to LMS, LNER, and Mersey Railway on both banks of the Mersey; severe flooding from damage to Leeds & Liverpool Canal at Canada Dock; disruption of electric service to Southport and to Ormskirk; severe damage on approach to Liverpool Exchange; disruptions caused by unexploded bombs.

Book Reviews. 185
Rails in Metro-Land. Clive Foxell. Author. MJS *****
"It is thoroughly recommended". Nevertheless points out a few errors notably about Northwood Hills station, and captions looking in wrong direction, etc.
Crewe Works narrow gauge system. Edward Talbot and Clive Taylor. LNWR Society. TJE *****
"Highly recommended". Reviewer notes other 18in works railways at Horwich, Beyer Peacock and at Wolverton (last was worked by manpower).
Great Central signalman. Iain Mc[Mac?]Kenzie and P.J. Wortley. Silver Link. JS ****
Work at Rugby
The Coniston Railway. Michael Andrews and Geoff Holme. Cumbrian Railways Assn. MB ****
"Another commendable publication"

Cole, Beverley. Tom Purvis 1888-1959. 186-7
Two wonderful pages which combine Purvis' magic images with lucid, informative text which includes a precise biography of the artist and his teachers (which included Degas and Sickert). Can Ms Cole please produce further contributions, starting with Norman Wilkinson, perhaps. Illus. (all colour): Be Early the Holiday Handbook (black bird with red worm within its grasp); East Coast by L.N.E.R. (faceless sirens in bathing costumes with old boy rowing (note unusual LNER "logo"); East Coast joys (children, sandcastles, terrier and utterly improbable weather) and "The Coronation" (crossing Royal Border Bridge with headlamps blazing as train crosses golden Tweed.

Paye, Peter. LNER N7 Class workings in the late 1920s. 188-9.
Black & white photo-feature with extensive captions and notes: 2635 at Stratford shed on 7 September 1929; 2648 at Stratford shed on 28 July 1928; 2606 on an up train near Chadwell Heath on 25 May 1929; 2631 on a down train near Chadwell Heath on 25 May 1929 and 967 takes empty stock out of the siding at Woodford on 17 July 1926.

Readers' Forum. 190
"From our own correspondent." Andrew Ward.
See page Volume 19 page 725: corrections and additions to information about Kronprinz Wilhelm
"From our own correspondent."  David W. Green
See page Volume 19 page 725: commuted behind or rode footplate of City of Truro bewteen Eastleigh and Winchester Chesil.
The 'Flying Scotsman' — 1938 train and celebrations. Peter J. Rodgers.
See feature in Volume 19 page 718: pressure-ventilated buffet lounge car from one of the sets is extant and is at Kirby Stephen East, also notes that it would now be possible to re-equip the preserved Stirling Single with an extant Stirling tender.
The 'Flying Scotsman' — 1938 train and celebrations. B.J. Harding.
See feature in Volume 19 page 718: date of photograph of No. 4498 must have been 1939 and E.G. Marsden was Information Agent
East is East. John Watling.
Complains about dismissive mention of Lord Claud Hamilton in caption on page 732 of Volume 19: Hamilton as Director and Chairman of the Great Eastern Railway and locomotives named after him: both assisted in decreasing the isolation of North East Norfolk and bringing London nearer to the Continent..
Wartime crisis on the Furness Railway. Tom Wray.
See feature beginning p. 681 in Volume 19: quantitities of haematite ore to produce rails (from Engineer, 1885 2 January and 1878 31 May).
Great Western Type 7 signal boxes. Russell Maiden.
See page 58: further information on signal box at Droitwich Spa.
Yorkshire Engine Company. Edward Barnes.
See page 38: Locomotives supplied to San Juan de Los Abedasas mines: works numbers and subsequent Norte and RENFE numbers.
Barry Works. Anthony Warrener.
See feature on page 59: concerns other locomotive works near Cardiff, notably those of the Rhymney Railway at Caerphilly and the Taff Vale Railway works in Cardiff, also spectacle of newly overhauled locomotives from Caerphilly passing through Heath district of Cardiff...
Railway disruption in World War II: Merseyside. David Catton.
See feature on page 70: questions stated location (Seaforth) of maintenance depot for Southport/Ormskirk electric multiple units (rather than Hall Road and Meols Cop) and suggests possible confusion with fascilities for Liverpool Overhead Railway.

Over the top at Beattock. Paul Strong. rear cover.
Jubilee 45715 Invincible passes summit in September 1959.

Number 4 (April)

Summer on the Vale of Rheidol line 2-6-2T No. 9 Prince of Wales. (T. J. Edgington). front cover.
No. 9 takes water at Aberffrwd while working a train from Aberystwyth to Devil's Bridge on 29th July 1968, during the final week of main line steam following which the VoR trio became BR's only steam locomotives.

History of entertainment. Martin Adams. 195.
Guest Editorial which considers that content is excessively dominated by the "last ninety years" and makes a plea for more material about earlier history: Makes a plea for better referencing; makes a happy comparison with Oakwood Press. Notes the lack of refereeing. KPJ sometimes considers that the Editor fails to seek assistance from friendly experts before Issues are put to bed: there are possibly too many avoidable errors (although the subsequent correspondence is enjoyable). The Class 126 (see Mensing feature) were supplied to both the Edinburgh and Glasgow and premier Ayrshire services. Summers failed to search Cox thoroughly: Cox did note the possibility of a Franco-Crosti standard class 5 in his extensive study of the standard classes. 

The colours of the Vale of Rheidol. John Edgington (phot.). 196-8.
Colour photo-feature: No. 8 in Aberffrwd loop on 17 July 1955; train in faded carmine & cream livery at Devil's Bridge on same day; No. 9 Prince of Wales (lined Brunswick green) on Park Avenue level crossing, Aberystwyth on 27 June 1966; No. 8 Llywelyn (corporate rail blue) crossing timber bridge over Afon Rheidol near Llanbadarn; Prince of Wales in modified corporate blue livery on 13 June 1977 at Devil's Bridge and passing Aberystwyth mpd, and Prince of Wales in glorious yellow livery (stated to be as per original livery) at Aberffrwd in 1982.

Digby, Nigel. Yarmouth Beach: a portrait of a seaside terminus. 199-204.
Midland & Great Northern Joint Railway station: originally home to Great Yarmouth & Stalham Light Railway which reached Ormesby in August 1877. Line laer renamed the Yarmouth & North Norfolk Light Railway and engineered (in all meanings of that verb) by Wilkinson & Jarvis. In 1883 became part of a cross-country route to the Midlands and in 1903 the Norfolk & Suffolk Joint Railway provided access to Lowestoft by a majestic bridge across Breydon Water. The fascilities had to be squashed into a narrow site and had to be improved to accommodate the Lowestoft traffic. Both passenger and freight services are described. There was an engine shed (must have been popular in residential area), goods shed and a fish shelter. It would have been helpful if the author had attempted to relate what now remains: a coach and car park.

Zanker, Mike. John Ellis: unsung railway pioneer. 205-7.
Eventually Chairman of the Midland Railway, this feature concentrates on his early career including involvement in the Leicester & Swannington Railway, and his Quaker religion.

Thrower, David. Southern gone West: the Sidmouth and Budleigh Salterton branches. 208-17.
The branch line from Sidmouth Junction (now Feniton) to Sidmouth originated as the independent Sidmouth Railway which opened on 6 July 1874. Eventually the LSWR costructed a line from Tipton St Johns to Budleigh Salterton and on to Exmouth: this opened on 1 June 1903. The lines closed in 1967. These lines used to support frequent train services, daily through carriages to Waterloo and through trains with restaurant cars on summer Saturdays. If the writer had read the feature in the Rly Mag, `1903, 13, 29-30 which celebrated the opening of the line he would have been able to observe that traffic to the East Devon Golf Links was considered to be important. There is correspondence on page 382: from author correction of position of level crossing at Sidmouth Junction; from Stephen P. Derek concerning the remarkable Exmouth to Cleethorpes service (via SDJR) and in particular its composition and the Littleham to Waterloo through service for Sandy Bay Holiday Camp, and from David Treharne on the demolition of the viaduct at Exmouth..

Brooksbank, B.W.L. Railway disruption in World War II: Merseyside. Part Three. 218-23.
Mainly the very extensive destruction which affected the City Centre, the docks and shipping during early May 1941. The Germans clearly regarded this as part of the Battle of the Atlantic. Obviously the railways and railwaymen did not escape.

Shed Visits. 224-8
Colour photo-feature: the distasteful word "bunking" is introduced into the hallowed halls of Back Track:1000 County of Middlesex and D6929 at Swindon mpd on 21 June 1964 (David Idle); 70010 Owen Glendower viewed from coaling tower at Patricroft; 46166 London Riflre Brigade at Carlisle Kingmoor (J.R. Carter & previous); 0-4-2T No. 1444 (sort of lined green) with breakdown train behind on Westbury shed on 20 September 1964 (David Idle); SR R1 class 0-4-4T No. 1703, N class No. 1865 and C class 0-6-0 (both R1 and N in dark SR green) alongside Ashford coaling stage c1937; red 46245 City of London and green 46233 Duchess of Sutherland and parts of two Jubilees (not coppable) at Liverpool Edge Hill on Sunday afternoon in 1961 (J.R. Carter); J27 No. 65894 adjacent coaling tower at York on 1 February 1964 (David Sutcliffe); ex-works 8F 48375 at Patricroft on 12 May 1965 (J.R. Carter); inside Merthyr shed on 13 September 1962 with 57XX 0-6-0PTs (9747 nearest) and 56XX (David Sutcliffe); preserved 7029 Clun Castle at Chester mpd on 4 March 1967 (DI).:

Return to Galloway. Michael Mensing (phot.). 229-31.
Colour photo-feature: 44957 on Kirkcudbright branch trains on 18 and 19 July 1963 (both in golden evening light); Horwich 2-6-0 No. 42919 on up freight near Dalbeattie on 13 July 1963;  80023 on Kirkcubright branch on 18 July 1963; Class 126 DMU at Glenwhilly on Stranraer train on 10 August 1973; Class 27 No. 5352 at Stranraer Harbour on empty stock (but what was blue tractor doing?) and Class 126 with Nelson end leading leaving Stranraer Harbour on 07.43 for Glasgow on 10 August 1973. Captions infer that Class 126 units were transferred from Edinburgh to Glasgow Inter-City, but were built for Ayrshire services (see page 381 letters from John Macnab and Stephen G. Abbott.see also James Ness, GM BR Scotland, about to board such a unit.

Hennessey, R.A.S. Juice Jacks, EMUs and Bo-Bos: a century of electric classification. 232-9
An area where Whyte is not quite right. Bad citation to Institute [sic] of Locomotive Engineers for paper by Wechman [sic]: see J. Instn. Loco. Engrs Paper 391 for correct citation. The illustrations almost say it all: drawing of Central London Railway Bo-Bo known as 'camel backs' (which were notorious for vibration and early demise); diagram of Pennsylvania Railroad DD-1 class, designed A.W. Gibbs for working trains through East River tunnels into New York; drawing of Prussian State Railways B+B+B 15kV for hauling heavy coal trains in Silesia classed as EG; NER No. 13 (2-Co-2) intended for Newcastle to York expresses by Raven and condemned to storage by the LNER (it must have been a majestic beast); American interurban electric locomotive with trolley pole built Baldwin Westinghouse in 1904 for Cincinnati, Georgetown & Portsmouth Railroad; NER Bo-Bo No. 8 with dynamometer car on Newport to Shildon line in October 1921 (caption notes De Normanville windscreen); Swiss Federal Railways rod-driven 1-B-B-1 No. 12313

Rutherford, Michael. Railways and iron & steel developments around Teesside. Part Two (Railway Reflections No.119). 236-47.
Extraction of ironstone (iron ore) from the Cleveland Hills; the Leeds Northern Railway opened between Thirsk and Leeds on 3 July 1851; developments at Leeds Central station; attempts to lure the LNWR into Teesside; the Cleveland Railway; railway to Rosedale; incline at Ingleby; Ingleby Junction changed name to Battersby Junction; severity of winters on North Yorkshire Moors; locomotive repairs at West Rosedale to limit taking locomotives up and down incline; tables of ironstone and pig iron production statistics by district from 1855 to 1885; blast furnaces at work in Cleveland in 1860 including at Middlesbrough and at Normanby. Involvement of Henry Bessemer in steel manufacture. See also letter from Bill Gathercole on page 446 describing extant remains of Ingleby Incline and observations made by local farmer who claimed that his mother had travelled as passenger on incline..

Signs of the times. 248-9.
Colour photo-feature: sign forbidding locomotives from sidings at Colne (in May 1965) (David Jenkinson); bridge weight restriction notice at Delamere by order of Cheshire Lines Committee (20 July 1968: J.S. Gilks); North Eastern Railway trespass notice near Weaverthorpe painted in North Eastern Region tangerine on 12 January 1985 (J.S. Gilks); SECR (full title including Managing Committee) warning of trespass and LSWR notice alongside "beware of trains" at level crossing near Brockham Village between Dorking and Reigate in 1974 (Melvin S. Lovell); "passengers are earnestly requested to cross the line by the bridge" at Streeton & Silsden in May 1965 (Midland Railway politeness)(Davvid Jenkinson); LMS Railway Co. notice at Llandovery (private road and/or footpath) in September 1978 (J.S. Gilks); LMS bullseye station nameboard at Chapel-en-le-Frith Central on 11 February 1967 (Alan Tyson): final item see also letter from David A. Young (p. 446) which notes that reference in caption to Chapel-en-le-Frith "North" should have been "South"..

Crosse, John. The secrets of File HO 70901. 250-3.
Southern Region locomotive allocations in the 1950s: how motive power shortages (or specific needs, such as turns demanding a considerable amount of tender-first running) prompted motive power changes. Sometimes failures in performance could be traced to locomotives being supplied with inappropriate coal for the duty concerned: thus the T9 used for the demanding Lymington Pier to Waterloo holiday express should have been coaled with the best quality coal at Eastleigh. Poor water quality coupled with low pressure (shades of West Runton) created problems for boiler maintenance at Redhill. Footplate crews at Basingstoke had a very low opinion of N15X class and pressed for change to N15. References to Ian Allan Locoshed Book and to correspondence in File to enthusiast societies, such as the Westminster Bank Railway Society. The tender-first running involved a Salisbury-based 700 class 0-6-0. The acquisition for a suitable replacement for the G6 0-6-0T at Salisbury involved a Z-class 0-8-0T (an E4 class 0-6-2T was unsuccessful).

Readers' Forum. 254
Making a mountain out of another mountain. Editor.
See illus on page 152: Penyghent not Whernside behind yet another black 5 photograph.
Railways around Whitby. John Smart.
A journey by design Keith Fenwick.
Station buildings on Highland Railway: that at Dunkeld dates from opening in 1856 (architect was Andrew Heiton of Perth). Original station building at Nairn: Elizabethan? and later Scottish Baronial. James Squair architect for Nairn and Pitlochry.
Along the Pennine ways again. Kevin P. Jones
Micklehurst Loop: notably how must have been kept clear of freight for passage of evening Liverpool to Newcastle express during late 1940s/early 1950s
Barry insight. Terry McCarthy.
See feature in Issue 1 (p. 59): Barry Railway did not "build its own locomotives": stock was supplied by outside manufacturers, notably Sharp Stewart. In Sout Wales only the Taff Vale Railway built its own locomotives: about eighty in its cramped Cardiff works: see Lowe.
Barry insight. Ian Simpson.
See feature in Issue 1 (p. 59):Prices for piecework not the cost: writer involved in piece work at Wolverton in 1960s building wiring harnesses probably for Mark I carriages.
Thomas Wheatley. William Tollan.
Sailing from Garlieston to Isle of Man are made by Balmoral and not by paddle steamer Waverley which still ventures across to Ailsa Craig from Ayr and Girvan.
Arturo Caprotti. L.A. Summers.
Noted that original feature failed to mention Collett's sole adventure into poppet valves on 2935 Caynham Court; also questions reference to Standard Class 5 to be constructed with Franco-Crosti pre-heater. Unfortunately, letter writer cites incorrect Cox book: see page 117 of Cox's British Railways standard steam locomotives (1966) where proposed modification to Standard Class 5 is mentioned
Ashford. M.H.C. Baker.
See 19 page 711 et seq: Rev. Hedley Sparkes should have been credited with colour photographs
Elliot Junction and Carmyllie Quarries. John Macnab.
See letter from W. Tollan on page 126: Considers that stone from Carmyllie Quarries could have been transported via Arbroath harbour to Cologne for constructing Köln Cathedral. Aslo remains of platform at Elliot.

Heading for Reading. Bruce Oliver. rear cover
N class No. 31411 at Little London near summit between Gomshall and Chilworth with Redhill to Reading train on 28 July 1963.

Number 5 (May)

LBSCR A1X 'Terrier' 0-6-0T No.DS377 at Norwood Junction shed on 5th August 1956. R.C. Riley. Front cover.
Painted in Stroudley's 'yellow' livery for use at Brighton Works pilot. It was being prepared for hauling a special to mark the centenary of the Caterham branch. .

Still waters. Michael Blakemore. 259.
Editorial: Manchester, Bolton & Bury Canal which later became the Manchester, Bolton & Bury Canal Navigation and Railway Company in 1831, although its route was not used to construct a railway between Salford and Bolton. Also comment on how many canals became desolate by the 1960s although some have been revived, and on the magnifiscent nature of some canal civil engineering work.

