London Brighton & South Coast Railway

Craven period
Stroudley Period
Robert Billinton period
Marsh designs
Lawson Billinton period

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The London Brighton & South Coast Railway has an interest disproportionate to the shortness of its main route of slightly over 50 miles from London to Brighton. The centre of its locomotive construction activity, namely Brighton, was highly improbable, and it is even more surprising that steam locomotive construction continued there until 1957, with the final locomotive being an 80XXX 2-6-4T, although Maunsell had not built any locomotives there during the 1930s. It was also a relatively early locomotive manufacturer, although the constituent companies had bought the typical manufacturers' products of the period, with a large number of Sharp singles. The Stroudley yellow livery, and even the later umber, and its use of Pullmans gave its passenger trains a certain panache. As late as the mid-1950s a fair number of LBSCR locomotives were still in circulation, and these were highly visible at Brighton. The last Atlantic did not disappear until 1958.

Bradley, D.L. The Locomotives of the London Brighton & South Coast Railway. Part 1. London: RCTS, 1969. 179p.
Ottley 12259: Craven and early Stroudley locomotives. Also covers London & Brighton; London & Croydon; and Brighton, Chatham & Dover Joint Comittee locomotives.
Bradley, D.L. The Locomotives of the London Brighton & South Coast Railway. Part 2. London: RCTS, 1972. 123p.
Later Stroudley locomotives and most of R.J. Billinton's.
Bradley, D.L. The Locomotives of the London Brighton & South Coast Railway. Part 3. London: RCTS, 1974. 156p.
Later R.J. Billinton, Marsh and Lawson Billinton locomotives.
Burtt, F. L.B. & S.C.R. locomotives: an up-to-date survey from 1870. Staines: Ian Allan, 1946. 57 p. 35 illus., 33 tables.
[Burtt, G.F.], Hollandsche, F.S., pseud. The locomotives of the London, Brighton & South Coast Railway, c1839-1903... London, 1903. pp. 245, with 8 plates & 144 illus. (in faacsimile reprint)
Ottley 6678: This work first appeared as a series of articles in Moore's Monthly Magazine, March-December 1896, and in its successor, the Locomotive Magazine, January-December 1897, February-December 1898, January, March, May, June, July and September 1899, under the pseudonym 'F.S. Hollandsche'. The author, G.F. Burtt, was an employee at the company's Brighton Works, and the locomotive superintendent, Robert John Billinton, in obedience to the company's policy, forbade him to disclose his authorship. The choice of pseudonym is capricious. Mr. John Pelham Maitland, a modern authority on the LBSC Rly., understands that G.F. Burtt adopted the name from a cigar box labelled 'Hollandsche Sigaren Fabriek', with the initial letters of the second and third words used in reverse order. There is a facsimile reprint published by Branch Line of Hassocks in Sussex in 1975 with an introduction by W.O. Skeat. On the title page the Author is stated to be Burtt.
- Adjustments and amplifications, by John Pelham Maitland. 1963. pp. 9.
Reproduced typescript. about 150 items, with additional notes.
Ellis, [C.] H. The London, Brighton and South Coast Railway: a mechanical history... from 1839 to 1922. London: Ian Allan, 1960. 271 p. + col. front. + 32 plates. 91 illus.,5 diagrs., 33 tables, map. (Footnotes quote bibliographical sources.)
Maskelyne, J.N. The locomotives ofthe London, Brighton and South Coast Railway, 1903-1923. London: Locomotive Publishing Co., 1928. 154 p. + front. + 8 plates incl. 4 col.) 65 illus. (incl. 56 line drawings: s. el.)
See also Oudeis (below).
Oudeis, pseud. Notes on Mr. Maskelyne's book on L.B.S.C.R.locomotives. Rly News, 1928, 2, (7), 14.
Perryman, A.C. Life at Brighton Works, 1928-1936. Lingfield: Oakwood, 1972. (Locomotion Papers No. 54).
Rich, Fred. Yesterday once more: a story of Brighton steam. Bromley: P.E. Waters & Associates, 1996. 168pp.

London & Croydon Railway

For a time the London & Croydon Railway was an independent railway used by the trains of both the London & Brighton and South Eastern Railways, but eventually the London & Croydon Railway became an integral part of the London Brighton & South Coast Railway. Good brief contribution by Ronald Thomas in Oxford Companion.

0-4-2: G & J Rennie: 1838/9

Ahrons considered this to be a "landmark design" as it featured horizontal outside cylinders. The locomotives were used to bank trains up the incline from New Cross.

Doncaster, C.M. Old banking engine, London and Croydon Railway. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 19? 44.
G & J Rennie 0-4-2 locomotive of 1838/9.

Locomotive "Croydon" for the London & Croydon Ry, 1838. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1910, 16, 276.

Original London & Brighton Railway stock

Burtt (1903) p. 21 listed some of the original London & Brighton Railway's locomotives prior to the brief period under Joint Control began on 1 March 1844. These were all Sharp, Roberts 5ft 6in singles, other than two supplied by G. & J. Rennie:

Number Name Maker's number/date
Merstam 44/1839
Coulsdon 54/1839
6 Venus 45/1839
10 Jupiter 70/1839
11 Mars 101/1840
12 Saturn 113/1841
13 Mercury 134/1841
14 Orion 136/1841
15 Sirius 137/1841
16 142/1841
17 148/1841
18 150/1841
19 153/1841
20 154/1841
21 158/1841
22 159/1841
Brighton 1840 Rennie
Shoreham 1840 Rennie

Nos. 1-7: Bury, Curtis & Kennedy: 1841-2
Burtt (1903) pp. 28 and 31-2. Fig. 1. Most were modified with trailing wheels. No. 4 was reconstructed as a 2-4-0T and is shown in this form in Fig. 2.

Nos. 8-11: G. & J. Rennie: 1840-3
Burtt (1903) pp. 28 and 32-3. Fig. 3. Names were as follows: 8 Satellite (Satelite on Fig. 3); 9 Eagle; 10 Vulture and 11 Kentish Man. No. 10 experienced a severe boiler explosion at Brighton station on 17 March 1853..

Nos. 12-14: Fairbairn: 1841-2
5ft 6in driving wheels: 14 x 22in cylinders. Burtt pp. 28 and 33-4. Fig. 4

Nos. 16-19: R. & W. Hawthorn: 1845
5ft 6in driving wheels: 15 x 21in cylinders. Burtt pp. 28 and 34. Nos. 16 and 17 were converted into tank engines. Nos. 15 and 17 were eventually sold to the East Kent Railway. No. 16 was sold to the Amsterdam Water Works in Jun1 1854. No. 18 was converted into a four-coupled tank engine.

No. 15: Bodmer: 1845
Burtt pp. 28 and 34-5 only shows this interesting locomotive (Fig. 5) in its rebuilt form as Stroudley No. 292 Seaford. Ellis pp. 34-5 gives rather more information and for a fuller description of the Bodmer balancing system see Norman Johnston's Locomotives of the GNRI (he included a diagram from The Engineer)...

Nos. 20-33: Sharp, Roberts: 1839-49
Burtt pp. 28-9 and 35-6. 5ft 6in driving wheels and 15 x 20in cylinders. Fig. 6. Some London & Croydon Railway locomotives probably included within this group. Known as Small Sharps..

Nos. 34-7: Jones & Potts: 1845-6
Burtt pp. 29 and 36-8. 5ft 11in driving wheels and 15 x 22in cylinders. These were long-boiler locomotives and were very unsteady: one was derailed near Emsworth whilst working a Brighton to Havant train on 31 May 1847. They were renumbered 115 and 96-8 and subsequently extensively rebuilt. Nos. 96 and 115 became inside-cylinder four-coupled tender engines: No. 115 later became an 0-4-2T as shown in Fig. 8, by which it had 15 x 20 in cylinders and 5ft coupled wheels (it was presumably a renewal): in this form it was scrapped in 1879. No.97 became an outside-cylinder 2-2-2WT (Fig. 7) in 1852.

Nos. 34-47/19/21: Sharp (Big Sharps): 1849
Burtt pp. 38-41 lists the Builder's numbers for some of the locomotives. It needs to be noted that No. 19 was a Small Sharp, but was converted into a tank engine in 1860 (Fig. 9 in this form). Where Works numbers were listed these are quoted in parenthese in the following: 34 (573); 35 (609); 36 (610); 37 (613); 39 (557); 43 (558); 45 (559); 19 (571) and 21 (568).  With the exception of No. 19 all had 6ft 6in driving wheels and 15 x 22in cylinders. They weighed only 23 tons. Fig. 10.

49 class: Nos. 47-51/53/54/56-60: Gray/Hackworth: 1846-8
Burtt pp. 29 and 41-4. These locomotives incorporated Gray's expensive valve gear, known as horselleg motion. Fig. 11. 6ft driving wheels. 15 x 24in cylinders. 779ft2 total heating surface. "These engines proved very good for fast running". Nos. 56 and 58 were converted experimentally to Crampton's principle (thast is with dummy crankshaft): the experiment was unsuccessful and they were converted, together with Nos. 49-52, into four-coupled goods engines: they now had 4ft 9in coupled wheels. 49-51 were later converted into 2-4-0Ts as shown in Fig. 12. Nos. 53-5; 57, 59 and 60 were converted into four-wheel coupled pasenger engines with 5ft 6in coupled wheels and 15 x 24in cylinders..

Jenny Lind class: E.B. Wilson: 1847-8
Originally No. 60 (later No. 70) was named Jenny Lind. Burtt pp. 44-7. Fig. 13 shows locomotive No. 61 in original state No. 69 had slightly different dimensions: the remainder had 6ft driving wheels, 15 x 20in cylinders, and 800ft2 total heating surface. No. 69 had 6ft 3in driving wheels, a mid-feather firebox and a total heating surface of 1334ft2, and 16 x 22in cylinders. No. 69 is illustrated in Fig. 14 as modified without mahogany cladding and with name Lewes.. Craven rebuilt/renewed Nos. 62 and 63 as 0-4-2Ts with 5ft coupled wheels and 15 x 20in cylinders
Reed, Brian. British Single-drivers. Loco Profile No. 5.
Pp. 108 et seq describe the adoption of the Jenny Lind type by the LBSCR
Rutherford, Michael. Eighty years of service: the express passenger 2-2-2. (Provocations/Railway Reflections No. 6). Backtrack. 1995, 9, 296-301.
The 2-2-2 began as extended L&MR 2-2-0 Planet in 1833. Patentee built by Robert Stephenson for the L&MR: it had outside sandwich frames. A couple of small locomotive builders in Dundee developed locomotives with inside plate frames and outside inclined cylinders and this design was developed by Patrick Stirling on the GSWR and GNR. The mis-named Crewe-type was developed on the GJR by William Buddicom and Sinclair took the idea to the GER. The LNWR Bloomers and LBSCR Grosvenor type introduced by Stroudley were other significant stages in development. Almost as an after thought Rutherford mentions the influence of John Gray, as encapsulated in his patent 7745 of 26 July 1838 in which valve events are defined and whose work led to David Joy's Jenny Lind.  Rutherford concludes by stating that "Size for size and pound for pound (sterling), the 2-2-2 was developed further and better within the existing production technology and operating conditions, than possibly any other express type in Britain."