Pilot duties. 260-3.
Colour-photo feature: DS236 Brighton Works (ex LBSCR No 35) Terrier 0-6-0T in Stroudley yellow livery at Brighton Works with malachite green West Country tender behind; DS236 USA 0-6-0T shunter (malachite green) at Lancing Carriage Works on 21 August 1963 (Roy Hobbs); York station pilot NER J72 No 67836 in special NER-type livery on 7 September 1960 (J.S. Gilks); class 3F 0-6-0T Jinty No 47326 as station pilot at Carlisle removing van from rear of DMU which had probably arrived from Newcastle on 10 August 1964 (Bruce Oliver); J69 No 68619 (GER blue livery) at Liverpool St. adding former GER restaurant car to Newmarket Race Special on 2 October 1959 (R.C. Riley); 57xx No 4616 brings Bulleid (green) stock into Waterloo on 24 June 1962 (David Idle); English Electric Type 1 (Class 20) No D8037 on empty stock at Euston in 1961, also named class 40 and bow-windowed control office with geraniums (Cliff Woodhead); C Class 0-6-0 No DS 239 (ex-31592) at Ashford Works on 5 Jnuary 1965 (David Idle); immaculate ex NBR 0-6-0T J83 No. 68470 (with red background to smokebox numberplate) acting as the station pilot at Edinburgh Waverley below Carlton Hill (S.M. Watkins); Newcastle station pilot diesel shunter class 03 D2163 (faded blue) in March 1963 attaching van to rear of train which had ended with a Gresley vehicle looking as if still in teak livery and Tyneside electric behind (C.A. Davies)

Oakden, Steven. The Croft Pit Wagonway [Waggonway]: a short history of the life and times of a West Cumbrian industrial railway. 264-8.
In spite of author noting that the spelling waggonway was used throughout the article, the title only uses one 'g'. Croft Pit was connected to Whitehaven Harbour by a rope-worked incline and was an early user of locomotives including one constructed under Taylor Swainson's supervision in 1812 (Lowe lists Iron Horse under Whitehaven Collieries), but this weas unsuccessful. Chaldron wagons were used and the ships in the harbour were loaded via hurries (the local name for staithes). Brake was the local terminology for an incline. Illus. either by Peter W. Robinson or from his collection: Hudswell Clarke WN 1812/1948 0-4-0ST Carr at Whitehaven harbour on 23 April 1966; Andrew Barclay WN 1660/1920 0-4-0ST nicknamed Teddy Boy on 25 April 1966; Robert Stephenson & Hawthorn WN 7606/1949 0-6-0ST Monaville taking loaded wagons down from Ladysmith washer; set of empties approaches top of Howgill Brake (harbour visible far below on 2 September 1967; Robert Stephenson & Hawthorn WN 7049 0-4-0ST 'No 69' shunting at the foot of the Brake; Andrew Barclay 0-4-0STs WN 1847/1927 Lingmell and WN 1331/1913 Broomshiels in c1933 shortly after Priestman Whitehaven Collieries Ltd was formed; the coke ovens at Ladysmith with wagons being loaded including one lettered Priestman Whitehaven and another (GWR five-plank — an odd choice for coke); south side of Whitehaven harbour with hurries (staithes), sailing vessels, horse-drawn road wagons and general aura of squalour; Hudswell Clarke 0-6-0ST WN 1778/1944 Charles with Giesl ejector at Haig Colliery on 2 September 1967 (John Packham); Hudswell Clarke 0-6-0ST WN 1881/1948 Solway No. 1 with ' Charles on 2 September 1967 (John Packham); steep curve at the bottom of Howgill Brake.

Mullay, A.J. The railway canals. 269-71.
The nationalization of the former railway-owned canals in 1948, and the delay in the formation of the Docks & Inland Waterways Executive. Illus: Legging a barge through the Butterley Tunnel on the Cromford Canal; barge passing lifting bridge at Drawbridge Road, Shirley on Stratford upon Avon Canal c1923.

'Kings' of the Woverhampton road. Michael Mensing (phot.). 272-3.
Colour-photo feature: No 6029 King Edward VIII halted at Lapworth due to Sunday engineering work whilst working 16.30 Wolverhampton to Paddington on 8 October 1961; No 6001 King Edward VII near West Bromwich on 11.45 Birkenhead to Paddington on 20 September 1958; No 6012 King Edward VI passing Moor Street, Birmingham on 09.10 ex-Paddington on 2 December 1961 (leading Mk I vehicle in chocolate & cream livery); No 6005 King George II passing Moor Street with 08.05 ex-Birkenhead for Paddington (same day as previous); and No 6009 King Charles II at Wolverhampton Low Level backing onto 11.45 ex-Birkenhead on 12 September 1959.

Summers, L.A. One thing leads to another. 274-9.
Two of the photographs used as the basis for this feature came from the Culham Collage archives housed in the Oxfordshire Record Office. One on page 279 Blyth leads to an absurd piece of nonsense about the "holiday resort" of Blyth in Northumberland: Blyth worked on the Southwold Railway and was a 3 foot gauge 2-4-0T built by Sharp Stewart. Editorial grovel in bottom right hand corner of page 382. The other photograph is of GER T19 2-4-0 No. 1038: this was taken by Alfred Floyd who was born in 1886 and was a Culham College student from 1905 to 1907. This leads to Summers exploring the similarities between Holden's work and that of Dean. Obviously there are similarities as Holden was ex-Swindon: there is a slip coach letter grovel (p. 382) from the author which notes that Holden was probably responsible for the "Dean" designs at Swindon before his progress to Startford! The similarities are most marked in the 2-4-0 designs, but may also be evident in the late 4-2-2 designs (Achilles on GWR and P43 type on the GER: the latter designed for the crack Cromer expresses). A table compares the leading dimensions of the GWR 3232 2-4-0 and Achilles 4-2-2 designs with the GER T19 2-4-0s; the Humpty Dumpty type (which must have had an official name); the 4-4-0 rebuild of the T19 and the P43 class. Illus.: Achilles 3040 Empress of India departing Paddington in 1908 (Ken Nunn); 2201 No. 2215 with domeless boiler; P43 No. 14 at Ipswich (Ken Nunn); Humpty Dumpty No. 743 at Parkeston Quay in Novmeber 1911; 3232 2-4-0 No. 3240 and rebuilt T19 as 4-4-0 No. 741 (Ken Nunn). Letter from Lyn D. Brooks (page 443) (with considerable knowledge of things Great Eastern) which demonstrates that Thomas William Worsdell was the genius behind GER 2-4-0 development and that the T19 type was very similar to the G14 class. For those who do not prefer to write rather than read, Lynn D. Brooks had said it all before in Br. Rly J., 1985, (6), 219..and implied that it was all due to Stroudley's C class. Letter from M.D. Hardy (page 443) which amends much of what was written about Holden and oil-burning on the Great Eastern. Letter from Christopher A. Lee (p. 509) which suggests that "Dean designed several other Great Eastern classes"...

Hennessey, R.A.S. Orion, Darroch and the 'Alfreds'. 280-6.
Some of the information has been incorporated into the biography of Darroch. Orion was a one-sixth scale (9½in (9¾in?) gauge) model of a Webb-type 4-cylinder compound with a Precursor type of boiler. The model was built by Darroch whilst he was at Crewe before WW1 and ran on a line in his garden at Crewe. The locomotive was an exhibit at the Liverpool & Manchester Railway Centenary Celebration in St George's Hall in Liverpool from 13-20 September 1930 (Rly Mag., 1931, 68, 91-4). Before his death Darroch presented the locomotive to the Stephenson Locomotive Society which arranged for it to be housed at Penrhyn Castle under the National Trust and a partial restoration was accomplished by Iowerth Jones. Eventually lottery funding was obtained to fully restore the model (by John Ellis). This first ran  on the railway at Downs School at Colwall, but is now at thee NRM, Shildon. See also Br. Rly J., 1988 (23) 158 and 1989 (25) 259 for further illustrations and explanation in later publication which also includes an illustration of the Harry Powell model mentioned in Hennessey's text. The article also gives a brief account of the four-cylinder compound system as developed by Webb. See also later article on Darroch's neighbour: Payton.

Maggs, Colin C. Station truck working on the GWR. 287.
The GWR operated about 600 station trucks to provide what was regarded as an economic and fast means of conveying small freight consignments to and from rural stations. In many cases next-day delivery could be achieved. The article is illustrated by the form used in assocaition with working 282A which ran from Hockley (Birmingham) to stations on the Severn Valley Railway to Shrewsbury via Ironbridge.

North British. Derek Penney (phot.). 288-90.
Colour-photo feature: NBR class C (LNER J36) No. 65258 at Eastfield mpd in 1959;  Class M (LNER C15) No 67474 at Arrochar & Tarbet on push & pull in 1959 (note this was one of the few push & pull services to offer first class accomodation with toilet); class F (LNER class J88) 0-6-0T 68349 at Eastfield  in 1959; unidentified NBR class S (LNER class J37) climbing to Burntisland with train of tank wagons and hoppers for bauxite; class J (LNER D30) No 62440 Wandering Willie at Hawick shed; class S (LNER J37) No. 64576 on Dundee shed. Letter from A..J. Mullay (page 446) questions caption notes on withdrawal dates for class J36 and J37..

At night. Steve Burdett (phot.). 291-3.
Colour-photo feature (atmospheric nocturnal scenes): Class 25 No 25 063 arrives at a wet Hereford with train from Cardiff on 20 February 1977; Class 86 No. 86 255 arrives at Crewe with southbound express on New Year's Day 1979 (snow on ground); Pwlheli to Machynlleth Cross Country type DMU held at Tywyn in 1983; Peak class 45 No 45 028 arrives at Plymouth with a night mail service on 4 December 1976; Crewe South Yard at night on 24 September 1977; class 40 No 40 067 waits to leave Aberdeen with Glasgow train on 8 October 1977. See also rear cover.

The Somerset & Dorset recalled. Hugh Ballantyne. 294-5.
Black & white photo feature: BR Standard class 4 4-6-0 No 75073 passes Wellow signal box with 16.37 Bath Green Park to Templecombe local on 1 June 1963; West Country No. 34043 Combe Martin pilots BR class 5 No 73087 out of Bath Green Park] with Pines Express on 29 August 1959; general view of Radstock yard and depot with BR class 4 2-6-0 No 76027 leaving for Bath with 09.05 local ex-Templecombe; S&DJR 7F 2-8-0 No 53810 on Wellow Viaduct with Exmouth to Cleethorpes "express" on 28 July 1962; class 2P pilots a Standard class 5 on northbound Pines Express passing Midford on 10 March 1955 (Camerton branch still with track in situ in foreground).

Rutherford, Michael. Railways and iron & steel developments around Teesside. Part Two (Railway Reflections No.120). 296-305.
Map shows Stockton & Darlington Railway at its greatest extent and pays some attention to the South Durham and Lancashire Union Railway which climbed over the Pennines at Stainmore; includes new lines constructed in Teesside by the North Eastern Railway notably the route south from Sunderland to Hartlepool; the accidental discovery of salt which led to the growth of the heavy chemicals industry, and the switch from wrought iron to steelmaking. Locomotive depots in Teesside are tabulated; the work of Edward Fletcher and William Bouch (Tom Pearce's excellent book is cited). The Shildon electrification is briefly assessed as is Raven's input to it: Rutherford claims that the locomotives formed the basis for the Gresley design used on the Woodhead electrification. Illus: T2 (Q6) 0-8-0 No 63395 at Newport East with train of rolled sections on 13 March 1962 (colour: Colour-Rail); P2 (J26) 0-6-0 No 65761 at Middlesbrough with shipping behind (Colour-Rail); William Bouch 4-4-0 No 161 Lowther (based on Robert Stephenson & Co. design for Smyrna to Aidin Railway); Thomas Bouch viaduct at Deepdale on South Durham & Lancashire Union Railway; Mousegill Viaduct; WD 2-8-0 No. 90588 on train of hoppers passes Type 2 No D5288 with brake tender near Billingham on 25 March 1966 (Colour-Rail); Middlesbrough station entrance (colour: T.J. Edgington); clearing snow on the line near Barras in 1947 and Stainmore summit on 17 February 1947 with walls of snow after snow clearance from track; Standard class 3 No 77002 double-heads with class 4 No 43126 over Smardalegill Viaduct with 11.20 Blackpool to Newcastle train in 1962; Class A8 No 69883 at Battersby Locomotives Battersby; WD 2-8-0 No 90377 in yard of Skinningrove Iron Co at Carlin How on 2 May 1960 (J.A. Peden): old engine shed at Hartlepool closed in 1939 then used for wagon repair on 2 September 1956 (T.J. Edgington); V3 No 67688 at Middlesbrough with express for Newcastle on 27 April 1954 (H.C. Casserley); remains of the Brusselton Incline;  Newport yards (Shildon electrification); A8 No 69866 at Middlesbrough with express headlamps on 27 May 1954 (H.C. Casserley); Fiat char-a-banc used on early rail replacement bus service whilst Kilton viaduct was being replaced by an embankment; Pacer 142 021 at Hartlepool station on 19 June 1993 (the LNER did it so much better).

Emblin, Robert. Logan and Hemingway — the firm and families. Part 1. — Origins and the Logans . 306-10.
This firm has been encountered before in Backtrack in articles written by Robert Emblin on the MSLR's London Extension including Nottingham Victoria station: Volume 8 p. 201 et seq and Volume 17 page 95 et seq. Logan & Hemingway were public works contractors and one of the descendents of Guy Hemingway appears to have been a competent historian (as does the contributor). The origins of the firm appear to have stemmed from a butty gang (Coleman page 57 stated that these were groups of navvies who joined together to negotiate with sub-contractors on major projects) of stonemasons which was formed in 1838: this consisted of Angus MacGregor, born in Callendar in 1809; John Logan born in 1806 probably in Musselburgh, George and Peter Thomson, sons of William Thomson, a builder, James Nowell, a mason, and James (born 1795) and John Hemingway (born 1802), probably in Dewsbury. In 1846 John Hemingway, Benjamin Nowell (son of James) and Charles Pearson formed a partnership to build the masonry work on the Menai Bridge. Later the partnership worked on tunnels and docks in South Wales. Rennie, Logan and Thomson were involved in a wide range of civil engineering works for both docks and railways. Part 2 see page 371

Brooksbank, B.W.L. Railway disruption in World War II — Merseyside. Part Four. 311-15.
The German bombing attacks which ended in the first week of May 1941 nearly succeeded in completely destroying the port of Liverpool and had caused immense damage to the docks, shipping, railways and roads. 1900 were killed and 1450 were seriously injured. 70,000 people were made homeless. There were breaks in the major services: gas, electricity, water and telecommunications. But by the end of May 60% of the port had returned to normal. Closure of the Liverpool Overhead Railway was considered as damage to it was causing problems to the Mersy Docks & Harbour Board's raiways which ran underneath. Later in the War the Liverpool Docks fulfilled major roles in the import of foodstuffs (43% was handled there) and in acting as the port of entry for troops and supplies for the United States Army and Air Force. Troop trains were handled at Riverside, Canada Dock and at Marsh Lane for Gladstone Dock. OVERLORD, the preparation for the invasion of Europe brought further pressure on the port and its railway communications and efforts had to be made to divert traffic away from Crewe. Inland storage fascilities reduced the risk of further damage from bombing.

Gilks, John Spencer (phot.) and Foster, Richard D. Signalling spotlight: Saxby & Farmer signal boxes on the Brighton line. 316.
Southwater and Holmwood.

Book reviews. 317.

The Highland Railway. David Ross. Tempus.
Criticism by Peter Treloar for  lack of map but "otherwise excellent book.

The illustrated railway children. E. Nisbet. Silver Link. MB *****
Special Centanary Edition. Illustrated with "well-chosen selection of period photographs". Biography of author who had led a Bohemian lifestyle.

Railwaywomen. Helea Wojtczak. Hastings Press. HA ****
"Highly readable". Criticism of photographic reproduction. Review acts as an excellent introduction to to this largely neglected area of women working on the railways.

LMS Journal Nos. 12 & 13. Bob Essery. Wild Swan. MJS ****
"Excellent additions to the series". See also LMS Journal No. 12 and No. 13.

Readers' forum. 318

Arturo Caprotti. J.T. van Riemsdijk
Comment on feature by David Alexander on page 148 et seq. Walschaerts valve gear provides a greater rangeof settings than the Caprotti system which does not give greater exhaust dimesnions. Rotary cam valve gears suffered from compression at low speeds and made locomotives fitted with it weak on severe gradients. Kenneth Cantlie had stated that 71000 could operate at 3% cut-off, although this was of questionable practical value (Cantlie worked for he British Caprotti Company). Writer responds to the steam consumption data for 71000 noting that comparable figures were attained on French locomotives. Cites Phillipson's locomotive design, data and formulae. The advantages of poppet valves included the separation of the steam and exhaust passages and the power required to operate the valves was less. The greatest improvement was when poppet valves were actuated by Walschaerts gear.

Arturo Caprotti. D. Lorriman.
Feature by David Alexander on page 148 et seq: not 5948 Baltic but 5946 Duke of Connaught.

Railway Civil Engineering 50 years ago. Tony Huckin.
Response to feature by Michael Binks (p. 172 et seq): reminiscences of Chief Civil Engineer's permanent way department at Paddington in mid-1960s and of South Wales District Office at Newport. Design and installation of points and crossovers.

Compound expansion. David Lorriman.
Written in response to letter by Adrian Tester (page 637 Volume 19) which in turn had been a response to Lorriman (page 572 Volume 19) for information. Cites E.C. Poultney's British express locomotive development and notes that most British compound locomotives had fixed cut-off linkages bewteen the high pressure and low pressure systems. Notes how Whale improved the performance of the Webb Alfred the Great class by modififying locomotives with independent control of the cut-off for the high and low pressure cylinders.

Thomas Wheatley. Chris Rouse.
See feature on page 155. Notes how Wheatley was involved in a collision between a light engine driven by him at excessive speed and a Mail train near Barnsley. When on bail for manslaughter he fled to France.

Twilight at Manchester Victoria. Steve Burdett. rear cover.
Class 25 No 25 259 waits to leave Manchester Victoria with parcels train on 12 November 1984.

Number 6 (June)

60154 Bon Accord (A1) at York station in 1964 (Dereck Penney). Front cover

Giving the People what they want (whether they want it or not!). Michael Blakemore.
Editorial plug for A.J. Mullay's Railways for the People: the Nationalisation of Britain's railways in 1948 (Pendragon Publishing). Editorial notes that the Transport Users' Consultative Committee was usually loaded with those with vested interests in the bus industry. Are we to be surprised at Ribena buses (First Group) running both the buses and the trains (and the ever present replacement trains) in many places?

Over the Tors to Princetown. Dick Riley (phot.). 324-6.
Colour photo-feature featuring visit made on 5 July 1955: 4410 at Yelverton (incidentally what would HSE have to say about position of turntable); same one coach train at Dousland; Ingra Tor halt with cattle awaiting next train; two coach train at Dousland (bound for Yelverton); Burrator and Sheepstor Halt with mixed train heading away onto Dartmoor; 4410 with single coach dwarfed by tors. Most of these were also published in Volume 1 page 69. Our photographer appeared to reach Princetown, but without colour film?: see Locomotives Illustrated,(33) page 12 (bottom).

Black, Graham. ROD 2-8-0s in Australia. 327-9.
Purchased from the War Department (ROD) following WW1 by John Brown, Manager of J. & A. Brown who owned collieries and railways in New South Wales, including the Richmond Vale Railway and its extensions to the collieries: Richmond Main and Pelaw Main. The company eventually acquired thirteen locomotives: ten were shipped as ballast (to avoid tax) on the SS Mimmi (owned by the Company), but the first three were shipped on the SS Boorana and were landed at Sydney on 23 February 1926. These were WD 2123, 2119 and 2070 and were acquired from the dump at Stratton, north west of Swindon. An invoice for three copper fireboxes and steel tube plates from the North British Locomotive Co. in Glasgow is reproduced. But many of the company's records have been lost either through flooding aor through their deliberate destruction by John Brown before his death on 3 March 1930. The company was restructured as JABAS. Illus. No. 23 at Stockington Colliery in September 1965 and at Pelaw Main Colliery in January 1961, and a ROD locomotive being loaded at Liverpool via a floating crane (from an advertisement).

Hill, Keith (deceased). The brilliance of Brunel. 330-9.
Written to celebrate the two-hundredth anniversary of Isambard Kingdom Brunel's birth. Keith Hill had an attractive writing style and this is illuminated by the following flowing extract: "His masterpiece is still in use today, busier than it has ever been before, carrying trains of weights, and at speeds and trequencies, which Brunel could never have envisaged. It follows the River Avon as far as Bath, slices between the Cotswolds and the Marlborough Downs via Swindon, and then gallops along the levels of the Vale of the White Horse. Beyond Didcot it hugs the Thames as it negotiates the Chilterns via the Goring Gap to Reading, before following the line of least resistance to London." He will be greatly missed as a contributor. The feature concentrated on the mainline between Bristol and London, Paddington station and the Royal Albert Bridge including a characteristically crisp Hill colour photograph of it taken from an HST (the up Cornish Riviera) in September 2002). Most of the material is well known, but there is an interesting side issue on gthe strike through of the sunrise through Box Tunnel, and whether it could occur on Brunel's birthday. Quotes, but did not cite Phil Atkins, who claimed that such an event could not occur, but reproduces photograph (by Chris Austin page 333 which had appeared in New Civil Engineer, 1984 April and comment about "strike through" of the sunrise through photographed on 9 April 1981 (Brunel's birthday). Other illus. (all colour unless stated otherwise): 47 583 County of Hertfordshire heading 12.15 Paddington to Oxford (all in Network SouthEast livery on 28 April 1990 (Gavin Morrison); 7019 Fowey Castle leaving Box Tunnel on down carmine & cream express in 1956 (P.M. Alexander); Paddington station in 1930s at 15.38 looking towards The Lawn with 61XX on stopping train awaiting departure (C.R.L. Coles b&w); Wharncliffe Viaduct in 1950 (C.R.L. Coles b&w); Castle 5054 Earl of Ducie on Oxford University Railway Society special on 16 May 1964 (David Idle); Royal Albert Bridge with 2-8-0T on up freight with Saltash Corporation Ferry (steam chain) in front in April 1951 (W.J.V. Anderson b&w); 50 033 Glorious in Network SouthEast livery crossing Moorswater Viaduct on special to Newquay on 23 November 1991; (Gavin Morrison); Bristol Temple Meads original terminus on 17 October 1965 (T.J. Edgington b&w); 6800 Arlington Grange leaving Royal Albert Bridge on up milk train in April 1951 (W.J.V. Anderson b&w); Castle 5090 Neath Abbey near Corsham (Derek Penney); floodlit Royal Albert Bridge in August 1959 (P.W. Gray). See also correspondence in Issue 8 p. 509 from A.R. Nicholls concerning Dionysius Lardner; Ron Harper on the network of former quarry tunnels, used for storing ammunition (cites N.J. Camley's Secret underground cities); Malcolm Parsons on the same subject; and Keith Farr who noted that Beeching did not suggest the closure of the mainline through Cornwall (KPJ: that was Serpell)..

Wells, Jeffrey. Accrington — aspects of a Lancashire town's railway history. 340-6.
The Manchester, Bury & Rossendale Railway had opened on 28 September 1846 and had become a component of the East Lancashire Railway on 21 July 1845. The severe Baxenden bank was a feature of the line. Article features extensive quotations from Harrison and Sale's Guide to East Lancashire Railway  Manchester 1840: this does not appear to be in Ottley, but a copy is held at Burnley Library. Other sources used by author are Marshall's Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway and Rush's East Lancashire Railway (1969). Plans show how the passenger station grew from an inconvenient single platform in 1850 to a multiple Y-shape platform layout in 1882. The line to Bury closed on 5 December 1961. Illus.: Accrington Platform 5 in 1914 (prior to Stamp decay); Aspinall 4-4-0 on special train for E.J. Riley conveying billiard tables (publicity photograph 14 May 1914); Stanier 2-6-4T No. 42619 on parcels train (caption states passenger, but see headcode (Essery LMS Journal, Number 3 p.12 for key) for Manchester and parcels stacked on Platform 2); Accrington Viaduct (from station footbridge) and Accrington North signal box on 16 April 1973; locomotive depot with what caption claims to be two Aspinall 0-6-0s (but nearer one is surely a Barton Wright 0-6-0); Accrington Charter Street mpd with "interesting" DMU inside and two Royal Scot class outsie: 46100 Royal Scot and 46142 The York and Lancaster Regiment on 4 May 1962 (Wembley Cup Final specials). See also correspondents in Issue 8 (p. 509): A.J. Bowers refers to the accidents which took place due to runaways on Baxenden bank on 15 December 1891 and one in July 1913 (with illustration); also agrees that one of the "two" Aspinall 0-6-0s is a Barton Wright 0-6-0; from Bob Gibson who suggests corrections to map: Great Harwood Junction, not Daisyfield East Junction; and from D.H. Dyson a correction to the date stated for Royal Scot photograph: should have been 6 May (he was the photographer).

Sinclair, Neil T. The General Strike in the Highlands. 347-51.
There had been no strikes on the Highland Railway until 1911. Nevertheless, the response to the General Strike of 1926 was univeral amongst the wages grades. The response of the Government to the General Strike of 1926 was to appoint District Commissioners to make local decisions. General MacFarlane, based in Inverness, concentrated on road transport, but volunteers and a handful of staff who worked did enable a few trains to run, but the strikers were well behaved. There is the remarkable story (KPJ suspects not published for first time) of Kenneth and Ethel Fraser's epic journey from Inverness to Paris via London and Dover. Clerks who went on strike suffered severely (many left to serve on the Benguella Railway) as is shown in the unpublished memoirs of Alfred H. Forbes. Sources are cited. Illus (b&w): HR 4-4-0 No. 128 Loch Luichart with locomotives crews at Aviemore in about 1919; Skye bogie 4-4-0 No. 14283 on mixed train near Achterneed in 1920s;  4-4-0 No. 14409 Ben Alisky leaving Kyle of Lochalsh with 17.45 (time looks apposite that way) special for Inverness on 7 May 1926 (during stike); 14384 Loch Laggan approaching Stanley Junction with local for Blair Atholl; 0-4-4T No. 15054 at Dornoch with six-wheelers from GSWR, LNWR and MR plus LMS bogie vehicle in early 1930s; 14679 Clan Cameron on very short southbound local train leaving Inverness in 1930s; Dalwhinnie station in HR days.

The LNER's A1 Pacifics. 352-4.
Colour photo-feature: 60141 Abbotsford leaving Peascliffe Tunnel on climb through Grantham on up express (Derek Penney); 60121 H.A. Ivatt departing King's Cross with 15.55 to Leeds Central on 18 August 1962 (Geoff Rixon); 60157 Great Eastern passing Retford under caution on up express (DP); 60140 Balmoral on down express passing Grantham in 1962 (note horsebox between locomotive and front coach) (DP); 60125 Scottish Union approaching Grantham on up express; 60138 Boswell in York shed on 12 October 1963 (Gavin Morrison); 60124 outside York shed in 1964 (DP).

The Brunel University Collection. 355-7.
The Collection includes photographs taken by Charles Mowat between 1924 and 1969 [reproduced are Colinton station and tunnel entrance taken on 22 June 1934, and one of Mouldsworth, former Cheshire Lines Committee in June 1961 (the enamel BR standard "gentlemen" sign is the only hint that it was not at least thirty years earlier]. Charles Clinker was both a photographer and collector of photographs (many of which are in other collections, notably those held by the NRM). Clinker C112.2 shows a broad gauge express on sleepered track at Exminster in May 1891. The Locomotive Collection consists of about 2000 photographs taken by an unknown phographer who appears in some of the photographs (but his anonymity remains unthreatened as these are not reproduced herein!): examples: Weston Clevedon & Portishead Railway tramway type of vehicle No. 1 on 3 September 1938 and former LBSCR 4-4-0 No. 2057 on shed at New Cross on 14 June 1936. Chris Wookey was a student at Brunel University and died tragically young: his collection was donated to the Library as a memorial: the disused signal box at Tapton was taken b him from a moving train on 10 February 1979.

Lost on the Callander & Oban line. Tom Heavyside (phot.). 358-9.
Colour photo-feature: class 27 27 010 shunting at Oban Station with Giles Gilbert Scott's wonderful St Columba's Catholic Cathedral dominating Oban Bay on 17 May 1978; 37 411 Institution of Railway Signal Engineers near Tyndrum Lower on 29 July 1987; 37 411 stopping at Tyndrom Lower on same day as previous; 27 030 shunts at timber loading sidings at Crianlarich; 37 012 Loch Rannoch in Oban station with 13.00 to Glasgow on 3 August 1985 Editor directs readers wanting steam in the same locations to Volume 18 in sections beginning page 96 and 540.;

Rutherford, Michael. A Brief Survey of the Irish 4-4-0. Part 1: Genesis — or how the Irish designed a "Crewe" 4-4-0 and exported it back to England. Two (Railway Reflections No.121). 360-9.
Centres on Alexander McDonnell and how a series of standard locomotives were evolved for the major Irish railway (the Great Southern & Western Railway at its Inchicore Works, including the dominant 101 class of 0-6-0 (designed at Beyer Peacock), and eventually the Kerry bogies (4-4-0) which evolved from McDonnell's light 2-4-0 design. An 0-4-4BT (a sort of Fairlie) and an 0-6-4T are also considered. McDonnell was an inspired head hunter: the brilliant engineer John Aspinall was recruited from Webb to be Works Manager at Inchicore and later Ivatt was attracted across the water in the same manner. Thus it is shown how the Kerry bogie concept was to re-emerge on the LYR and GNR. Some play is made on Aspinall's Catholicism (and on the Worsdell Quaker connections), but Ivatt's High Church sanctity is not mentioned. This article does cover the cause celebre of McDonnell's eventual fairly rapid departure from the North Eastern Railway (following his appointment as Locomotive Superintendent at Gateshead in succession to Fletcher). Rutherford uses this as a pretext to demolish the embroidered descriptions presented by Nock and by Tuplin in contrast with the brevity in its coverage by the magisterial Tomlinson and by Irving. Those seeking more about McDonnell's Irish career should examine Chacksfield's book on the Coey brothers and for the debacle on the NER Parts 3C (pp. 56-8) and 5 (page 145) of the RCTS Locomotives of the LNER. .

Bennett, Alan. History: Southern-style. 370-2.
Six brochure covers (illustrated in colour) accompanied by quotations from the purple prose intended to attract Americans to Britain. The first four were issued by the "Southern Railway of England" and the last two by the "Great Western & Southern Railways of England". This material presumably precedes the establishment of the New York office under the title of "British Railways" in the 1930s. The brochures are: Where England began (c1925) with cover illustration of the Roman Pharos at Dover BC54; Where English history was born: the garden counties of Kent and Sussex (1930); Where the Saxon kings held sway: the beautiful & historic counties of Dorset & Hampshire (1930) (cover is rubber-stamped "The Union Travel Company, Tours - Travel, Dayton Ohio"); Saxon England (1932). This and the remaining two feature an attractive style which KPJ associates with the dust jackets of Batsford books from the same period. The two joint publications (with the GWR) promoted King Arthur's England and England — and why which features the immortal lines: "England is as much 'home' to every true-born American as the United States itself". Creepy, crawly stuff.

Emblin, Robert. Logan and Hemingway — the firm and families. Part 2. — The Hemingways. 371-7.
Part 1 see page 306. James Hemingway II was born in Tamworth and was apprenticed to Rennie, Logan & Thomson under Robert Matthews. He married Mary MacGregor in November 1859. They had eight sons, six of whom survived, including Charles Robert Hemingway who was born in Cardiff in 1860. He was educated at the King's School in Macclesfield until 1874 and then worked for Logan & Hemingway on the Macclesfield, Bollington & Marple Railway which began the firm's association with the MSLR. Charles' father died in September 1879. Charles Hemingway worked under his uncle, William MacGregor, gaining experience on the Welham branch of the Tilton & Market Harborough line. This line was the subject of a serious legal dispute with the Midland Railway and Charles worked closely with the company's solicitors in its London office. He married Mary Elizabeth MacGregor with whom they had nine children. From 1882 Charles Hemingway was in effect in control of the company's operations. In 1888 the company won the contract to build the Chester & Connah's Quay Railway, but to the annoyance of Edward Watkin the bridge across the Dee was not ready in time to convey Gladstone to the Paris Exhibition, but Logan & Hemingway came to the rescue with a temporary crossing. As noted in earlier articles the firm did a considerable amount of work on the MSLR's London Extension, including Nottingham Victoria station. Later work included the Wath Concentration Yard. Hugh Logan joined the firm in 1906. The Sleaford to Cranwell Railway was constructed for the Admiralty during WW1.. Charles Hemingway became a widower in 1909, but married Jessie Kennedy from Kilmarnock in 1915. Logan became ill whilst constructing the Frome Cut-off for the GWR and retired in 1933. Due to the lack of work the firm was closed in 1935 and Charles Hemingway retired to Aberlady. He died in 1947. James Angus Hemingway was born in Cardiff in 1866 and was educated at Uppingham. After a time in Australia where he married Sarah Amy Harding he returned to the UK in 1888 and joined Logan & Hemingway. He was associated with the conversion of the Frodigham Viaduct into an embankment and with extensions to the John Brown Steelworks in Sheffield. He retired to Cromwell, north of Newark and died in 1942. There are briefer biographies of Charles' brother Philip Crawshaw born in 1878 who was educated at Uppingham, worked for the firm, but appears to have been injured severely during WW1 and retired to Aberlady in 1920. Charles Robert Hemingway, Junior, was educated at Loretto School, studied at Oxford and worked for the firm under Edward Dale, but left the firm shortly before its demise. Guy Yeoman Hemingway (includes portrait of when about 25), son of James Angus Hemingway, was educated at Repton and Oxford (Hertford College), but joined Logan & Hemingway in 1927 and remained with it until its demise. His subsequent work was varied. Following retirement he lived in his father's house at Cromwell. He died on 16 April 1986. He was a lively model maker and interested in the history of transport

Nicholls, Arthur R. The real world of the railwaymen: a short anthology of poems by railwaymen. 378-9.
Based around F.W. Skerrett's Rhymes of the railway (Leeds: 1920: not in Ottley, nor in BLPC, but in University of Warwick (Perry Collick's papers, Modern Studies Collection). Tommy's Opinion (rerproduced herein) is extremely bitter, reflecting the National Railway Strike of 1919. Illus.: LNWR employees standing on or alongside Precursor 4-4-0 No. 1104 Cedric: picture does not match text..

Rolling stock focus: East Coast Postal. 380.
E70278E and E70297E at Stratford in March 1969. Built at York in 1929 and used on TPO service from Liverpool Stratford to Peterborough.

Readers' forum. 381-2.
To this company's advantage. Robert Barker.
See feature by Michael Smith (p. 134 et seq):  further information about Charles Jones, the G and H class locomotives; the use of "Met" on Nos. 91 and 105 after the takeover by the LPTB: possible explanation for name Brill allocated to No. 97; the unpopularity of the H class following transfer to Nottinghamshire; and the claim that ex-Metropolitan engines never worked via Northolt Junction and High Wycombe.
To this company's advantage. Albin J. Reed.
See feature by Michael Smith (p. 134 et seq):  states that ex-Metropolitan Railway were painted in lined black by LNER: writer quotes Foxell's Memories of the Met & GC Joint Line for picture of No. 6422 so-adorned: see also p.97 The Big Four in colour (Jenkinson) where livery is quite obvious and matches blazers of boys in photograph at Neasden in August 1938.
To this company's advantage. Richard Hardy.
See feature by Michael Smith (p. 134 et seq): memories of how the ex-Metropolitan Railway footplatemen retained their distinctive overalls and caps (as did the former M&GN men) under the LNER at Neasden, Chesham and Aylesbury (at the last named depot there were also GWR crews)
Caprotti valve gear. Philip Atkins.
See page 148 et seq: who mentions that Hugh Phillips had shown him documentation which indicated that British Railways showed tentative interest in fitting King, County, Merchant Navy and (new) 9F  locomotives with Caprotti valve gear; Franklin poppet valves fitted to Pennsylvania 4-4-4-4s; applications of Caprotti gear in France and for Great Indian Peninsular Railway and Central Argentine Railway and decrease boiler efficiency of Pennsylvania 4-4-4-4s and No. 71000..
Caprotti valve gear. Richard Hardy.
See page 148 et seq: as applied to LNER B3 class where they were fast, economical and comfortable
Return to Galloway. John Macnab.
See page 229: Swindon Inter-City DMUs were built for the Glasgow St Enoch to Ayr and Stranraer services
Return to Galloway. Stephen G. Abbott.
See page 229: Swindon Inter-City DMUs were built for the Glasgow St Enoch to Ayr and Stranraer services: the Edinburgh-Glasgow DMUs were difficult to redeploy as built as six-car sets.
The Sidmouth and Budleigh Salterton branches. Stephen P. Derek. 382.
See feature page 208 et seq: concerning the Exmouth to Cleethorpes service (via SDJR) and in particular its rolling stock composition and the Littleham to Waterloo through service for Sandy Bay Holiday Camp.
The Sidmouth and Budleigh Salterton branches. Stephen G. Abbott.
See feature page 208 et seq: concerning the Exmouth to Cleethorpes service (via SDJR) and in particular its rolling stock composition: argues (in Stretton-like manner) that this did not feature Southern Region stock: Stephen P. Derek throws the Working Notice against him on p. 573.
The Sidmouth and Budleigh Salterton branches. David Thrower.
See feature page 208 et seq: correction of position of level crossing at Sidmouth Junction;
The Sidmouth and Budleigh Salterton branches. David Treharne.
See feature page 208 et seq: and guest editorial from Martin Adams on page 195 on the difficulty of verifying the dates for the demolition of the viaduct at Exmouth (KPJ regards this letter as falling within the semiotics of railways: that is the way in which railways and their remains are perceived)...
Yorkshire Engine Company and steam tenders. Tony Vernon.
The Poultney steam tender (Patent UK 262,360), constructed by the Yorkshire Engine Co. in 1927 and  fitted to Ravenglass & Eskdale Railway 2-8-2 River Esk
One thing leads to another. L.A. Summers.
See page 274 et seq: having read Peck's The Great Western at Swindon Works author now informs the Backtrack readership that Holden designed both the "Swindon" and the "Stratford" locomotives (we must hope that Mr Summers reads Mr Rutherford in this Issue before bursting into print again). Letter contains further dig at Joy's Diaries (Carlton incorrectly transcribed as Charlton). Summers wonders if there is an Ahrons archive (with typo Anrons to cause more fun). {KPJ: the extant bibliography of Ahrons is extensive [as the Editorial Note at the beginning of the British steam railway locomotive (KPJ "gave himself" his own copy of this wonderful work for his seventieth) makes abundantly clear: unfortunately the Breckland bibliographical wilderness inhibits easy inspection of all these riches]. It is also probable that much was lost in the bombing of the Locomotive Publishing Company's premises during WW2.}
Blight on Blyth. Editor.
Editor was sunk in communications about Blyth 2-4-0T from Southwold Railway (page 279).