Nos. 72-83: Sharp: 1847-8
Nos. 72 et seq were WN 457; 469; 442; 470; 456; 440; 443; 446; 410; 424; 427 and 433. 5ft 6in driving wheels and 15 x 20in cylinders. 796ft2 total heating surface. No. 72 was subsequently rebuilt as a four-coupled tank engine ("tanks engine" might be a more apt description: in addition to joined side and saddle tanks it had a well tank) for the Epsom Downs branch (Fig. 16). No. 77 was also converted into a tank engine. Burtt pp. 47-51

84-9/92-5: Stothert & Slaughter: 1847-8
6ft driving wheels. Cylinders: 15 x 22in.  Sandwich frames. Midfeather-type fireboxes.  Burtt pp. 52-3 and Fig. 17. Some were replaced in 1861/2.


No. 71: Sharp: 1848
Treated by Burtt (p. 47) with Sharp singles, but really quite different: 6ft coupled wheels and 15 x 20in cylinders

90-1: Stothert & Slaughter: 1847-8
5ft 6in coupled wheels. Cylinders: 15 x 22in. Rebuilt in 1867. Burtt 52 and table p. 30

Nos. 96-9: Bury, Curtis & Kennedy: 1843-5
14 x 20in cylinders. In 1862 No. 99 was renumbered: 999. Burtt pp. 53-4 and Fig. 18: No. 999.


96/97/100-5: Longridge: 1847-8
There were two types: Nos. 101 and 103 were long boiler types with cast iron wheels (Fig. 19) and had 15 x 24in cylinders. The remainder had 16 x 24in cylinders. All had 4ft 9in coupled wheels. 96/97 and 100 were renumbered 106-8. No. 108 suffered a boiler explosion on 3 October 1859 between Lewes and Falmer. Parts of these locomotives were reused. Burtt pp. 54-6.

Craven locomotives

This is a complex section, based mainly upon Burtt. Craven was in-charge for a long time and most of his designs were unique: classes were rare indeed (qand mainly from outside builders). After careful consideration, the arrangement adopted is that of wheel arrangement, rather than that of Burtt,  which was chronological


Nos. 44/46: Brighton: 1854
These were the first LBSCR freight locomotives. Burtt pp. 61-2. No.44 had two steam domes: this is illustrated by an Ellis sketch on p. 45

Nos. 118/119...: Brighton 1855-62
Nos. 134 (1859), 140 (1861) and 110 (1862) followed. Total five: with similar 16 x 24in cylinders, 5ft coupled wheels, sandwich frames and double fireboxes. Burtt pp. 71-2. Fig. 30. No. 134 as No. 384 was sold to the West Lancashire Railway in July 1885.

Nos. 102/107/135: Brighton: 1859
These had inside frames, 16 x 24in cylinders and 4ft 9in coupled wheels. These originally used the wheels from Longridge locomotives of 1847, but were later fitted with standard wheels, They were scrapped in 1877-84. Burtt pp. 82-3 and Fig. 38.

Nos. 141-2: Brighton: 1860
Highly distinctive boilers with fluted dome on boiler barrel and  further fancy dome above firebox, but inside frames with 16 x 24in cylinders and 4ft 9in coupled wheels. Scrapped 1878. Burtt pp. 92-3 and Fig. 46.

Nos. 103/114: Slaughter, Grüning: Bristol: 1860 purchase from stock
Two normal looking locomotives, purchased ex stock. Double frames. 16 x 24in cylinders and 4ft 6in coupled wheels. Burtt page 90 and Fig. 44 page 89.

Ex-MSLR Sharp Stewart locomotives
Burtt pp . 66-8 purchased two locomotives for hauling ballast traisn. They were both powerful and heavy. Nos. 117 Orestes and 131 Europa. They had 18 x 24 in cylinders and a total heating surface of 1572.5 ft2. They weighed 33.5 tons. They were painted a chocolate brown colour. In February 1870 they were rebuilt to burn coal and lasted until 1885/6. Fig. 26 No. 117 Orestes as built and Fig. 27 No. 121 as rebuilt. Ellis (p. 55) commented that it seemed strange for a company which crossed the Pennines to get rid of such powerful locomotives.

Nos. 157/8: Brighton: 1862
5ft diameter coupled wheels. 16 x 24in cylinders. Pull-out regulators. Burtt pp. 109-10.

Nos. 168-9: Brighton: 1863
5ft diameter coupled wheels. 16 x 24in cylinders. double frames. 1273ft2 total heating surface.  Scrapped in 1896 and 1893. Burtt pp. 117-18. Fig. 65..

Nos. 192-3: Brighton: 1864
5ft 1in diameter coupled wheels. 16 x 24in cylinders. double frames. 1036ft2 total heating surface. Fitted with Allan straight link motion. Scrapped in 1894 and 1897. Burtt pp. 135-6. Fig. 78..

No. 54: Brighton: 1864
Inside frames: 4ft 9in diameter coupled wheels. 16 x 24in cylinders. 1036ft2 total heating surface. Sold to contractor in 1885. Burtt pp. 136-7. Fig. 79.

Nos. 206-11: Brighton: 1864-5
Double frames: 5ft coupled wheels: 16 x 24in cylinders; 976ft2 total heating surface; Allan straight link motion; double beat regulators. Scrapped in 1897. Burtt pp. 137-9. Fig. 80

Nos. 219-20: Manning Wardle: 1866
Intended for use as ballast engines, although No. 220 subsequently used on Willow Walk to Lewes freight trains. Inside frames: 4ft 6in coupled wheels; 16 x 22in cylinders. Burtt pp. 146-8. Fig. 86.

No. 221: Brighton: 1866
Intended for use on Newhaven Wharf to Willow Walk freight trains. Double frames: 5ft coupled wheels; 16in (later 17in) x 24in cylinders. 1208ft2 total heating surface. Scrapped 1886. Burtt pp. 148-9. Fig. 88.

Nos. 224-7: Brighton: 1866
Double frames: 5ft 1in coupled wheels; 17in x 24in cylinders. 976ft2 total heating surface. Allan straight link motion. Scrapped 1895-1901. Burtt pp. 152-3. Fig. 90.

Nos. 190-1: Brighton: 1867
Double frames: 5ft 2in coupled wheels; 17in x 24in cylinders. Double beat regulators. Scrapped 1884-5. Burtt pp. 160-1. Fig. 97..

Nos. 249-54: Slaughter, Avonside: 1868
Works numbers: 744-9. Double frames. 5ft coupled wheels. 17 x 24in cylinders. 1090ft2 total heating surface. Renumbered 468-73. Scrapped 1894-9. Burtt pp. 168-70. Fig. 104..


Sharp Stewart mixed traffic: 1854-6
Running numbers (WN where known in parentheses): 16; 20; 13 (882/1854); 40 (883/1854); 6 (925/1855); 116 (926/1855); 42; 108. No. 40. Fig. 23 was stated to be drawing of one of these locomotives, but was numbered "391" which does not correspond with the text. No. 40 was rebuilt by Stroudley in 1871 and was named Epsom and used initially on services form Epsom to London (Fig, 24): Burtt pp 62-4.

Croydon engines: Brighton: 1854
Burtt pp 64-5: Nos. 1 and 2: latter was first locomotive belonging to Company to be fitted with a blower: this was external to the chimney and was lagged. Fig. 25.

5ft driving wheels: Nos. 3 and 5: Brighton: 1855
Burtt considered these six 2-4-0s together: but there were three batches of two locomotives. Sandwich frames; long boiler type; mixed traffic: 16 x 22 in cylinders
5ft 6in driving wheels; Nos. 8 and 9: Brighton 1855
Sandwich frames; long boiler type; passenger traffic: 15 x 20 in cylinders: Compensating levers. Burtt Fig. 28
5ft 8in driving wheels; Nos. 120 and 121: Brighton 1856
Similar to previous, but with larger (16 x 22in cylinders). Burtt pp. 68-70

No. 101: Brighton: 1858
For London & Croydon passenger trains: 5ft 6in coupled wheels; 18 x 20in cyclinders. Named Rouen and numbered 506 under Stroudley. Scrapped 1885. Burtt page 78. See also Rosling Bennett, Loco. Mag., 1909, 15, 157 for Fig. 34A.

No. 89: Brighton: 1860
Incorporated parts from Hackworth locomotive originally numbered 47 and Stothart 2-2-2 No. 89. It had 15 x 24in cylinders and 4ft 9in coupled wheels. Its boiler was fed by a Giffard injector. Burtt pp. 90-1.

No. 59: Brighton: 1860
Cylinders: 15 x 22in. 5ft 6in coupled wheels. Sandwich frames. Burtt 91-2. Fig. 45. Stroudley converted it to a 2-4-0T named Leatherhead: became No. 276 im 1876 and No. 410 in 1880.

No. 145: Brighton: 1861
This locomotive had an extremely short wheelbase of 10ft 5½in and all the wheels were in front of the firebox. Sandwich frames. Cylinders 15 x 22in. 5ft coupled wheels. Total heating surface 915 ft2. Fluted dome. Burtt pp. 95-6 and Fig. 49.

Nos. 32 and 148: Brighton: 1862
Similar to Sharp Stewart locomotives of 1854-6. 5ft 6in coupled wheels and 16 x 20in cylinders. No. 148 was rebuilt by Stroudley and named Ryde, and was scrapped 1886. No. 32 was scrapped in 1882. Burtt pp. 100-1.

Standard 2-4-0: 1862-
Burtt noted (p. 101) that eleven fairly similar locomotives were constructed at Brighton; twelve presumably identical to each other locomotives from Beyer Peacock and six from Dubs. The initial two Brighton locomotives were then described on pp. 101-3 and illustrated in Fig. 52.
Nos. 149/150: Brighton: 1862
Coupled wheels: 6ft. cylinders: 16 x 20in; grate area 14.96 ft2; total heating surface: 1064 ft2. Sandwich frames and outside bearings. No. 150 was the first Brighton locomotive to be fitted with a brick arch.
Nos. 151/2: Brighton:
Detail differences from first two which included changes to the dimensions of the frames. No. 151 (as No. 363 when sold) was sold to the West Lancashire Railway in 1883 where it became No. 7 Blackburn.

Nos. 45/99: Brighton: 1862
Burtt (pp. 104-5 and Fig. 54) called these 'long boiler' locomotives, but short wheelbase (10ft 5½ might be more accurate). They had prominent compensating levers, 5ft driving wheels, 15 x 22in cylinders, and Craven's modified form of Stephenson link motion.