Quarrying in Northamptonshire. Brian Sullivan. rear cover.
Nassington Ironstone Quarries: two Hunslet 0-6-0STs Ring Haw (1940) and Jacks Green (1939) top and tail loaded train climbing from quarry

Number 7 (July)

LMS Fowler Class 4 2-6-4T No.42323 calls at sunny Alton Towers, on the North Staffordshire line, with the 11.25am Leek-Uttoxeter on 19th August 1961. Michael Mensing. Front cover

All I want is a room somewhere. Michael Blakemore.
Editorial on railway hotels as prelude to five-star article (this Issue is particularly rich in these).

On the 'Knotty'. Michael Mensing (phot.). 388-9.
Colour photo-feature; Calss 120 DMU in BR corporate blue & grey livery on train for Crewe at Stoke-on-Trent station on 12 August 1978; 42323 chuffing away from Alton Towers on Churnet Valley line to Uttoxeter on 19 August 1961; Class 2 2-6-2T No. 41277 on push & pull Tutbury Jenny passing site of Stretton & Clay Mills station on 4 June 1960; down Comet hauled by 46108 Seaforth Highlander south of North Rode on 30 September 1959; WD 90369 crossing Trent & Mersey Canal near Kidsgrove Central on 26 September 1960.

Skelsey, Geoffrey. Famous hotel-keepers for over a century: British railway hotels under State ownership, 1948-84. 390-9.
The Hotels Executive, 1948-53; British Transport Hotel and Catering Services, 1953-63; British Transport Hotels Ltd, 1963-84. Table 1 lists the main data relating to hotels owned by the LMS, LNER, GWR and Southern in terms of number of hoels owned, number of bedrooma, and overnight guests. The Southern was least interested in this activity: the LMS built two major new ones at Morecambe and at Queen's Hotel, Leeds to replace existing hotels and planned more replacements. The GWR added two new rural hotels: the Welcome and the Manor House and planned more hotel construction, including at Looe at the end of its projected new branch line. The author is waspish about some of the final transactions between the State and the private sector where quick profits were made or financial incentives were demanded by the new owners. In Ireland things were done differently. Includes some delightful anecdotes about how the article came to be written. Excellent architectural photographs (mainly in colour by the author): Adelphi, Liverpool (scene of BBC documentary); Victoria Hotel, Bradford; art deco classic Midland Hotel Morecambe, Midland Hotel Bradford, Perth Station Hotel (built under joint ownership of CR, NBR and HR); Grand Hotel West Hartlepool (built North Eastern Railway); North Stafford, Stoke-on-Trent; plus four black & white: Euston, Queen's Hotel Leeds, Zetland Hotel, Saltburn-on-Sea (started by Stockton & Darlington Railway, finished by NER) and Cruden Bay Hotel with tram at entrance (GNoSR) plus illus.of some publicity materail.

Nisbet, Alistair. Oxford for the day. 400-3
In August 1963 Master Nisbet travelled from Paddington to Oxford, bashed the shed, and returned on 10 August 1964 to take some photographs in the rain.R.L. Clark (page 573) is critical both in terms of emphais and in fact, noting that the Bletchley service was operating at the time of these visits.

Lewis, Christopher. William Henry Barlow, 1812-1902: an appreciation of a great Civil Engineer. 404-10.
Born 10 May 1812 in Woolwich. Concise biography which concentrates on the London Extension of the Midland Railway, including the trainshed at St. Pancras; and his work on the second Tay and Forth bridges. He died on 12 November 1902 and William and his wife Selina are buried in Charlton cemetry: the grave is illustrated. High Combe, the Barlow residence which now serves as a Catholic presbytery is also illustrated. There is a portrait by John Collier which is property of the Institute of Civil Engineers, and the Barlow charger (a silver dish) presented to him on his 90th birthday. Extensive bibliography. Other illustrations: fine viw of Forth Bridge, contemporary view of St Pancras train shed. Added comment on resuse of Barlow rails from D.L. Lovely (page 637).

Portrait of a 'Lanky'. 411
Colour photo-feature (all Colour-Rail) of 2-4-2T No. 50850: at Newton Heath mpd, Manchester and at Chapel Street Southport (latter on 14 October 1961).

Edmonds, Tim. Asking the impossible. 412-13.
Passenger travel between South Acton and Brentford.

Home on the 'Grange'. 414-15.
Colour photo-feature: 6854 Roundhall Grange approaching The Lakes Halt on North Warwickshire line with 11.20 Newquay to Wolverhampton Low Level on 25 August 1962 (evening light) (Michael Mensing); 6863 Dolhywel Grange at Worcester Shrub Hill with train for Stourbridge on 1 August 1963 (train includes excellent view of Palethorpe's sausage van) (David Idle); 6853 Morehampton Grange ex-works at Swindon on 16 August 1964 (contra jour) (Roy Hobbs); 6875 Hindford Grange (view down onto cab from above) at Truro station on 18 May 1959 (Michael Mensing); 6879 Overton Grange near Fenny Compton on down freight on 30 July 1963.

Somerset & Dorset days. 416-22.
Colour photo-feature: 3F 0-6-0T No. 47316 on local freight, 7F 2-8-0 No. 53810 shunting off a coal wagon at Midsomer Norton on 3 July 1961 (R.C. Riley); Class 3F 0-6-0 No. 43248 passing Templecombe No. 2 Junction signal box with train from Highbridge formed of SR (green) stock on 7 July 1959 (RCR): letter from Phil Jacques (page 509) states train was 15.40 Bournemouth West to Bristol reversing into Templecombe (train engine was 75072, steam from which is just visible); 53809 on Nottingham to Bournemouth express passing Stalbridge on 25 August 1962 (T.J. Edgington); Class 4 2-6-0 No. 76015 climbing towards Masbury Summit with Bournemouth to Bristol passenger train on 3 September 1963 (David Idle); 43248 on passenger train at Highbridge for Evercreech Junction on 1 August 1955 (note LSWR passenger vehicle in formation); 9F 92220 Evening Star crossing River Stour at Sturminster Newton on 1 September 1962 (RCR); 4F 0-6-0 No. 44560 at Masbury Halt on Bath top Templecombe local passenger on 3 September 1963 (DI); Bath Green Park with class 2 2-6-2T No. 41249 with local passenger for Bristol and 76027 with Bournemouth train on 22 August 1962; BR class4 No. 75007 arriving Radstock North on Bornemouth to Bristol train on 5 September 1963 (DI); 2P No. 40569 piloting rebuilt West Country 34045 Ottery St. Mary in Midford Valley on Bournemouth to Manchester express on 12 August 1961 (RCR); SDJR 2-8-0 No. 53807 at Wellow on up freight on 6 July 1959 (RCR); 2P No. 40700 assisting BR class 5 No. 73051 on Bournemouth to Leeds Saturdays only express on 5 September 1959 (RCR); BR class 5 No. 73049 with one part of two-part northbound Pines Express passing 2-8-0 53807 on its freight waiting in siding at Wellow on 6 July 1959 (RCR); page 421 (middle): our Mike shows that he supports England: panoramic view of St Leonard's Church at Pitcombe (near Cole) which is flying the St George's cross on 6 November 1965 with class 2 2-6-2T on Highbridge to Templecombe train in background; 4F No. 44560 on Bath to Templecombe stopping train on 27 July 1963 (Hugh Ballantyne); standard class 4 4-6-0 No. 75007 approaching Shepton Mallet with Charlton Road Viaduct in background with Bath to Templecombe local on 5 September 1963 (DI) and two unrebuilt West Country Pacifics (34006 Bude and 34057 Biggin Hill) on Locomotive Club of Great Britain special on 5 March 1966 (DI)..

The 1902 Royal Visit to Plymouth and Dartmouth. 423
Photo-feature: Atbara 4-4-0 No. 3374 Britannia aka Baden Powell decorated for hauling Royal Train from Paddingto to Kingswear on 7 March 1902 in 4hr 23min (228½ miles; Royal train at Plymouth North Road on 10 March 1902, and the Royal Saloon in close-up (built by GWR in 1874 for Queen Victoria and rebuilt in 1897 (bogies appear to be similar to those used on steam railcars).

Campbell, Robert D. Muck, brass and Glasgow's railways. Part One. 424-8.
Fascinating story of how the police cleaned up the streets, dumped the filth into middens and used the railways to cart it off to the coup. The city of Glasgow grew rapidly from over 80,000 in 1801 to over 475,000 in 1871 and in 1801 the Police Act empowered the police to do something cleaning the city up. Scavengers were employed from 1804, but they were also required to assist in general policing. In 1859 pure water was brought to the City from Loch Katrine. In 1862 the Police Board contracted a Drummond to organize the transport of odure from seven dung hills out into the surrounding agricultural areas using special railway wagons. 200 wagons were supplied by Robert Faulds & Co., the Birmingham Wagon Co., P. & W. MacLellan & Co and the North of England Railway Carriage Co. They were painted in brown oxide and plated Glasgow Police Board. Depots were established at Sighthill Goods on both the CR and NBR; at Bridgeton, Muirhouses/Gushetfaulds; Camlachie (NBR); Cook Street (GSWR) and subsequently Pinkston Bank (CR) and Craighall (NBR). By 1868 over 100,000 tons of noxious waste was being transported away to places as far as Forfar. Special attention is paid to Fulwood Moss Coups (between Houston and Bishopton) where the odure was laid to rest and used to grow tatties and the Police Committee went down to enjoy picnics. Wonderful article. Technology eventually overtook this operation with the development of sewage works at Dalmarnock in 1894; Dalmuir in 1904 and Shieldhall in 1910 when sludge boats transported the solids out to the Firth of Clyde and incinerators disposed of dry waste, but there was suffiient material for the Sewage Committee to be responsible for a small fleet of Barclay shunters including a crane tank. Extension of the City boundaries in 1891 led to new works at Kelvinhaugh and at Haghill. In addition to Fulwood Moss the City was involvedd in land improvement at Gain on the Cleddans Estate owned by the Whitelaw family and on the Gartshore Estate, both to the East of Glasgow. The Ryding Farm was owned by the Corporation. Illus. CR 4-4-0 No. 721 Dunalastair halts at Bishopton station pre-WW2; NBR 0-4-0 No. 1020 (originally No. 268, Hawthorn, Leith, 1864) based at Kipps; NBR 0-6-0T No. 505 (Dübs, 1877: originally Glasgow, Bothwell & Hamilton Railway No. 1); Glasgow Police Commissioners 8 ton wagon with dumb buffers No. 852 (Hurst Nelson 1895); R.Y. Pickering 4-plank 8 ton wagon: Sewage Disposal Dalmarnock No. 30.

Mellor, Ian as told to H.N. Twells. Derby 1945-1963: an apprentice's story - Part One. 429-33.
Describes apprentice training. The valving section involved heavy manual wiork, especially on locomotives with inside cylinders. The work could be dangerous and first aid skills could save lives. There was a fire in the works during his time. He studied for ONC and was issued with Namco, a milk-based dring issued to youths at that time. During National Service in the RAF the author developed coach services from Wellesbourne, near Stratford-upon-Avon to Birmingham and elsewhere in association with Hutfield Coaches of Warwick: a business which British Railways and Midland Red Omnibus Co. attempted to disrupt! Part 2 see page 564 et seq

Rutherford, Michael. A Brief Survey of the Irish 4-4-0. Part 2: Mostly Great Northern (Railway Reflections No.122). 434-42.
Begins by showing how Aspinall and Ivatt expanded the Irish 4-4-0 into the 4-4-2 type. Then a thumbnail history of the Great Northern Railway Ireland and its ancestry in the Ulster Railway, the Dublin & Belfast Junction Railway, and the Irish North Western Railway. Locomotive Superintendents are listed and the information has been added in the appropriate section. .  Illus.: U class ex-GNR No. 202 (UTA No. 67) Louth (blue) at Lisburn in June 1962 under spectacular stormy sky  (I Pryce colour); PP class No. 74 Rostrevor; S class No. 170 Errigal (blue) at Portadown on Londonderry train on 2 June 1947 (A.D. Hutchinson colour); P class No. 53 at Dundalk on 26 April 1951 (T.J. Edgington); S class No. 171 Slieve Gullion leaving Poratdown in July 1963 (I. Pryce colour); U class No. 202 Louth (blue) near Belfast in May 1959 (J.G. Dewing colour); P class No. 72 (black) at Clones on 27 April 1956 (TJE); PP class No. 107 (black) at Londonderry (GNR) in July 1932 (J.A. Coltas); Q class No. 122 at Adelaide on 25 June 1950 (TJE); UTA No. 62 (S2 No. 190) at Adelaide on 11 June 1964 (TJE); Q class No. 131 in CIE ownership but still in GNR black at Mullingar in June 1964 (TJE colour); PP class No. 129 at Londonderry (GNR) in July 1932 (J.A. Coltas); Q class No. 122 with token catcher at Londonderry as previous; U class No. 196 with LQG 0-6-0 Noi. 163 at Dundalk in May 1950 (JAC); U class No. 200 Lough Melvin (blue but b&w photo) at Eniskillen on 28 April 1951 (TJE); Dublin, Wicklow & Wexford Railway 4-4-0 No. 57 Rathnew with Belpaire boiler, c1906. Part 3 pp. 552-63.

Readers' Forum. 443/446.
One thing leads to another. Lyn D. Brooks.
See page 274 et seq: In effect shows that L.A. Summers' contribution was nonsense by showing that Thomas William Worsdell was the genius behind GER 2-4-0 development and that the T19 type was very similar to the G14 class.
One thing leads to another. M.D. Hardy.
See page 274 et seq: Holden and oil burning on the GER: notably the contribution of Arthur Morton Bell.
Return to Galloway. John Horne.
More on the relationship between the Inter-City DMUs of 1956 used on Edinburgh to Glasgow services and the Class 126 used on Ayrshire services.
North British. A.J. Mullay.
See feature page 288: questions caption notes on withdrawal dates for class J36 and J37..
Signs of the times. David A. Young.
See caption to  last picture in series beginning page 248: notes that reference in caption to Chapel-en-le-Frith "North" should have been "South"
Railways and iron and steel development around Teesside. Bill Gathercole.
See Rutherford feature beginning page 236: Describes extant remains of Ingleby Incline and observations made by old local farmer who claimed that his mother had travelled as passenger on incline.

Pre-Grouping colours. 444-5.
Reproductions of postcards published by the Locomotive Publishing Company: NSR G class 4-4-0 No. 86 in madder lake; MGNR 4-4-0 No. 53 in golden ochre; GSWR 4-6-4T Baltic tank No. 545 in green with polished steel boiler cladding; Highland Railway 4-6-0 No. 145 Murthly Castle in very dark olive livery (all so far clearly based on official works photographs) ; LYR 4-6-0 on Newcastle to Liverpool express with Newcastle to Liverpool express formed of NER stock in deep red livery (includes six-wheel bogie dining car with massive underframe) on Walkden troughs; and GER Claude Hamilton 4-4-0 in ultramarine livery descending Brentwood bank with luncheon car express non-stop from North Walsham?

Book Reviews. 446

Steel wheels, the evolution of the railways and how they excited engineers, architects, artists and writers. A.F. Garnett. Cannwood. RH. ***
"A stoically patient reader able to take a few breathers will find a useful historical tour d'horizon". KPJ has also seen the book and read it in an unusual location, was bursting to try the internet address, but once home found that the website did not supply the missing data

Steam on Scottish metals. George Marsh and Michael Webb; ed. Anthony P. Vent. Buggleskelly. TJE *

Digging in at Black Rock. David A. Hill. Rear cover
Britannia No. 70038 Robin Hood on special for York approaching Hartshead power stationon climb to Standedge on 2 July 1967 (rear view captures chime whistle, rear of cylinders and lack of real nameplate to perfection).

Number 8 (August)

WD 'Austerity' 2-8-0 No.90041 passes Hilton Junction, south of Perth, taking the Newburgh line towards Edinburgh with a freight from Aberdeen. (Derek Penney). Front cover

Nothing new under the sun. Jeffrey Wells. 451.
Guest editorial on the sombre topic of fatalities at level crossings, spurred by the death of two schoolgirls at Elsenham on 3 December 2005 when they ran into the path of a non-stopping train in an endeavour to catch a departing train. The writer remembered the locking mechanism fitted to the pedestrain gates at Clayton Bridge to inhibit people from crossing the line when trains were due.

Post War 'Austerity'. 452-3.
Colour photo-feature: 90386 just out-shopped from Darlington Works on 2 October 1964 in sparkling condition (David Idle); 90514 on ballast train at St Neots on 31 May 1962 (Alan Tyson); 90641 passing Rochdale on freight from Yorkshire in 1965 (Brian Magilton); 90041 taking Newburgh line at Hilton Junction, Perth, with short freight for Thornton Junction on 21 August 1965; 90376 with train of mineral wagons passing Dringhouses yard, York (Derek Penney). See also letter from Rory Wilson on page 637.