Nos. 159 and 160: Brighton: 1863
Double frames, 6ft diameter coupled wheels; 16 x 20in cylinders, 1004ft2 total heating surface. Rubber assisted suspension.. Burtt pp. 110-11. Fig. 59.

Nos. 178-89: Beyer Peacock: 1864
Double frames. 6ft coupled wheels. 16 x 20in cylinders. Scrapped between 1886 and 1890. Burtt pp. 122-4 called them "very fine engines". Fig. 69.

Nos. 174-7: Brighton: 1864
Double frames. 6ft coupled wheels. 16 x 20in cylinders. Total heating surface 1004ft2. On 27 September 1870 No.. 174 suffered a boiler explosion at Lewes whilst working the 14.04 ex-Hastings. Scrapped between 1889 and 1893. Burtt pp. 124-7: Figs. 70-2 (last as modified by Stroudley and named Hayling).

Nos. 242-7: Dübs: 1867
Works Nos. 131-6: outside frames. 6ft coupled wheels. 16 x 20in cylinders. There had been a dispute between the LBSCR and the suppliers and the locomotives spent twelve months in sidings at West Brompton. Stroudley considered reboilering the class, but didn't. Scrapped in 1891-5. Burtt pp. 159-60: Fig. 96

No. 248: Kitson: 1868 purchased
WN 1423/1867 had been exhibited at the Paris Exhibition of 1867 and was purchased by the LBSCR following it. The locomotive had mixed frames, Naylor saftey valves, and a cab. There were 5ft 6in coupled wheels, 16 x 22in cylinders, 872ft2 total heating surface, and 14.5ft2 grate area. Burtt pp. 161-4 and Figs. 98-9.

No. 12: Brighton: 1868
Double frames. 6ft coupled wheels. 16 x 20in cylinders. Scrapped 1886. Fitted with spark arrester and cab. Burtt pp. 171-2. Fig. 107.

No. 28: Brighton: 1868
Double frames. 5ft 6in coupled wheels. 16 x 20in cylinders. Scrapped 1884. Fitted with spark arrester. Used on Dorking services and then on Croydon to London Bridge services.  Burtt pp. 172-3. Fig. 108.


Nos. 155/6: Brighton: 1862
Mixed traffic locomotives with 5ft 6in coupled wheels and 16 x 20in cylinders. They had double-beat regulators. No. 155 was scrapped in 1882, No. 156 was used as a stationary engine to power incline at Kingston-on-Sea. Burtt pp. 107-8 and Fig. 57.

Nos. 164-5: Brighton: 1863
Intended for Crystal Palace traffic. They had 5ft coupled wheels, 16 x 20in cylinders. inside frames and a total heating surface of 859ft2. They were scrapped in 1884 and 1887. Burtt pp. 115-16. Fig. 63.


No. 48: Brighton: 1852
Jenny Lind type, but Burtt p. 60 was not able to illustrate it: 6ft 1in driving wheels. 15 x 22in cylinders. Scrapped as No. 412 in 1881..

Nos. 10, 23, 38 and 41: Brighton: 1853-4
5ft 6in driving wheels. 14 x 22in cylinders. See Burtt p. 61 and Fig. 22

Express locomotives of 1856: Brighton
Burtt (pp. 72-5) and Figs. 31 and 32 described four singles intended for London to Brighton and Portsmouth expresses. Fig. 31 related to locomotives Nos. 125/6 and were similar to earlier Sharp products: they had 6ft 6in driving wheels, 16 x 22in cylinders and a total heating surface of 1049 ft2. Fig 32 (Nos. 122/3) were similar to Wilson products (even to the extent of the fluted domes) and had 6ft driving wheels

No. 132: Brighton: 1859
6ft 6in drivinng wheels; 16 x 22in cylinders; large outside bearings; outside sandwich frames and inside plate frames. Burtt pp. 79-81 and Fig. 36.

No. 133: Brighton: 1859
5ft 6in drivinng wheels; 15 x 22in cylinders; small inside bearings; outside sandwich frames similar to Jenny type. Burtt pp. 79-81 and Fig. 37. Leter named Penge, scapped in 1879.

Nos. 137/8: Brighton: 1859
These normal looking 6ft 3½in 2-2-2s (Burtt Fig. 40 and pp. 84-5) hid a wealth of internal experiments: there were both steam and air jets into the firebox and the smokeboc contained a disc above the blastpipe which could be raised or lowered. They were scrapped in 1884.

No. 108: Brighton: 1859
Small locomotive illustrated as No. 391 in Fig. 41 by Burtt (pp. 86-7). Cylinders: 15 x 20in. Driving wheels: 5ft 8in. Outside sandwich frames. Weight: 23 tons 3 cwt. Scrapped 1884.

Nos. 139/140: Brighton: 1859-60
These shared common boilers with fluted domes, and double frames, but differed in cylinder and driving wheel dimensions: 15 x 20/16 x 20in, and 6ft/6ft gin respectively. No. 140 illustrated in Fig. 43: Burtt pp. 88-9. Scrapped in 1884 and 1879.

Nos. 146-7: Brighton: 1861
6ft 6in singles intended for London to Brighton expresses. They had 17 x 22in cylinders and a total heating surface of 1071 ft2. Some of the exhaust steam was diverted to the tender to provide feedwater heating and they had double fireboxes. Stroudley named them Lancing and Worthhing and they lasted until 1886.

Nos. 84/86: Brighton: 1861/2
Replacements for Stothert & Slaughter locomotives, although retained frames and wheels. Cylinders remained same size, but new boilers. Burtt pp. 98-9.

Nos. 153-4: Brighton: 1862
Burtt: pp. 105-7. 6ft 6in singles with double frames; 16 x 20in cylinders; 1082 ft2 total heating surface. Fig. 55 in original condition. Rebuilt by Stroudley (Fig. 56): named Spithead and Southsea; scrapped 1890/1. Ellis painting shows Southsea in Stroudley yellow on Cuckoo line between Hailsham and Eridge about 1885 plate fp. 112 in The trains we loved.

No. 31: Brighton: 1862
6ft 6in driving wheels and 15 x 22in cyclinders. Double framed with a total heating surface of 991ft2. Under Stroudley named Littlehampton and employed thereat. Scrapped in 1880. Burtt pp. 108-9 and Fig. 58.

No. 161: Brighton: 1863
Double frames, 6ft diameter driving wheels; 16 x 20in cylinders, 960ft2 total heating surface. Rubber assisted suspension.. Burtt pp. 111-12. Fig. 60

Nos. 162-3: Brighton: 1863
Burtt pp. 113-15 regarded these as "very important" express passenger locomotives intended for the best Brighton to London business trains. They had 17 x 22in cylinders; 7ft driving wheels. The total heating surface was 1238ft2. They had additional rubber suspension. Stroudley named them London and Brighton, but were renamed Penge and Sandown by Stroudley and were scrapped in 1885 and 1888.

Nos. 172-3: Brighton: 1864
Double frames: 6ft 6in driving wheels; 16½ x 22; 1031ft2 total heating surface with grate area of 14.75ft2. Hastings to London expresses. coal consumption data. cabs. No. 173 was first yellow locomotive. Scrapped 1886 and 1884. Burtt pp. 120-2. Fig. 67.

Nos. 190-1: Brighton: 1864
Double frames: 5ft 6in driving wheels; 15 x 20in cylinders; fitted Allan straight link motion. Used on London Bridge to Tunbridge Wells trains via Three Bridges and East Grinstead. Scrapped 1882. Burtt pp. 127-8. Fig. 73 (in renumbered condition as No. 24)

Nos. 194-205: Robert Stephenson & Co.: 1864
These locomotives had 6ft 6in driving wheels, double frames, 16½in x 22in cylinders; a total heating surface of 1023 ft2 and a grate area of 13.75ft2. Robert Stephenson re-purchased the locomotives required to complete an order for the Egyptian Government Railways. Burtt pp. 128-35: Fig. 74 shows locomotives in original state. Two of Stroudley's B class 2-4-0s (Nos. 204 and 205) included parts from withdrawn 2-2-2s..

Running No. Works No. Final No. Modifications/sale
194 1551 Purchased Egyptian Government Railways
195 1552 486 Named Portsmouth
196 1553 Purchased Egyptian Government Railways
197 1554 Purchased Egyptian Government Railways
198 1555 505 Converted to 2-4-0 in 1872, re-numbered 205 Kensington (Fig. 75), re-numbered 505
199 1556 489 Named Paris, re-named Newport, re-numbered 489.
200 1557 490 Named Dieppe (Fig. 76), re-numbered 490.
201 1558 487 Re-numbered 111, re-numbered 197, named Cavendish, re-numbered 487 Chichester
202 1559 Purchased Egyptian Government Railways
203 1580 503 Rebuilt by Stroudley as 2-2-2 in 1871 (Burtt Fig. 77), named Sussex, re-numbered 503
204 1581 504 Converted to 2-4-0 in 1872, named Westminster, re-numbered 504
205 1582 488 Re-numbered 198, named Drayton, re-numbered 488

Nos. 29-30: Brighton: 1865
Double frames. 5ft 6in driving wheels. 15 x 24in cylinders. Total heating surface: 887ft2. Scrapped 1885/6. Burttt pp. 142-4. Fig. 83.

Nos. 194/6: Brighton: 1865
Replacements for the locomotives sold to the Egyptian Government Railways. Double frames. 6ft 6in driving wheels. 17 x 22in cylinders. Total heating surface 965ft2. Stroudley applied names: Glynde and Pevensey. Scrapped in 1892 and 1890. Burtt pp. 144-5. Fig. 84.

Nos. 197/202: Brighton: 1866
Intended for Portsmouth to London expresses. Double frames. 6ft driving wheels. 15 x 20in cylinders. No. 232 was scrapped as No. 485 in 1884.No. 234 was scrapped as No. 474 in 1884. Nos. 233 and 235 were both sold to the West Lancashire Railway in 1883 (where they became Nos. 6 and 5), before which they had become 487 Horsham and 475 Dorking. Burtt pp. 151-2. Fig. 84

Nos. 232-5: Brighton: 1866
Intended for Portsmouth to London servces. Double frames. 6ft driving wheels. 16 x 20in cylinders. Total heating surface 930ft2. Stroudley applied name: Solent to No. 197. Scrapped in 1886 and 1882. Burtt pp. 156-7. Fig. 94

Nos. 236-41: Nasmyth Wilson: 1867
Works numbers: 114-119. Nos. 236, 238 and 240 had cylinders 16 x 22in, whilst the other three had slightly larger 16½ x 22in cylinders. They all had double frames, 6ft 6in coupled wheels, 1084ft2 total heat surface, and 15.2ft2 grate area. They received the following names under Stroudley: Arundel, Reigate (Fig. 95), Shoreham, Polegate, St. Leonards and Eastbourne. They were reumbered 476-81 and were scrapped between 1888 and 1894. Burtt pp. 158-9.

Nos. 255-6: Brighton: 1868
Double frames: 6ft 6in driving wheels. 17 x 22in cylinders. Intended for Hastings to Victoria services. Renumbered 482-3. Scrapped 1888-91. Burtt pp. 1701-. Figs. 105-6.

Nos. 127-8: Dodds, Rotherham: 1871
These formed part of an order for six placed with Dodds, but only two (WN 69/70) were sufficiently complete to be acquired by the LBSCR as the company had failed due to a political uprising in Spain which led to the Isabel II Railway failing to pay for twelve locomotives received from Dodd. The LBSCR locomotives had 6ft 6in driving wheels and 17 x 22in cylinders. They were named Norwood and Croydon under Stroudley and scrapped in 1892 and 1888. Fig. 116. Burtt pp. 181-2.

Craven Tank engines


Nos. 228-9: Brighton: 1866
Double frames: 4ft 9in coupled wheels; 17in x 24in cylinders. 980ft2 total heating surface. As renumbered 351 and 353 were sold to Alexandra Dock Co. where they became Nos. 9 and 10. Burtt pp. 153-4. Fig. 91.

0-6-0 wing tank
No. 52: Brighton: 1868
Outside frames: 4ft 9in coupled wheels. 16 x 24in cylinders. Renumbered 269 in 1875; 395 in 1880. Became Brighton pilot. Scrapped in 1893. Burtt pp. 164-5. Fig. 100..

0-6-0 wing tank
No. 58: Brighton: 1868
Willow Walk shunter/New Cross banking engine. Double frames; 4ft 9in coupled wheels. 16 x 24in cylinders. Renumbered 398 before being sold to Alexandra Dock Co. where it became No. 14

No. 136: Brighton: 1859
Constructed for the West End of London line. Steeply inclined outside 15 x 22in cylinders. 5ft coupled wheels. Compensating levers for bogie bearings. Double firebox. Later used at Uckfield and as a pilot engine at Portsmouth. Burtt pp. 83-4 and Fig. 39. Interestingly, Ahrons (page 121) called this design "experimental".

No. 144: Brighton: 1861
Unlike No. 136 which had inclined outside cylinders, this locomotive had horizontal outside cylinders of the same 15 x 22in size. The coupled wheels were also 5ft. But the bogie was very different and permitted no lateral movement. Burtt Fig. 47. In 1868 it was rebuilt as a 2-4-0T (Fig. 48) with inside cylinders and had brakes fitted to the leading wheels (which was unusual on the LBSCR). It was scrapped in 1878. Burtt pp. 93-5.


No. 231: Brighton: 1866
Intended for South London line: similar to South Eastern Railway 235 class: inside frames. 5ft coupled wheels. 16 x 20in cylinders. Latterly worked at Easbourne. Scrapped 1886. Burtt pp. 155-6. Fig. 93.

Nos. 12/15..: Brighton: 1858
West End of London & Crystal Palace Railway. Six locomotives (Nos. 12/15/105/107/128 and 129). Ellis noted that it was not often that one encountered any engine with double frames, having the cylinders and steamchests between them and driving return cranks between the wheels and the outside axleboxes.... Return cranks were tricky things to have outside driving wheels, and the only possible advantage for this freak was that it allowed plenty of room for well tanks, there being two to each engine, the front one extending from the leading to the driving axle. ... Boilers were pitched very low and, although flush-topped, had the outer clothing raised over the firebox. There were two large domes in plain, round-topped brass casings. The feed-pumps were outside, worked by eccentrics inside the coupling-rod cranks. No more bizarrelooking tank engines were ever presented to London's daily breadwinners. Burtt (pp. 75-7) and Fig. 33 (which shows No. 131, former No. 12) states that they had 5ft 6in driving wheels and 15 x 22in cylinders. He noted that "some few years later" (from 1862 according to website) they were rebuilt as 2-4-0Ts with 16 x 20in cylinders: see Fig. 34.


No. 130: Brighton: 1858
Intended for Lewes to Uckfield service. 5ft 1½in coupled wheels; 13 x 18in cylinders; compensating levers; outside sandwich frames and inside plate frames. Burtt pp. 78-9 and Fig. 35.

Nos. 170-1: Brighton: 1863
Double frames: 5ft coupled wheels, 16 x 20 cylinders; scrapped 1879. Burtt pp. 119-20 Fig. 66

No. 96: Sharp Stewart: 1869
Works number 1924/1869: inside frames: 4ft coupled wheels; 12 x 18in cylinders. 312 ft2 total heating surface. As dleivered shown in Fig. 112. Named Kemp Town and used on Kemp Town branch. Fitted with a spark arrester.  Stroudley renamed the locomotive Hayling Island to which it was sent (Fig. 113). Finally in 1889 it received a trailing axle, becoming a 2-4-2T and a saloon fitted behind the trailing axle. In this form it was labelled Inspector and numbered 489. It was used to inspect civil engineering structures (Fig.114). Burtt pp. 177-9.

Nos. 51/109: Brighton: 1869
For East London line. Mixed frames: 5ft coupled wheels. 15 x 20in cylinders. 830ft2 total heating surface. No. 51 is shown in Fig. 115. No. 109 had a slighly smaller boiler and shorter tanks. Burtt pp. 179-81..

Nos. 11 and 12: Brighton: 1855
5 ft driving wheels; 15 x 20 in cylinders; Bury-type plate frames. Burtt pp. 70-1 including Fig. 29. Ellis stated that their oddity was in the framing which, although inside the wheels, was in three parts and, over one 'stretch' of the engine, non-existent. Iron plate frames extended from the wooden buffer-beam to a point just ahead of the leading axles. Thence, and containing the coupled and driving boxes, were Bury-type bar frames, but these stopped short at the firebox, which thus had the additional duty of holding the engine together. A second set of very light plate frames extended from the back of the firebox to the rear buffer-beam. The saddle tank was rectangular at the top and sides like a house-cistern. KPJ wonders whether the pieces of bar frame came from withdrawn Bury-type locomotives. The coupled wheels were also Bury dimensioned.

Nos. 166-7: Brighton: 1863
Intended for South London Line  traffic. They had 5ft coupled wheels, 16 x 20in cylinders. inside frames and a total heating surface of 859ft2. They were scrapped in 1882 and 1887. Burtt pp. 116-17. Fig. 64. Very similar in dimensions to two 0-4-2 tender locomotives (Nos 115-116) built at same period for Crystal Palace line.

No. 212: Brighton: 1865
Intended for services between South Croydon and Victoria. Inside frames. 5ft coupled wheels. 16 x 20in cylinders. 915ft2 total heating surface. Scrapped 1880. Burtt pp. 139-41. Figure 81.
No. 213: Brighton: 1865
Intended for Midhurst branch, but too heavy: worked at Eastbourne. Outside frames. 5ft coupled wheels. 15 x 20in cylinders. 915ft2 total heating surface. Scrapped 1882. Burtt pp. 141-2. Figure 82.

Nos. 214-15: Brighton: 1866
Intended for South London line: double frames. 5ft coupled wheels. 15 x 20in cylinders. Total heating surface 915ft2. Scrapped in 1892 and 1890. Burtt pp. 145-6. Fig. 85.
Nos. 17/216-18: Brighton: 1866
Intended for South London line: double frames. 5ft coupled wheels. 15 x 20in cylinders. Total heating surface 915ft2. Scrapped between 1885 and 1886. Burtt pp. 148-9. Fig. 87.
No. 230: Brighton: 1866
Intended for Midhurst branch, inside frames. 5ft 1in coupled wheels. 16 x 20in cylinders. Total heating surface 930ft2. Scrapped 1881. Burtt pp. 154-5. Fig. 92.

No. 76: Kitson: 1869
Works number: 1553/1869. inside frames and inside cylinders: 12 x 18in. 4ft coupled wheels. 504ft2 total heating surface. Stroudley reumbered it 496 and named it Bognor. Latterly it was used on Littlehampton to Arundel services. It was scrapped in 1895. Burtt pp. 175-7. Figs. 110-111.

No. 27: Brighton: 1868
Built for Polegate to Hailsham service. 3ft 2in coupled wheels. Outside cylinders: 9 x 14in. 318ft2 total heating surface. Fig. 101 shows in original condition. Modified as 0-4-2ST (Fig. 102) and in this form used on Littlehamton to Arundel branch. Stroudley converted it to an 0-4-0WT for use at Brighton Works (Fig. 103).. It then was used as a shunter at Earlswood and then to power a pump at Tunbridge Wells. It was scrapped in 1896. Burtt pp. 165-8.

No. 14: Brighton: 1852
Probably intended for Eastbourne branch: Burtt pp. 59-60 and Fig. 21. A similar locomotive was also constructed in 1852: this was numbered 26.

No. 98: Brighton: 1859
Cylinders: 15 x 20in. Driving wheels: 5ft 6in. Used on Newhaven branch on which it derailed due possibly to alteration in weght at trailing end.. Stroudley named it Seaford, but latterly it was at Bognor. Scrapped in 1878. Burtt Fig. 42, pp. 87-8.

No. 25: Brighton: 1860
Outside cylinder (13 x 18in) with 5ft 6in driving wheels. Converted from parts of Joint Locomotive Committee Sharp 2-2-2s. Scrapped 1884. Burtt p. 91.
No. 4: Brighton: 1862
5ft 11in driving wheels. 13 x 22in cylinders. Rebuilt as 2-4-0ST in 1869 with new 16 x 20in cylinders and 5ft coupled wheels, but retained boiler. Fig. 51 shows locomotive in rebuilt form. Scrapped in 1862. Burtt pp. 99-100.

Nos. 223-3: Brighton: 1866
Intended for Croydon to Wimbledon and Crystal Palace services. Double frames. 5ft driving wheels. 15 x 20in cylinders. Total heating surface 822ft2. Scrapped 1882/4. Burtt pp. 150-1. Fig. 89.

Stroudley locomotives

Stroudley, William (Paper 2027)
The construction of locomotive engines, with some results of the working of those on the London, Brighton and South Coast Railway. Min. Proc. Instn Civ. Engrs., 1884, 81, 76-108. Disc.: 109-65.
See Stroudley: The paper includes a folding plate giving outline drawings of calsses A,B,C,D,E, and G classes, and another folding plate giving a detailed general arrangement drawing of a class B 0-4-2: information on tests are also included. The discussion included Webb (135) noting a Shareholders' Audit Committee had criticised his use of black for locomotives and his response that he would give them gold lining when a dividend of 10% was paid. McDonnell (138) noted the superiority of hydraulic riveting over hand riveting. He also commented on crank axles. Adams (142) noted the problems associated with feed water heating and also commented on radial axles. D. Joy (163) questionned blast pipe diameters and noted that the height of it above the level of the tubes had an influence on fuel consumption.