Morris, Joel V. as narrated to Edward A. Evans. A signalman's tale. 454-62.
Mr Morris joined British Railways in 1969 and worked at Radyr Junction for twenty years, partly as a shunter, but with the future prospects for employment looking bleak he switched to being a signalman, initially at Black Lion signal box, which provided access to Merthyr Vale colliery and a crossing loop between Abercynon and Merthyr. He eventually moved on to the more demanding job at Abercynon which acted as the junction for a restored passenger service to Aberdare (this line was operated by a mini control panel). He then became a Relief Signalman at Radyr Junction where he worked at Llandaff Loop, Radyr Quarry and Porth. He was involved in the end of mechanical signalling and single line token working in the area, replaced by Valleys Radyr signalling centre. Evans note error in location of Merthyr Vale station on his map: see letter p. 637 Alastair Warrington gives precise dates for closure and demolition, also on page 637

Glasgow St. Enoch. 463.
Colour photo-feature:two highly polished Standard class  4 2-6-4Ts (leading one No. 80127) head boat train for Princes Pier Greenock on 9 May 1959 in connection with Canadian Pacific sailing (T.J. Edgington) and 76001 leaving with empty stock  on 30 March 1964 (David Idle). William Tollan (p. 637) notes origin of this obscure saint (mother of St Mungo, patron saint of Glasgow); KPJ adds own observation.

Blakemore, Michael. Away for the Wakes. 464-73.
The textile industry used to close its mills for routine maintenance providing their operatives the opportunity for holiday travel, either for a week or a fortnight, typical destinations being Blackpool and the resorts on the North Wales coast. Even before WW2 the destinations were becoming more ambitious, and in 1935 included Devon, [Great] Yarmouth and Bournemouth. By 1955 the destinations had grown to include Scotland, Newquay in Cornwall, Hastings, Fleetwood for the Isle of Man and Bridlington. As late as 1965 destinations still included Newquay, Yarmouth (change at Norwich for West Runton) and Portsmouth for the Isle of Wight. The extent of the extra trains had declined still further in 1967 and there were far fewer routes available for conveying them. Cliff Bancroft (Volume 21 p. 62) remembered childhood journey in 1958 from Colne via electrified Woodhead route and the astonishing football B17s and Britannias at Norwich to the glittering North Sea at Yarmouth.

Ludlam, A.J. The Spilsby and Firsby Railway. 474-9.
Authorised 5 July 1865, opened 1 May 1868, passenger service permanently suspended on 10 September 1939 and closed completely on 30 November 1958. The article is a gem and includes much unusual material, including the low rate of remuneration for strawberry pickers.

A proliferation of 4Fs. 480-3.
Colour photo-feature: 43854 arriving Coalville with empty coal wagons in September 1963 (Geoff Rixon); 44170 at Hall Royd Junction, Todmorden with local freight heading towards Copy Pit on 14 June 1961 (Gavin Morrison); 44386 between North and Middle Harecastle Tunnels on 26 September 1960 (Michael Mensing); 43893 waiting next banking duty at Manchester Victoria (Derek Penney); 44186 approaching Harrogate on parcels special (DP); 44238 at Wortley Junction on trip freight on 5 June 1962 (note tar wagons at front of train) (GM); 44599 in Burton roundhouse on 16 July 1962 (GR); 44082 on last leg of Bristol to Bradford express leaving Leeds City on 20 August 1960 (GM); 44559 (SDJR locomotive) leaving Templecombe with down local on 12 July 1960 (R.C. Riley); 44405 at Crewe with yellow stripe on 19 September 1964 (David Idle).:  

Amey Roadstone. Michael Mensing (phot.). 484-5.
Colour photo-feature: limestone traffic from Whatley Quarry via Somerset Quarry Junction and Frome North Junction: 33 101 and 33 105 near Great Elm Tunnel on 15 May 1983; 56 055 near site of Hetesbury station on18 September 1987; 47 030 near Frome on 6 March 1984; 56 048 near Frome on 30 May 1985; 56032 Sir de Morgannwg/County of South Glamorgan near Bedlam Tunnel on 12 )ctober 1987: all on stone trains using various types of wagon.:

Hill, Keith. A brave new world? 486-95.
The British Transport Commission's 1955 Modernisation Plan; its incomplete implementation, cut-backs in funding, and partial derailment by Beeching. Notes speeches given by Sir Brian Roberson; improvement in passenger numbers due to use of DMUs in West Riding; suburban electrification on Great Eastern and involvement of Glasgow Passenger Trains Committee in seeking electrification; Potters Bar widening; Bletchley flyover; Kent electrification; extension of services worked by DMU; deferment of Great Northern electrification; diesel locomotives and marshalling yards. See also letter from Bill Gathercole (p. 702) on Paddington to Bristol journey on Bristolian behind diesel hydraulic Benbow in 1959..

In the [locomotive] works. 496-7.
Colour photo-feature: 70048 under repair in Crewe Works during June 1964 (Brian Magilton); 31851 (N class 2-6-0) at Ashford Works on 25 February 1962 (David Idle); 6823 Oakley Grange in Swindon in November 1964 (Roy Hobbs); rebuilt West Country 34014 in Eastleigh Works on 9 March 1963 (David Idle)

Bodman, Martin. Coals to Newcastle? The 'Jellicoe Specials'. 498-503.
The working of heavy coal trains from South Wales mainly to Grangemouth to service the Fleet of coal-burning warships during WW1. The main route was from Pontypool Road via Hereford, Shrewsbury, Chester, Warrington and Carlisle. The Churchward 28XX 2-8-0s were used to Chester or Warrington and the LNWR G1 or G2 0-8-0s were used from there to Carlisle and either CR or NBR 0-6-0s from there to Grangemouth for shipment to the Orkneys. Brief mention is made of other Naval coal traffic destinations which did indeed include Newcastle as well as Southampton, Glasgow, Devonport and Holyhead. The destroyers based at Harwich used Yorkshire coal, presumably to lay a smokescreen. Well referenced. Illus. 4-cylinder compound 0-8-0 No. 1272 at Bayston Hill on northbound coal train at time of Agadir Crisis; .4-cylinder compound 0-8-0 climbing to Shap with banker at rear on actual Jellicoe special: this photograph inspired highly informative letter on p. 637 from Dennis Lorriman on Webb compounds still in service at that time); GWR 2854 (28XX) at Old Oak Common (note vacuum pump, capuchon on chimney, and huge lumps of coal on tender; 28XX with trial train of 20 ton wagons at Severn Tunnel Junction on 26 August 1924; LNWR G1 No.1121 at Carlisle Upperby during WW1; Grange Dock ay Greangemouth. Letter from R.L. Marshall (p. 702) observes that Jellicoe specials over NBR were routed via Peebles route, presumably to avoid Falahill (KPJ); and another from John Adams on Midland footplate crew's response to working Super Ds. William Tollan on page 765 asks why the coal was not taken north by colliers from South Wales: further letter from Dennis Lorriman on page 189 (March 2007).

Treloar, Peter. 'A Motley Collection': locomotives of the Alexandra Docks Railway. 504-7.
Photo-feature: 0-6-2ST No. 7 Pontypridd (page 504 upper: see also letter from Pater Davis on page 765); 0-6-0T No. 5 J.C. Parkinson; 0-6-0T No. 32 (sometime Will Scarlet, Fletcher Jennings of 1873 for Severn & Wye Railway); 0-6-0ST No. 17 bought new from Hawthorn Leslie in 1889; 0-6-0ST built by R. Stephenson for ADR, but shown as Ashington Coal Co. No. 20; ADR No. 28 (former GWR 1661 class 0-6-0ST No. 1683) with two Barnum & Bailey American-style coaches for Pontypridd service; steam railmotor (railcar) No. 2 constructed by Glasgow Railway & Engineering Co. for Pontypridd to Caerphilly service in 1904/5; Andrew Barclay 0-6-2ST as GWR No. 190; and No. 37, based on Mersey Railway 2-6-2T, built Hawthorn Leslie in 1920.

To Snowdon Summit. Alan Tyson (phot.). 508 .
Colour photo-feature: all taken on 3 June 1966: No. 8 Eryri at Llanberis station; No. 6 Padarn descends to the crossing loop at Clogwyn and No. 8 reaches Snowdon Summit (clear view of complicated pointwork on rack system.

Readers' Forum. 509.
The brilliance of Brunel. A.R. Nicholls.
See feature by late Keith Hill in Issue 6 (pp. 330 et seq): writer considers that Dionysius Lardner has been an excessively bad name and suggests reading his Railway economy (Ottley 440) and The steam engine (see Ottley 17 and 2956 and take your pick).
The brilliance of Brunel. Ron Harper.
See feature by late Keith Hill in Issue 6 (pp. 330 et seq): network of former quarry tunnels, used for storing ammunition (cites N.J. Camley's Secret underground cities)
The brilliance of Brunel. Malcolm Parsons.
See feature by late Keith Hill in Issue 6 (pp. 330 et seq): former quarry tunnels, formerly used for storing ammunition.
The brilliance of Brunel. Keith Farr.
See feature by late Keith Hill in Issue 6 (pp. 330 et seq): Beeching did not suggest the closure of the mainline through Cornwall, nor Newquay nand Falmouth branches (KPJ: that was Serpell)..
The railways of Accrington. A.J. Bowers.
See article beginning page 340: refers to the accidents which took place due to runaways on Baxenden bank on 15 December 1891 and one in July 1913 (with illustration); also agrees that one of the "two" Aspinall 0-6-0s is a Barton Wright 0-6-0
The railways of Accrington. Bob Gibson
See article beginning page 340: suggests corrections to map: Great Harwood Junction, not Daisyfield East Junction
The railways of Accrington. D.H. Dyson
See article beginning page 340: correction to the date stated for Royal Scots on Accrington shed photograph: should have been 6 May (writer took the photograph).
One thing leads to another. Christopher A. Lee.
See feature on page 274 and letter from Lyn D. Brooks (on page 443) which this letter writer has still to read! There is a literature on how Dean appeared to lose the thread, but he still knew his Great Western from the Great Eastern.
Somerset & Dorset days. Phil Jacques.
See page 416 lower: train was 15.40 Bournemouth West to Bristol reversing into Templecombe (train engine was 75072, steam from which is just visible) and not as caption states from Highbridge.

Book reviews. 510.
LMS Locomotive Profiles. No. 8 — the class 8F 2-8-0s. David Hunt et al. Wild Swan. MJS *****
Excellently written review of what appears to be an excellent book.
The Welsh Highland Railway an historical guide. Part 1. Caernarfon – Rhyd Ddu. John Keylock. WHR Heritage Group. MJS *****
"an excellent product"
The South Wales main line. Part 4 — Bridgend (West) to Swansea. John Hodge.. Wild Swan. MJS. ***
Concentrates on 1950s and 1960s: rather half hearted review.
Living steam. Anthony Lambert. New Holland. DWM. **
"elegant style masks a decided lack of substance."
The Ratty album. Volume 2, the Ferreira years, 1960-1994
. David Jenner and Adrian Smith. Ravenglass & Eskdale Railway Co., SDW ****
Douglas Ferreira was General Manager of the Ravenglass & Eskdale Railway: "a time when change really did mean improvement"; a "well illustrated and pertinent production"
The Great Northern Railway (Ireland) in colour. Norman Johnston. Colourpoint. DWM *****
"photographs hold a mass of detail": extended captions also commended.

Messing about on the river. J.S. Gilks. Rear cover
No. 1419 on Loswithiel to Fowey auto-train (push & pull) near Golant Halt on 8 July 1960 with boats in foreground.

Number 9 (September)

2-8-0 No. 4700 at Newton Abbot with Paignton to Plymouth excursion. W. Potter. Front cover
4 July 1961: both locomotive and train were green: latter formed of Southern Region stock.

That was the year that was: scandals, robberies, railways in transition—no change. Michael Blakemore. 515.
Resignation of that last great railway politician: Sir Harold Macmillan due to Profumo scandal; the hold-up and robbery of mail train, the Beatles (a group of singers?) and the Kennedy assassination all form the overture to Railway Age for July 1963 wherein the great Beeching train robbery began, but Railway Age was showing a rose-tinted future for freight: canned soups from King's Lynn (its OK that plant is about to close); beer from Burton to St Pancras (soon to be champagne from Paris) and a farm removal by train. Railway Age even mentioned the new Clacton multiple units with their maroon livery and griddle cars (see John Spencer Gilks colour picture on rear cover of Issue 2 in 2007). The Editorial has a wonderful picture captioned the Minister of Silly Walks being given the keys to a Ford Zodiac as he steps off Blue Pullman at Paddington (the car looks antedeluvian yet the train still looks modern: the photographer matched the blue of the car with that of the train to perfection).

Between Reading and Redhill. David Idle (phot.). 516-18
Colour photo feature: N class 31831 at Guildford on 13.50 Reading to Redhill on 25 January 1964; 7813 Freshford Manor departing Dorking Town with 11.20 Redhill to Reading on 21 December 1962; N class 31861 at Dorking Town with 12.05 from Reading to Redhill; 2-6-4T 80089 at Redhill with 11.35 for Reading on 20 June 1964; U class 31639 departing Ash for Redhill on 11 April 1964; Q class 0-6-0 (caption incorrectly states C class) No. 30543 leaving Redhill with 17.04 for Reading on 1 September 1964 518 upper: see Editorial grovel on p. 702; U class No. 31793 departing Wanborough for Reading on 25 January 1964; and class 3 2-6-2T No. 82018 arrives Ash in mist on 25 January 1964.

Helm, John W.E. The bombing of Britain's railways — a War diary round one 1914-1918. Part 1. 519-24.
WW1: first incident was bombardment of the Hartlepools by the German Navy on 16 December 1914. This led to the deaths of 35 children and 30 women and damage to the NER West Hartlepool station (illustrated) and wrecked a railway van and deariled wagons (illustrated). Scarborough and Whitby were also attacked. In one of the many extensive notes the author postulates that the NER Board may have been aware that the bombardment was to take place (the German raid was intended to draw the British Navy). This was followed in 1915 by Zeppelin (airship) raids on the Norfolk coast (Yarmouth and King's Lynn are mentioned, but the first bombs were dropped on Sheringham, but did not explode (remains in local museum)). There were casualties but railways were not damaged. On 14 April 1915 Wallsend station was damaged and an EMU had a fortunate escape.on 16 April 1915 a German submarine raided Lowca in Cumberland in an attempt to destroy a German-engineered explosives plant and this led to slight damage on the LNWR. In September and October 1915 there were major Zeppelin raids on London leading to damage to the GER (at Liverpool Street in the first raid at at Leman Street in the later one) and NLR (over quite a wide area in the first raid). The accident at Quintishill on 22 May with its destruction of Scots Guardsmen (see letter from Nicholas Daunt on p. 702: 7th Royal Scots not Scots Guards and notes memorial at Larbert) was a further catastrophe in this period. Part 2 page 614; concludiing part with references on p. 659 et seq.See also letter from A.J. Mullay (Volume 21 page 62) which notes that the reference to the Regulation of Railways Act of 1871 should actually have been to the Regulation of the Forces Act of the same year; reference to requistion of railway ships, and to the Royal Scots and their greeting when they marched into Carlisle, following the Quintishill disaster.

Going from St Erth to St Ives. John Spencer Gilks. (phot.). 525
Colour photo feature: one of KPJ's grandsons does not consider a single unit railcar to be a train, and neither place in the title is illustrated: nevertheless the scenery at Carrack Gladden and Carbis Bay withstands the presence of a class 121 single unit.:

Stewart-David, David. Trip working. 526-31.
Trip working was typified by Class K freight as designated by a single lamp on the near side of the buffer beam. Observations began in childhood at Heysham, but these were disrupted by a family move to South London, but were re-established through journeys to school near Clapham Junction and reinforced by family holidays at Peterborough where the author's grandfather was Yard Master at New England. Trip working was highly complicated by the presence of the former MR, LNWR and GER lines and the cramped layout of Peterborough North station. In 1960 the writer went up to Hull University where there was still much railway activity and following his student days he became a traffic apprentice in the Stoke Division. Here he encountered, and accepted at the time, Beeching's dubious Pareto analysis whereby 20% of the route mileage generated 80% of the revenue. In the Stoke Division he was called upon to study trip working, but found many absurdities: the trip timetable dated from 1936; many of the calling points had ceased to exist; electrification had removed many of the water cranes and this involved much extra mileage, although informal arrangements with the NCB reduced some of this (but it was impossible to formalise!). The coal output was very variable and carriage was not assisted by the of low capacity flat wagons: the North Eastern Region's hoppers were far more efficient.In 1966 the writer was moved to South Shields where he found that NCB trip working exploited electric, diesel and steam motive power, and at Springwell a self-acting incline: the Bowes incline had opened in 1826. At Boldon Colliery there were J27 0-6-0s, Q6 0-8-0s and English Electric type 3 diesel locomotives. North of the Tyne at Percy Main a similar pattern persisted. The working on staithes was observed and teeming (the removal of frozen coal) was seen. Steam remained on the NCB until 1971, but was rapidly eliminated by an influx of Clayton type 1 diesel locomotives, specifically designed for trip working.The Speedlink operation failed due to its reliance upon trip working. But trip working remains in ports and was observed in Charleroi, Belgium as recently as 1995.

Mullay, A.J. No fair way to close a railway: how St Andrews was bunkered by British Railways. 532-3.
A major and historic university city which also happens to be a unique sporting venue and pleasant holiday resort lost its connecting train service to Leuchars Junction due to the ineptitude of its local politicians and the cunning of railway management in spite of the construction of a new hotel by the British Hotels Group: the Old Course Hotel. The new Tay Road Bridge was one of the elements in the case for closure. See also John Macnab's vitriolic comments (page 637).

Clarke, Jeremy. The Mid-Kent Railway. 534-9.
Incorporated on 23 July 1855. The railway eventually reached Addiscombe Road, Croydon in 1864, Hayes in 1882 and Selsdon Road in 1885 (this last closed in 1917, but reopened in 1935 when electrified to Sanderstead). This section was once again proposed for closure in 1963, was closed in 1983, and now forms a major component in Croydon's Tramlink. See letter from Nigel Lemon (p. 702) who commuted to school between West Wickham and Clock House from 1951 to 1959; adding notes on former variety of EMUs in use, including 2 HALs with first class accommodation non-stop to Catford Bridge, also Hayes was birthplace of Thomas Worsdell.

Late afternoon at Paddington. Andy Sparks (phot.). 540-1.
Black and white photographs taken in April 1979: 50 014, HST and 50 035 on arrivals; A stock on Hammersmith & City Line (called Metropolitan Line in caption): see letter from Michael J. Smith (p. 637) which corrects this caption (C stock not A stock); refurbished Class 117 DMU departing for Slough; front view of class 50, and 31 135 bringing in empty stock.