Cornwell, H.J. Campbell. William Stroudley: craftsman of steam. 1968.
Note that Michael Rutherford (The Drummond Age. Part Two). Backtrack, 2004, 18, 754-60 has reservations on some of this author's assessment of Stroudley's work at Cowlairs.
Haresnape, B. Stroudley locomotives. a pictorial history. Ian Allen, 1985. 128p.
Williams, Geoffrey. From Music Hall joke to the heart of the nation: the transformation of LBSCR locomotives under William Stroudley. Backtrack, 1997, 11, 595-600.
In spite of the title, and for this author's frequently inappropriate colourful style, this is a solid survey of Stroudley's contribution to locomotive development on the LBSCR, including an analysis of the designs introduced. See letter by Nick Holliday (12 233) noting errors and disputing annual mileages quoted for Gladstone, plus exceelent source of information about this class.. See letter on page 116 (Vol. 12) by Diggles on inspirators. illus.: Stroudley A class no 72 Fenchurch 125 years old in 1997; Stroudley C class no 419; Stroudley D class no 243 Ovingdean; Stroudley E class no 98 Marseilles; Stroudley D2 class no 313 Paris; Stroudley G class no 339 Newhaven; Stroudley B or Gladstone class no 177 Southsea; Stroudley B or Gladstone class no 217 Northcote; Technical data of the Stroudley classes;


Nos. 84-5: Brighton: 1871
Inside frames: 5ft coupled wheels, 17½ (later 18¼)in x 26in cylinders; 1414ft2 total heating surface and 19.5ft2 grate area. Adams safety valves , which according to Burt were liable to sieze, mounted on dome. Burtt (1903) pp. 185-9. Fig. 118.

C class (Jumbos): Brighton: 1882-7
Steel frames: 5ft coupled wheels, 18¼in x 26in cylinders; 1413ft2 total heating surface and 20.95ft2 grate area. Burtt (1903) pp. 220-2. Fig. 134.

Maskelyne, J.N. Stroudley's 'big jumbo' goods engines in Locomotives I have known. 1959. pp. 26-7 diagr. (s. & f. els).
Illus.of No. 427. Text notes that No. 430 worked a troop train through from Brighton to Doncaster via the Widened Lines in December 1914. No. 428 was sold to the Stratford-on-Avon & Midland Junction Railway where it eventually became LMS No. 2303.
W.J. Reynolds. 60 years of railway photography. Part 5. Rly Wld, 1956, 17, 292
Page 297: No. 430 Stroudley C Class Goods 0·6·0 built at Brighton in 1887 (one of a class of 12 known as Jumbos. They were very powerful and did a large amount of passenger work but ware painted in the dark green goods Iivery. No. 430 outlasted by many years the rest of the class and was in the service until after the formanon of the Southern group. She was never rebuilt but acquired a Marsh chimney in 1919. No. 430 made history in December, 1914, by worktng a troop train from Brighton to Doncaster (over 200 miles) via Snow Hill, Farringdon Street and King's Cross on to the GNR. main line. She was scrapped in 1924 after 37 years service.


B class: Brighton: 1872-5
Running Nos. 201-7. Six locomotives with double frames; 6ft 6in coupled wheels, 17 x 24in cylinders and total heating surface of 1284ft2. Burtt (1946) p. 12. including photograph of No. 201 Belgravia c1873. Burtt (1903) pp. 189-91. Fig. 119 No. 202 Goodwood. Both the photograph and the drawing show the locomotives with Adams safety valves. Nos. 204 and 205 were officially classified as rebuilds as they included parts from withdrawn Stephenson 2-2-2s of 1864.

Hambleton, F.C. Stroudley's 2-4-0 locomotives. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1941, 47, 261.
No. 206 Carisbrooke.


D2 class: 1876-83
Burtt (1946) pp. 26-7 notes that these were mixed traffic locomotives (5ft 6in couple wheels). They were intended for fast fruit traffic between Worthing and London, and Continental traffic via Newhaven. Total 14 locomotives. Burtt pp. 211-15 called the latter traffic Grande Vitesse trains. Figs. 129-30.

D3 class: 1878-80
Burtt (1946) pp. 27-8 notes that these were an exporess passenger version (6ft 6in couple wheels) of the D2 class.. Total six locomotives. Burtt pp. 215-17: Figs. 131 and 132. Sometimes known as Richmond class..

B1 (Gladstone) class: 1882-91
Gladstone is extant and forms part of the National Collection at York Burtt (1946) pp. 29-30. Burtt (1903) pp. 222-5: Fig. 135..

Ahrons, E.L. The British Steam Railway Locomotive 1825-1925. 1927. pp. 273-4.
Ahrons began by refering to Stroudley's Civils paper which claimed that the leading wheels pass round curves without shock or oscillations, owing to the small weight upon the trailing wheels, as it is the trailing wheels which have the most influence in forcing the leading flanges up the outside of a curve. Ahrons considered that this reasoning is perfectly sound, and certainly Stroudley designed a very powerful engine, which stood on a wheel base of 15ft. 7in., and weighed less than 38¾ tons in working order. An objection is the flange wear of the leading tires, which, being of large size, are expensive to re-turn or replace, but it has not generally oeen noticed that Stroudley in 1882-84 used tires of a tensile strength of 47 to 48 tons per square inch, at a period when the majority of other locomotive engineers were content with 35 to 40 tons per square inch. The treads of the leading tires were coned 1 in 32, and the driving tires, which had very thin flanges, had parallel treads. There does not appear to be any officially recorded case of these engines leaving the rails, which could be attributed to the large leading wheels. ...Stroudley's 0-4-2 engines were extremely successful, but no locomotive engineer in this country imitated the design. The locomotive department of the Ch. de fer du Nord was apparently so impressed by Stroudley's arguments and results that a 0-4-2 express engine on similar lines, also with 6ft. 6in. front coupled wheels, was built at the La Chapelle shops in 1886. But the French engineers did not make a success of it;.
Reed, Brian. The Brighton Gladstones. Loco Profile No. 32. 1974
Very thorough examination of previous "authorities" and notes that 0-4-2 arrangement was uniquely suitable for the Brighton line at that time
Treloar, Peter. Stroudley's Gladstones. Rly Arch., 2006 (14) 4-16.
Argues that Stroudley did design locomotives for Edinburgh & Glasgow Railway when his chief, W.S. Brown was ill. Briefly records Stroudley's stay at Inverness and how he replaced Craven's chaos by standard types at Brighton. Asserts that the tender 0-4-2 type did not suffer from the instability problems which plagued 0-4-4Ts, notably the LSWR M7 and GWR 3521 classes. Notes that restored Gladstone had been intended for Science Museum (but space was not available)

No. 189 Edward Blount modified with Hammond's patent apparatus
Ellis, [C.] H. The London, Brighton and South Coast Railway: a mechanical history... from 1839 to 1922. London: Ian Allan, 1960. pp. 142-3:
"More startling alterations were made to Edward Blount, which was fitted in 1908 with Hammond's patent apparatus for directing preheated air to the firebox, the air entering a set of tubes in two drum-like pockets on each side of the upper part of the smokebox, where it was supposed to be warmed by the smokebox gases. It was a horrid sight if one did not, alternatively, think it funny, and reminiscent of Aunt Amy about to enter the sea at Brighton with a pair of water-wings."

This same engine was indirectly the cause of Stroudley's abrupt and untimely end. The Brighton company sent her to the Paris Exhibition of 1889, and after this was over she took part in some comparative trials on the Paris, Lyons & Mediterranean Railway between Paris and Laroche, with, inter alia, James Stirling's engine from the South Eastern Railway, Onward, and that prodigy, the old Eastern of France Crampton engine La Belgique, which had been rebuilt with a Flaman boiler and set up a world speed record. In the course of this jamboree, Stroudley caught a bad chill leading to bronchitis and an acute attack of asthma, from which he died in Paris. It was a tragic end of a great engineer on what had been a jolly jaunt for any man who loved his engines, as he did.


G class: Brighton: 1874
Burtt (1903) pp. 204-6 and Fig. 125 noted that these 6ft 9in singles had 17 x 24in cylinders, a total heating surface of 1210ft2 and a 19.3ft2 grate area. The boiler operated at 150psi. No. 151 Grosvenor participated in the Newark brake trials. Burtt (1946) pp. 20-2.where note claims that Nos. 326, 335 and 336 were sold to the Italian State Railways in May 1907: see also Maskelyne below..

Maskelyne, J.N. 2-2-2 Grosvenor in Locomotives I have known. 1959. pp. 16-17 diagr. (s. & f. els).
Refutes Burtt (1946 and see above) who stated that locomotives were not sodl to Italian State Railways. Also notes that story used to circulate that one locomotive was destroyed in Messina earthquake.
Maskelyne, J.N. Stephenson No. 329 in Locomotives I have known. 1959. pp. 18-19 diagr. (s. & f. els).
Author had an especial affection for this locomotive and constructed a 7mm model of it.
Pendred, Vaughan discussion on Churchward,
Large locomotive boilers. 206-12.
Drew a comparison between a then new Manson 4-6-0 and Stroudley’s Grosvenor when " thirty years ago" he could remember when Stroudley’s engines used to run to Brighton on one fire. The system of firing used was extremely clever and ingenious. The fire-box held about 15 cwt. or 16 cwt. of coal. The fire was lighted up a good while before the engine started, and the whole of the fire-box became filled with a dull red fuel. The engine was run with the front ash-pit dampers closed, and very little air was admitted under the grate except through the back ash-pit damper ; nearly all the air came in through the fire-door. The result was that practically there was a gas producer at work, and a gas flame in the fire-box. With a train of perhaps 120 tons behind it, the engine used to arrive at Brighton with the coals in the fire-box all burned down to the bars. If the engine had had to go any distance beyond Brighton, that could not have been done, because it would be necessary to keep the fire up..
Reynolds, Michael
. Locomotive engine-driving: a practical manual for engineers in charge of locomotive engines. London: 1877-
Diagrams of Grosvenor which include side elevation section, cross section, cab and plan
Rutherford, Michael. Eighty years of service: the express passenger 2-2-2. (Provocations/Railway Reflections No. 6). Backtrack, 1995, 9, 296-301.
The 2-2-2 began as extended L&MR 2-2-0 Planet in 1833. Patentee built by Robert Stephenson for the L&MR: it had outside sandwich frames. A couple of small locomotive builders in Dundee developed locomotives with inside plate frames and outside inclined cylinders and this design was developed by Patrick Stirling on the GSWR and GNR. The mis-named Crewe-type was developed on the GJR by William Buddicom and Sinclair took the idea to the GER. The LNWR Bloomers and LBSCR Grosvenor type introduced by Stroudley were other significant stages in development. Almost as an after thought Rutherford mentions the influence of John Gray, as encapsulated in his patent 7745 of 26 July 1838 in which valve events are defined and whose work led to David Joy's Jenny Lind.
Rutherford concludes by stating that "Size for size and pound for pound (sterling), the 2-2-2 was developed further and better within the existing production technology and operating conditions, than possibly any other express type in Britain." illus.:


Terrier class: Brighton: 1872-80
Burtt (1903) pp. 191-5 and Figs. 120 and 121 noted that their name originated in their small and smart appearance, coupled with their ability to get quickly away with a train: even in 1903 many of the Terriers had been sold to other Companies.Acworth's observations are interesting: "The Brighton Company can certainly claim that they build the smallest, the tiny "A" class, better known as "Terriers." These wonderful little engines, with wheels less than 4 feet, and cylinders only 13 inches in diameter, can keep time on a level line with 16 coaches, and can even work their trains punctually over the very heavy gradients of the Thames Tunnel. To the pioneer of the class, the 'Brighton,' which obtained a gold medal at the Paris Exhibition in 1878, a fact which it has proclaimed ever since, proudly blazoned on its side..."