And then there were nine — the GWR '47XX' 2-8-0s. 542-3.
Colour photo feature:4702 (lined black: remainder lined green) at Old Oak Common (E.W. Powell); 4704 at St Philip's Marsh, Bristol in March 1963 (Douglas Tritton); 4705 ex-Works at Swindon and at Challow on 13 May 1961 (R.C. Riley) and 4704 at Oxley shed, Wolverhampton in 1962.  

"I will lift up mine eyes unto the hills..." Alan Tyson (phot.). 544-7.
Colour photo feature: 9F 92130 at Dent on northbound freight on 29 June 1964; 45618 New Hebrides taking water at Blea More on 31 March 1962; Class 4 2-6-0 No.43040 with ballast train on "wrong line" at Blea Moor on 1 June 1966; Horwich 2-6-0 No. 42860 crosses Arten Viaduct with short freight on 29 June 1964 (snow fences clearly visible with gaps); 8F 48318 with train of anhydrite passing Dent on 29 June 1964; 45608 Gibraltar passing Garsdale station on northbound express freight on 4 July 1964 (Dandry Mire Viaduct visible ahead; 92009 taking water at Blea Moor with Long Meg to Widnes anhydrite freight on 28 April 1967; class 5 No. 44971 on norhtbound freight near Kirkby Stephen on 1 July 1964.

Campbell, Robert D. Muck, brass and Glasgow's railways. Part 2. 548-51.
There were 894 vehicles in service by 1900. In 1904 there was a programme to replace dumb buffers with spring buffers and the Corporation's St. Rollox workshops were enlarged in 1905/6. At this time there were 2500 customers for the City's manure. The 656 acre Robroyston estate was purchased in 1902. WW1 had mixed effects, but led to increased costs. In 1920 100 wagons were leased from Hurst Nelson for five years. In 1924 the North Mylot estate was acquired and the establishment of the Refuse Power Works in Helen St, Govan was to lower the amount of material to be moved out of the City. This works had a narrow gauge (2ft 6in) railway system operated by battery-powered locomotives. In 1940 Kilgarth Farm was acquired, but following WW2 there was a gradual shift to road transport. Illus.: R.Y. Pickering four plank end/side door wagon lettered "Sewage Disposal, Western District, Dalmuir, No. 134"; decorated tram for WW2 campaign to induce housewives to save scrap food for pigs, Corporation Clydesdale (horse); Kilgarth coup in 1950s; an overbridge at Brackenhirst on the NBR Monkland branch (disused) with modern tractor hauling slurry tanker across; Ruchill Refuse Destruction Works; TSS Dalmuir at Dalmuir (sludge boat).

Rutherford, Michael. A Brief Survey of the Irish 4-4-0. Part 3: (Railway Reflections No.123). 552-63..
Part 2 was on page 434 et seq. Mainly developments in Ulster (Northern Counties Committee) and on the GNR (I). Rutherford is highly critical of Hamilton Ellis's London Midland & Scottish Railway which relegates the NCC to an 8 page appendix and offers his own extremely concise history of the railroad in the North of Ireland: the Belfast & Ballymena Railway which became the Belfast & Northern Counties Railway; the Londonderry & Coleraine Railway (financed from London) to link Derry with Belfast and the Carrickfergus & Larne Railway which was eventually to provide access to a ferry service to Stranraer. Flax, linen and model villages are briefly mentioned. Edward Leigh was Locomotive Superintendent of the Belfast & Ballymena Railway between 1868 and 1875 (he had previously been with the Newry & Armagh Railway). Acquired locomotives from Sharp Stewart and Beyer Peacock. Robert Findlay, son of Sir George Findlay are both misspelt, without the "d": see Marshall and Reed  There is a brief diversion into locomotive design at Beyer Peacock mentioning Lange and Jaeger who worked for Beyer (a sort of tortuous link between Ulster flax and Saxon textile machinery, perhaps to  disguise that there was little home grown locomotive development in Ulster, although railways there were prepared to be moderately adventurous in employing a limited number of two-cylinder compounds). Locomotive policy was navigated by Bowman Malcolm who appears to have been a stern disciplinarian especially in the matter of the demon drink: he was locomotive superintendent for 46 years. The story finally moves on to the Great Northern Railway of Ireland where the last 4-4-0 to be built for any railway, anywhere were constructed to the designs of Harold McIntosh, son of the famous McIntosh of the Caledonian Railway and sharing the wonderful Caledonian blue livery. Before this the work of Colonel Glover and his 4-4-0 compounds and earlier 4-4-0s is discussed. George Howden was in charge of locomotive, as well as civil engineering, during the period between the retirement of Glover and his own promotion to General Manager in 1939. As Civil Engineer he was repsonsible for reconstructing the viaduct across the Boyne at Drogheda. Illus.: NCC U2 No. 78 Chichester Castle at Ballymena adjacent turntable in July 1953 (colour: K. Cooper); Waterford & Limerick 4-4-0 No. 9 (Dubs 1886: official photograph); U2 No. 84 Lisanoure Castle at Toome on Cookstown branch in May 1959 (colour: C.J. Gammell); V class compound No. 83 Eagle still with round-top firebox passing Portadown North signal cabin with an up express (which way was that) in July 1948 (glorious colour: A.D. Hutchinson): remainder T.J. Edgington b&w: NCC A1 class No. 69 Slieve Bane; UTA (NCC livery) A1 class No. 64 Trostan at York Road on 21 April 1951; U2 No. 71 Glenarm Castle at Coleraine on 27 June 1950;  U2 No. 78 Chichester Castle at Magherafelt on 27 June 1950 ; rebuilt Aspinall 4-4-0 (GSR Class D13) No. 88 at Glanmire Road, Cork on 26 April 1956, and No. 95 at Inchicore on 2 July 1950; Coey 4-4-0 No. 301 (alias Victoria) at Amiens St., Dublin on 4 June 1961, Coey 305 class No. 307 at Glanmire Road on 26 April 1956; No. 306 on shear legs at Waterford on 7 July 1950; 309 class No. 312 at Inchicore Works with CIE logo (flying snail) on 3 July 1950; 321 class No. 328 at Inchicore on 2 July 1950; 333 class (with outside framed bogies) No. 340 at Inchicore as previous; compound with Belpaire boiler No. 87 Kestrel at Adelaide shed on 25 June 1950; and VS No. 207 Boyne at Amiens Street on 11 June 1964..

Mellor, Ian as told to H.N. Twells. Derby 1945-1963: an apprentice's story - Part 2. 564-8
Describes apprentice training following profitable experience of running bus services during National Service (Part 1 p. 429 et seq). Returned to work on smokeboxes, beginning with fixing chimneys and advancing to the more intricate pipework. Valving was very heavy and dirty work. He became a progress chaser and was involved the maintenance of diesel engines for railcars and in the introduction of work on the Type 2 diesels. One anecdote describes the arrival of the first Sulzer engine from Switzerland, and another concerns the collection of the first British-built unit from Vickers in Barrow. In 1963 he left Derby to become a planning engineer at Hawker Siddley Aircraft in Manchester..

Sailing by. John Edgington (phot.). 569.
Clyde and Loch Lomond railway steamers: PS Jeannie Deans (Fairfield 1935 for LNER) off Tighnabruaich in August 1964 (not so states Mike Blair of Rothesay: actually leaving Rothesay); PS Caledonia (Denny 1934 for LMS) off Rothesay in August 1969 and PS Maid of the Loch (Inglis 1953 for Railway Executive, BR) at Balloch Pier (Loch Lomond) in August 1965.

Stephenson, Robert. Mr Robert Stephnson's Address on the railways, 14th January 1856 as transcribed by Glyn Lewis. 570-2.
Presidential Address to the Institution of Civil Engineers: unfortunately the reader is not informed of the provenance of the original. The slant is mainly statistical in that Victorian way which liked to place locomotives in a line from London to Chatham and build pyramids to dwarf St Paul's Cathedral. There were 50 miles of tunnel; eleven miles of viaduct in the vicinity of London and 550 millions cubic yards of earthworks. There were 5000 engines (the word locomotive was not used) and 150,000 vehicles. Railways consumed two million tons of coal and 20,000 tons of iron for replacement rail, etc. There were 111 million passengers and receipts of £20m. The importance of the railways  to the postal service and to the distribution of newspapers (Stephenson boasted of the ability to be able to convey the weekly editions of newspapers). The significance of the railways in changing land values, on the fish trade on the distribution of coal to inland areas, and on employment were stressed.  The railways were reliable and unlike canals were not affected by drought or frost. The development of the telegraph was mentioned. There was some emnity with the Post Office and the high cost of legislation and legal inconsistancies were also brought to the fore.

R.C. Riley, 1921-2006. 573.
The major contribution which Dick Riley made to the colour photography of railway subjects is acknowledged (he started to use Kodachrome in 1954) together with his very special contribution to Backtrack and to the photographic collections at the National Railway Museum are mentioned. He was a banker in the City of London: many of his best photographs were taken near his place of work. He had been educated at Mercers School in the City and started to take black & white photographs in 1937.

Readers' forum. 573.
Oxford for the day. R.L. Clark.
See feature by Nisbet on page 400. Critical both in terms of emphais and in fact, noting that the Bletchley service was operating at the time of these visits.
Sidmouth and Budleigh branches. Stephen P. Derek.
Strongly refutes suggestion by Stephen G. Abbot (p. 382) that the Exmouth to Cleethorpes service was not foremd from Southern and Eastern Region rolling stock and cites Working Notices and Derek Huntriss' Steam in Somerset, 1966
Famous hotel keepers for over a century. Patrick Hecks.
This fortunate child used to be lunched by his father on his way back to boarding school in the late 1940s at the Brasserie in the Queen's Hotel in Leeds where sausages and mash were consumed in Art Deco style. His parents used to dress in full evening dress for dinners at the Hotel. He also remembered the watery mustard at the Great Northern Hotel in Peterborough: such condiment was thereafter known as Peterborough mustard (KPJ once enjoyed dinner there whilst in transit from Nottingham to Welwyn Garden City). The Editor thanked other readers for their responses received (KPJ will add his accidental involvement in the BBC docu-soap at the Adelphi Hotel in Liverpool to his personal details).
Caprotti valve gear. David Hunt.
Corrects serious error on p. 149: Prince of Wales class were not fitted with Caprotti valve gear. Adds that Beames received test results from Ferrovie dello Stato (Italian State Railways) and this led to the experimental fitting of small-boilered Claughton No. 5908 Alfred Fletcher with the gear. Nine further Claughtons were subsequently modified with gear.
NER tiled maps. Eden Blyth.
Plea for information.

Book reviews. 574
Telling the passenger where to get off. Andrew Dow. Capital. RH *****
Diagramatic maps as produced by Beck for London Underground and by the Author's father, George Dow, for the LNER and for the Tilbury Section of the LMS; also earlier efforts by L&YR and GCR.
New Zealand Railways' 4-6-0 locomotives. Sean Millar. Author (Auckland). RH ****
Excellent value and wishes for similar excellence in comparable British studies.
Chasing the Flying Snail*. Anthony Burgess. Colourpoint. DWM ***
*CIE logo: beautifully produced but black & white album
The golden age of railroading in America's heartland: the photographs of Otto C. Perry. James L. Warsher. Garrigues House. RH *****
Very well received: format is essay facing superb photograph (repeated about eighty times?): "a book to be read quite as much as contemplated". Hennessey certainly makes a very strong case for parting with fifty quid!

In the Cliviger Gorge. Roy Hobbs. rear cover
Jubilee-hauled Leeds to Blackpool express climbing to Copy Pit in May 1966. Beautiful panoramic photograph: Todmorden Joint Committee bus in background, trees with fresh leaves, and blue haze from locomotive chimney showing that it is being well-fired. In spite of the electricity pylons and smoke from mill chimney the Pennines could be very beautiful.

Number 10 (October)

Ex-LSWR 515 4-6-0 No. 30500 stands in front of the water tank at Eastleigh depot on 18th May 1963. R.C. Riley.
An appropriately sombre and beautiful photograph: black locomotive; grey water tank, and grey sky.

A seat in the cab of a big red 'un — the only place to be! Michael Blakemore. 579.
Editorial: whilst at NRM the editor enjoyed the task of riding on the footplate of 46229 Duchess of Hamilton: comment on the noise on the footplate, the absurd position of the blower handle above the firedoor, the lack of the upholstered seats of the Gresley Pacifics, and how he likes defrocked duchesses: all in preparation for feature beginning page 598.

Autumn in the Valleys. Sullivan, Brian (phot.) and John Scholes (Industrial Railway Society). 580-1
Colour photo-feature with extended captions: Avonside (1914) 0-6-0ST St John at Mountain Ash locomotive shed on 6 October 1971; Hunslet Austerity 0-6-0ST (WN 3817/1954) Llewellyn with train of Jubilee skips at Hafodyrynys Colliery near Pontypool on 7 October 1971;

Smith, Michael J. Charing Crossed wires. 582-8.
Fatal collision took place on the District Line betweeen Charing Cross and Temple stations on 17 May 1938. The root cause of the accident was faulty signal wiring which led to a signal at Charing Cross showing "off", and this was exacerbated by poor verbal communication by the station staff at Temple. The Ministry of Transport accident inquiry was performed by Lt. Col. E. Woodhouse. See also letter on page 765 from M.B. Hanscomb on misuse of term tripcock when the term trainstop should have been used; also the means whereby tube train drivers could use their telephone to cut off the power supply for the traction current.

Martin, Carolyn. The station master's daughter. 589-91.
Writer's Dad, Sid Dack, had been made redundant by the closure of Aylsham North (former MGNR) in 1959, and after working as a relief which sometimes involved cycling long distances obtained the position at Aylsham South on the freight only line. The station master's house formed an idyllic setting for the writer's childhood in spite of the ferocity of Norfolk winters. At that time most of the agricultural harvest (grain and sugar beet) was taken by train (rather than by articulated lorries on inadequate roads). The children played on the platforms and station yard, but were always alert to the roar of the approaching diesels. Although all of the structures have been demolished copies of this Issue should be made available at the Aylsham Station of the Bure Valley Railway to remind those of what railways used to be. See letter from John C. Baker (p. 765) noting influence of Ronan Point disaster on traffic from Lenwade..

Grayer, Jeffery. The 'Brighton' in the 1960s. 592-7.
The period of transition as defined by the Brighton to Plymouth through service: the premier Southern cross-country service which included a buffet car in its formation and through carriages from Portsmouth. For many years the unrebuilt West Country Pacifics based at Brighton formed the motive power (table thhose available between 1958-1963, but latterly the service was diverted via Portsmouth and the Southern electric locomotives (20001) were used on the Brighton to Portsmouth leg and a variety of motive power including Standard Class 5, class 33 diesel electrics and diesel hydraulic Warships. Latterly there were problems with employing electrically heated stock or maintaining the boilers on the electric locomotives for steam-hauled stock and the winter services suffered.. From 1967 the Okehampton route was closed and the Southern service terminated at Exeter. Since 1982 there have been through services from Portsmouth or Brighton west of Exeter provided that the tidal conditions are suitable. The illustrations show some of the changes observable to the author who lived at Chichester:

Coombs, L.F.E. The footplate. 598-603.
Author of Steam locomotive ergonomics which was published in Applied Ergonomics in March 1973; also of book The Harrow railway disaster, 1952: twenty five years on. (David & Charles 1977: Ottley 11501). Includes diagram of cab layout in Britannia Pacific. There is an extensive extract from Michael Reynolds Engine-driving life (London, Crosby Lockwood, 1881: Ottley 4042) which was clearly written in typical Victorian florid style and probably over-romanticizes working conditions of an environment which must have been extremely difficult especially at night..

Mortimer, G.R. (phot.). The Great Eastern St. Ives branch. 604-5.
Black & white photo-feature: photographs taken shortly before final closure of this potentially useful line in October 1970: Craven two-car DMU calling at Histon on 12.28 St Ives to Cambridge service on 19 September 1970 (Chivers jam factory in background); driver of Class 31 No. 5532 about to pass token to signalman at Swavesey with freight from St Ives on 2 October 1970 (note high quality of track); St Ives station with DMU on 09.44 for Cambridge on 2 October 1970; Long Stanton signalman turning wheel to open level crossing gates; DMU unloading large contingent of school children arriving on 16.04 from Cambridge: see also letter on St Andrews closure

The Southern S15 4-6-0s. 606-7.
Colour photo-feature: No. 30510 (showing excellent detail of Urie bogie tender) on Reading South shed on 19 July 1959 (R.C. Riley); No. 30841 (Maunsell modified type) on long fast freight for Southamptonbetween Woking and Brookwood on 20 September 1963 (Bruce Oliver); No. 30823 leaves Seaton Junction with a Salisbury to Exeter train of two coaches with 0-6-0PT in bay platform with Seaton train on 13 July 1963 (RCR); No. 30833 with six-wheel tender with Basingstoke to Waterloo service at Esher on 22 August 1964 (Geoff Rixon); No. 308244 at speed on down freight approaching Templecombe in September 1962 (A.A. Jarvis/Colour-Rail BRS1416: superb photograph):

Out of Paddington. 608-11.
Colour photo-feature: Castle class No. 5057 Earl Waldegrave departs on 12.13 special for Newbury Racecourse on 27 July 1963 (David Idle); Modified Hall No. 6977 Grundiburgh Hall departing June 1962 (Geoff Rixon); 61XX No. 6110 hauls transfer freight past Westbourne Park on 13 April 1964 (DI); No. 7003 Elmley Castle passes Westbourne Park on 9 March 1964 with 10.03 from Hereford; No. 7013 Bristol Castle departs for Worcester in June 1962 (GR contrajour); No. 4089 Donnington Castle on Cathedrals Express from Hereford passing Westbourne Terrace Bridge on 9 March 1964 (DI); No. 6855 Saighton Grange passes Westbourne Park with 16.15 for Banbury on 13 April 1964 (DI); highly polished No. 6021 King Richard II heads west on Newbury race special? in June 1962 (GR); No. 6908 Downham Hall passing Subway Junction at head of 13.15 to Hereford on 9 March 1964 (DI); D1685 (in two-tone green) arrives with 06.30 from Birkenhead on 9 March 1964 (David Idle)

On the Ashby and Nuneaton Line. Tommy Tomalin (phot.).
Colour photo-feature: class 5 No. 45024 on freight near Snarestone on 14 October 1961; 8F No. 48216 near Donisthorpe with coal train with breakdown crane at front on 14 September 1963; Charnwood Forest Junction with 8F No. 48644 on 16 June 1962; Shackerstone Junction with signal box and 8F with brake van on 14 October 1961; and Jubilee No. 45667 Jellicoe south of Donisthorpe with excurstion train, possibly a footbal special on 14 September 1963.

Helm, John W.E. The bombing of Britain's railways — a War diary round one 1914-1918. Part 2. 614-20.
Part 1 page 519. By naval bombardment (Lowestoft April 1916); by submarine (Scarborough in September 1917); by airship (widespread: Midlands, Hull, Edinburgh , also in April 1916); and by aircraft (by Gotha and by Giant) mainly on London and the South East, especially Kent, and by seaplane (Lowestoft and Kent). In September 1916 airship SL11 was brought down near Cuffley by a Royal Flying Corps aircraft flown by Lt W. Leefe Robinson using incendiary bullets. Super Zeppelins which flew higher sometimes caused considerable damage as in Nottingham and in London, but the greater height lowered bombing accuracy and caused airships to be lost through severe flying conditions. It was considered that arcing from the LBSCR electric trains assisted the German attackers. concludiing part with references on p. 659 et seq. Letter from Rabbi Walter Rothschild (page 765) on other naval bombardments affecting railways during WW1, notably in Dalmatia in 1915 and in Lebanon (by torpedo fired from a submarine).

Welch, Marten. Return to Cheadle Hulme. 621 -5.
Responsible for draughting the remodelling of the junction installed at Cheadle Hulme in 1958. Also includes the sad Cheadle Hume accident of 28 May 1964 when a train carrying schoolchildren from Gnossal to York derailed at the Junction due to excessive speed leading to the deaths of two children and one organizer and severe injuries to four children. A picture and comment is also included of a relatively reconstruction of the junction in 2000..

Rutherford, Michael. Sharp's of Manchester. Part One: the growth of the Manchester school of locomotive design. (Railway Reflections No.124). 626-35.
Begins by examining the development of the machine tool industry (mainly in London), notably by Henry Maudslay and then through his influence on Joseph Clement, Richard Roberts, Joseph Whitworth and James Nasmyth. Rutherford notes that Roberts has been regarded by some as the greatest of all the pioneer nineteenth century mechanical engineers adding that "he was certainly the most inventive and took out innumerable patents". Sharp's products were noteworthy for the robustness of their frames which assisted in removing the boiler from being a structural element thus permitting it to expand. In 1846 tests were conducted with a long-boiler 0-6-0 constructed for the MSLR on the LNWR between Longsight and Crewe: 101 wagons weighing 597 tons wwere hauled an average speed of 13.7 mile/h. Notes that Thomas Moyneux, a draughtsman,: began apprenticeship with Sharp, Roberts in 1831 at age of 16, but did not retire until 1901 and died three years later at 91. Part 2 (with references) p. 690..Illus.:drawing of first locomotive built in Manchester by Galloway, Bowman & Glasgow named Manchester; drawing of probable third locomotive built in Manchester, Richard Robert's Experiment; Shrewsbury and Chester Railway 2-2-2 No 14; Sharp WN 492/1848 2-2-2 as Great Southern and Western Railway (of Ireland) No 19; drawing of factory complex of André Koechin in Alsace c 1850; Sharp WN 643/1849 2-4-0 for East Lancashire Railway No 36 Milo; Sharp WN 461/1847 delivered as 2-2-2 to Midland Railway, but as rebuilt to 2-4-0 No 42 Sharp WN 1762/1866 2-2-2WT for Furness Railway No. 37; drawing of Charles Beyer-designed 0-6-0 for MSLR Sphynx; p. 630 lower: Alexandra Docks Railway 0-6-2ST No. 7 Pontypridd (line drawing): see also letter from Peter Davis on page 765 concerning radial axle fitted to this locomotive; Sharp Stewart WN 964/1856 0-4-0ST for Birkenhead Railway (No 39 Cricket) as GWR No 96; Furness Railway 0-4-0 No 27 (built by Sharp to Bury, Curtiss and Kennedy design, but without bar frames); Cambrian Railways 0-4-0ST No. 38 Prometheus (Sharp WN 1433/1863); Brecon and Merthyr Railway No 27 Hercules, long boilered 0-6-0ST WN 2166/1871; Cambrian Railways 0-6-0T No 13 Talerddig (WN 2452/1875); ex Furness Railway 2-2-2WT as Weston, Clevedon and Portishead Railway No 1 Weston (WN 1707/1866).

Foster, Richard D. (notes) and Paul Joyce (phot.). Westinghouse motorised signals at Newton Abbot. (Signalling Focus or Spotlight). 636
Westinghouse developed a special signal motor which was designed to operate directly on the pivot spindle of a semaphore arm. At Newton Abbot these were used to operate signals halfway along the platforms where traditional wiring would have been difficult: photographs taken in January 1987.

Readers' Forum. 637.
Brunel University photographic collection. Penny Lyndon.
Located on Runnymede Campus
A signalman's tale. Edward A. Evans
See article by author (page 454): error on map showing "location" of Merthyr Vale station
A signalman's tale. Alastair Warrington

See article by author (page 454): exact date of closure of Black Lion Box was 21 June 1992 and demolition followed between 21 and 28 June.
Post-war Austerity. Rory Wilson
See feature on page 454. Comment on the Swedish WD 2-8-0s not withdrawn until 1973: these had formed part of a Strategic Reserve in northern Sweden.
Late afternoon at Paddington. Michael J. Smith.
See photo-feature on pp 540-1: corrects reference to A stock (mnemonic A for Amersham): should have been C stock (mnemonic for Circle Line, also used on Hammersmith & City Line). This image reminded letter writer of film sequence in one of Rob Foxon's Railways Remembered shows in which Metropolitan electric locomotives are shown running light to reverse at the country end of the station having brought Great Western suburban trains from the City: cites his own Underground main line. Backtrack, 2000, 14, 398.
Glasgow St. Enoch. William Tollan
Obscure hagiology of mother of St. Mungo (Kentigern), patron saint of the City of Glasgow, who was conceived out of wedlock whilst living on Trapain Law. See feature on page 463.
No fair way to close a railway. John Macnab.
See feature on page 532 on the closure of the St Andrews branch. Further dismissive comment on the way in which the closure of the St Andrews branch was railroaded (and on many other lines): further questions Barbara Castle's reluctance to close railways "to holiday resorts or indeed anywhere".
W.H. Barlow. D.L. Lovely.
See feature on W.H. Barlow (p. 404): GWR reused its old Barlow rails to form bridge decking
'Jellicoe' specials. Dennis Lorriman.
See feature on page 498 et seq which shows Webb compound climbing Shap during WW1: cites Willie B. Yeadon: A Compendium of LNWR Locomotives Part 2, Goods Tender Engines, Challenger, 1996; "an article" by J.W.P. Rowledge published "somewhere" in 1996 (where please!!) and Nock's Premier Line to show that many Webb compounds were still in service in 1918. The same picture was also included in the Yeadon compilation.

Book Reviews. 638
Railways in Ulster's Lakeland. Anthony Burgess. Colourpoint. DWM ***
County Fermanagh in 1957; including Sligo, Leitrim & Northern Counties Railway.
London's Scottish railways: LMS & LNER. A.J. Mullay. Tempus. PT ****
This review stands comparison with those found in the more serious newspapers, and it is tempting to fear that the review is "better" than the book, but this would be abundantly unfair to the author. The magazine's policy of not fully discosing the reviewer's name is especially unfortunate and one must presume that PT is Peter Treloar. The reviewer's and author's views are sometimes greatly at variance. The author favoured the Scottish Area management structure adopted by the LNER in preference to the more centralised policy followed by the LMS: the reviewer infers that the former failed to withstand the demands placed upon in WW2 without showing how that this was so.needed to be called into play. According to the reviewer the book contains the first serious consideration in railway literature of the impact of the General Strike of 1926. The next part demands a full exert:

I may be over-sensitive, but the accusation that the LMS "was cheeseparing to a major extent" in failing to provide all-new coaches for the introduction of the 'Coronation Scot' in 1937 rankled. This is to ignore the totally different policies adopted by the two companies. No doubt due to financial constraints, the LNER built its corridor coaches in penny packets, often for specific trains, whereas the LMS ordered theirs in bulk as part of an effort to implement a total upgrade. What more natural, therefore, than to refurbish to a consistent style recently built vehicles?

The LMS was cheeseparing to a remarkable extent, although in many respects this was less apparent in Scotland than on the Central Division where the infrastructure was allowed to become dangerously derelict. In an effort to achieve economies it could be ruthless as in its scrap and build policy for locomotives: yet a moire selective policy might have been more effective. THe review ends by observing that this book is the result of a much original research and a worthwhile attempt to set down the history of the railways in Scotland during the Grouping period. It has a limited number of photographic images, but regrettably there is no system map, nor index for which one or two blank page
The making of a prodigy, Robert Stephenson: engineer and scientist. Victoria Haworth. Robert Stephenson Trust. RH ****
Hennessey has written a wonderful review of what is clearly an important contribution to the study of a quite exceptional man. As usual the reviewer postulates deep philosophical concepts: "How was it that North East England was such a crucible of practical creativity at the time?" and compares it with musical Vienna at that time and also notes Newcastle's proximity to Edinburgh
The life and labours of Thomas Brassey. Sir Arthur Helps. Nonsuch. DG ***
Reprint of work originally published in 1894 (Ottley 2503. originally 1872): criticism mainly of way in which reprint prepared: reviewer suggests addition of better maps and illustrations of Brassey's works.

When this was Pontypool Road. Paul Strong. rear cover
Distant view of Pontypool Road engine shed on 23 April 1962 with part of Panteg gasworks behind, and rows of standard mineral wagons in foreground.

Number 11 (November)

LNER V2 2-6-2 No.60913 heads a down fitted f.reight near Reston, north of Berwick-upon-Tweed, on 24th May 1962. Michael Mensing. front cover

Electrification? Kevin P. Jones. 643.
Guest editorial on the influence of electronic information on writing standards.

Blue 'Deltic' Days. Eric Saunders (phot.). 644-5.
Colour photo-feature: No. 55 007 Pinza departs York on down Talisman on 3 August 1977; No. 55014 The Duke of Wellington's Regiment pasing Pilmoor on 18 August 1978 (very smart locomotive and train); No. 55 007 Pinza with white cab surround passing Escrick (on abandoned section of ECML) on 18 April 1980; No. 55 002 The King's Own Yorkshire Light Infantry having arrived York on 12 May 1980 with 14.05 ex-King's Cross; and No. 55 010 King's Own Scottish Borderer crossing Goole swing bridge with 12.34 Hull to King's Cross on 27 December 1980: view gives excellent detail of swing bridge and its control cabin due to low winter light.

Nisbet, Alistair F. St. Pancras — the railway cathedral. 646-51.
The station, its trainshed designed by W.H. Barlow with roof girders from the Butterley Company, and the associated hotel are described and splendidly illustrated. The eagle eye of Michael J. Smith (letter Volume 21 p. 62) noted that Midland trains did not use the Hotel Curve to reach the Widened Lines, and that Midland trains reached Moorgate before arriving at St Pamcras; also Geoffrey Hughes remembers notice on stairway up to St Pancras which stated that "THIS IS NOT KING'S CROSS".

Binks, Michael B. Safety on and about the railway track. 652-8.
Safety from the standpoint of maintaining the permament way and associated structures.

Helm, John W.E. The bombing of Britain's railways — a War diary. Round one 1914-1918. Part 3. 659-63.
Articles begin on page 519 and continued from page 614. Covers final period of War when 'Giant' aircraft dropped 1000kg bombs on London in February 1918 and caused damage in St Pancras and Paddington areas. The final airship raids caused damage to Ince Hall signal box near Wigan andPyewipe Junction in Lincolnshire. In August 1918 the flagship airship L70 was shot down off the Norfolk coast. Helm attempts to assess the damage inflicted and concludes that the counter-measures, including shrapnel damage, were at least as significant in military terms as the physical damage wrought through bombing. Very brief mention is made of British bombing of German targets. This concluding part includes a bibliography and lists the PRO records consulted. The Author notes the shortage of photographic material including one file which has been lost at the NRM. There is, however, a view of His Majesty's Train Norma which includes the armour-plated N1 locomotive. Bob Essery (letter Volume 21 page 62) deprecates use of term "mixed train" for what was an "ordinary passenger train" (illus. p. 659),.

Between Gloucester and Hereford. 664-5.
Colour photo-feature: No. 6330 arriving Grange Court Junction with Gloucester to Hereford train on 2 June 1962 (J.S. Gilks); No. 7314 arrives Ross-on-Wye with 07.32 from Hereford whilst No. 6137 waits on 07.00 from Gloucester in July 1962 (P.A. Fry); 2251 class No. 3201 departs Mitcheldean Road with 12.30 Gloucester to Herford on 2 June 1962 (J.S. Gilks); No. 6991 Acton Burnell Hall crosses River Wye near Fawley with local passenger train for Hereford in October 1964 (M. Smith); 2251 No. 2242 on long freight at Longhope in November 1961 (R. Denison); 51XX No. 4161 departs Mitcheldean Road on 16.00 Gloucester to Herford in October 1964 (M. Smith). Both of locomotives shown in last two pictures show signs of stress: 2242 appears to have suffered from overheated smokebox door and 4161 has primed exceedingly badly.Passenger services withdrawn November 1964.:

Skelsey, Geoffrey. "Ten Miles of Magic": railway steamer services on Windermere, 1845-2005. 666-71.
Steamer services were started by the Windermere Steam Yacht Company in 1845 from Newby Bridge on the River Leven with a vessel known as Lady of the Lake and was joined by Lord of the Isles in 1846. The Windermere Iron Steamboat Company launched two paddle steamers Dragonfly and Firefly in 1849. These two firms amalgamated in 1858 to form the Windermere United Steam Yacht Company. The railway branch line to Windermere had opened in 1847, but William Wordsworth and his allies ensured that the line did not reach the lake shore at Bowness. In 1869 the Furness Railway opened a line from Plumpton, near Ulverston, to Lakeside at the foot of the lake and operated an intensive steamer sailings in association with its branch line..

Mensing, Michael (phot.). North of Newcastle. 672-5.
Colour photo-feature: V3 2-6-2T No, 67685 hauling empty stock of 09.00 from King's Cross out to Heaton on 2 June 1962; Deltic D9013 in two-tone green livery and still without name on down Flying Scotsman on 2 June 1962; V2 No. 60922 crossing Royal Border Bridge with up express freight carrying insulated containers on 21 May 1962 (wonderful atmospheric shot in low evening light); Peak diesel electric D166 on down Heart of Midlothian on 30 May 1962 just north of Scottish Border (low evening light, note telegraph pole and wires behind train); 674 top Gresley articulated EMU at Manors on 21 May 1962; A3 No. 60071 Tranquil on southbound freight near Border on 30 May 1962 (low evening light, North Sea behind train); 674 bottom J39/1 No. 64942 with flat wagons under catenary passing Manors on 28 May 1962; No. 78048 with single coach St Boswells to Berwick train crossing Royal Border Bridge on 1 June 1962 and Deltic D9014 on 10.50 ex-Edinburgh passing Tweedmouth on Sunday 20 May 1962. See also extensive letter from Bill Beavis in February 2007 Issue page 125 concerning the scenes at Manors..

Thrower, David. Southern gone West: the Bude line. Part One. 676-85.
Railway reached Holsworthy on 20 January 1879 and Bude on 10 August 1898. Notes on Maddaford Moor Halt (opened on 27 July 1926) constructed from pre-cast concrete components manfactured at Exmouth Junction, Halwill Junction (including its extra platform for North Devon & Cornwall Junction Railway trains and its abbatoir, Dunsland Crosss, Holsworthy The major intermediate station), Whitstone & Bridgerule and Bude.

Lancashire hot-pot. 686-9.
Colour photo-feature: all by Brian Magilton, unless noted otherwise: 8F No. 48730 on local trip freighjt passing through East Lancashire platforms at Preston on 1 August 1968; Horwich 2-6-0 No. 42925 on up freight at south end of Preston on 5 September 1964; 8F 48362 with coal train for Wyre Dock near Salwick on 28 July 1967 (Bruce Oliver); Britannia 70018 Flying Dutchman crossing River Brock with parcels train on 13 April 1966; rebuilt Patriot No. 45531 Sir Frederick Harrison passing Glazebury station with Newcastle to Liverpool express in May 1959; Class 5 No. 45000 on down parccels train passing Hest Bank on 3 August 1967 (camping coaches behind); 78041 banks down freight out of Preston on 12 March 1966; class 5 No. 45281 on down express (excursion?) passing Springs Branch Junction, Wigan on 5 August 1967; ex-Crosti 9F No. 92022 leaving Stott Lane sidings Eccles (Jim Carter); 9F 92137 passing Wigan North Western station with Long Meg to Widnes anyhydrite train on 18 March 1967. :

Rutherford, Michael. Sharp's of Manchester. Part Two. (Railway Reflections No.125). 690-7.
Part 1 see page 626. Surveys Sharp's output, both in broad statistical terms, and gives some consideration to the locomotives manufactured: initially the classic 2-2-2 and its 2-4-0 and 0-4-2 derivatives; later more exotic products for use in Indias and Mauritius, including J. Kershaw 4-6-0STs indended to work on Ghat inclines on Great Indian Peninsular Railway (illustrated) and 0-8-0STs for Mauritius Railway (also illustrated). Text also mentions association of Richard Roberts with three other Manchester engineers: James Nasmyth; Joseph Whitworth and William Fairbairn (last-named misspelled several times). Letter from Rory Wilson (Volume 21 page 62) adds to the limited information provided in this Part on locomotives supplied to the Swedish & Norwegian Railway (which connected the Swedish iron ore mines with Narvik) and locomotives which reached the Barry Railway which had been intended for the Badische Statsbahn and the Pfalzbahn in Germany. See also letter from Mike Peascod (Vol. 21 page 125 concerning "cancelled orders": writer considers that Sharp's supplied some locomotives to Furness Railway from stock..

Vines, Peter; edited Anthony P. Vent. Lad labourer on the LNER. 698-701.
Left school aged fourteen in 1941 (WW2) and joined Signal and Telegraph Department in Cambridge. Worked with linemen in Ely area making use of own bicycle to reach out of way locations. Notes on return of tokens on Ely to Newmarket single track section; maintenance of Leclanché cells; effect of frost and low temperatures and high temperatures on telegraph lines. Specific anecdotes about working at Sawbridgeworth; Italian prisoners-of-war (who got better rations); food; British Restaurants; bomber crews using trains; work at Brandon in Breckland; fire on road lorry carrying ammuntion for US Airforce at Brandon level crossing; Soham disaster (including Frank Briidges killed in signal box) and Royal Train. Illus. two of S160 2-8-0s: No. 1713 at March East Junction on 27 April 1943 and No. 1888 at March North Junction on 24 July 1943 (F.A. Wycherley) and Audley End station on 10 August 1952; Fordham station c1960; splitting distants at Ely North Junction on 3 April 1954; Sawbridgeworth station post electrification c1960 and Soham station c1960.