Binnie, C.J. The Brighton Terriers. London: Ravensbourne Press, 1969.
Kardas, Handel. Portrait of the Terriers. Shepperton: Ian Allen, 1999. 128pp.
Mainly pictorial: much covers presevation, but the activities of the class on other railways after sale by the LBSCR/SR is extensive.
Maskelyne, J.N. The Brighton 'Terriers' in Locomotives I have known. 1959. pp.2-3 diagr. (s. & f. els).
Illus. of No. 57 Thames
Middlemass, Tom. Stroudley and his Terriers. Pendragon.
"interesting and comprehensive book" according to Dick Riley review in Backtrack, 1996, 10, 166.
Reed, M.J.E. The Island Terriers: the LB&SCR Terriers on the Isle of Wight. Southampton: Kingfisher, 1989.

E/E1 class: Brighton: 1874-81
Burtt (1903) pp. 207-10 and Figs. 126 and 127.a freight tank engine sharing much in common with D class of passenger tank engines. Burtt (1946) pp. 22-4. In 1911 Marsh rebuilt No. 89, subsequently No. 689, with a 4ft 6in boiler similar to those fitted to the D1X. See also E1/R under Maunsell locomotives when ten E1 class were rebuilt as 0-6-2Ts for work in the West Country in 1927-8..

F.C. Hambleton. L.B.S.C. Ry. "E" class goods engines. Locomotive Mag., 1942, 48, 155. diagram (side elevation)
No. 110 Burgundy illustrated. Stroudley design. No. 110 as hundredth locomotive to be built at Brighton Works and was celebrated by a banquet given at the Old Ship Hotel for the foremen on 13 April 1877. It was fitted with the steam brake known by the drivers as a wim-wam
Maskelyne, J.N.
Strodley's E1 class 0-6-0 tanks  in Locomotives I have known.
1959. pp. 4-5 diagr. (s. r. & f. els).
Illus. of

No. 110 sold to Cannock & Rugeley Colliery in 1927. See Archive, 2016 (91), 38-9


D class (D1 class): Brighton/Neilson: 1873-87
Burtt (1903) pp. 199-204 and Figs. 123 and 124.who notes that when introduced "they were very up-to-date for their time". The Neilson locomotives were WN 2703-36 and 2938 see below.

Marx, Klaus. Handcross — a 'D' tank saga. Br. Rly J., 1986, 2, 71-6.
The LBSCR ordered 34 Stroudley D class locomotives from Neilson's of Glasgow. To ensure that standardization was maintained Brighton Works supplied sample parts as well as full-size drawings of all the names to be used. On completion of the order Neilson's suggested that a further locomotive should be constructed from the sample parts. This was delivered on 19 March 1883 and received the running number 233 and the name Handcross. The Works Number was 2938. The initial allocation was unique: East Grinstead: the sole allocation to this place and little distance from Three Bridges
Maskelyne, J.N. [0-4-2 No. 283 Aldgate] in Locomotives I have known. 1959. pp. 6-7 diagr. (s. els.).
Page 6 missing in copy

Robert Billinton designs

Holcroft Locomotive adventure (1)  stated of Billinton's there remained the D3 0-4-4T and the numerous E3, E4, E5 and E6 0-6-2T classes. These were useful goods and passenger engines covering a wide field of duties, but could not be described as 'willing horses' and gave the impression of being 'tight chested'.


C2 class (Vulcan): Vulcan Foundry: 1893-1902
Burtt (1946)  pp. 34-5 notes that 55 were constructed: WN 1375-86; 1412-19; 1699-1718 and 1813-27: Burtt (1903) pp. 234-6 includes full page line drawing (Fig. 140). These had 5ft coupled wheels, 18 x 26in cylinders, a total heating surface of 1212ft2 and a grate area of 19.32ft2. The working pressure was 160psi. Marsh designed larger (ths 1300ft2 and 18.75ft2 grate area, operating at 170 psi) boilers and these were fitted to 45 locomotives between 1908 and 1940. Holcroft Locomotive adventure (1) were very satisfactory designs.

B2/B3: Brighton: 1893-8
The Brighton 4-4-0 evolved from 1893 when the B2 type was introduced. Burtt (1903) includes a line drawing of this type (Fig. 143) and describes it on pp. 239-41, but Burtt (1946) pp. 35-6 also needs to be examined. The last of the original sereies had a larger boiler and was classified as B3 and named Bessemer. This is illustrated as a line drawing as Fig. 144 in Burtt (1903). All were rebuilt by Marsh and became B2X. Ellis (p. 150) noted that Goldsmid's "handsome outline was reproduced in copper as an enginemen's cap badge and remained the insignia of Brighton drivers and fireman for many years"..

Our colour supplement. Locomotive Mag., 1900, 5, 10 + col. folding plate.
F. Moore painting of Bessemer

Marx, Klaus. The Brighton 4-4-0s. Loco. ill. (No.95) 1994. 44pp.
Maskelyne, J.N. The 'Grasshopper' class  in Locomotives I have known. 1959. pp. 20-21 diagr. (s. & f. els).
Illus. of No. 316 Goldsmid. Notes that Nos. 202, 206 and 208 were fitted with the Holden system of oil-firing in 1901. Maskelyne does not give any information on the nickname Grasshopper, but Ellis (page 153) noted that the name stemmed from their rough riding, as compared with Stroudley classes...

B4: Sirdar class; Brighton/Sharp Stewart: 1899-1902
Burtt (1903) pp. 241-4 notes that Sharp Stewart WN 4757-4781/1901 became RN 47-51 and 55-74. Sharp Stewart also built three boilers fitted to Brighton locomotives Nos. 42, 43 and 45. Burtt (1946) pp. 40-1. Marx Robert Billinton (page 37) states that the Locomotive Committee gave its approval initially for a batch of 20 at a cost of £3,250 each. Built at the time of the Boer War, many carried names reminiscent of that campaign, while others adopted the flavour of royalty and empire. They were handsome, powerful-looking 4-4-0s with a close family resemblance to the 'B2s', but more buxom. Boiler pressure was raised to 180 psi. Safety valves were mounted fore and aft in a combined brass casing nicknamed 'Bathing Drawers'. The 'B4s' were set to work on the heaviest main line expresses where their reserve of power to regain lost time en route was appreciated. They proved an instant success, an absolute godsend and received little but praise from the crews. The official name of the class was 'Sirdar' after the second engine to be built, but the men nicknamed them 'Busters' on account of their proportions. However, the tag of 'Scotchmen' won the day for the majority had been built in Glasgow.

New express locomotives, L.B.&S.C.R. Locomotive Mag., 1900, 5, 34. illus.

Record run  to  Brighton, Sunday, 26 July 1903. Locomotive Mag., 1903, 9, 87
Special train was run from Victoria to Brighton and back, with a view to testing the conditions which will prevail when the Company has secured its much to be desired four track road throughout. The special was composed ot three Pullman cars and two brake-vans, and was hauled by engine No. 70 Holyrood, The distance, start to stop, was covered in 48 minutes 41 seconds, while the 50 miles from Grosvenor Bridge to the Brighton goods sheds occupied 46 minutes 11 seconds. On the return journey the time was 50 minutes 21 seconds. The doubling of the line is proceeding by sections, that between Streatham and East Croydon having lately been completed, while the portion between Victoria and Clapham Junction is making rapid progress. The proposed mono-rail system, which was to cost several millions of pounds, would only save about ten minutes on the above timing.

Le Fleming, Hugh M. International locomotives. Plate 38
Painting of locomotive in umber livery
Maskelyne, J.N. B4 class express engines; 4-4-0, the 'Busters' in Locomotives I have known. 1959. pp. 22-23 diagr. (s. & f. els).
Illus. of No. 70 Holyrood. The nickname Buster is new to KPJ, but Scotchmen had been seen before, and is interesting because the Scottish built King Aurthurs also recieved this title. As a boy the author was aware that racing was taking place in 1902-3. On Christmas Day 1901 No 58 performed the London to Brighton run in 51 miinutes. On 26 July 1903 No. 70 Holyrood ran from Victoria to Brighton in 48 minutes 41 seconds and returned in 50 min. 31 sec. These high speeds were attained to counteract proposals for a high speed London to Brighton electric railway.
W.J. Reynolds. 60 years of railway photography. Part 5. Rly Wld, 1956, 17, 292
Photograph (p. 295 top left) of No. 45 Bessborough built at Brighton Works in 1901, with Drummond water-tube boiler. These tubes were removed in 1911 photographed in 1904.
Rich, Fred. Yesterday once more: a story of Brighton steam. 1996. .
His footplate contacts called the B4s 'Scotchmen': "And then there was the 'fire-throwing' – incandescent particles of unburned fuel leaving the chimney and shooting up into the night, then descending again ". . . all the way to London, falling like 'Golden Rain' on each side of the line." The escape of unburned fuel was a feature of any coal-burning steam locomotive when hard at work. These losses became more pronounced with increasing rates of power output, resulting, of course, in diminished boiler efficiency and higher fuel consumption. The 'Golden Rain' which George could see would not be visible in daylight but it was always there, contributing to a reputation which the B4' s had for being heavy on coal. ... And yet they were very popular, these engines. Over to George again: "Everybody liked the 'Scotchmen' because they steamed well and did the work. You could be almost sure of a good trip for steam. But it was very hard work for the fireman on a 'Scotchman'. You had to go up in the tender half-way to London and shovel your coal forward while the driver kept a look-out for over-line bridges. When you got to London you could make a proper job of it - go up and get a couple of tons forward." I must explain that remark about 'going up in the tender half-way to London' because it was no exaggeration. Those Brighton tenders were designed with a coal-space which offered very little in the way of a self-trimming action. Once you had used a ton or so of coal, the remainder stayed where it was until you physically moved it closer to the shovel plate. As for coal consumption, that would depend, of course, on the weight of the train; but I would reckon on a maximum of about 70 lb per mile or (say) a ton and a half from Brighton to London – plus the amount required for building up a fire to begin with.

These were a popular type on the Brighton and evolved from the Stroudley posthumous design of the E3 class to the Robert Billinton posthumous E6 class via the E4 and E5 classes. All except the last are covered in Burtt (1903): the last is covered without a drawing in Burtt (1946) on page 43.

Marx, K. The London, Brighton & South Coast Railway 0-6-2 Radial Tanks. Loco. ill. (No. 119) 1998.

E4: 1897-1903
Late Stroudley design originally designated as E class specials. Burtt (1903) pp. 228-30, including Fig. 137: drawing of No. 158 West Brighton. Burtt (1946) pp. 38-9 which also includes E4X class in which four locomotives received I2 class boilers.

L.B. & S.C. R. locos. Locomotive Mag., 1901, 6. 132.
New 5ft 6in radial side tank engines (0-6-2T) Nos. 517 Limpsfield. 518 Porchester, 519 Portfield and 520 Westbourne. The first was fitted with Ashton Pop valves and the remainder with two polished columns similar to those formerly used on the Highland Railway.

Grayer, Jeffery. Waking the dead: the E4 radial tanks.. Backtrack, 2005, 19, 374-7.
Mainly the last few years of the ex-LBSCR Billinton 0-6-2T locomotives in service as late as 1963 and the preservation of No. 473 Birch Grove on the Bluebell Railway. Illus.: E4 No 32479 and E4 No 32503 in the foreground and Terrier No 32670 beyond it
Maskelyne, J.N. The class E4 tanks in Locomotives I have known. 1959. pp. 8-9 diagr. (s. r. & f. els).
Illus. of No. 472 Fay Gate. Notes that No. 565 Littleton was fitted with Holden oil firing apparatus in 1902.

E5: 1902-04
Burtt (1946) pp. 41-2: E5X: E5 rebuilt with C3 type boilers in 1911 (Burtt 1946) p. 43..

E6: 1904-05
Billinton had intended that the last two would be built as eight-coupled locomotives, but Marsh cancelled this in favour of two further 0-6-2Ts. Burtt (1946) p. 43.


D3: Brighton: 1892-6
Burtt (1946) pp. 31-2 noted that the class was designed for outer-suburban traffic: a footnote on page 32 notes the incident involving No. 2365 which was machine-gunned on 28 November 1942. Burtt (1903) pp. 231-4 included a full page line drawing (Fig. 139) of No. 363 Havant.

Swift, Peter. Gunboats and pagodas. Backtrack, 2004, 18, 636.
Refers to Gunboats and Pagodas: the curious history of the 0-4-4T by R.A.S. Hennessey. (Backtrack, 2004, 18, p. 454 et seq: covers a variety of items relating to 0-4-4Ts: D3 was not struck by wing of enemy aircraft (Swift claims this was a myth), but damage to locomotive led to destruction of aircraft

Marsh designs

Marx, Klaus. Douglas Earle Marsh: his life and times. 2005. 160pp. (Oakwood Library of Railway History No. 134)
Includes a waelth of information on Marsh's locomotive designs.


C3 class
Holcroft, H. Locomotive adventure: fifty years with steam. London, Ian Allan, [1962].
His C3 0-6-0 goods was an indifferent performer and the Locomotive Running Department much preferred the C2x.

H.M. Madgwick. The Horsham Goods of the L.B. & S.C.R. Rly Wld, 1958, 19, 53


H1 and H2 classes
KPJ first saw a Brighton Atlantic Trevose Head as it overhauled the electic Brighton to Victoria train on which he was travelling as they approached Clapham Junction. The unexpected malachite green in combination with the beauty of the Atlantic remains a key magic moment. Later he saw some of the last Atlantics at Brighton shed in the summer of 1956. H1 constructed Kitson: WN 4351-5. H2: very similar, but constructed with superheaters at Brighton Works after departure of Marsh in 1911. Both classes were very similar to Ivatt's large Atlantics. Attempts to preserve one failed.

Ten wheeled bogie tender engines, L.B.& S.C.Ry. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1910, 16, 44-7.
4-4-2: detailed general arrangement drawing. No. 13 illustrated.

Allen, C.J. British Atlantic locomotives. London: Ian Allan, 1968, 164pp. + 32 plates.
Evans, M. Atlantic era : the British Atlantic locomotive. London, Percival Marshall, 1961. [iv] , 94 p. + front. 49 illus., 20 tables.
Hay, Peter. The last Atlantic [ex-LBSCR H2 class]. Backtrack, 2003, 18, 280-3.
Mainly photographs (author is photographer of most illus.). Last of the Marsh H2 class. Notes that the failure of the bogie on the W1 locomotive caused several of the H2 class to be withdrawn as they shared a similar bogie. Hay even suggests that Marsh have been partly responsible for the later Ivatt Atlantic design. 32424 Beachy Head was the last to survive and Hay records in both words and as a photograph how he recorded the final working on 24 April 1958 when it was used on a Lancing to Micheldever train of empty stock. Other illus.: 32422, 32426, 32421, and 32424 on Brighton shed in May 1956; 32425 Trevose Head on excursion leaving Brighton with D1 4-4-0 31487 alongside in March 1956; 32426 St Albans Head climbing towards Clayton Tunnel on express; 32424 (colour) at Brighton on 5 October 1952 on RCTS Pullman special (W.W. Powell); 32424 (colour) on Norwood Junction mpd on 13 April 1958 (R.C. Riley).
Holcroft, H. Locomotive adventure: fifty years with steam. London, Ian Allan, [1962].
"proved to be fine engines"
Maskelyne, J.N. The Brighton Atlantics in Locomotives I have known. 1959. pp. 24-5. diagr. (s. & f. els).
Illustration of No. 421 (H2 type). Notes that on 30 June 1907 an H1 No. 39 hauled the Pullman Limited weighing 245 tons from Victoria to Brighton in 51 min 48 sec achieving 84½ mile/h between Balcombe and Wivelsfield.
Nethercott, W.H.  The construction of the Wootton type of locomotive boiler. Trans Instn Loco. Engrs, 1912, 2, (Paper No. 11)
In reply to a question concerning the value of the Wootton type he stated he boilers in use on the Atlantic class engines on the LBSCR have been running over six years, and in terms of general wear and tear were in a "very good state of preservation indeed". With ordinary round top boilers, and especially those with solid bars, it is quite common to renew the firebox in less than six years. The only wear at present noticeable is in the enlargement and elongation of the tuheholes. So far as the wearing generally in the fire is concerned, the plate is practically as good now as when it was put in, with the exception of the tubeholes, which have gone very oval, especially up in the top corners.


J class: 1910-12
Two large express tank engines: Nos. 325 Abergavenny and 326 Bessborough. Both had 6ft 7½in coupled wheels and outside cylinders, but No. 326 also had Walschaerts valve gear. They were large with 21 x26in cylinders and 1586ft2 total heating surface and 25.16ft2 grate areas. Burtt (1946)  p. 51.
Bannantyne, Hugh. Southern steam in colour. London: Jane's, 1985. 96p. col. illus.
Page 96 reproduced J.M. Jarvis Dufay Colour photograph of No. 2326 still in Southern Railway malachite green at Tunbridge Wells in June 1947
Holcroft, H. Locomotive adventure: fifty years with steam. London, Ian Allan, [1962].
The last of Marsh's designs: "these were good engines, [but] there were only two of them and the Locomotive Running Department were rather at a loss to find suitable turns to get the best out of them."
Maskelyne, J.N. Marsh's 4-6-2 tanks in Locomotives I have known. 1959. pp.12-13 diagr. (s/f/r els).
Illus. of No. 325 Abergavenny. Takes issue with Burtt's statement that "both had bogie brakes": Maskelyne argues that only Abergavenny was so fitted, and then only briefly. Marx's book on Marsh includes photograph taken by Burtt of Abergavenny with bogie brakes, but none of the photographs of Bessborough show bogie brakes.
Wheeler, Geoffrey. LBSC Rly No. 326 Bessborough in Fired by steam. London: John Murray 1987. plate facing un-numbered page.
Landscape format side elevation in umber livery.

I1: 1906-07.
The first of the Marsh classes of 4-4-2Ts had 5ft 6in coupled wheels and as Burtt (1946) pp. 46-7 notes "were never popular with the men and were very bad steamers".

Ten wheeled bogie tender engines, L.B.& S.C.Ry. Loco. Mag., 1910, 16, 44-7.
4-4-2: detailed general arrangement drawing. No. 13 illustrated. Also considered I1, I2 Nos. 11-20 and I3 No. 21 et seq which were superheated and fitted with compressed air reversing gear.

Holcroft, H. Locomotive adventure: fifty years with steam. London, Ian Allan, [1962].
The I1 and I2 could be described as 'wash-outs', and the superheated I4 was a poor performer through being grossly over-cylindered.

I1X: 1925-32
Reboilered with larger B4 boilers: see Burtt (1946) pp. 46-7
Rebuilt 4-4-2 tank engine No. B 596, Southern Railway. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1925, 31, 306. illus.

I2: 1907-08
Burtt (1946) p. 48: "They were as unpopular as the I1s, and considering their liberal dimensions, fell far short of reasonable expectations"

Ten wheeled bogie tender engines, L.B.& S.C.Ry. Loco. Mag., 1910, 16, 44-7.
4-4-2: detailed general arrangement drawing. No. 13 illustrated. Also considered I1, I2 Nos. 11-20 and I3 No. 21 et seq which were superheated and fitted with compressed air reversing gear.

I3: 1907-13
6ft 9in coupled wheels, 19in x 26in cylinders, 24ft2.grate area and 1623ft2 total heating surface. Burtt (1946) pp. 49-50 gave a precise summary of this noteworthy class, especially its demonstration of the advantages of superheating when working between Rugby and Brighton on the Sunny South Express on tests conducted with the LNWR in November 1909. .

London, Brighton & South Coast Ry. Loco Mag., 1908. 14, 23. 23
4-4-2T No. 21 illustrated also leading dimensions.
Ten wheeled bogie tender engines, L.B.& S.C.Ry. Loco. Mag., 1910, 16, 44-7.
4-4-2: detailed general arrangement drawing. No. 13 illustrated. Also considered I1, I2 Nos. 11-20 and I3 No. 21 et seq which were superheated and fitted with compressed air reversing gear.