Readers' Forum. 702
Reading to Redhill. Editor
See p. 518 upper: Q class not C class 0-6-0.
The bombing of Britain's railways. Nicholas Daunt.
See first part of this series (p. 519 et seq): troops killed at Quintishill disaster were 7th Royal Scots (not Scots Guards); also memorial at Larbert.
The Mid-Kent line. Nigel Lemon
See page 534: writer commuted to school from West Wickham to Clock House between 1951 and 1959; adds notes on former variety of EMUs in use, including 2 HALs with first class accommodation on non-stop to Catford Bridge, also Hayes was birthplace of Thomas Worsdell.
'Jellicoe' Specials. R.L. Marshall.
See feature on page 498: observes that Jellicoe specials over NBR were routed via Peebles route, presumably to avoid Falahill (KPJ)
'Jellicoe' Specials. John Adams.

See feature on page 498: Midland footplate crew's response to correct firing method for working Super Ds. Bob Essery (21 page 62) corrects the way in which the strings were pulled by which the small ejector was closed to save steam on partially fitted freights..
Sailing by. Mike Blair.
See page 569: writer from doon the water at Rothesay states that Jeannie Deans was off Rothesay not in Kyles of Bute.
Caprotti in Ireland. W.T. Scott.
See feature beginning page 148: two GSR 400 class 4-6-0s fitted with Caprotti valve gear in 1930. Letter also notes that Watson 400 class were utter failure and J.R. Bazin's attempts to improve them including fitting Caprotti gear to Nos. 401 and 406: also cites article by R.N. Clements in J. Irish Rly Rec. Soc. (October 1968).. .
A brave new world? Bill Gathercole.
See feature page 486 paragraph on p. 494: comments on Paddington to Bristol journey on Bristolian behind diesel hydraulic Benbow in 1959 when Swindon Works staff appeared to watch train pass with locomotive sounding its horn..

'Deltic' sunset. Eric Saunders. rear cover.
55 009 Alycidon departing York with 15.50 for King's Cross on 1 February 1981: atmospheric smoke from exhaust and everything pink from setting sun.

Number 12 (December)

LMS 'Coronation' 4-6-2 No.46246 City of Manchester after arrival at Euston on 13th April 1962. (Geoff Rixon). front cover.

Seasonal thoughts from the Department of Administrative Affairs. Michael Blakemore. 707.
Editorial: foerign travel as promoted in the 1900s and in the 1920s; also future Backtrack anniversaries: 200th Issue; Volume 21

One Sunday in August. 708-9.
Colour photo-feature: pictorial record of the last British Railways steam hauled special train from Liverpool via Manchester to Carlisle on 11 August 1968: participants paid 15 Guineas (£15.15): lined black black 5 No. 45110 at Manchester Victoria prepared for return leg to Liverpool; Britannia No. 70013 Oliver Cromwell passing Bromley Cross north of Bolton (still with lots of mill chimneys to be felled); and approaching Ribbelhead (with Ford Anglias, etc doing their bit for global warming); two very black (unlined) class 5s 44781 and 44871 (as shown on cabsides, but Kevin has a nasty suspicious mind) approching Bolton from Blackburn (with a Dibner chimney still in situ); and 45110 passing Patricroft in evening light (and soon it would be Pacers).: :

Nisbet, Alistair F. The Christmas Eve derailment.710-15.
24 Decemeber 1874 at Shipton on Cherwell (between Oxford and Banbury) in which 34 passengers died plus a further 69 severely injured. The cause was a broken wheel on the leading coach added at Oxford which led to the derailment of further vehicles. The article illuminates working methods in the 1870s and examines both the official Board of Trade Inquiry conducted by Colonel Yolland who criticised the railway for the tyre fastenings used on the coach which derailed, the lack of an efficient braking system on the train, and the lack of efficient communications between the footplate staff (whistles and gongs) and the head guard. .

Hennessey, R.A.S. Tunnels, electrics and economics: some unusual historical circuitry. 716-23.
Early electric traction systems considered on a global basis with some remarkable illustrations (far removed from GNER and class 318s). Hennessey's thesis is that tunnels, initially underwater in the USA, but subsequently under mountains in both North America and in Europe, together with urban transit systems, notably in London, drove railway electrification. He begins with a personal anecdote of Combe Down tunnel where the suffocating smoke poured in through open windows (KPJ: he should have sampled the old Woodhead where smoke forced its way through every crevice, not to mention Glasgow Central Low Level). Later he casually observes that ten crew members had been asphyxiated over thirteen years of steam operation through the St Clair Tunnel which links the USA with Canada. He ends by noting that the Channel Tunnel combines a tunnel with electric traction and its questionable economics (whatever they may be: presumably ask Ryanair for the true cost of "cheap" flights). This is very readable and highly thought provoking. Illus.: No. 26501 (not as stated in caption (Kevin's copping eye still functions)) of Tyne Quayside steeple cab Bo-Bo built for NER in 1905; also line drawing of similar locomotive built for Paris Orleans Railway; two Great Northern Railroad three-phase locomotives used in Cascade Tunnel and fitted with twin trolley poles underneath huge gantry; two Balswin-Westinghose box-cab 1-Bo-Bo-1 11kV AC system on Boston & Maine Railroad outside Hoosac Tunnel; early battery electric tube locomotive built by Hurst Nelson for the Great Northern Piccadilly & Brompton Railway in 1905; Stockwell station on City & South London Railway with electric locomotive (drawing); Co-Co No. 27000 at Sheffield Victoria on 12 October 1955 (with steam escaping from safety valve?) (R.K. Blencowe); 4 SUB No. 4326 at Clapham Junction (on "West Runton" type of nameboard); three-phase locomotive exiting Simplon Tunnel at Italian end; and Swiss Ferderal Railways 1-B-B-1 leaving St. Gotthard tunnel. See also letter in Volume 21 page 126 from Neil Sinclair on Harton Coal Company's electrified line at Low Staiths where a tunnel was the primary influence: German equipment was used in 1908. Further letter from Brian Patton (Volume 21 page 189) who made reference to electrification of railways in France involving tunnels: Chemins de Fer de  l'Ouest from new terminus at Invalides to Champ de Mars opened on 15 April 1900 used 550V DC third rail not only because the terminus was temporarily roofed over, but because there was steep gradient in tunnel south of Meudon Val-Fleury station; the next was the Paris-Orleans extension from the Austerlitz terminus to the Quai d'Orsay station using a mixture of third rail and overhead electification at 600V DC. Also observes thee significance of the Paris Metro which was conceived as an underground network. Finally cited the Midi electrification between Perpignnan and Villefranche which used 12,000V AC at 16Hz.

Rutherford, Michael. Express eight coupled — some notes on the Gresley 2-8-2 and Chapelon 4-8-0. (Railway Reflections No.126). 724-32.
"The most remarkable British express locomotive introduced in the period was undoubtedly the London & North Eastern Railway 2-8-2 No. 2001 Cock o' the North and in France (and perhaps the world) André Chapelon's 4-8- No. 4521 for the Paris-Orléans system..." In the case of the British design, the author also considers Gresley's two P1 freight 2-8-2s which were based upon the A1 Pacific boiler and front end and No. 10000 (mainly from the point of view of styling, and of Chapelon's Kylchap exhaust system which reduced back pressure in the cylinders. Sometime between 1941 and 1943 Kevin watched in awe as the streamlined Cock o' the North pulled into Dundee Tay Bridge: it remains his most memorable experience of any steam locomotive. Thus this abstract is bound to be biased, although he is well aware that Norman McKillop, who drove the mighty beasts, had reservations about them, but they matched the mighty Forth Bridge in a way that most of the buses on steel wheels fail to do. Illus.: 'Hush-hush' No 10000 on King's Cross turntable; 'Hush-hush' No 10000 on Flying Scotsman arriving King's Cross; Cock 'o the North showing CPR chime whistle Cock o' the North about to depart King's Cross; low level view of Cock o' the North showing rotary cam poppet valve gear and ACFI heater; first Chapelon 4-8-0, rebuild of PO Pacific No 4521; second P2 No 2002 Earl Marischal; weight diagrams of Chapelon 4521 4-8-0 et Cock o' the North; Earl Marischal fitted with additional smoke deflectors; Cock o' the North with indicator shelter for road tests in 1934; Belgian Railways class 1 4-6-2; No. 2002 Earl Marschall with A4-type streamlined front end; 240P.4-8-3 locomotives with greater style. Sequel in Volume 21 page 44 et seq.See also letters in Volume 21 page 125 from Paul Ross who suggests that the coloured picture of Cock o' the North was based upon a painting by Murray Secretan; L.A. Summers who suggests that the Gresley streamilining originated through the shape of the Yarrow water-tube boiler; was extended in the Cock o' the North and in this form not only influenced the "shape" of Belgian locomotives, but also the Spanish MZA 1801 series on RENFE in Spain; and Peter J. Rodgers on how the costs of development of the W1 Hush Hush locomotive were covered at Darlington Works..

Riding the 'Royal Scot' [train]. 733-5
Colour photo-feature: 46247 City of Liverpool (red with BR style lining) leaving Carlisle for Glasgow in 1958 (with blue-backed headboard) (Gavin Wilson); 46221 Queen Elizabeth (green) alongside Carlisle Upperby to change crew on up train c1956 (Gavin Wilson); 46227 Duchess of Devonshire (blue with sloping smokebox) at Shap Wells (with tartan & lion rampant headboard) in August 1951 (Pursey C. Short); 46223 Princess Alice with red headboard at Glasgow Central awaiting departure in 1958 (Colour-Rail: the majority are); 46245 City of London (red headboard and locomotive) departing Glasgow Central in 1958; 46232 Duchess of Montrose (green) at Carlisle Citadel waiting to take over down train in May 1958 (red headboard: red is too light in copy received) (M.D. England) and type 40 D300 oil-stained green with blue headboard) passing Thrimby Grange with down train on 5 April 1963 (much, too much, of rolling stock is still LMS: Easter working?)(highly atmospheric photograph by David Idle).

Mensing, Michael (phot.). Through the Midlands by Great Western. 736-9.
Colour photo-feature:No. 2856 approaching Madeley Junction with northbound freight whilst pannier tank waits at junction for Ironbridge power station branch on 27 August 1962; No. 4998 Eyton Hall passing through same junction with freight in opposite direction on same day; 7818 Granville Manor waiting in Shrewsbury station on 5 August 1961; 57XX No. 3732 leaving Wellington (Salop) for Shresbury on local passenger train on 4 July 1959; Blue Pullman running as empty stock on Sunday 24 April 1966 between West Bromwich and Wednesbury; 8F No. 48478 on freight passing Hollinswood on 27 August 1962 (now near centre of Telford); No. 6012 King Edward VI on down Cambrian Coast Express passing through Soho and Winson Green station on 25 November 1961; 8F No. 48415 at Priestfield on 26 September 1959; No. 73013 leaving Wellington with train for Chester on 4 July 1959; and No. 4701 (in sparkling green) on Talyllyn Railway Preservation Society special approaching Shrewsbury on 24 September 1960 (view from above looking into cab).

Atkins, Philip. Box of puzzles [dawn at Box Tunnel]. 740-1.
The myth? that Brunel engineered the Box Tunnel so that at dawn on his birthday (9 April) the sun would shine through it is explored (reviewed) at some length both in the literature and through attempts at actual observations. There are also references to the formerly secret tunnels which began as stone quarries, then became military strategic bunkers, maybe even bunkum. See also letter from David Andrews in Volume 21 page 126 on possible effect of mirage-like refraction on shine throughs.

Thrower, David. Southern gone West: the Bude line. Part Two. 742-9.
Considers the final DMU service prior to closure on 3 October 1966, and explores what remains of the line which remains extant between Exeter and Okehampton for freight from Meldon Quarry and for a seasonal passenger service to Okehampton. Illus.: N class No. 31840 on 08.30 Padstow to Waterloo at Ashbury in July 1964 (colour: P.A. Fry); X6 4-4-0 No. 657 at Bude on 13 September 1923; T9 No. 30711 with 13.18 for Bude at Okehampton on 4 August 1958 (colour: Peter W. Gray) with goods shed (not engine shed as per caption) see letter from Tim Edmonds (21 page 126); T9 No. 724 with ballast hoppers and former push & pull (rail motor) vehicle at Okehampton on 27 August 1945 (H.C. Casserley)....

Bennett, Alan. Off the beaten track. 750-3.
The Southern Railway's travel literature to exotic destinations: Switzerland; Egypt and the Sudan; Majorca and Bavaria was marketed under this article's title. There appear to have been about thirty folders (and some of the covers are shown in colour (two-colour printings appears to have been favoured for thed originals)). Some of the purple prose is aired, for instance one can hardly imagine Easy-Jet claiming: "The peasants look as purely Gothic as does their cathedral in Palma". Illus': title pages: No. 10 The Garden of Allah [Morocco]; No. 2 A trip up the Rhine and covers: Italian Lakes (No. 17); Bavaria (No. 10); Rome and Naples (No. 26, work of Helen McKie); Majorca (14 of 1935); Land of the Dons (No. 8 of 1933); and Egypt and Sudan (No. 15 of 1928). There is also a map in typical Southern Railway style which extends rather further than Oxted to Mosul, Kirkuk, Ur and Basra; and an advertisement for Germany as a first class holiday destination in 1939.

Oliver, Bruce (phot.). The Class 33 'Cromptons'. 754-5.
Colour photo-feature:D6516 (green) passing Shawford Junction on 29 May 1966; 33 115 with 4-REP set on Portsmouth train leaving Micheldever on 7 September 1986; 33 207 on weedkilling train passing Grove Park on 16 August 1979; 33 034 leaves Portsmouth and Southsea with Bristol train on 10 August 1981; narrow bodied Hastings 33 202 leaving Grove tunnels with ballast train on 7 March 1982.

Nicholls, Arthur R. The parcels office. 756-7.
The carriage of parcels by railway train was formerly a major component in railway business and stations were designed to accommodate this business, much of which was conveyed either on regular passenger, or special parcels trains. The charges made are considered and the article is illustrated (in colour) by railway parcel stamps: North Eastern Railway; Caledonian Railway (both for newspapers); South Eastern Railway; Great Western Railway; Cockermouth, Keswick & Penrith Railway; Furness Railway and London & North Western Railway (three different, two feature Britannia). Further reading is suggested. See also anecdotes concerning pigeons and dogs as parecls: letter from John Macnab: Vol. 21 page 126.

Blakemore, Michael. The Easingwold Thunderbolt. 758-60.
Photo-feature with extended captions and notes: pictures from late Dick Riley collection.:

Rolling Stock Focus: LNER non-passenger miscellany. Nick Campling (captions). 761
Colour photo-feature:gangwayed pigeon van No. E70469E at Ipswich; extra-long covered carriage truck No. E1347E at Plymouth and BZ [six wheel brake] No. E70680E at Penzance

Caledonian visitors to Perth. R.D. Stephen (phot.) and Jim MacIntosh (notes). 762-3.
Photo-feature which cites where some of Ranald Stephen's published work may be found. All (except 2-6-0) locomotives were still in Caledfoniam Railway blue: Cardean type 4-6-0 No. 905 in 1921 (embellishment on smokebox door); 2-6-0 No. 36 in 1924 (still in CR freight livery); Dunalastair IV No. 138 with bogie tender in 1923; 72 class 4-4-0 No. 74 and class 439 0-4-4T No. 224 in 1922

Book reviews. 764
Colour-Rail catalogue No. 17. MB
Usual (deserved) excellent review.
The Loughton Railway 150 years on. Loughton & District Historical Society. RC. ****
Excellent maps and early photographs, but more recent structures, notably Loughton's LNER art deco station not illustrated.
Hospital railways and tramways. David Voice. Adam Gordon (publisher in Brora). RH *****
Both military and civilian establishments are covered: most described were in England or Scotland; many were associated with lunatic asylums.
Brunel's kingdom: in the footsteps of Britain's greatest engineer. John Christopher. Tempus. GBS ****
Shavian comment: "especially good value for money"

Readers' forum. 765.
The station master's daughter. John C. Baker
See excellent feature on p. 589: this letter notes effect of Ronan Point disaster on residual freight traffic from Lenwade passing through Aylsham.
Charing crossed wires. M.B. Hanscomb
See feature on page 582 concerning Charing Cross (LPTB) accident of 1938: Criticises use of term "tripcock" where "trainstop" should have been used and explains how telephone wires in tunnel could be used to cut-off traction current.
The bombing of Britain's railways. Walter Rothschild
See feature by John Helm (notably page 614 et seq): other naval bombardments affecting railways during WW1, notably in Dalmatia in 1915 and in Lebanon (by torpedo fired from a submarine).See also letter from Keith R. Chester (21 page 125) which gives further information on naval bombardment in the Adriatic during WW1 and its consequential effect upon the low capacity narrow gauge railways into Bosnia-Hercegovina.
GWR 'County' 4-6-0s: a live debate. R.A.S. Hennessey
Future event at Kidderminster Railway Musuem: 21 April 2007.
Jellicoe Specials. William Tollan.
See feature on page 498: asks why coal was not shipped from South Wales (KPJ: presumably risk of interception by German submarines), and notes Admiral Jellicoe's silly antics. See also letter from Keith R. Chester (21 page 125) and further letter from Dennis Lorriman on page 189 (March 2007) .
Locos of the Alexandra Docks Railway. Peter Davis
Letter inspired by photograph on page 504 upper and line drawing on page 630 lower: mainly concerns the use of the Webb patented radial axle.

Index to Volume 20. 766
If this was Strictly Ballroom it would need your telephone votes, but to conclude on a happier note: Peter Davis concludes his letter with:

Away for Christmas. rear cover
In a world which seems to be determined to do away with Christmas on the grounds of political correctness it is a great treat to have a festive rear cover, even if it was an LNER excursion handbill for 1929 advertising period excursions from the West Riding of Yorkshire to Lancashire, North Wales and Douglas (Isle of Man)

By the way, Backtrack is streets ahead of all the other historical railway magazines (Peter Davis final letter).