Allen, C.J. The locomotive exchanges, 1870-1948. London: Ian Allan, 1949.
See Chapter 3: the coal and water consumption statistics were remarkably low.
Chrimes, T.E. discussion on Cocks, C.S. History of Southern Railway locomotives to 1938. J. Instn Loco. Engrs., 1948, 38, 832-3. (Paper No. 481)
Spoke about the difficulties experienced with early superheated locomotives (the I3 class): notably in keeping the tubes tight and in lubrication, but that superheating soon had a marked influence.
Evetts, Philip. It was good design that helped the 'I3' 4-4-2 tanks. Steam Wld, 2005 (217) 22.
The Churchward County 4-4-2Ts were still working when writer was at Swindon, and he considered that these were inferior to the I3 class which combined excellent boilers with well-designed front ends. In Klaus Marx's Douglas Earle Marsh (p. 46) Evett states that the I3 front-end design was due to B.K. Field (he had been told this by Jack Marsh, a fellow Swindon apprentice).
Harvey, Norman . A Brighton locomotive masterpiece: the Marsh "I3" class tanks. Locomotive Causerie. Rly Wld, 1960, 21, 259-63.
The application of superheating is credited to Basil Field and Harvey claims that water consumption rose after the removal of the Westinghouse equipment. Claims that the design was a "masterpiece" and still capable of fine performance even into the post-WW2 period.
Holcroft, H. Locomotive adventure: fifty years with steam. London, Ian Allan, [1962].
The I3 alone was a success, and that because it was virtually a tank engine edition of Billinton's B4, which had a really good boiler. It was the addition of superheating, however, that made the I3 famous in its day.
Maskelyne, J.N. 4-4-2 tank engine No. 23 in Locomotives I have known. 1959. pp.10-11 diagr. (s. & f. els).
Nock, O.S. The L.N.W.R. Precursor family: the Precursors, Experiments, Georges, Princes of the London & North Western Railway. 1966.
The tests of the Precurors against the Marsh/Field LBSCR I3 4-4-2Ts are described at the beginning of Chapter 6 on the George the Fifth class (that is on page 64) following the Chapter mainly on later locomotive exchanges. In 1909 Bowen Cooke in association with Marsh on the LBSCR tested the Precursor type against the superheated I3 4-4-2T on the through working bewteen Brighton and Rugby on the Sunny South Express. Nock computed the coal consumption on the tank engine at 27lb per mile and the water conumtion at 22 gallons per mile and this led to superheating on the George the Fifth class.
Riley, R.C. The Marsh I3 tank locomotives. Rly Mag.,1953, 99,156-7.5 illus.

I4: 1908
Superheated version of the I2 class. Five locomotives with large cylinders (20 x 26in) and small (1098ft2 total heating surface) boilers. Most withdrawn in 1937, one lasted until 1940. Burt (1946) p. 50

Lawson Billinton designs

Marx, Klaus. Lawson Billinton: a career cut short. 2007. 192pp. (Oakwood Library of Railway History No. 142)


K class: Brighton: 1913-21: Total 17
Marx covers the class on pp.23-8: his photographs are noteworthy and includes an excellent one of No. 340 fitted with a Simpson-Worthington pump and feed water heater. On p. 153 he illustrates No. 351 fitted with Lewis Draft Appliance which required a modified chimney: Ellis (p. 208) likened the chimney to "a short ship's funnel". Burtt pp. 53-4 gives a concise account and includes his own official photograph of No. 337.

Holcroft, H. Locomotive adventure: fifty years with steam. London, Ian Allan, [1962].
The K class 2-6-0 was another fine engine, which rivalled Maunsell's N class engines in working heavy freight trains but lacked their versatility on fast passenger work, for which it was less suitable on account of its inclined cylinders, large, heavy pistons and lower boiler pressure.
H.M. Madgwick
. L.B. & S.C.R. 'Moguls'. Rly Wld, 1955, 16, 191-2
Includes illustartion of No. 338 running trials near Littlehampton in 1913
Rich, Fred.
A Brighton 'Mogul' nocturne... leaves from a locomotive diary. Steam Wld, 2006, (229) 8-14. (230) 44-50
Victor Charles Prior, debonair driver from Tunbridge Wells, with whom writer made many unofficial fotplate journeys: on this occasion on 80012 from Tunbridge Wells West to East Grinstead, thence on push & pull train to Three Bridges to pick up K class 2-6-0 in the darkness of shed.
Part 2: Evening/night spent with Driver Victor Charles Prior on K class 2-6-0 with a permanent way train. Locomotive at time of footplate journey was fitted with Bulleid-type injectors, But illus. show Nos. 2349 and 32348 still fitted with Weir feed water pumps. 2352 and 2350 are also illustrated, but on Westinghouse side. Photographs also by Rich. There is also a concise diagram to show the cab layout.

B4X: 1922-4
These were officially rebuilds of earlier 4-4-0s, but only the bogies and tenders came from earlier locomotives. Burtt (1946) pp. 56-7. They used the K class boiler. The official photograph in workshop grey shows No. 52 named as Sussex. Marx covers the Greybacks on pp. 161-9.

Holcroft, H. Locomotive adventure: fifty years with steam. London, Ian Allan, [1962].
The last Billinton design was the B4x, was nominally a rebuild of the elder Billinton's B4 class 4~4-0, but actually was virtually a. new engine, only the wheels and motion and a few minor details being retained. The cylinder centre line of the B4 was inclined downwards towards the driving axle centre, but the Stephenson valve gear was inclined upwards so that the slide valves below the cylinders were directly driven. When embodied in the B4x the design of the new piston valve cylinders was adversely affected by the retention of the existing valve gear, for there was only space above the bogie to permit of piston valves of 8 in. diameter; their travel was short and the port at the front end was much longer than the back one, while exhaust steam jacketed the cylinder barrels to reach the blast pipe. Live steam was brought down outside the main frames to reach the steam chests.
This engine was provided with the powerful K class boiler, but the bottle-neck of the valves would not allow its full power to be utilised. Trick-ported valves were tried, but gave only temporary improvement as the narrow passages became choked by carbon. Had this engine been designed with horizontal cylinders and 10 inch long-travel piston valves above them, as in Maunsell's EI rebuild, it would have been an excellent locomotive. If ever there was a case of 'a ship being spoiled for a ha'porth of tar', it was this one.


L class: 1914-1922
These very large tank engines were constructed between 1914 (2) and 1922. Ellis (p. 208) considered them to be "the most beautiful large tank engine ever built". Burtt (1946) records that they had 22 x 28in cylinders, 6ft 9in coupled wheels and a grate area of 26.68ft2. They suffered stability problems and the tanks had to be reduced in size and augmented by well tanks. Sometimes known as Remembrance class due to No. 333 being named thus and acting as a War Memorial locomotive.. They were rebuilt under Maunsell to become the N15X 4-6-0s.

Extinct locomotive classes : Southern Region class N15X (converted L class tanks). J. Stephenson Loco. Soc., 1957, 33, 372-3. illus., table.
Holcroft, H. Locomotive adventure: fifty years with steam. London, Ian Allan, [1962].
"The largest of the Billinton designs was his 4-6-4T, the L class, an enlargement of the J class. We were told that the first of two engines built developed rolling when rounding a curve, with the consequence that the three pairs of coupled wheels were derailed, leaving the engine to be carried on the two bogies. When this experience was repeated by the second engine, it was decided that something drastic would have to be done to lower the centre of gravity of the spring-borne mass. This was brought about by building a well tank located below the boiler barrel and carried between the frames, as there was no inside valve motion. The side tanks were afterwards virtually empty, as an overflow prevented more than, at maximum, a few inches of water to be carried in them. Five more of the class were built after the war on which, although they had the well tank, the side tanks were retained, no doubt for the sake of appearance or prestige. On making enquiries as to whether any trouble had been experienced as a consequence, we were assured by the Works that there were none. The Running Department did not agree, for it was difficult to do repair work to the well tank if serious leakage occurred, and it might be necessary to lift the boiler out of the frames in order to raise the well tank to get access to it. The Shed had a repair shop with an overhead crane capable of doing so."
Maskelyne, J.N. The Brighton 4-6-4 tanks in Locomotives I have known. 1959. pp.14-15 diagr. (s. & f. els).
Illus. of No. 333 Remembrance. Notes that name Victorious was originally selected, but not used. Maskelyne also noted that Lawson Billinton had hoped to reduce the London to Brighton time to 45 minutes.
Middlemass, Tom. The 'Baltic' tanks. Backtrack, 1991, 5, 281-7.
Includes the LBSCR class
Morris, O.J. As they were! — Class 'N15X' Southern Region. Trains ill., 1949, 2, 128-30. 2 illus.
Perryman, A.C. The 'Brighton Baltics'. Lingfield: Oakwood, 1973. (Locomotion Papers No. 64).
Riley, R.C. The Pacific and Baltic tanks of the L.B. & S.C. R. Trains ill., 1957, 10, 40-6. 8 illus.
Includes the rebuilt Baltics.
Webber, A.F. The proportions of locomotive boilers. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1937, 27, 688-725. (Paper No. 378).
Included on a comparative basis.

Charles Macrae

E2 class: 1913-1916
Burtt (1946) pp. 52-3 called these goods tank engines, but then noted how Nos. 103 and 104 worked six-coach pull-and-push services between London Bridge and Crystal Palace for a time in 1914. The locootives were fitted with condensing apparatus and Weir pumps.
Holcroft, H. Locomotive adventure: fifty years with steam. London, Ian Allan, [1962].
"We were told that the intention was to improve the smartly timed suburban services, previously operated by the little 'Terrier' tanks and their light trains, by a more modern form with more powerful engines and more comfortable coaches of the high-roofed, or 'balloon' type. This plan fell through on account of the extension of electrification, and the engines were successfully employed as shunters. A further batch was later built to add to their numbers."
H.M. Madgwick. The 'E2' class shunting tanks of the L.B. & S.C.R. Rly Wld, 1955, 16, 255.
Illustration of No. 109


Holcroft: This was not the only case which seemed to indicate a lack of liaison between the Works and the adjacent Running Sheds. Only running lines and a few sidings separated them, but they might well have been 50 miles apart. .

Another thing we were warned about on Brighton engines was the lack of interchangeability of parts between engines of a class.

It seems that the chargemen-of the erecting shop in particlJlar had been allowed far too much latitude in the past in the way they carried out repairs and re-conditioning of parts, so that it could not be assumed that any two engines of a class were strictly alike.

All bogies for Brighton engines were individually sprung, and without exception all frames had patches where fractures had occurred in them, while quite a number had the frames duplicated by additional plates extending over the whole length. I never found one bogie which was not patched in some way, and it is difficult to understand why such a state of things was allowed to continue. On the contrary, it was quite exceptional to find patched bogie frames on either the Eastern or Western Sections, which had the Adams type of bogie with equaliser bars and a spring transmitting the loads to leading and trailing axle boxes by spanning their distance apart.